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CREATIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN
SHAPE GRAMMARS AS A TOOL IN ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment


Of the Requirements of the
M.SC. Degree in
ARCHITECTURE
2005
By
MOHAMED SOBHY MOHAMED
B.Sc. Architecture ,Alexandria University
© Mohamed Sobhy M. Ibrahim

All Rights reserved to the author


ALEXANDRIA UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

CREATIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN


SHAPE GRAMMARS AS A TOOL IN ARCHITECTURAL
DESIGN ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Architecture


.Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the


Degree of Master of Science in Architecture

By:
Mohamed Sobhy Mohamed
B.Sc. Architecture, Alexandria University

Supervisors:

Prof. Dr Amr G. El-Adawy


Professor of Architecture and Vice Dean for The Environmental & Community Affairs
Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University

And

Prof. Dr. Hassan K. Abd El Salam


Professor of Architecture , Department of Architecture
Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University

Registered: September 2002


Submitted: September 2005
Supervisors:

Prof. Dr Amr G. El-Adawy


Professor of Architecture,
Vice Dean for Environmental and Community Development,
Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.

Dr. Hassan K. Abd El Salam


Associate Professor, Department of Architecture,
Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University.
In the name of ALLAH the most gracious the most merciful
Abstract

The following thesis mainly explores the use of shape grammars applications in the analysis
and synthesis in architectural design. A shape grammars is a set of shape rules that are
applied in a step by step method to generate languages of designs .It has been widely used
over the past several years to describe and understand a diversity of architectural and other
styles of designs. These grammars have been developed to address two fundamental concerns
in design: 1) the analysis of contemporary or historic styles of designs, and 2) the synthesis or
creation of completely new and original styles of designs.
The emphasis is given to the four classifications of the analytical grammars strategies : Grid,
Subdivision, Addition and simple relations of shapes , and the classification of the synthetic
grammars methods in :applicable grammars, from scratch, and transformations of rules. Each
of these strategies and methods is illustrated with examples that define its concepts .
The computer implementations of shape grammars are also presented and another
classification of its types is presented.

Keywords: Design formulations , Design science, Design Computation, , shape grammars


,analytical grammars, and Synthetic grammars.

i
Acknowledgments

First of all , I thank God the glorious and compassionate for helping me accomplishing this
work. My gratitude goes then to the following people:
My Supervisors for their support and guidance:
Prof .Dr Amr G.El Adawy
for his insights, guidance, constant effort, support and continuous encouragement throughout
the course of this study
Prof .Dr Hassan Abd El Salam
for his helpful suggestions, valuable advice, Sincere supervision and guidance throughout the
whole thesis.
I also wish to express my estimation for Prof. James Gips for his advices , unlimited help ,
and his generosity in sharing his vast knowledge for continuous refinement of my though .

My thanks also go to:


Prof .Dr Mustafa F. Gabr for his insightful comments and observations which helped me
from the beginning to choose my way.
Prof . Dr Samir H. Bayoumi for teaching me new ways of looking at design and leading me
to the study of shape grammars.

I would like to thank my colleagues in the architecture department for their encouragement
and helpful discussions especially :Rokia Raslan for her sincere help, encouragement and
linguistic verifications, Dina Sameh for her encouragement and helpful discussion, Ingy
Ahmed for her help in reading my thesis and Finally , Thanks to Ahmed A. Wafa , Safwat
Adel, Ahmed Mamdouh, Samer El Sayari ,Hany Shaheen, Walid A,Aal and Alaa Mansour for
being my friends and wishing me good.

Finally , My parents , I cannot thank you enough for your love , patience, assistance ,
encouragement , for being there always for me , and making me who I am .
My beloved wife for being my wife, my friend and my daughter and for aiding , loving and
caring for me . My son Nour for wiping all my pains and worry with his lovely smile .

ii
Table of contents

Title Page ……………………………………………………………………………….


Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………. i
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………….. ii
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………. iii
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………….. v

Part One : Literature Review

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1 Design formulation and Shape Grammars…………………………………………. 2


1.2 Aims and Objectives……………………………………………………………….. 4
1.3 Research Methodology…………………………………………………………….. 4
1.4 The Thesis Structure……………………………………………………………….. 6

Chapter Two: Creative Approach to Design Formulation

2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………... 9


2.2 Classification of design…………………………………………………………….. 11
2.2.1 Routine design………………………………………………………………… 11
2.2.2 Non routine design……………………………………………………………. 12
2.3 Creativity……………………………………………………………………………. 14
2.3.1 Personal and Social views of creativity………………………………………. 15
2.3.2 Model of creativity……………………………………………………………. 17
2.4 Design formulation…………………………………………………………………. 19
2.4.1 Design and science……………………………………………………………. 20
2.4.2 Approaches to formulate design……………………………………………… 20
2.4.3 Creativity of the Grammar (linguistic) approach……………………………... 22
2.5 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. 26

Chapter Three: Shape Grammar Theory

3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 28


3.2 Shape Grammar Formalism………………………………………………………… 29
3.2.1 Linguistic……………………………………………………………………... 29
3.2.2 Geometric and algorithmic…………………………………………………… 32
3.3 Stages of Shape Grammar development……………………………………………. 33
3.3.1 Shapes………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.3.2 Spatial Relations……………………………………………………………… 34
3.3.3 Shape Rules…………………………………………………………………… 34
3.3.4 Design………………………………………………………………………… 36
3.4 Parametric Shape grammar…………………………………………………………. 40
3.5 Color grammar……………………………………………………………………… 41
3.6 Shape grammar applications………………………………………………………... 43
3.7 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. 43

iii
Part Two : Analytical Study
Chapter Four: Analytical Shape Grammars

4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 45


4.2 Analytical Grammars History………………………………………………………. 46
4.2.1The Ice Ray Grammar…………………………………………………………. 46
4.3 Analytical Grammars Strategies……………………………………………………. 49
4.3.1 Grid …………………………………………………………………………… 49
4.3.2 Subdivision …………………………………………………………………… 52
4.3.3 Addition………………………………………………………………………. 57
4.3.4 Simple relations of shapes…………………………………………………….. 61
4.4 Note on 3D analytical grammars…………………………………………………… 62
4.5 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………... 64
4.6 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. 65

Chapter Five: Synthetic Shape Grammars


5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 67
5.2 Synthetic Grammars History……………………………………………………….. 68
5.2.1 The Generations of Paintings…………………………………………………. 68
5.2.2 The Kindergarten Grammar…………………………………………………... 69
5.3 Synthetic Grammars types………………………………………………………….. 70
5.3.1 Applicable Analytical grammars……………………………………………... 70
5.3.2 Design from Scratch………………………………………………………….. 75
5.3.3 Transformations of rules……………………………………………………… 79
5.4 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………... 85
5.5 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. 85

Chapter Six : Computer Implementations


6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 87
6.2 Types of Computer Implementations……………………………………………….. 88
6.2.1 Interpreter Program…………………………………………………………… 88
6.2.2 Parsing Program………………………………………………………………. 88
6.2.3 Inference Program…………………………………………………………….. 88
6.2.4 CAD Program………………………………………………………………… 88
6.3 Current Shape Grammars Interpreters……………………………………………… 90
6.3.1GEdit…………………………………………………………………………… 90
6.3.2 Shaper2D……………………………………………………………………… 90
6.3.3 3D Shaper……………………………………………………………………... 91
6.3.4 ArchiDNA…………………………………………………………………….. 92
6.4 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………… 94
6.5 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………. 94

Chapter Seven : Discussion and Conclusions

7.1 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………… 97
7.2 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………… 98

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………….. 100

iv
List of Figures

Chapter Two: Creative Approach to formulate design

Figure (1) Hammurabi's Code, from an engraving on a Stella in cuneiform in


the Louvre, Paris. “229 - If a designer/ builder build a house for
some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he
built fall in and kill its owner, then that designer/ builder shall be put
to death.."
Figure (2) Design classification
Figure (3) The space of possible designs is defined and the space of routine
design is a subset of those designs
Figure (4) The space of innovative designs is a subset of the possible design
Figure (5) The space of creative designs is a superset of the possible designs
Figure (6) Creative designing involves new and/or changing the spaces of
possible designs
Figure (7) Csikszentmihalyi’s system view of creativity
Figure (8) Saunders and Gero’s interpretation of Csikszentmihalyi’s model of
creative situation
Figure (9) The three subspaces of function (F) , behavior ( B) and structure ( S)
which constitute the state space of design , plus the locus of the
transformations between them
Figure (10 ) A simple model of creative design
Figure (11) Problem Solving can be compared to exploring a maze
Figure (12) an example in which considering a set of constraints leads to a
description of a design
Figure (13) Design Process Diagram
Figure (14) The lack between the Grammar process and Design process

Chapter Three: Shape Grammars Theory

Figure (15) Grammars and language


Figure (16) Structure of a sentence
Figure (17) A simple structure of a house
Figure (18) 2D shapes examples

v
Figure (19) 3D shapes examples
Figure (20) Examples of spatial relations
Figure (21) 2D shape rule and its possibilities
Figure (22) Examples of 3D shape rule
Figure (23) Labeled rule
Figure (24) (a) Four labeled shape rules (b) Derivations of designs
Figure (25) (a) different labeling of the rule A->A+B (b) Derivations of designs
Figure (26) Several ways of interpreting a geometric shape
Figure (27) an example on the shape grammar that varies with the emergence of
shapes
Figure (28) Euclidean Transformations of shapes
Figure (29) (a) Rules for a Standard Shape Grammar (b) A derivation of the
rules (c) A result generated by applying the rules repeatedly.
Figure (30) (a) Rules for a Parametric Shape Grammar (b) A derivation of the
rules (c) A result generated by applying the rules repeatedly.
Figure (31) An example on Basic color grammar developments.

Chapter Four: Analytical Shape Grammars

Figure (32) Ice lattice designs


Figure (33) the five rules for the grammar
Figure (34) A generation of the ice ray design shown in figure(32)b by means of
shape grammars rules shown in figure(33)
Figure (35) The grid strategy
Figure (36) A derivation of villa Malcontenta using Palladian grammar
Figure (37) Plans generated by the Palladian shape grammar a) Palladio’s
designs b) New designs
Figure (38) Subdivision Strategy
Figure (39) samples of Diebenkorn’s Ocean park paintings
Figure (40) 5 rules from the 42 rules for the ocean park grammars
Figure (41) Grammatical derivation of linear composition for Diebenkorn’s
Ocean Park number 111.
Figure (42) Examples of caravanserais, desert palaces and forts
Figure (43) Stage A rules for building zone development

vi
Figure (44) Rules from Stages B, C and D
Figure (45) Derivation of a caravanserai
Figure (46) Addition Strategy
Figure (47) Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie house style
Figure (48) (a) A massing rule (b) Detailing rules for the prairie house grammar
(c) A derivation of the rules
Figure (49) Various results of the prairie house grammar
Figure (50) The Stiny house 1981
Figure (51) rules for the generation of the special temple
Figure (52) ِA- Shape rules for the framing system B- shape rules for dealing
with porches and verandahs
Figure (53) Some steps in the generation of a Taiwanese Temple
Figure (54) Simple Relations of Shapes Strategy
Figure (55) the church plan grammar
Figure (56) Alvar Alto office building simple grammar
Figure (57) reconstruction of Palladio’s villas stages(a) The floor plan steps (b)
the elevations steps (c) the villas model steps

