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When a student pass out from engineering college after completing

Mechanical Engineering, there is a very big confusion facing him, where to go
? The first option for most of the students from middle class families is to get a
job immediately via campus interview.

Many such students eventually get selected in Campus interview and pursue
jobs totally different from their field of study.

Many students of Mechanical, Civil, electrical, Instrumentation and Chemical
engineering branches are hired by IT companies for coding work. They
happily join these companies and start learning coding soon, so what they
learned as basics in their field of study becomes waste.

Some students go for doing higher education in India and abroad and later
land up with MNC’s outside India, never to return. Some students join their
family business and run the same or go for MBA course. Do to lack of
guidance and research opportunities, many students migrate to metro cities
and start searching for jobs, our metro cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore etc
are overcrowded with engineers now days. These students are not
employable and land up in low paying jobs.

Most of the engineering colleges in our country do not counsel their students
what to do and where to go after completing their degree. The basic reason is
the lack of knowledge of faculty members who has only bookish knowledge
and never care to guide the students. The worst part is that students don’t
know what to do and where to go after completing degree, most of them land
up in wrong jobs and spoil their career.

Each and every student who complete their mechanical engineering degree
has unique qualities, some are good designers, some can be good in
marketing, others in research and development, but these students never
know their strength and weakness. Thus a brilliant mechanical engineer with
aptitude in design end up working as marketing executive selling industrial
valves and end us as poor marketing engineering. A mechanical engineer with
aptitude in marketing end up as a production and quality control engineer and
end up in job which he don’t like. After marriage and settlement, they are
unable to change their profession and work in fields which are not suitable for
them.

So, what is the solution ?

As soon as a student passes out from engineering college doing any degree,
he/she must be given a rating certificate based on his or her skills. A team of
experts must evaluate his/her personal and professional skills and given him a
certificate – stating which filed the candidate will shine in his/her career. The
rating must be done by an independent agency and this must be made

mandatory. After this rating is done, no student will ever have any confusion in
his life, which field he will shine best in his/her career, sooner or later in life.

Now let me tell you about piping design.

Piping design is an excellent career option for Mechanical engineers, it is not
suitable for everyone. If you love design engineering and love imagination and
creativity, piping design field will suit you lot. If you never like design
engineering, please do not purse this option as a career. Piping design is
almost 99% technical job, you need have good IQ, imagination, knowledge
and willingness to learn, to become a successful piping engineer. If you love
design, then you need to acquire piping design skills after you complete your
Mechanical engineering degree.

The best way is to do a basic piping design course, the best education you
can get is from IIT’s , some engineering colleges also conduct these courses.
Otherwise you can join renowned private training institutes that train students
in piping design. Do piping design courses in three stages:

BASIC PIPING DESIGN (API,ASME, ASTM, ANSI Codes, Autocad,
Microstation)
3D MODELLING of Piping (PDMS, SP3D etc)
Stress Analysis (CAESAR-II)
Advanced Piping design

It will take 3 to 6 months to acquire piping design skills, you need to learn as
much as possible during this period. Once you acquire the basic skills, make a
good BIO-DATA and start applying for jobs, I am sure eventually you will land
up with a job in piping design. Stick to the field, keep learning, it will take
minimum 10 years for you to become a full blown piping engineer. You must
not change your field in between other than piping, also do not run behind
money. Change job every 3-5 years, and you must work with different EPC
companies in Oil and gas, power, infrastructure and in period of 10 years, you
become a full blown piping engineer.

As a grand professional in Piping design, you will have very great demand in
India and abroad if you divert your career in the way I said above. Companies
will hire you with big salaries in India and abroad. Even if you decide not to
work with any company, you can teach students piping design and make a
good living, if you are more smart, you can launch your own company and
provide technical consulting services giving employment to people.

Now the choice is yours, if you like, choose piping design as a career and
enjoy the rest of your life.