Chapter Five: Synthetic Shape Grammars

Figure (58) Stiny and Gips Grammars for painting (a) Shape rules (b) Design
generation (c) 3main designs picked from the design derivations
Figure (59) Froebel building gifts. All solids are derived by various dissections
of the cube
Figure (60) Stiny Kindergarten grammar
Figure (61) the Hayat Houses (a) Detached (b) Semi-detached
Figure (62) (a) Svirzina, semi-detached house plan layout (b) Saburina
detached house plan layout
Figure (63) Vocabulary of Shapes
Figure (64) Spatial Relations
Figure (65) Family of specific vocabulary elements
Figure (66) Starting rules
Figure (67) Some modifications of the sub-types
Figure (68) Partitioning Rules
Figure (69) Some generated new designs of Type A1

vii
Figure (70) Cultural History Museums by Jin-Ho Park
Figure (71) Courtyard houses by Jin-Ho Park
Figure (72) Elementary School by Michael Brown
Figure (73) Single Family Houses by Michael Brown
Figure (74) Art and Sculpture Museums by Wei-Cheng Chang
Figure (75) project for a museum in San Gimignano (Randy Brown).
Figure (76) (a) A spatial relation for the massing of the museum (b)some
massing designs generated with it
Figure ( 77) (a) A spatial relation for the details of the museum (b)some
massing designs generated with it
Figure ( 78) The De Stijl art (a) Piet Mondrian (b) Theo van Doesburg (c)
George Vantongerloo
Figure ( 79) Vantongerloo's paintings Stages I,II,III,V,VI and VII
Figure ( 80) Shape grammars representing the seven stages in the development of
Vantongerloo's paintings
Figure ( 81) (a) derivation of the Prairie Houses grammar (b) Usonian Houses
created from the grammar (c) the transformation of the Prairie spatial
relations to Usonian Spatial relation

Chapter Six: Shape Grammars Computer Implementations

Figure (82) Screenshot of GEdit Interface


Figure (83) Screenshot of Shaper 2D Interface
Figure (84) Illustrations for using the result of Shaper2D in the design process
(a) The generated result in Shaper 2D (b) Site planning with the
result (c) Plan designing with the result .
Figure (85) (a) Screenshot of 3D Shaper Interface (b) Screenshot of SGI Open
Inventor Viewer to see the 3D result of 3D Shaper.
Figure (86) (a) Biocentrum (b) Diagram of DNA showing Amino Acids (c) Four
distinct shapes in Amino Acids.
Figure (87) Four Shape Operations with applier-shape to base-shape
Figure (88) Screenshot of ArchiDNA Interface.
Figure (89) (a) ArchiDNA 3D model in VRML Viewer ,Cortona (b) )
ArchiDNA 3D model in modeling system ,FormZ

viii
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

Chapter One:
Introduction

1.1 Design Formulation and Shape Grammars


1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Research Methodology
1.4 The Structure of Thesis

1
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION

1.1 DESIGN FORMULATION AND SHAPE GRAMMARS

This thesis is concerned with the design formulation and the shape grammars theory .
Design formulations – in simple terms- means to convert design , its values and aesthetics
into a physical set of rules that can be applied step by step to generate designs . This rule
based concept aims to imply computers in the creation and analysis of designs and also
promises to provide human thinking with a better understanding of the mystical notion of
design and the design process . Research within this field consequently contributes to the
design education .

Researches in design formulation was engaged with previous work in theories of design
synthesis that began hundreds of years ago . Every effort aimed to extract rules concerning
design , laid the foundation of an approach to formulate design.

Starting in the late sixteenth , these new concepts began with intensive, powerful and
revolutionary writings from thinkers who believed in the powerful ability of artificial
intelligence to create , analyze and evaluate design and art ( Simon , 1969; Stiny and Gips,
1978 and others ). Each approach that was set to formulate design was based on a philosophy
of the notion of design itself . for example , when turning over the intellectual production of
this period , one finds statements in literature such as "design is predictive", "design is
reflective action", "design is search", "design is constraint resolution", "design is puzzle-
making", "design is dialogue", "design is grammatical", "design is geometrical", "design is
object-oriented", "design is optimization", "design is knowledge-based" … and many other
definitions . The fact remains that none of these statements are true while all of them are true.
Unlike the theories of natural sciences, approaches to formulate design are not competing
theories and each approach simultaneously exhibits power and weakness.

Following a concise evaluation of other approaches in the term of their creativity to


formulate design, this thesis then adopts the approach of shape grammars.

2
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

The shape grammars concept claims that design shares a strong resemblance with natural
language ( Morphology, syntax, and semantics) . Since it's conception , shape grammars
theory in the creation and analysis of designs encountered acceptance between theorists as
well as computer developers due to its potentials in dealing with the two main motivations for
design formulation , to design and analyze with computers .

The thirteen years old theory also raised arguments within the research community about
several issues .For example, the creativity of the artifact produced with shape grammars (
Rosenman and Gero,1993), the inaccurate imitation to the common language grammars (
Fleisher ,1992 ; Emdanat and Vakalo ,1997; and others), and its promises to facilitate the
conduct of computations of shapes ( Emdanat and Vakalo,1997).Despite all of these
agreements and disagreements with the theory , the role that shape grammars play in the
analysis of styles and historical languages of design is appreciated . Especially with the
emergence of elaborated examples about analysis and synthesis of certain styles like the
Palladian style , the Frank Lloyd Wright prairies houses style , the Greek ornament, the
language of certain paintings , and others .

The use of shape grammars applications in design and analysis also shows educational
capabilities and was introduced into several design courses in architecture schools around the
world (MIT , UCLA, Adelaide University, Carnegie Mellon, Harvard, Strathclyde, Yale and
others) . The number of shape grammars students in undergraduate and postgraduate
programs is increasing as well as the number of shape grammars lecturers. Its researches,
writings and Lectures was linked to several brilliant names in education and research such as
William Mitchell , George Stiny, James Gips , Ulrich Flemming ,Terry Knight, Julie
Eizenberg, Scott Chase, Ramesh Krishnamurti, Mark Tapia, Lionel March.. and many others
around the world.

The thesis provides reviews of some of their thoughts in addition to exploring , analyzing,
and classifying the shape grammars potentials in both analysis and design .

3
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims of this research are :

1- To trace and understand the evolution of design formulation through the application
of the shape grammars theory.
2- to develop an understanding of the role that shape grammars play in design analysis
and synthesis

in order to achieve these aims , the following objectives were set:

1- To investigate and evaluate the creativity of the design formulation approaches .


2- To Study the literature review of the history of the Shape Grammars theory .
3- To provide a model of the analytical and synthetic methods used to generate designs
in shape grammars
4- To explore the effect of the conception of shape grammars on computational
efforts to implement Design software.

1.3 THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The first objective will be met by conducting research work in two different fields:
1- Research into the evolution of the design formulation concept providing definitions and
approaches to formulate design.
2 - Further research into the notion of the evaluation criteria of Creativity that includes
comparison between different type of self conscious design (Routine and Non-routine)
,and the development of model for understanding creativity.
The evaluation criteria of creativity is then used to judge the novelty of each approach to the
design formulation, concluding that the grammatical model is the most creative approach

In order to achieve the second objective a literature review will be conducted through
researching papers , books, articles ,web papers and lectures that describe the mechanism of
Shape grammars theory , its components and stages of application

Analytical work will be carried out to accomplish the third and fourth main objectives in
three similar ways:

4
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

1- Analyzing strategies used in examples of analytical grammars depending on the visual


characteristics of the corpus of designs that need to be analyzed
2- Analyzing the synthetic grammars type depending on each ones potentials and the
designers personal selection of the appropriate type to create his own synthetic grammar.
3- Analyzing the types of shape grammars computers implementations based on Gips view
(2000).

5
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

1.4 THE STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS

The thesis is divided into two parts:


The first part The literature review consists of two chapters:
z

- Chapter two "creative approach to design formulation " briefly reviews the evolution
of design research starting from Palladio and ending with the emergence of the design
science concept in order to formulate aesthetic values of the design process. A brief
definition of the term creativity is given and then the second half of the chapter
describes the approaches to design formulations .Finally, an evaluation of the
creativity of these approaches concludes that the grammatical approach is the most
creative approach to the formulation of design. The remainder of this chapter reviews
various opinions within the research community concerning the creativity of the
artifact produced from the grammatical model.

- Chapter Three "Shape Grammars Theory" begins with an introduction to the shape
grammar formalism both linguistically and algorithmically. The majority of Chapter
three is allocated to the explanation of the shape grammars theory ,its components
and stages of application and then provides lateral reviews of the emanated new types
of grammars that depart from the broad spectrum of shape grammars.

The second part The Analytical Work consists of three chapters:

- chapter four "Analytical Shape Grammars" where the potentials of shape grammars in
design analysis is meant to be explored first by presenting the first analytical
grammars application and its simple rules in a detailed example that serves as model
of the analytical grammars mechanism. Then, the chapter continues to provide a
classification of four main strategies used by shape grammars to analyze languages of
design styles : Grid, Subdivision, Additive and simple relations of shapes . each
strategy is provided with an explanation of its main concept and an example of the
application in analyzing certain types of designs. The chapter then conludes with a
discussion about the credibility of analytical grammars in contemporary and historical
cases .

6
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER1

- Chapter five "Synthetic Shape Grammars " begins with commentaries on the synthetic
grammars process and – like chapter four - its potentials in the creation of new
designs .The presentation of the firsts synthetic applications of shape grammars is
then followed by another classification of the types of synthetic grammars explained
in terms of its concepts . Applications of each type are consequently introduced and
studied. The chapter also ends with a discussion about some distinctions between
analytical and synthetic grammars.

- Chapter six "Computer Implementations" presents the computational effort that


commenced with the invention of the shape grammars and thus provides a
classification for the types of computer implementations that was planned to
formulate design . Finally , an overview of the latest interpretation software is given
and the difficulty of developing softwares for shape grammars is then discussed

The final chapter "Discussion and Conclusions" concludes with a discussion about the
applications of shape grammars theory and its potentials in architecture.

7
CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

Chapter Two:
Creative approach to design formulation

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Classification of design
2.2.1 Routine design
2.2.2 Non routine design
2.3 Creativity
2.3.1 Personal and Social views of creativity
2.3.2 Model of creativity
2.4 Design formulation
2.4.1 Design and science
2.4.2 Approaches to formulate design
2.4.3 Creativity of the Grammar (linguistic) approach
2.5 Conclusions

8
CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

CHAPTER TWO:
CREATIVE APPROACH TO DESIGN FORMULATION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

“Design is a highly sophisticated skill. It is not mystical ability given only to


those with recondite powers but a skill which, for many, must be learnt and
practiced , rather like the playing of a sport or a musical instrument “
Lawson 2003

Design has been recognized as an important activity for more than 4,000 years. In
approximately 2,000 BC, Hammurabi, King of Babylon, enacted a law which both
recognized design and made it dangerous (Gero 1990, p.26).
Designers’ role to improve the human condition, in all its aspects was appreciated, yet design
remained a mysterious human activity not amenable to scientific exploration.

Figure (1) Hammurabi's Code, from an engraving on a Stella in cuneiform in the Louvre, Paris.
“229 - If a designer/ builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it
properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that designer/
builder shall be put to death.."
Source: Gero, J. 1990,p.26

9
CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

The fact that design can be learnt (as cited by Lawson 2003,p.22) motivated researchers,
thinkers, designers and even historical theorists to search for the most appropriate way to
describe and thus to teach design .The entire research efforts over twenty centuries developed
two main concepts that deal with design in two different questions:
First, the “how to design? “question which combines all research in thematic theories and
design process. There are publications by designers on how to design that date back to the
Roman era ,notably by Vitruvius, the first century BC architect and engineer who described
the classic principles of design ( harmony , Symmetry , proportion ,.. etc) and tried to give
guidelines on how to design (Morgan 1960, preface) , also, the nineteenth century thinkers
commenced working on articulating design as a process (Durand 1802)(Gero 1990,p.26).
Second, the “ what is design ?” question that aims to explore the theories of design
synthesis ( Routio1999,p.2) , And it was not until the 1960s that major research programs that
transact with the notion of design thinking itself in its various aspects were analyzed , taken
apart , developed and initiated ( Jones & Thornley, 1963 ; Simon,1969; Coyne,1990).
Innovative definitions of design replaced its classic model, a new vocabulary was introduced
to describe and understand Self- conscious (associated with intent) design1.