Fans and Blowers … 110 NPSH.GENERAL Process Piping … 5 Scope of Piping Engineer … 6 Pipes and Tubes … 12 Fittings … 25 Flange class / rating … 32 Valves … 36 FLUID HANDLING Pressure Drop in Pipes … 50 Pipe Sizing … 55 Non Newtonian Fluids … 59 Types of Two Phase flow … 60 Pressure vibration … 62 Pipe Line networks … 63 Restricted Orifice … 64 Color Identification Code … 65 SYSTEM ENGINEERING P and I Diagrams … 68 Various Facilities for Plot Plan … 78 Steam Flow and Condensate Handling … 89 Vacuum Pipelines. Ejector Systems … 97 Slurry Pipelines … 100 Surge Drum. API. (ANSI. IS) … 115 Long Distance and Cross Country Pipelines … 121 LAYOUT ENGINEERING Equipment Layout … 127 Tank Farm … 128 Piping System Design and Layout Considerations for following systems: Condensate Recycle and Steam Distribution … 129 Distillation / Heat Exchanger Systems … 136 Cooling / Process / Chilled / Brine water systems … 144 Suction / Discharge Piping for Pump / Compressor … 152 Gas / Steam Turbines … 153 . Allowable nozzle loads in various codes … 113 Piping Design Codes. Flare Stack … 103 Pneumatic / Mechanical Handling of Solids …107 Pumps. Compressors.

selection criteria … 221 Typical Specification for Hot / Cold Insulation … 223 PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS and PIPE SUPPORTS Design of Wall thickness of pipe … 226 Thermal stresses due to thermal expansion of pipe lines and dissimilar metals. Specific precaution for SS. gas cutting.3 requirements for thermal stresses … 231 Imposed loading on Equipment Nozzles and Structures … 233 Concept of Cold-Pull and Self-Springing … 235 Pipe stress analysis with or without expansion joints …237 Design and selection of Expansion Joint Bellows … 239 Expansion Joint Bellows … 241 Transfer of Vibrations from machines to Pipe lines / Pipe Lines to machines … 243 Different types of pipe supports and selection criteria for pipe supports. Do and donot for routing of pipelines. Class A. properties. gravity lines … 244 Sizing and Loading Data for Pipe Rack … 270 PIPE FABRICATION.Yard Piping … 156 Fire Fighting Systems … 160 Petroleum Products. Estimation of thickness … 220 Insulation Material for hot / cold surfaces. flexibility analysis. arc. MS or SS welding. gas. selection of electrodes. span calculation. welding qualification. storage and handling of electrodes. contraction of pipe lines. Do and dont of welding. edge preparation. design of bends. C … 163 Jacketed / Traced Lines … 165 Selection and Design Considerations for: Hoses … 167 Strainers … 169 Sight Glasses … 171 Temp Safety Valves … 172 Rubber and Metallic Expansion Bellow … 173 Information to and from Piping Department with other engineering departments with reference to preparation of layout. important aspects relating to brazing. Pipe stress analysis wrt Piping Layout … 228 Design Code ANSI B31. INSTALLATION and TESTING Various types of Welding. plasma cutting. reinforcement of branches. considering operating feasibility … 175 Preparation of Process Plant Layout … 176 Piping Layouts … 179 Piping Isometric … 192 Stages of Material Take Off … 196 Drawing Approval … 201 Piping Spec … 204 THERMAL INSULATION Principles of Pipe Insulation … 216 Critical Thickness of Insulation.1 and B31. Heat Treatment (preheating and post cycles) … 273 . B. selection of flanges. type of welding equipment.

Case study in optimizing pipe size and estimating cost of piping for plant (ISBL) and tank farm (OSBL) … 307 Direct and Indirect costs associated with fabrication. Pickling and Passivation of SS Piping … 303 COSTING of PIPING Direct and Indirect costs associated with Piping. Relative economics for various materials of construction. Glass Pipes and Fittings. Design of Standard Pipe System for in place cleaning. estimation. Joining methods of plastic pipes and fittings. Welding of Sanitary Pipes and Fittings. Material for corrosion resistance … 287 Gaskets …288 Polymeric Materials (Plastics) Important consideration of plastic piping (HDPE / PP / PVC). Material of Construction. Pipe Unions. Precautions in hygienic pipe engineering. Valves made of plastic. coating of pipelines for underground and long distance services. Concept of economic diameter. inch-diameter concept … 276 SAFETY ASPECTS Non Destructive Testing (NDT) … 278 HAZOP and HAZAN … 283 CORROSION and MATERIALS of CONSTRUCTION Desirable properties of Piping Materials for low. Requirement of process equipment … 310 BASIC ENGINEERING Basic Engineering Package … 319 Process Kinetics … 325 Process Modeling … 346 Pilot Plant … 355 Mass Balance … 363 PROJECT WORK Creativity … 368 Process Evaluation … 372 New Product … 373 Market Survey … 375 Project Report … 377 .Centrifugal and Positive Rotary type. constructional features and limitations … 290 Types of corrosion. Pumps . Cleaning Stations. precautions. Good sanitary design and required basic principles. abrasive cleaning. Estimation of requirements and man-hours. method of preventing corrosion. installation and testing of piping. Inch-dia Length Concept … 308 HYGIENIC / PHARMACEUTICAL PIPING Application of hygienic piping.Procedure for Installation of Pipes. Valves. normal and high temperature services. plastic pipes and tubes. relative economics of various MOC. Relative economics for different systems. Pipes. cathodic protection of pipe lines … 301 Painting of Pipe lines. common paints for corrosion protection.