“Design is a purposeful activity, practiced by humans using a knowledge based


approach to create forms to satisfy intended purpose “
Rosenman 1996, p.643
“Design is a goal oriented, constrained, decision making, exploration and
learning activity which operates within a context which depends on the
designers perception of the context”
Gero 1995, p.2

Even definitions that seem more algorithmic and symbolic were proposed to bring together
pieces of the nature of the design puzzle.

“A design is an element in an array relation among drawings, other kinds of


descriptions, and correlative devices as needed “
Stiny 1996, p.97

1
Although there is no general acceptance between thinkers and designers about the existence of
unselfconscious design “Nature does not design” (Rosenman 1996,p.643), there is wide agreement on
considering design in research a purposeful human activity associated with intent

10
CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF DESIGN

The most common classifications categorize design as routine and non-routine although there
are differences in defining what is meant by these classifications.

Figure (2) Design classification


Source: Bayoumi , S. 2002

2.2.1 Routine design

Routine design can be defined as that designing activity which occurs when all the necessary
knowledge about the design variables, objectives, constraints and process are all known. In
addition routine designing operates within a context that constrains the available ranges of
solutions (Gero 2002,p.3), Figure 3.

Figure (3) The space of possible designs is defined and the space of routine design is a subset of
those designs
Based on: diagram by Gero, J.S. 2002,p.3

It has the characteristic of not being different in any essential way from previously produced
designs in their class, they all exhibit the same properties but with different magnitude

11
CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

(Bayoumi 2002). “That is not to say that routine design is necessarily always easy. The state
space is usually very large and clever ways of navigating (searching) are required to arrive
at desired solutions.” (Rosenman & Gero 1993,p.113)

2.2.2 Non routine design

Non routine design may be defined as those designs that are recognized to be different in
some substantial sense from previously produced designs in their class. It can be further
subdivided into two further groups: innovative design and creative design. The difference
between these two groups is not always clear and successive innovations can lead to a
different product can be called creative design ( Rosenman & Gero 1993,p.114)

Innovative design is that designing activity that occurs when the space of known solutions is
extended by making variations or adaptations to existing designs so that unexpected solutions
become possible, Figure4.
Innovative design processes produce designs that recognizably belong to the same class.
There is no departure in type from previously designs of the same type but are also “new”
(Gero 2002,p.4).

Figure (4) The space of innovative designs is a subset of the possible design
Based on: diagram by Gero, J.S. 2002, p.4

Creative design can be defined as the designing activity that occurs when one or more new
variables are introduced into the design (Gero 2002, p.4). It incorporates innovative design
but involves the creation of products that have little obvious relationship to existing products.

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While innovative design involves the generation of new subtypes, creative design involves
the generation of entirely new types (Rosenman & Gero 1993,pp.113-114), Figure 5 shows
the extension of the state space of potential design.

S0

Figure (5) The space of creative designs is a superset of the possible designs
Based on: diagram by Rosenman ,M.A .& Gero, J.S. 1993,p.114

Figure 6 shows the same idea in another way. The space of possible designs changes over
time as the designer moves away from the current design state space.

Figure (6) Creative designing involves new and/or changing the spaces of possible designs
Based on: diagram Gero, J.S 2002,p.4

Figure 6 shows the same idea in another way. The space of possible designs changes over
time as the designer moves away from the current design state space.
A brief example was given by Gero and Rosenman (1993, p.115) that concludes all
differences between the three groups, routine, innovative and creative design:

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“ . . . . with these definitions in mind designing an air-conditioner to meet certain


requirements constitutes routine design , designing the first reverse-cycle air-conditioner
constitutes innovative design whereas designing the first air-conditioner constitutes creative
design”
In architecture another example was given by Bayoumi (2002) where he considered S.Denis,
Paris, 1135 and Bon Marche store, Paris, 1876 creative design regarding their role of
introducing new types of buildings in their time.

2.3 CREATIVITY
“Creativity is the ability to produce work that is novel and appropriate”
Saunders 2002,p.5
There have been many attempts to develop models of the processes involved in defining the
nature of creativity; the difficulty of these tasks is clear from the number of definitions that
can be found in the literature, for example: Taylor (1988) (Saunders 2002,p.5) gives some 50
definitions. some researchers have concluded that trying to develop a single definition of
creativity is a useless task and that this simple statement appears to be the only definition
upon which there is agreement among the research community ( Boden 1990; Partridge &
Rowe1994; Rosenman & Gero1993; Sternberg1988) (Saunders 2002,p.5) .
Creativity may describe both artifact and process (Rosenman &Gero1993,p.112;Gero
2002,p.4 ) . An artifact is creative if it has the properties of being novel and has value and/or
richness of interpretation, all these properties are subjective and are relative to time place, and
the observer.
A process may be termed creative if it introduces one or more new variables into the design,
such processes do not guarantee that the artifact is judged to be creative , rather these
processes have the potential to aid the design of creative artifacts (Gero 2002,p.4).However,
It is however possible for creative artifacts to be produced by processes that are not in
themselves creative and are just as well understood (Rosenman & Gero, 1993,p.112).
The purpose of studying creativity as stated by Saunders ( 2002,p.5) is to determine what
processes are involved in being creative or finding out what is meant when something is
described as being novel ( original, unexpected, surprising)and appropriate ( useful, valuable,
aesthetic, adapted).

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2.3.1 Personal and Social views of creativity

Approaches to studying creativity can be divided into two broad categories. The first category
encompasses those approaches that emphasize personal judgment of creativity and study
creative thinking and creative personalities. Second category encompasses those approaches
that go beyond the individual and Believe that society, as well as the audience of the creative
work, play an important role in defining what is creative?

2.3.1.1 Unified model s of creativity

Some researches have attempted to combine these two views of creativity into unified
theoretical frameworks but the resulting frameworks often maintain the distinction between
personal and socio-cultural notions of creativity (Saunders 2002,p.6). Boden 1990 classified
creativity into two kinds called (H-creativity) and (P-creativity). In design, H-creativity
(Historical creativity) occurs when the design falls outside the range of design previously
designed in a society .Whereas, P-creativity (Personal or Psychological creativity) occurs
when the design falls outside the range of designs produced by that designer. Gero JS has
extended Boden's classification to include S-creativity (Suwa, 1999,pp. 539-567) . S-
creativity (Situated creativity) occurs when the design contains ideas that are not necessarily
novel in any absolute sense or novel to the designer but that are novel in that particular design
situation, this third kind of creativity emphasizes the important role that context plays in
shaping the creative process ( Gero 2002,p.5) .

2.3.1.2 Csikszentmihalyi's view of creativity


Csikszentmihalyi (1988,p.325-339) developed a system view of creativity after turning his
attention away from the question “What is creativity?” and instead asking, “Where is
creativity?” (Saunders & Gero 2002, p.3; Saunders 2002, p.6).
Csikszentmihalyi developed the system view as a model of the dynamic behavior of creative
systems that include interactions between the major components of the creative society. He
identified three important components of a creative system:

Individual – Who generates ideas?


Domain – Cultural or symbolic component
Field – Social or interactive component

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CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

Figure (7) shows the connection between these three components at a conceptual level.

Figure (7) Csikszentmihalyi’s system view of creativity


Source: Saunders, R. & Gero, J.S.2002,p.3

An individual’s role in the system is to bring about some transformation of the knowledge
held in the domain. The field is a set of social institutions that selects from the variations
produced by the individuals that are worth preserving. The domain is a repository of
knowledge held by the culture that preserves ideas or forms selected by the field.
In a typical cycle, an individual takes some information provided by the culture and
transforms it, if the transformations are deemed valuable by the society; it will be included in
the domain of knowledge held by the culture, thus providing a new starting point for the next
cycle of transformation and evaluation.
In Csikszentmihalyi’s view, creativity is not found in any one of these elements, but in the
interaction between them (Gero 2002, p.7; Saunders and Gero 2001, p.115, 2002, p.3).
Saunders and Gero have developed and implemented a computational model of artificial
design creativity based on Csikszentmihalyi’s model. Figure (8) shows their interpretation of
Csikszentmihalyi’s model.

Figure (8) Saunders and Gero’s interpretation of Csikszentmihalyi’s model of creative situation
Source: Saunders ,R. & Gero, J.S. 2001,p.120

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they used this approach to study how creativity is generated and assessed within a social
context and how creativity emerges from the interaction between design agents that are
individually creative but whose creativity is not only assessed by themselves individually.
The creativity of an individual is assessed by that individual and additionally by the other
agents at the time each individual is operating .

2.3.2 Model of creativity

in order to articulate processes that support creativity in design computation ( formalization )


as described later in this chapter , design schemas – knowledge structures –need to be
initiated , and when cued will provide a framework with expectations of what is to come, it
comprehends and explains some of the processes involved .

2.3.2.1 Design framework

Creative design deals with the formulation of new structures, that is, new vocabulary
elements or new configurations of existing vocabulary elements in response to either existing
or new functional requirements (Rosenman & Gero 1993,p.116).
A vocabulary may exists at one level the spaces and at another level, the building elements
that serve to define or are included in the space.
Thus, it is convenient to use the conceptual schema design prototypes (Gero 1990,pp.26-36)
which articulates a function-behavior-structure + knowledge framework to provide a
framework for creative design.
It represents the state space of design in 3 subspaces or abstractions:
- The structure space, S (often called the decision space)
- The behavior space, B (often called the performance space)
- The function space, F (which defines the artifact’s teleology)
Once an object exists, it has a set of behavioral attributes and as result, can carry out certain
functions.
Figure (9) shows these three subspaces which constitute the state space of design.

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CEARIVE APPROACH TO FORMULATE DESIGN CHAPTER2

Figure (9) The three subspaces of function (F) , behavior ( B) and structure ( S) which constitute
the state space of design , plus the locus of the transformations between them
Source: Gero, J.S.1996,p.438

there are some works concerned with the transformations that map structure to behavior and
vice versa (De Kleer and Brown,1984; Kuipers,1984), and others that map function to
behavior and vice versa , but there are no transformations which map function to structure .
The No Function in the structure principle (De Kleer and Brown, 1984; Gero, 1990) assumes
that the teleology of an artifact is not found in its structure but in the contextual interpretation
of its behavior. So the behavioral attributes are the key to matching structure to function and
vice versa. (Gero 1996,p.437).

2.3.2.2 Simple model of creative design

One view of creativity is that it is involved with the production of an unexpected result
through the confluence of two schemas. The first schema provides a set of routine
expectations; the second schema is needed to understand the unexpected result. The
unexpected result can be produced in a number of different ways (Gero 1996,p.438).
A simple model of creative design is presented in figure (10); this model inheres to no
particular process but provides a framework for processes capable of producing unexpected
design and finding schemas which support them.

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Figure (10 ) A simple model of creative design


Source: Suls, 1972 (Gero, J.S.1996,p.439)

2.4 DESIGN FORMULATION

"Design is a human activity that eludes formal description. We wish to use computers to
assist in the design process. Computers operate only with formal, repeatable, and rigorously
defined processes. If we required a computer system to simulate some kind of design behavior
then we must formulate models of design process"
Coyne 1990,

In his book "The science of the artificial", Simon (1969)(Coyne 1990,p.2) argued that such a
thing as the “Science of design" can possible exist, and that some day it will be possible to
talk about design in terms of well established theories and practices.
Two reasons for the formulation of design were mentioned by Stiny and Gips (1978,p.5) in
their book Algorithmic Aesthetics: First “It provides a common framework in which a number
of central issues in aesthetics . . . can be investigated uniformly and can be related. Second,

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just the attempt to represent aesthetics ideas or specific approaches to understanding and
evaluating. in terms of algorithms is salutary”
More recently, information processing models founded on artificial intelligence concepts
have provided an impetus for renewed research that gives a better understanding of design.