operability. equipment layouts piping studies. 2) Review of process package. electrical / instrumentation groups for various purposes. piping specification. compliance with statutory requirements & economy. Responsibilities of piping engineer Responsibilities piping design engineer begin with: 1) Preparation of plot plan. Goes through: . 3) Giving inputs to civil. safety.Thermodynamics and Kinetics … 404 Types of Reactors … 415 PIPING PROGRAMS 3D Piping Models … 421 P & ID … 431 Piping Isometrics … 441 2D Piping Layouts … 449 ANNEXURE Data Sheets … 451 EIL Support Standard … 505 Electrical … 592 Pipe Data … 606 Pipe Dimension Standard … 612 Piping engineering is a specialised branch of engineering dealing with design & layouts of piping network along with the Equipments in a process plant. These layouts from a complete blue print of the plant & are used for plant construction at site. The most important factors to be considered’ are process requirements. maintenance. vessel.

1. 5. 2. & good engineering Practices. Stress analysis 3. support Drawings. operability ease of maintenance & economy. - 2) Equipment layouts: Document showing layout of all equipments satisfying the Process requirements. safety & statutory Regulations. Coordination with various engineering groups & site. 6. Responsibilities of piping engineer Most important documents produced by design engineer: 1) Plot plan: Arranging all plant units in a logical manner to take care of Material flow. isometrics. And ends with completion & commissioning of plant. 4. Procurement assistance. statutory requirements. 3) Piping layouts: . Preparation of piping layouts. Preparation of drawings for statutory approvals. Preview of vendor drawings.

Design planning: Following information is required for planning the various design activities: . 5) Hazardous area classification etc. 3) Conceptual equipment layout drawings for process plant reflecting the process constraints.Document showing layouts of piping network to carry fluids From one equipment to another in a process plant satisfying The requirements as mentioned above. In-line instruments. temperature etc... strainers. 2) Utility summery giving utility consumption for each equipment with duty conditions like pressure. 4) Process data sheets for equipments. Activities of piping design engineer: Review of process package: This activity is carried out prior to start the detail engineering to ensure availability of all the required process data by all engineering groups. This includes the following: 1) Process data required converting P & ID’s to piping layouts like a proper identification of valves.

Basic engineering documents: These mainly cover the following documents: · Plot plan. 3) Basic engineering Documents. standards & statutory regulations.1) Contract instructions. 5) Contour & survey drawing. 6) Applicable codes. . 7) Project schedule & network. 4) Site design data including facilities around the plot. 2) Project design basis & scope of work. With all this data plan the detail engineering activities. · Equipment layouts · Pipe rack study sketches.

6) Piping support drawings. Details engineering documents: These mainly covers the following documents: 1) Piping layouts drawings. 5) Piping isometric drawings. 4) Stress analysis. 2) Material take off (MTO / BOM) for piping items. · Line list & critical line list. · Piping specification.· Study piping layouts. 3) Nozzle orientation for fabricated equipments. . · Utility distribution diagrams.

spring. notes.7) Fire fighting specification 8) Drawings for statuary approvals. 3) Specification for bellows. hangers etc. 6) Scheme for the erection of equipments in consultation with site engineer.. 4) Specification for insulation & painting of equipments & piping items. 2) Review of drawings for special piping items. 5) Updation of P&ID’s based on detailed engineering. Review of process package Review of P & ID’s: Following information shall be available in P &ID’s: 1) Legends. Other activities: These mainly cover the following documents: 1) Review of drawings for machinery & other brought-outs. abbreviations .