2.4.1 Design and science

Science has been developed as a means of attempting to explain and understand the world
around us it commences with the description of the world and some behaviors and attempts to
produce causal dependencies between them. On the other hand, the goal of the design is to
change the world through the creation of the artifact (Gero 2002,p.4).
Design and science therefore appear to be about different things. Simon 1969 makes the
distinction that science is concerned with natural things, how they are and how they work,
while design is concerned with how things ought to be. Natural science looks at the state of
things and attempts to propose hypotheses that explain their state. Design looks at the results
that are required and attempts to predict the states of things necessary to achieve those results.
Science attempts to formulate knowledge by deriving relationships between observed
phenomena. Design, on the other hand, begins with intentions and uses available knowledge
to arrive at an entity possessing attributes that meet the original intentions. The role of design
is to produce form- a description of form – by using knowledge to transform a formless
description into a definite, specific description (Coyne 1990,p.2).
Kuhn (1970) argues that science must pass through several phases before it constitutes a
formal discipline, and that the study of design is currently at a pre-science phase.

2.4.2 Approaches to formalize design

Coyne (1990,p.2) assumes that formulating design into mature science can be achieved
through two major approaches to increase understanding of design: Case studies and models.
In the case studies approach, some design phenomena such as the design of a particular
building, are observed and analyzed in an attempt to extract general principles. On the other
hand, models are limited abstractions of particular phenomena, less determined than theories,
whereas theories attempt to explain observed phenomena and predict behaviors that are
somehow connected; models are content with explanation and prediction within a subset of
connected phenomena.

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In the Thesis, an adoption of the design models concept to formalize design is taken. Each
design model varies according to its View (understanding) of the nature of the designing
process, yet three main views exist that postulate design is as a problem solving process, that
could be discussed in terms of logic , or it could be treated as a statement in some
complicated multidimensional language system (Coyne 1990,p.3).

In The Problem solving model design is mainly a search process through a state space
where the state spaces are the design solutions. It is like exploring a maze (Simon 1983)
(Coyne 1990,p.5)., figure (11) shows a maze where the intersections between the walkways
are solution states, and it is necessary to make the right decision in a rational way to reach the
goal (destination) in mind.

Figure (11) Problem Solving can be compared to exploring a maze


Based on: Coyne, R.D. et al. 1990,p.6

The Logic model supposes that design is essentially a reasoning process, and that it is
useful to consider it as a process of making logical deductions, about a set of requirements,
similarly to the way mathematical or geometrical theorem are proven. Another example that
explains it, the design of a building on a site for which planning regulations impose
constraints. The set back from the street , the minimum distance from side boundaries and
possibly some complex incremental setback requirement, all these regulations shapes an
envelope into which the building must be placed.

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Figure (12) an example in which considering a set of constraints leads to a description of a design
Based on: Brodbent 1981 (Coyne, R.D. et al. 1990,p.8)

The linguistic model argues that design shares a strong resemblance with natural language
where design elements (columns, beams, arches…etc are vocabularies and the compositional
rules of configuring those elements are similar to the rules (grammar) that describe how
words go together in language.

2.4.3 Creativity of the Grammar (linguistic) approach

Elton 1995(Saunders 2002,p.7), stated three main points that define the creativity of any
design model
1) If it can produce computational systems that produce novel and appropriate works, e.g.
scientific theories, musical compositions, architectural designs etc.
2) If it contributes to the cognitive sciences as it seeks to understand the mechanisms
involved in human creative thinking
3) If it provides abstract models of creativity that are not tied to a specific domain or process
for the study of creativity in its most general sense.
In accordance with the definition of creativity given before, the linguistic approach is seen as
the most creative process among the three design models to formalize design, it has the

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potential to both automate the design process and allow greater exploration of design
alternatives. It allows for a better understanding of human design thinking and Architectural
theories.
The grammar based approach itself may include both processes of search and logic in the
initial and final stages of design. It could initially use the reasoning (logic) approach in
defining the suitable shapes and forms that will serve as initial shapes in the grammar
formulation regarding the relationships between forms and functions, it also constrains the
selection of the specific rules ( the grammar) that will generate the design solutions . This
gives the designer the potential to evaluate a large number of alternative design solutions
using the search approach through this large and complex state space to select the most
appropriate solution that will lead to the required goals.
It is acceptable to consider the grammar based approach as a creative process to formalize
design . This process does not necessarily produce creative designs , but has the ability of
extending the design space by the design alternatives in order to achieve creativity , or
generally Non Routine design (Alber & Rudolph 2002,p.2).
On the other hand, a more complex argument exists on the nature of the artifact produced by
this process, concerning whether it could be termed creative or innovative.
Most of the research work and papers that concerns the creativity of the grammatical model
revolve around four main topics, upon which almost all arguments arise.

2.4.3.1 Innovative rather than creative

the first and prevailing opinion adopted by the creativity in AI researchers ,motivates the Idea
that in order to produce creative design, the need for producing something very different from
what has been achieved before is clear , and since a grammar implicitly defines all the
possibilities , then by itself a grammar can produce designs that are innovative rather than
creative, which are all part of the space of domain solutions even though not known to
designer initially (Rosenman & Gero 1993,p.114).
And given that a grammar is determined by a set of operators (rules), everything is defined by
the universe of possible solutions and no solutions can be creative. Even if the grammar was
extended, it is just like adding meta-operators( which operate on operators) so that the space
of domain solution while enlarged is still implicitly defined , and it is just like a search but in
a larger space ( Rosenman 2001,p.643).

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This opinion is also supported by some design theorists who think that ” Rules comes a little
later , and even less brilliant architects can base their work on it “and that “ the first
building where a new architectural style is exposed , is usually created intuitively , without
the help of any rules or theories , just by the skill of a brilliant architect” ( Routio 1999).
2.4.3.2 Design and Grammar process

The second Opinion agrees with the idea that grammar can not produce creative designs – by
itself – referring to a lack between the grammar process and the main design process.
Mitchell (1994) ( Kwon 2002,p.2 ) proposed the diagram of design process in figure (13)
.From the initial state to final state, designers should make as many alternatives as possible
and select the best alternative to proceed to the next design step. Supposing that the designer
used a grammatical application, the process is a sequence of designs beginning with an initial
shape .Each design is created from the previous design by the application of rules , that define
and constrain the design spaces ,though it does not provide a method for exploring them (
Loomis 2001,p.3 ) .
Figure (14) shows the gap occurred between the main design process and the grammar
process.

Figure (13) Design Process Diagram


Source :Mitchell, W. 1994(Kwon,D.Y.2002,p.2)

Figure (14) The lack between the Grammar process and Design process
Based on: Kwon,D.Y.2002,p.2

Another explanation given by Krishnamurti and Stouffs (1993,p.58) that distinguishes


between Design and Designing. A design is simply the end of some process and may well be

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the beginning of another .Designing, on the other hand, is the means to an end ,and the choice
of using shape grammars formalism is personal and has its aim to aid designing .
The effective designing process may combine the blind generation of alternatives with highly
effective selection , or employs such foolproof generation techniques so that there is no need
for further testing to weed out mistakes , or divide the labor between generator and tester in
some appropriate way (Mitchell 1991,p.17) . And since shape grammar formalism provides
an effective way to encode knowledge, then the need is for another testing tool to complete
the generate-ad test process of design. Supporting tools from the field of artificial
intelligence were suggested, such as Genetic Algorithm, an advanced search mechanism ideal
for exploring large and complex problem spaces. Recent cases like developing a housing
layout for the fishermen’s habitat (Kitchley & Srivathsan 2005) converged shape grammars
and genetic algorithm for this purpose.

2.4.3.3 Creativity of reasoning

The third opinion is supported by nearly all the grammatical design researchers, specially
shape grammar teachers and scholars .They believe that creativity in grammar based design
lies in the creation of the rules (Colakoglu 2002,p.15.1)
In theory, shapes and rules can be anything at all and are limitless in number . In practice , the
constraints of a design problem ( site , economic or functional requirements , for example)
and the constraints the designer brings to the problem ( style or design philosophy , for
example) motivate the selection of particular shapes and rules( Knight 1999b ). The designer
therefore controls form generation by defining the criteria for new designs that fit a given
context.

2.4.3.4 Knowledge lean methodology

The last opinion contradicts the third in that it calls for disengagement from restricted rules,
based on Mitchell’s view (1993) (Chase 1997,pp.1-2):” Any successful attempt to describe
the mechanics of some creative design activity will have the immediate effect of redefining
that activity as ‘noncreative’ .The more success we have, the more we can be accused of
dealing only with the noncreative aspect of design”. Some would even go far by using a
knowledge lean methodology that proclaims that the lesser the knowledge about the
relationships between the requirements and the form required to satisfy those requirements,

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the more the nature of the design problem tends towards creative design ( Rosenman
1996,p.643) .
Chase(1997,p.2) asked the same question: are we restraining creativity by placing restriction
on a grammar or a representation and obtaining an understanding of its formal properties?
He extracted that descriptions and restrictions are only inhibitors of creativity if they remove
desirable design possibilities, and that creative design using a grammar does not have to be
limited to a grammatical derivation; it also occurs in the development of a grammar.

2.5 CONCLUSIONS

The research presented in this chapter has provided three important insights that will shape
the work presented in the remainder of the thesis:
1) The outline for the creativity model will help understanding and evaluating the novelty and
usefulness of artifacts and processes.
2) A brief exploration into the design formulation history including its reasons and methods .
3) Evaluating the design models used to formalize design, so as to choose the most creative,
and thus providing a good introduction to the study of shape grammars theory and potentials.

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Chapter Three:
Shape Grammars Theory

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Shape Grammars Formalism
3.2.1 Linguistic
3.2.2 Geometric and algorithmic
3.3 Stages of Shape Grammars development
3.3.1 Shapes
3.3.2 Spatial Relations
3.3.3 Shape Rules
3.3.4 Design
3.4 Parametric Shape grammars
3.5 Color grammars
3.6 Shape grammars applications
3.7 Discussion
3.8 Conclusions

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

CHAPTER THREE:
SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

“Architects everywhere have recognized the need of … a tool which may be put
in the hands of creators of form, with the simple aim … of making the bad
difficult and the good easy “
Le Corbusier 1955, Foreword of 2nd edition

Grammatical design studies had their beginning in a seminar paper by Stiny and Gips in
1972, (Duarte 2001, p.61) in which they laid the foundation of a theory that was to become
the most important algorithmic approach to design.
The Shape grammar theory is concerned with the description of Vocabularies (shapes), the
relationship between vocabulary elements (Compositional relationships between shape
elements), and the rules for generating designs (adopted from the analysis of symmetry,
proportion, and other principles of deign discovered from human bodies and ancient
buildings).therefore, it was considered a popular way to encode knowledge about Design
principles, in the fields of architecture, production arts and mechanical design.
The most attractive feature of shape grammars theories is that it promises to store the design
experience of projects, not at the level of the actual design (design cases), but at the level of
the principles behind the details and the building parts, it concerns how the components in the
details and parts of buildings are actually assembled in three or two dimensional space in
relation to other components. In this way it is possible to store the stylistic design principles
and construction experience of particular architectural firms. (Seebohm & Wallace1997,
p.252)
Since shape grammars were invented, research was polarized into two camps, the theorists
and the developers, who each tended to handle this theory in one of the following ways
(Chase 1997, p.2):
• Those interested in the expressive, generative power of grammars use the pure shape
representations but make minimal attempts to deal with computational problems or
develop a computer implementation.

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

• Those interested in the computational prospects of the theory and wish to build
computer implementations, deal with the algebraic formulations of shape grammars in
the form of equations and algorithmic.

The following chapters will explore the shape grammar theory and its potentials theoretically
rather than algorithmically . With consideration to glance on its algorithmic formalism, the
thesis will discuss some of its computer implementations.

3.2 SHAPE GRAMMARS FORMALISMS

Emdanat & Vakalo (1997, p.123) extracted 7 benefits that were considered for the use of the
shape grammars formalism:
1- It connects architectural form and meaning (Stiny, 1985).
2- It facilitates the articulation of aesthetics judgments (Stiny & Gips,1972).
3- It facilitates the conduct of computations on shapes (Stiny ,1976)
4- It is a generative device that represents the search space of all solutions to a given
design problem (Gips & Stiny, 1978).
5- It makes translations from one design language to other possible (Knight, 1981).
6- It is a device that defines architectural language in the same sense that grammars for
natural language capture the structure of natural language.
7- It represents architecture style.

Shape grammar theory can be explained in terms of language formalism and algorithmic
equations

3.2.1 Linguistic

In linguistic terms, a formal grammar (or simply a grammar) is that part of the study of
language which deals with the form and structure of words (morphology), with their
customary arrangement in phrases and sentences (syntax), and now often with language
sounds and word meanings (semantics) (Chase 1996, p.3).

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Figure (15) Grammars and language

Phrase structure grammars provide the original idea for shape grammar (Badr 1997, p.6). A
grammar is essentially a deductive system of objects and rules of inference to generate
sentences of a language. A grammar therefore contains a set of rewriting rules. These
rewriting rules have the form A->B where both A and B are in the form of strings. The
execution of the rule is that whenever A occurs in a string as a sub-string then this sub-string
can be substituted by B and therefore the original string is changed.
For example, if a rule A->B, then a string of XAY can be replaced by a string XBY.

Some basic rules for constructing a sentence are shown below:

1- Sentence Noun Phrase + Verb Phrase S -> NP + VP


2- Noun Phrase Article + Noun NP -> Art + N
3- Verb Phrase Verb + Noun Phrase VP -> V + NP
4- Article a, the , my , yours Art -> a ,the ,etc
5- Noun Girl , boy , picture , house N -> Girl ,boy ,etc
6- Verb Buy, run , draw, make V -> Buy ,draw ,etc

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Figure (16) Structure of a sentence

As shown in Figure (16), a sentence of “The girl draws a picture.” Can be derived from
applying the above five re-writing rules. a sentence can be substituted into a Noun Phrase and
a Verb Phrase ( rule 1) . A noun Phrase can become an Article with a Noun (rule 2) . A verb
phrase can become a Verb and a Noun Phrase (rule 3). Sequences of substituting Article,
Noun and Verb into appropriate elements then form a complete sentence (rules 4-6).

Similar to grammar, a shape grammar, instead of dealing with one-dimensional word strings ,
it deals with two –dimensional or three-dimensional shapes. For example, the starting point
can be a concept of “House” and all the substituted elements can be architecture vocabularies
such as columns, beams and roofs or rooms and space. A rule is applied when a sub-shape
from the left hand side matches a rule, then that rule can be applied to evolve a building
design. For example, figure (17) illustrates some simple rules for generating a house with the
architectural elements.

Figure (17) A simple structure of a house

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Figure (17) rules of shape grammar are:

1- House Roof + Body


2- Roof Roof tiles + joists
3- Body Beams + Columns + Base

The bottom shaded part of “supported by” are the implicit assumption of functional concerns
that can be expressed as “on top of.”

3.2.2 Algorithmic

Shape grammars allow for computation directly with shapes made up of points, lines, planes,
or solids and symbolic items such labels and weights. In computational work in architecture
and spatial design, shapes are typically comprised of labeled lines.

A shape grammar consists of rules of the form A -> B, where A and B are shapes . A rulei s
applied to a shape C whenever there is a transformation t such that t( A) is part of C. the
result is a new shape ( C- t(A)) + t(B).

This computational mechanism can be generalized with the rule schemas of the form x -> y
Where x and y are variables used to describe shapes . A schema x-> y is applied to a shape C
whenever there is an assignment g of values to these descriptive variable such that
g(x) ->g(y) applied to C (Colakoglu 2001,pp.12-13)

The Shape grammar algorithmic formalism can be summarized in the equation


Cn+1= [ Cn – t(g(A))] + t(g(B))
In which Cn is the shape in the design at step n, and n > 0 (Duarte 2001, p.62)

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

3.3 STAGES OF SHAPE GRAMMARS DEVELOPMENT

Stiny (1980) (Chase & Koh 2000, p.169) has described five stages in a constructive approach
to grammar definition
1. A vocabulary of shapes is specified.
2. Spatial relations between elements in the vocabulary are defined.
3. Shape rules are specified based on the defined spatial relations.
4. An initial shape from the vocabulary is defined.
5. Shape grammars are specified based on shape rules and initial shape.

3.3.1 Vocabulary of Shapes

Shape is any finite arrangement of points, line segments or bounded surfaces and solids
defined in a Cartesian coordinate system, Line segments are bounded by points, surfaces by
lines and solids by surfaces.
A vocabulary of shapes determines the pieces from which designs may be made. (Knight
1991, p.35)
Shapes in shape grammar could be:
2D shapes

Figure (18) 2D shapes examples

3D shapes

Figure (19) 3D shapes examples

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

3.3.2 Spatial relations

Spatial relations constrain the ways that a shape in a vocabulary can be combined with one
another. They are simply compositional ideas and are the key to shape grammars. They also
provide contexts to adding and subtracting shapes to create designs (Knight 1999b).

Figure (20) Examples of spatial relations


Based on: Knight, T.W. 2001

3.3.3 Shape rules

Shape rules are transformations of one shape to another that allow parts of the shapes to be
defined and changed recursively to conform to given spatial relationships (Cha and Gero
2001, p.5). Each rule specifies a condition, and associates with that condition an action which
may be taken in response.
To apply knowledge that is expressed in this form, finding a match between the condition
part of a rule is required. Then the instructions in the action part of the rule are followed.
(Badr1997, p.15)

Or Or Or

Figure (21) 2D shape rule and its possibilities


Based on: Knight, T.W. 2001

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

A shape rule has two parts separated by an arrow:


A left hand side (LHS) shape or shapes, which contain a condition
A right hand side (RHS) shape or shapes, which contain the associated action.
A rule states that the shapes on the left side are transformed or replaced by the shapes on the
right side. Given an initial shape , one transforms it by using the rules of the grammar to
produce a new shape or shapes. Transformations could include subtracting parts of the shape
on the left side , adding a new shape to it , dividing it and so on.(Loomis 1999,p.4)

Figure (22) Examples of 3D shape rule


Based on: Knight, T.W. 2001

The rules of a shape grammar do not have a predefined structure .they can be modified at
every stage of the design process (Colakoglu 2001, p.12)
Labeled rules
Labels are symbols that determine how to apply a rule .they could be numbers, letters or any
kind of signs. Labeling the rule defined from the spatial relation is carried out according to
the symmetry properties of the shapes in the rule.
the transformations that determine the symmetry of the shape on the left-side of the rule can
be used to identify the different ways ( the different transformations under which ) the rule
can be applied . The application of a rule can then be restricted to each one of these different
ways by adding labels to the shapes in the rule. Each different labelling of a rule, according to
the symmetries of the shapes in it, determines a different basic grammar. Each different basic
grammar generates designs with distinct spatial properties ( Knight1991,p.36).

Figure (23) Labeled rule

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

3.3.4 Design

3.3.4.1 Derivations
Derivations are a sequence of designs where each design is generated of the previous design
by applying a rule
Design1 -> Design2 -> Design3 -> Design4 -> . . .

(a)

(b)

Figure (24) (a) Four labeled shape rules (b) Derivations of designs
Based on: Loomis, B. 2001, p.6

The size of the design space generated by application of a finite number of steps can be
defined by a simple combinational equation:
D = Ln
Where D represents the number of possible designs that can be generated after N steps , and
L is the number of label positions which could apply to each step. The simple four-steps
designs shown in figure 24 are two of possible 256 designs in figure 24 , the illustrated
derivations are two of possible 256 designs.

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

(a)

(b)

Figure (25) (a) different labeling of the rule A->A+B (b) Derivations of designs
Based on: Knight, T.W. 2001

The example in figure 25 shows a 3D shape labeled rule and four of its (262144 ) possible
solutions and derivation . this variation causes an exponential explosion in the design
space,depending on how many times a rule is applied (Loomis 1999, p.7).

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Interpreting shapes in design generation and derivation


Emergence of shapes can be problematic for shape grammar generation and derivation
because a figure can be interpreted in many different ways. For example , a cross shape can
be ambiguous to read with its sub-shapes as shown in figure 26.

(a) (b) (c) (d)


Figure (26) Several ways of interpreting a geometric shape

Figure 26a is the shape for pattern recognition which can be read as two overlaped
rectangles , one vertical, one horizontal. Figure 26b interprets the cross figure as long and
short horizontal and vertical lines . Figure 26c depicts the figure as sixteen equal length lines
either horizontal or vertical . Figure 26d represents the cross figure as five same size small
rectangles . Therefore each different representatation will result in the application of different
graphic rules , and will generate different grammars.
Figure 27 illustrates two rules applied in two different ways because of the emergence of
generated shapes. The two generated designs are identical in the first three steps .Then
diverge and follow two different paths to produce two different design . Many other designs
are possible with this grammar , and from the second step on ,the rules can apply to either
emergent L shapes or emergent squares.

Figure (27) an example on the shape grammar that varies with the emergence of shapes
Source: Knight, T.W 1999b

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

3.3.4.2 Transformations
Transformation in shape grammar means changing the form of the prototype without
changing its function. It refers to changes in the observable form of the object. It happens in
three ways:
1- By changing the configuration of the form through Euclidean operations in figure 28
(Scale, Rotation, Translation, and reflection).
2- By changing the values assigned to the variables that define the components objects of the
form (see Section 3.4 parametric shape grammars).
3- By replacing the vocabulary elements of the form with new ones (Colakoglu 2001, p.12)

Figure (28) Euclidean Transformations of shapes


Source: Knight, T.W. 2001
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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

3.4 PARAMETRIC SHAPE GRAMMARS

Stiny (1985) (Kwon 2003, p.10) introduced two types of shape grammars: Standard (non-
parametric, basic) shape grammars and Parametric shape grammar.
Both have a set of rules that are applied repeatedly to generate designs, figure (29).

(a)
(c)

(b)

Figure (29) (a) Rules for a Standard Shape Grammar (b) A derivation of the rules (c) A result
generated by applying the rules repeatedly.
Source: Stiny G, 1985

A parametric shape grammar, like standard shape grammar, has a set of rules that specify
how shapes replace sub-shapes of a composition .However; it uses parameters for shapes
manipulation (Kwon 2003, p.10).
The parametric shape grammars proposed by Stiny introduced an example - a parameterized
quadrilateral “q” with vertices of the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) and (x4, y4) and a labeled
parameterized point (x5, y5). Values assigned to the variables in the schema satisfy those
conditions.
This process creates shapes with more variation than the standard shape grammar
Figure 30 (c) shows the result of a parametric version of the shape grammar shown in Figure
29 (c).

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

(a)
(c)

(b)

Figure (30) (a) Rules for a Parametric Shape Grammar (b) A derivation of the rules (c) A result
generated by applying the rules repeatedly.
Source: Stiny G, 1985

3.5 COLOR GRAMMARS

Color grammars were invented by Terry Knight in 1989 as an extension of Basic shape
grammars. They are developed in a similar way to shape grammars. First, a vocabulary of
colored, 3-dimensional shapes is chosen then spatial relations between colored shapes are
defined (Badr 1997, p.37) .In a color grammar, rules also have also a color component .
Colors in rules may stand for colors in generated designs. More often they are used as indices
for other attributes, for example, materials, architectural elements such as doors and
windows, or even changes to geometries of shapes (Knight 1999a, p.1).
Color grammars can be developed in two ways: First, starting from scratch, given a
vocabulary of colored shapes and spatial relations between them, then generating designs
from these rules. Second, starting with a basic (shape) grammar, in this case, basic grammars
are developed first to explore alternative forms, color is then added to selected grammars to
explore ways of articulating and elaborating these forms .Color is then used to explore ways
of articulating and elaborating these forms.
Knight example, (1999b) illustrates the four steps of development of basic color grammar,
Figure 31

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

The first step is the creation of a basic grammar, by creating a vocabulary composed of two
pillars of different length, establishing a spatial relation, and then the creation of a set of
rules.
In the second step, three colors (yellow, red and blue) were used in order to reduce the
symmetry of the pillars from 16 to 1, each vocabulary piece has 16 possible repositionings
where the geometric relationship between the pillars remains the same while color
relationships change .
Third step is the creation of a matrix of grammars, the number of different spatial forms
obtained was 16x16=256 and each spatial form could receive 256 different colorings, which
produced a matrix of 256x256=65,536 possible color grammars.
And finally, picking a grammar that could fit the architectural program.