6) Equipments & nozzle numbers. 5) Proper symbols for piping items. 4) Specific requirements like slope. state of fluid. temperate.. 7) All instrumentation & control valves. elevation difference break flanges. flow. etc. critical data like freezing point etc.2) Line numbers. Review of other documents: 1) Utility summary: This document shall reflect the various utilities consumed by each equipments with duty conditions like pressure. 8) Continuation sheet numbers etc. 2) Conceptual equipment layouts: This document gives the general arrangement of the Equipments considering the process requirements like Inter-distances & approximate elevations of the equipments. . process drains & Vents type of heating (jacketing /steam i electric heating) etc. 3) Location of change in piping specification. Minimum running length.

Process unit 2. flanges & gaskets required . dehumidified atmosphere (warehouse).) & the special precautions to be taken care.3) Piping material specification: Basic material for piping items. Plot plan Plot plan shows overall areas & locating co-ordinates of: 1. Utility generation areas . 5) Hazard classification: This documents gives the type of hazard for the fluids being handled ( like class a/b/c. silo. bullet horizontal / vertical) etc. special. flammability toxicity etc. valve specifications. 6) Future expansion requirements: These are to be mentioned by the client & to be taken care for the space requirement during the layout stage. 4) Type of storage required: This document shall mention the state of the fluid & type of equipment to be used for the storage like API Tank. Raw material storages 3. Finished product storage 4. any other specific requirement.

Flare system.g. 12. 10. 11.Green belt.weigh bridge. Work shop . Following document are required to develop the plot plan: · Plot boundary and contour survey · Access road. canteen. 8. Facility blocks e. 9. Electrical. Electrical receiving and distribution substation 7. Pipe racks 6. Water.Effluent treatment. security . Administration lock. · Feed stock etc. · Wind direction .g. rail road · Incoming utilities e. Future requirements etc.5. car/lorry park etc. Power.

effluent disposal.Site contour. Statutory requirement e. space for pipe rack.Process & clients requirements 4. drainage. underground lines etc. plant roads. 3.· Facilities around the plot etc. Factors to be kept in mind while developing the plot plan: 1.Material movement & workers management Ensure the following while developing the plot plan: 1) Utilities are closed to process plant to cut down the length of pipes & cable racks 2) Raw material and finished product warehouse / tank ages are close to access road/rail road .g.  factory inspector  chief controller explosives  tariff advisory committee  pollution board  local bodies  aviation authorities  hazardous area classification 2.

process Pumps and other rotating machinery giving three locating Co-ordinates. 4) MCC and control rooms 5) A/C ducting 6) Offices & maintenance areas .3) Utility areas are kept near to each other as utility operators are common. 5) Effluent disposal is towards natural plot gradient 6) Hazardous tank ages are at safe distance from process plant. Equipment layout Equipment layout must show the following: All equipments including tanks. 4) Wind direction taken care of while locating chimneys cooling tower etc. 1) Package items 2) Pipe racks 3) Electrical & instrument cable trays. vessels.

beams. staircases. passages etc.7) Building features including columns. piping. These documents are used by civil. electrical & instrument cable trays to be routed between various plant areas. 8) Show tube removal space for heat exchangers 9) Show monorails lifting bays & hoists etc. walls. Consideration must be given to the following while  Developing equipment layouts  Process requirements  Operations & maintenance requirements  Hazardous area classification  Safety requirements  Factory inspector’s requirements  TAC requirements  Civil requirements  Erection / dismantling requirements  Future provisions Basic engineering documents Pipe rack study sketches: These are prepared taking into account requirements of piping. floor Openings. electrical and instrument group to prepare detailed construction drawings. .

insulation & painting requirements are listed on line list. This document reviewed by process licensor and forms basis of detailed piping layout drawings. design and test conditions. Are listed in this document Piping Layouts Document required to develop piping layout: 1) Equipment layouts 2) Process P&ID’s 3) Utility P&ID’S . line pressure & temperature are listed under one specification class. Piping specifications: These documents specifies in detail all piping items required for the plant. Critical line list All line requiring stress/vibration analysis etc.  Utility flow diagram (UFD)  This document is similar to P&ID’s  Prepared based on utility summary  Prepared based on utility summery furnished by process group  Shows utility generation and distribution in the plant.Study piping layouts: Prepared to show routing of critical process lines which could affect functioning of plant. depending on type of fluid. Various piping items required for a particular duty condition. Line numbering and line list All process and utility lined appearing in P&ID’s and UFD’s are given unique serial numbers on these documents the operating.