Figure (31) An example on Basic color grammar developments.


Source: Celani G, 2001

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SHAPE GRAMMARS THEORY CHAPTER3

Grammatical studies have advanced over the years and included complexities of grammars
beyond standard and parametric shape grammar and color grammar .Description grammars
compute descriptions of design. Structure grammars compute designs as structures and sets of
shapes. Attributed grammars compute designs with attributes and constraints on attributes.
Parallel grammars or grammars defined in multiple algebras simultaneously compute
different shape, text, or symbolic representations of designs (for example, plans, sections, and
elevations together with verbal description of them). All of these extensions to the original
shape grammar formalism have been developed in order to compute certain kinds of designs
more easily or expressively than with a standard shape grammar. (Knight 1999a, p.9)

3.6 SHAPE GRAMMARS APPLICATIONS

In 1976, Stiny introduced two simple exercises that illustrated the unique characteristics of
shape grammars. The first exercise showed how shape grammars could be used in original
composition that is the creation of new design languages or styles. The second exercise
showed how shape grammars could be used to analyze known or existing design languages.
Both exercises helped motivate almost a quarter century of shape grammars work. (Knight,
1999b).And both applications are constructive in the form generation stage of the design
process (Colakoglu 2001, p.12).
Since then, shape grammar applications have been developed in various fields including
architectural design, landscape architecture, engineering, painting, furniture design,
ornamental design and others (Economu 2000, p.75).
The following chapters will discuss the potential of Shape grammars in the applications of
analysis and the synthesis of design.

3.7 CONCLUSIONS

This chapter provided a summary and explored the theory of Shape grammars, its
developments and applications, thus providing a basis to understanding to the work contained
in the next two chapters of analysis and design as well as an introduction to a more detailed
study of shape grammars in architecture.
Stages of Shape grammars developments will serve as a formula that abbreviates the numbers
of steps between each application in the grammars presented subsequently.

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Chapter Four:
Analytical Shape Grammars

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analytical Grammars History
4.2.1 The Ice Ray Grammar
4.3 Analytical Grammars Strategies
4.3.1 Subdivision
4.3.2 Addition
4.3.3 Grid
4.3.4 Simple relations of shapes
4.4 Note on 3D analytical grammars
4.5 Discussion
4.6 Conclusions

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

CHAPTER FOUR:
ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

“Those rules which I have observed, and now observe, in buildings;… that one
may learn to lay aside the strange abuses , the barbarous inventions , the
superfluous expense , and (what is of greater consequence) avoid the various
and continual ruins that have been seen in many fabrics “
Palladio 1570, cited by Routio 1999

Some people say that the architect is an artist and, unlike engineers, he cannot base his
work on rules. It is conceivable that as humans, we are inclined to repeatedly rely on our
experience and our familiarity with certain known concepts and metaphors and apply them to
our way of doing things, this is known as Technique, and even an artist has to have his
technique. (Krishnamurti & Stouffs 1993, p.58, Routio 1999).
Typically in analytic applications, a set of designs is selected, abstracted versions of these
designs are extracted to bring forward some aspects of the composition that are of interest to
the designer of the shape grammar, spatial relations between parts are selected, shape rules
are defined in terms of these spatial relations, an initial shape is selected to start the
computation, and shape rules are applied successively to an evolving shape starting with the
initial shape. Design generated by the grammar typically include the original set of designs
that were chosen for analysis , and many other hypothetical designs that share the same
spatial and functional characteristics with those of the original set. (Economu 2000, p.75).
Analytical grammars draw much of their significance first from their capacity to generate
descriptions that compromise well known designs and secondly from its educational
potential. There is no better way to learn about styles or languages of design ( at least
compositionally ) than by either studying shape grammars already written for languages or by
writing grammars oneself (Knight 1999a,p.4).

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

4.2 ANALYTICAL GRAMMARS HISTORY

The first application with analytical shape grammars was given in 1977 by Stiny in his paper
“Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs”. This grammar set the standards
for the shape grammars that followed (Knight 1999a, p.2). It was the first parametric shape
grammars that described and generated instances of a language , the Chinese lattice design
style (figure 32) that was constructed between 1000 BC and 1900 AD and catalogued in 1937
by Daniel Sheets Dye .The grammar captures the compositional principles of lattice design
into a set of drawings.

Figure (32) Ice lattice designs


Source: Stiny, G. 1977, p.92

In this grammar, Stiny identified five parts for any parametric shape grammar (S, L, R, I and
T)
(1) S is a finite set of shapes
(2) L is a finite set of unordered sets of labeled points.
(3) R is a finite set of shape rules of the form A->B , where A and B are labeled
parameterized shapes : A=<u, i>, and B=<v, j>Any assignment g to the parameters in
the parameterized shapes u and v , and the unordered sets of labeled parameterized
points i and j , results in shapes g(u) and g(v) , that are in S* , and unordered sets of
labeled points g(i) and g(j) , that are in L+ and L* respectively

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

(4) I is a labeled shape such that I = (w, k) , where w is a shape in S*, and k is an
unordered set of labeled points in L+. the Labeled shape I is called the initial shape
(5) T is a set of transformations
He also identified five simple rules for the Ice ray grammar (Figure 33). Each rule subdivides
a shape by inserting a straight line.
The first shape rule states that any triangle with area greater than some given constant may be
augmented once by placing a line between any two of its edges to form triangle and a
quadrilateral with approximately equal areas. The second and third shape rules state that any
convex quadrilateral with area greater than some given constant can be augmented once by
(a) placing a line between any two of its adjacent edges to form a triangle and a convex
pentagon with approximately equal areas or (b) placing a line between any two of its
nonadjacent edges to form two additional convex quadrilaterals with approximately equal
areas The fourth shape rule states that any convex pentagon with area greater than some
given constant can be augmented once by placing a line between any two or its nonadjacent
edges to form a convex quadrilateral and another convex pentagon with approximately equal
areas.

Figure (33) the five rules for the grammar


Source: Stiny, G. 1977, p.94

The generation process continues only when the area of the shape is greater then some
specified constant C, and the angle of the parameterized shape should not be greater than 120
degree.
Those two conditions were derived later to control the continuity of the generation process
and the variations of shapes in lattice design.

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure 34 shows a derivation to generate a pattern starting from a rectangle shape. The
rectangle is divided into two trapezoids using the third rule, and then the lower trapezoid is
furthermore divided into two trapezoids using the third rule .Finally the upper pentagon is
split using the fourth rule into a triangle and a pentagon. These subdivisions are applied
recursively and generate a pattern in the Chinese lattice design. (Kwon 2003, p.13)

Figure (34) A generation of the ice ray design shown in figure(32)b by means of shape
grammars rules shown in figure(33)
Source: Stiny, G. 1977, p.95

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

4.3 ANALYTICAL GRAMMARS STRATEGIES

Analytical grammars embody general design strategies that can be classified into:
1-The Grid strategy
2- Subdivision strategy
3- Composition strategy
4- Simple relations of shapes
Although strategies simulate design processes, they may not correspond to historical fact that
is it may have nothing to do with the way designs were originally conceived or the process by
which they were originally created (Knight 1999b, Economu 2000, p.76)

4.3.1 Grid
This strategy begins with a grid formed by rectangles; the generated grid carries out the
designer or the style characteristics in its rectangles organization, proportion or dimensions.
Spaces are then delineated within this grid to form the plan, and finally finer details are added
to the walls and within these spaces

Figure (35) The grid strategy


Application.
The given application was the second analytical application and the first architectural
application of shape grammars, the Palladian grammar by Stiny and Mitchell (1978, pp.5-18)
Stiny and Mitchell defined a series of rules for villas designed by the sixteenth-century
architect, Andrea Palladio based on the analysis of the villas plans in his book I Quattro
Libri dell’Architecttura (The four Books of Architecture).
Stiny ad Mitchell defined eight stages of rules to generate the uniaxial villas plans (plans that
was laid out with respect to a single axis) .The stages are applied in the following sequence:
(1) grid definition
(2) exterior –wall definition
(3) room layout
(4) interior – wall realignment

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

(5) principal entrances – porticos and exterior-wall inflections


(6) exterior ornamentation – columns
(7) windows and doors
(8) terminations
The application has 72 production rules that generate all the villa plans that Palladio designed
as well as new ones in the Palladian style. (Kwon 2003, pp.14-15)
Figure 36 shows how the 72 rules of this grammar are applied to each intermediate drawing
and illustrates how Palladio’s villa Malcontenta plan is developed. The grammar starts from
defining a single point, which shows a location of the plan on the site. A grid with rectangles
is used as an initial layout and controls all subsequent stages of plan generation. The grid is
used for generating external walls and rectangular spaces to form rooms in the plan. The
principal entrances and columns are then added with windows and doors inserted in the walls
to complete the plan.

Figure (36) A derivation of villa Malcontenta using Palladian grammar


Source: Stiny, G. & Mitchell, W. 1978, pp.7-16

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure 37 illustrates some villa plans depicted with the rules.

A B A B

Figure (37) Plans generated by the Palladian shape grammar


a) Palladio’s designs b) New designs
Source: Stiny, G. & Mitchell, W. 1978, p.6

The Palladian grammar does not pretend to reconstruct any of the design strategies and
compositional tools historically attributed to Palladio (Economu 2000,p.75)

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

4.3.2 Subdivision
The second strategy is commonly used when designs in a language are distinguished with the
same exterior boundary or frame. The grammar then starts with the outer frame (boundary) as
the initial shape, then subdivision operations occur dividing the space into smaller spaces by
slicing through or parallel to the initial shape.
This process is also successively used when analyzing paintings or works of arts, as it is
limited into a fixed frame.

Figure (38) Subdivision Strategy

Applications
The first application is a Grammar for describing the structure of a painting style proposed by
Kirsch and Kirsch (1986, pp.163-176). Russell A. Kirsch is a pioneer of image processing,
pattern recognition and chemical structure searching, his wife, Joan L. Kirsch, is an art
historian. Together they wrote a grammar to analyze some late works of the celebrated artist,
Richard Diebenkorn. Between 1967 and 1983, Diebenkorn painted about 135 very large
abstract oil paintings; influenced by the luminosity, color, space, and architecture of the
Ocean Park area of Santa Monica, CA where he lives and works.

Figure (39) samples of Diebenkorn’s Ocean park paintings

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

They used the parametric shape grammars to develop the grammar for the structure of the
Diebenkorn paintings. They borrowed labeling devices from programming language called
the dispatchers U/S/R. the dispatcher is like property list in languages like LISP "In a rule
such as OPP –> Op/S the dispatcher S , is a property added when the rule is applied and
inherited in all subsequent rule applications unless specifically removed by a rule " ( Kirsch
& Kirsch 1986,p.169).
Then, by subdividing the initial shape they defined regions (R, W, N, Q and F) and set rules
for the development of each of them in relation to the dispatchers.
The Coloring process occurs depending on the definition of each region, and when regions
are colored, lines that traverse the region are ghosted as they would be by overpainting. After
coloring is complete, some ghosted lines may be reemphasized by repainting with colors
distinct from those of the two or more regions bordering the line.
Figure 40 illustrates five the 42 production rules of the grammar to subdivide regions of a
painting, similar to Stiny’s ice-ray grammar. Figure 41 illustrates a linear structure of the
composition for Diebenkorn’s Ocean Park No. 111 by applying a sequence of some rules.
Starting from applying Rule 7 to a rectangle, rules are selected and applied recursively to
produce the final drawing. (Kwon 2003, p.18)

Figure (40) 5 rules from the 42 rules for the ocean park grammars
Source: Kirsch, R. & Kirsch, L .1986, p.175

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure (41) Grammatical derivation of linear composition for Diebenkorn’s Ocean Park number
111.
Source: Kirsch, R. & Kirsch, L .1986, p.171

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Another application from the field of architecture, the shape grammars for the central Asian
caravanserai, developed by Sumbul and Chase (2004, pp.43-58).
The caravanserais were rest houses for caravans, built on trade routes between central Asian
cities in the middle ages.

Figure (42) Examples of caravanserais, desert palaces and forts


Source: Sumbul, A. & Chase, S. 2004,p.45

The grammar for the Caravanserai is developed in five stages. Stage A contains rules for the
development of a generic design for the built zone of the building starting with the initial
shape as a labeled polygon P(0) which dimensions are based on multiples, n' and n'' of a
modular length , m. then another polygon is created inside to generate a single or two built
zone designs, then the design development varies according to each type .
Stage B allows the definition o the built zone with 12 rules that govern the generation and
design development of cells in single and double built zone designs
In Stage C. a generic design for the fortification wall is created, while Stage D contains rules
for the stylization of the fortification wall. Stage E hosts termination rules.

Figure (43) Stage A rules for building zone development


Source: Sumbul, A. & Chase, S. 2004,p.52

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure (44) Rules from Stages B, C and D


Source: Sumbul, A. & Chase, S. 2004,pp.53-55

Figure (45) Derivation of a caravanserai


Source: Sumbul, A. & Chase, S. 2004,p.56

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

4.3.3 Addition
Unlike subdivision, additive process is useful when designs in a language have irregular or
diverse kinds of boundaries. In this approach, a search begins for the common core for all
designs in a language; this core may be either an element or a space. And when identified, the
organization of spaces around it is then analyzed to extract rules for the grammar.

Figure (46) Addition Strategy

Applications
The most famous additive application of shape grammars is the Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairie
house style for Koning and Eizenberg in1985.Which gained its reputation first from the fame
of its architect and secondly for it was the first parametric 3D application of analytical
grammar in architecture.

Figure (47) Frank Lloyd Wright’s Prairie house style


Source: Koning, H. & Eizenberg, J. 1985, pp.300-301

Koning and Eizenberg (1985, pp.295-323) used 99 production rules, including 18 rules to
arrange major cubic masses and 81 rules to add details to the masses. Figure 48a shows one

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

of the massing rules. It extends one mass by attaching another mass to the right side of the
existing mass. Figure 48b illustrates one of the detailing rules. It adds a terrace object to an
existing building.

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure (48) (a) A massing rule (b) Detailing rules for the prairie house grammar (c) A derivation
of the rules
Source: Koning, H. & Eizenberg, J. 1985, p.303,311& 314-316

Figure 48c shows the steps of a derivation in the prairie house grammar. The house design
starts from the fireplace and is organized around it. Then, a living zone is located around the
fireplace creating a core unit. The prairie house plan is composed with butterfly-shaped
extensions of the core unit. The house plan’s basic composition is completed with named
function zones such as living and service areas, and porches and bedrooms. There are also
rules to add terraces, a basement, and a second story. The final rule completes the generation
of the prairie house by adding a roof and chimney. Figure 49 illustrates some variations
generated by the Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairie house using the prairie house grammar. (Kwon
2003,p.17)

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure (49) Various results of the prairie house grammar


Source: Koning, H. & Eizenberg, J. 1985, p.321

Figure (50) The Stiny house 1981


Source: Koning, H. & Eizenberg, J. 1985, p.322

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

The Taiwanese temple (Shang-Chia & Krishnamurti 1997, pp.297-311) grammar is another
application of additive grammar where the main design core is a space (the courtyard).
The grammar itself consists of 24 rules, 10 for the generation of the special temple layouts, 3
for the framing system, and 11 for porches and verandahs.

Figure (51) rules for the generation of the special temple


Source: Shang-Chia,C. & Krishnamurti, R..1997,pp.303-304

Figure (52) ِA- Shape rules for the framing system B- shape rules for dealing
with porches and verandahs
Source: Shang-Chia,C. & Krishnamurti, R..1997,pp.306-307

Figure (53) Some steps in the generation of a Taiwanese Temple


Source: Shang-Chia,C. & Krishnamurti, R..1997,p.309

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

4.3.4 Simple relations of shapes


Based on section 3.3 , a conclusion of the initial shape(s) is accomplished and spatial
relations between 2 or more labeled shapes were found , rules are then defined , applied and
repeated recursively to generate designs in a language.
This strategy is not accurate, but is commonly used for pedagogical reasons, in shape
grammars lectures in order to analyze the main compositional rules used in the language or
the style with no deep study of details or functions in plans.

Figure (54) Simple Relations of Shapes Strategy

Applications
The lectures of Terry Knight about shape grammars in MIT (2001) included 2 educational
applications that illustrated the simple theoretical application of shape grammars in the
church plans and the Alva Alto’s office building

Figure (55) the church plan grammar


Source: Knight, T.W. 2001

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ANALYTICAL SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure (56) Alvar Alto office building simple grammar


Source: Knight, T.W. 2001

4.4 A NOTE ON 3D ANALYTICAL GRAMMARS

Developing a 3D analytical shape grammar leans on two methodologies:

First: Identifying a strategy for the shape grammar if it is competent with the description or
the analysis of languages in three dimensions from the beginning, using any of the
former strategies. As seen in the Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairies houses grammar, the 3D
grammar is very comprehensive and complicated as it interacts with the style spatially. Yet,
no other 3D grammars were developed unfortunately and the given example is the most
detailed application in analysis.
Second: 3D transformations to 2 dimensional grammars by reconstructing the vocabulary
elements of the form, this methodology is based on preceding work on the language
or the style in 2D grammar. A similar application is given by Sass (2001,pp.1-42) for
the reconstruction of Palladio’s villas in three dimensions using computer modeling
and three dimensional printing , based on Stiny & Mitchell ‘s Palladian grammar.

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This process of reconstruction starts from a two dimensional reconstruction, to a three


dimensional representation and evaluation.
The reconstruction takes place in three stages:
1- Reconstructing the floor plan in nine steps :
Assignment of spaces, ceiling notation, wall thickness notation, portico, columns and
arches, stairs and stair pedestals, door notation, window notation and detail notations.
2- Reconstructing the elevation in nine steps:
Initial shapes, walls ad floors, cornices, portico steps, columns, Moldings, doors and
windows, roof and pediment and details
3- constructing the villas model in twelve steps :
Initial plans, walls, ceilings, cornice, portico, staircase, columns, moldings, doors,
windows, details and roof

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure (57) reconstruction of Palladio’s villas stages (a) The floor plan steps (b) the
elevations steps (c) the villas model steps
Source: Sass, L. 2001, p.10, 12, 14 & 18
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4.5 DISCUSSION

The analytical work that occurs when defining rules for a language or a style is very
sophisticated .Some says that it is seemingly like proving a theory or a mathematical
equation.
It is successful when it covers all sides and details of the language and has the potential to
generate old (existing) and new designs in the language. An example like the Palladian
grammar raised discussion with views alternating between acceptance and disagreement. On
showing it to one of the world’s leading Palladian scholars, a villa design produced
automatically by the grammar was criticized on cultural and behavioral ground ,as not being
Palladian ,or of his age and times. A further search of Palladio’s complete works uncovered a
villa with an identical plan which had not been in the original corpus used to generate the
shape grammars .the scholar did not respond to this new indicating evidence.

Despite the criticism that claimed that the rules of shape grammars do not correspond to
historical facts. Contemporary designers that had their work analyzed, like Diebenkorn,
accepted the grammatically generated works as being in their own style, yet unlike any
specific work he had until then produced. A grammar like Alvaro Siza Housing System by
Duarte (2001), was developed with the enthusiastic support of Alvaro Siza himself, and with
the anticipation that he will test and may ultimately use computer –implementations of the
grammar and developing new houses.
This may be why most shape grammars authors do not view historical truths or practicability
as goals for their grammars” A well-crafted grammar, believable or not, may be used to
classify designs and to predict unknown or hypothetical ones successfully. And it can serve as
the platform for theories of style that go far beyond compositional issues, even so far as to
explore historical issues” ( Knight1999a, p.4)

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4.6 CONCLUSIONS

In this chapter, the potentials of shape grammars in design analysis are discussed through the
analysis and definition of the analytical grammars strategies. Those strategies are mainly
general design strategies that can be learnt, used and even applied in the creation of designs
as well as in the analysis of forms.
The classification of strategies serves as a guide for the shape grammars users in case of
analyzing a style or a language. This guide is based on the selection of the most appropriate
strategies for each group of designs depending on the design properties (boundaries ,
modulation, or free organization of spaces).
This also minimizes the time needed to find the origin point to start for the grammar and
limiting the next steps within three search categories (finding the subdivision concept, or the
logic of spaces organization, or the conceptual proportions of rectangles in a grid).

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Chapter Five:
Synthetic Shape Grammars

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Synthetic Grammars History
5.2.1 The Kindergarten Grammar
5.3 Synthetic Grammars methods
5.3.1 Applicable Analytical grammars
5.3.2 Design from Scratch
5.3.3 Transformations of rules
5.4 Discussion
5.6 Conclusions

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CHAPTER FIVE:
SYNTHETIC SHAPE GRAMMARS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

"This language is extremely practical. ... You can use it to work with your
neighbors… to design a house for yourself, with your family; or to work with
other people to design an office or a workshop or a public building like a
school."
Alexander et al. 1977, p.x

The act of designing in synthetic (design) grammars is sometimes seen as an act of


"discovery". (Krishnamurti & Stouffs 1993, p.58), the potentials of shapes are relatively
explored through the manipulation of rules manually or by Synthetic grammar systems. Some
researchers have remarked that they have been surprised by the forms and arrangements that
they obtain by playing with spatial forms and relationships.
In architecture, synthetic grammars have been primarily used in design education, through the
teaching of the concepts of formal composition, and simple design exercises (Knight 2000.).
With few exceptions (Brown1993; Knight 1991; 1994a; 1998a) (Chase & Koh 2000, p.169),
the use of grammars has not been integrated into larger scale design projects.
In design applications, a set of spatial relations is selected, shape rules are defined in terms of
these spatial relations, an initial shape is selected, and shape rules are applied successively to
an evolving shape starting with the initial shape. Spatial relations between shapes may be
taken from a predefined set of spatial relations that are of interest to the designer of the
grammar, or can be constructed from scratch .this may include all possible relations that can
be constructed between any two shapes and shapes may be any finite arrangements of points,
lines, planes and solids, including the empty shape.
Synthetic grammars are distinguished by the fact that there are no definitive designs for any
given set of rules. The final designs or plans are often presented as samples of a wider set of
designs, or plans all of which could be equally potential candidates for the final design or
composition.

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5.2 SYNTHETIC GRAMMARS HISTORY

5.2.1 The Generation of Paintings

The first published application of shape grammar was proposed by Stiny and Gips in 1972 in
their paper "Shape Grammars and the generative specification of Painting and sculpture ".
This paper illustrates shape grammars for original languages of paintings.

Figure (58) Stiny and Gips Grammars for painting (a) Shape rules (b) Design generation (c) 3main
designs picked from the design derivations
Source: Stiny,G. & Gips,J. 1972,pp128-132
The first decade of synthetic grammars applications focused on the generation of paintings,
and was mainly concerned with aesthetic systems for interpreting and evaluating works of art
(Stiny & Gips 1972, 1978; Stiny 1975; Gips1975) (Knight 1999, p.2), this area was quickly
dropped and not taken up again for a number of years .