 Safety requirements  Operations & maintenance  Accessibility  Service /hose stations. Slopes. safety valves.  Straight length for flow measurement  Location of control valves. Piping layouts must consider  Process requirements operations & maintenance requirements area classification  Safety requirements factory inspector’s requirements TAC  Requirements civil requirements erection / dismantling requirements future provisions. . TIS.4) Line designation list 5) Piping specification 6) Equipment data sheets /vendor drawings 7) Civil drawings 8) Inline instrument details 9) Insulation requirements Following points shall be kept in mind while developing piping layouts Process requirements e.  PLS.g.g. safety showers Piping layouts is required by site for construction to prepare isometrics & into instrument group for hook-ups. vents & drains. barometric leg for vacuum lines  Instrument requirements e. etc.

Proper selection and specification of special supports like spring hangers and expansion joints. thermal expansion & occasional loads like & earthquake 5. Stress analysis ensures 1. This is to ensure flexibility of lines operating at elevated Temperatures and also to ensure that load on equipment Nozzles is within remissible limits due to expansion of piping.  150 NB & above> 120 deg c Jacketted lines . Flexibility of pipe from thermal expansion. Safety of nozzles to the connected critical equipments 4.Stress analysis Why stress analysis? Stress analysis is carried out for all lines covered in critical line list. Proper supporting against dead weight. Stress analysis is carried out for  Stress critical lines  Elevated temperature lines  80 NB & above > 260 deg c. Integrity of pipe & piping components against pressure and dead weight. 3. 2. Stress sketches are prepared in isometric form on STD stress sheet showing location of all supports.

That is. How Stress Analysis is carried out? Stress analysis is carried out using software like “CAEPIPE” output data is tabulated on stress sketch. Relief valve discharge lines flare header. Support critical lines Two phase flow lines very thick & very thin lines. turbine (NEMA - SM23) reciprocating compressor  Fired heater (API 560). reformer vessels with brittle linings  Analysis to ensure the nozzle loads within stipulated maximum  Specified by codes /equipments vendors. Statutory approvals Various statutory bodies: 1) Chief inspector of factories . A typical stress sketch giving input and output data is enclosed nozzle loadings on equipments is transmitted to vessel /mechanical group for approval if it exceeds permissible limit. air cooler(API 661). lines ha ving dia to wall thickness ratio in the range 10 < D/T > 90 relief critical lines.pump (API 610).  Equipment critical lines  Lines connected to rotating machinery . liquid blow down lines downstream of bursting disc.

3) Planning & monitorin g the work for timely completion of the project. .2) Chief inspector of boilers 3) Chief controller of explosives A) Petroleum act & rules ( for storage tanks) B) Gas cylinder & static & mobile pressure vessel rules 4) Oil industry safety directorate 5) Tariff advisory committee 6) Pollution control board 7) Local bodies ( Municipal / District authority. 2) Co-ordination with clients. & detail engineering office. Aviation authority. highway authority etc. Responsibility of piping engineering at site List of the major activities 1) Supervision of fabrication & erection of equipments and piping. contractors. 8) electrical inspection 9) town planning authority. port authority.

6) Maintain QA/QC records. layouts drawings & isometrics. 9) Assure the work is carried out as per P & ID’s. 10) Check critical pipe supports 11) Check visual inspection & radiography of weld joints 12) Check insulation & painting as per the specifications Responsibility of piping engineering at site Testing of piping Witness the hydrostatic / pneumatic Testing of pipelines as per the procedures commissioning Mechanical commissioning of rotary equipments and water trial runs of systems . 7) Assure the lifting equipments tools & tackles are in proper condition.4) Conduct welding procedure & performance qualifications 5) Assure the quality of work done by contractors. 8) Check the alignments of equipments.

Computer in Piping Engineering Software used in piping design & engineering following is the list of little software available in the market:  Autocad I Microstation  PDS / PDMS ( 3D plant design system)  Auto plant / Tata -Cape auto flow  Caepipe / Ceaser-II / Triflex .

com/research/IN/Job=Piping_Designer/Salary http://www.com/view/1340dc- MTAxN/Safety_Failure_in_the_Oil_Industry_Paying_for_the_Piper_powerpoint_ppt_p resentation .payscale.https://www.powershow.