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5.2.2 The Kindergarten Grammars


The first synthetic grammar for the creation of original grammars from scratch was proposed
in 1980 by Stiny in his paper " Kindergarten grammars: Designing with Froebel's building
gifts". Using Froebel's blocks2 or other 3- dimensional forms, Stiny introduced an educational
tool (a program) that later was taken up and developed by Knight in 1991.

Figure (59) Froebel building gifts. All solids are derived by various dissections of the cube
Source: Economu ,A. 1999,p.149
In this program , Shape grammars was introduced in the studio method of design and into
architectural practice by exploring possibilities of spatial relations in 3 dimensional space ,
laying the ground works for 3 dimensional architectural grammars to come (Knight ,1999).
This program is simple yet intuitive and rich enough to serve as the starting point for
complex, sophisticated designs.

Figure (60) Stiny Kindergarten grammar


Source: Stiny.G, 1980b (Knight,1999b)
2
The Kindergarten method, or Children's garden method, was invented by Frederick Froebel, a German
educator at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is based upon a series of geometric gifts and a system of
categories. The Froebel's gifts blocks allow the child to play with one of the gifts at a time to discover its
properties and possibilities for design.

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5.3 SYNTHETIC GRAMMARS METHODS

5.3.1 Applicable Grammars

This type of synthetic grammars is a new kind of analysis application that departs from pure
analysis applications and also extends into original design. This synthetic grammars were
based on a past or contemporary architectural style. Unlike earlier analytical grammars, these
grammars were developed with very specific practical or pedagogical goals in mind. They are
not just meant to be read, but are meant to be used. Each grammar is not only able to
understand and generate designs in the original style; they are able to generate new designs in
an extension of the style. (Knight 1999a, p.2)
Each example of these grammars includes an analytic part and synthetic part and each
incorporates new grammatical or other devices such as description grammars, parallel
grammars, color grammars, or multiple algebras .This is mainly used to generate new forms
which carry stylistic characteristics of an existing design language but are inserted into a
context which responds to a contemporary life style and its own constraints
This kind was introduced through three examples (the Hayat houses grammar in Bosnia
(Colakoglu 2001), the Alvaro Siza's patio houses in Malgueira (Duarte 2001), and the
grammar for teaching the architectural style of the Yingzao Fashi (Andrew Li 2001)
Only one of these grammars will be presented in detail to show the analytical and synthetic
process that bring a design style into contemporary contexts.

5.3.1.1 The Hayat Houses Grammars in Bosnia

The grammar for the Hayat houses was developed by Birgul Colakoglu in her PHD
dissertation (2001) and later in her paper "An Informal Shape Grammars for Interpolations of
Traditional Bosnian Hayat Houses in a Contemporary Context " (2002,pp.15.1-15.9).
The study was based on a corpus of eight Hayat houses designed in the classic Ottoman style
in the 18th and 19th century, and was found in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina .
The Hayat houses consist of two main elements : The rooms and the Hayat , which is a large
gallery open to the garden that occupies the most important place in the composition of the
plan and represents the core and the house grew around this core in an additive way (see
section 4.3.2).

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(a) (b)

Figure (61) the Hayat Houses (a) Detached (b) Semi-detached


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2002,p.2
By studying the main characteristics of the Hayat house, Colakoglu made a number of
classifications :
1- According to the configurations of the elements in the ground floor , she identified three
families of houses :
- Type A1- a house with Hayat at both levels
- Type A2- a house with no Hayat at ground floor level
- Type A3- a house without ground floor
2- According to their urban characteristics , she identified two types
- Detached layout house with one court yard
- Semi detached house which integrates two ( private and public) houses and two
courtyards

(a) (b)
Figure (62) (a) Svirzina, semi-detached house plan layout (b) Saburina detached house plan
layout
Source: Colakoglu, B. 2002, p.3
She specifies four steps to generating new designs based on the Hayat houses types from
generalizations to specifications in rules: two for the analytical work and two for the
synthetic modifications and generations
In the first step , the main vocabulary of the grammar were extracted in five shapes :
- U shape , which represents the overall room space ,and labeled in RS
- Square , which represents the Hayat , and labeled in GH ( ground floor Hayat) and FH
( first floor Hayat).
- Rectangle , which represents the ground floor room space , and labeled in GR

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- Line , which represents the walls and was labeled in W


- Rectangle with diagonal line , which represents the stairs and labeled in S

Figure (63) Vocabulary of Shapes


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.67

spatial relations are then defined like the next example :


1) relations that control the Room/Hayat composition.
2) relations that control the placement of stairs in ground floor.
3) relations that describes the connections between stairs and the first floor Hayat.

Figure (64) Spatial Relations


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.67

The configurations of each type of relations with the same vocabulary elements were then
organized into family groups. For example there are two configurations for the relation
(1)H/RS , three configurations for the relation (2)S/GR and five for the relation (3)S/FH .

Figure (65) Family of specific vocabulary elements


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.68
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SYNTHETIC SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

And finally , the initial shape and the starting rules for each type of the Hayat houses are
defined, shape rules for each family group of spatial relations are set and the generation of
designs for each type begins .

Figure (66) Starting rules


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.68

In step two, the designs generated by applying the shape rules are named Sub-Types of the
main types of the Hayat houses (A1-,A2-,and A3-) , and by the end of the second step , the
analytical work is done .
In the third step , the synthetic grammars begin with the modifications of each sub-types in
order to transform them for contemporary uses in six stages .
Each stage introduces new groups of shape rules to modify them into contemporary uses and
to create variations of each sub-type.
Modifications may include the transformations of the Hayat into a central circulation hall and
carry on its concepts with extended Hayat on the first floor.

Figure (67) Some modifications of the sub-types


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.74
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Step Four ,another four stages of variations occur in four new groups of shape rules .these
groups create variations so they may change the layout of rooms inside the house by
partitioning them , and modify the form of the house through the constraints of the existing
layout and configuration of the ground floor. This may include the adjustment of uneven
cantilevers in according to the ground floor , and the modifications of certain forms that are
architecturally unacceptable .

Figure (68) Partitioning Rules


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.85
More rules were added to control the connection of houses in site and the row houses layout
according to the urban fitting of houses ( detached /semi-detached)
Finally , the typologically related new Hayat houses designs are generated , respecting the
existing stylistic characteristics and the contemporary architectural context .

Figure (69) Some generated new designs of Type A1


Source: Colakoglu, B. 2001, p.97
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5.3.2 Design from Scratch

Stages of developing designs from scratch with shape grammars are illustrated in 3.3 Stages
of Shape Grammars Development ,where the designer selects or invents vocabularies (initial
shapes) and spatial relations from infinite corpus of shapes and relations , and ways of
elaborating rules are limitless.
This technique has been successfully used in architectural education (Chase & Koh
2000,p.170).Students in schools such as UCLA and MIT use simple grammars to develop
forms which are further elaborated and used in architectural design projects as shown in
figures 70 ,71,72,73 and 74.
In their own projects, students either duplicate class exercises using their own vocabularies
and spatial relations, or invent their own elaborations on the basis of class exercises." In
beginning projects, students are encouraged to be experimental and to work abstractly - the
purpose and context of designs are not a consideration. Once students become more facile
with grammars, more advanced projects that respond to specific architectural programs are
undertaken" (Knight 1991,p.41)
As grammars typically deal with forms and spatial relations, the challenging task that must be
achieved is the translation of forms into spaces that satisfy the constraints and goals of the
design project and fit the site of the project.

Figure (70) Cultural History Museums by Jin-Ho Park


Source: Knight,T.W.2001

Figure (71) Courtyard houses by Jin-Ho Park


Source: Knight,T.W.2001 75
SYNTHETIC SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER4

Figure (72) Elementary School by Michael Brown


Source: Knight,T.W.2001

Figure (73) Single Family Houses by Michael Brown


Source: Knight,T.W.2001

Figure (74) Art and Sculpture Museums by Wei-Cheng Chang


Source: Knight,T.W.2001

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5.3.2.1 Fallen Towers Museum in San Gimignano Italy (Randy Brown)


The following example is a more advanced student project for an historical museum in the
Italian hill town of San Gimignano.

Figure (75) project for a museum in San Gimignano (Randy Brown).


Source: Knight, T.W.1999b

San Gimignano is best known for the many tall defensive towers that once stood throughout
the town. Only a few of which remain. The long horizontal corridors of the museum are
meant to evoke towers that have fallen down the hillside into a seemingly random heap. The
overall massing of the corridors, though, was created with one spatial relation. Figure 76a
shows this relation. The massing design of the museum was only one of numerous massing
designs explored by the student using basic grammars determined from this one spatial
relation. Some of these different massing studies are shown in figure 76b.

(a) (b)
Figure (76) (a) A spatial relation for the massing of the museum (b)some massing designs
generated with it
Source: Knight, T.W.1999b,1991,p.42

While the overall massing of the museum was created with one spatial relation, the details of
the museum - for example, the sculptural spire in front of the museum, the display panels,

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window awnings, and roofing structures - were created with another spatial relation. This
spatial relation - between a pillar and a curved rectangular plane - is shown in figure 77a.
Some of the many designs created with basic grammars determined from this relation are
shown in figure 77b. All of these forms were used in the final design of the museum.(Knight ,
1991)

(a) (b)
Figure ( 77) (a) A spatial relation for the details of the museum (b)some massing designs
generated with it
Source: Knight, T.W.1999b, 1991,p.43

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5.3.3 Transformations of rules

In the 1980s , Knight proposed a model for developing new design languages on the basis of
existing ones . In this model , languages are created by transforming the rules underlying
grammars for existing languages . In other words , a known style is first analyzed by inferring
a grammar into it , the rules of the grammar are transformed , and then the transformed rules
become the basis for the new grammar and style ( Knight 1999a,p.2)
As these grammars are based on existing designs, this approach may have fewer problems in
dealing with the goals and constraints of a design project. The designs generated may also be
more coherent as architectural spaces. (Chase & Koh 2000,p.170)
This model was inspired by the actual development of original designs in practice . this
involves the creation of new designs with shape grammars and some degree of analysis or
understanding of known designs as the impetus for new ones. for example, in order to
develop a grammar for himself , a designer analyzes his design or some part of it , extracts
rules , and then plays with these rules to generate new design possibilities. One or more
possibilities may then be selected for further development in the project.

This model was successfully adopted in the design and architectural educations in several
architecture schools like MIT , UCLA, Adelaide University, Harvard, Yale and others and
was used by several professors such as Terry Knight , Julie Eizenberg ,Woodbury and others
in the design studios .in the simple way, Students analyze the buildings of an architect ,
extract rules , then play with these rules to formulate their own rules for buildings that satisfy
a given program .

the following models were developed by Knight (1989b,pp.51-98; 1994b, p.218-243) in order
to characterize the historical evolution of known styles into succeeding ones , and also to
innovate new styles on the basis of given ones

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5.3.3.1 Transformations of De Stijl art: The Case of George Vantongerloo


Paintings

De Stijl art is an art movement that was founded in Amsterdam in 1917 by a small group of
Dutch artists. One of the principle objectives of paintings was the representation of abstract
and universal relationships between the two elements of painting-form ( or line) and color .
the most influential realization of this objective in painting was the system of horizontal and
vertical lines and colored rectangles areas employed by Piet Mondrian .

(a) (b) (c)

Figure ( 78) The De Stijl art (a) Piet Mondrian (b) Theo van Doesburg (c) George Vantongerloo

The main study by Knight (1989b,pp.51-98) was about the paintings of two artists , George
Vantongerloo and Fritz Glarner . In this section, transformations of George Vantongerloo
Paintings is presented in details.
Vantongerloo began his work using elements of De Stijl horizontal and vertical paradigm,
then gradually transformed this paradigm to produce his own very unique styles of paintings
Within the time period of 1919 to 1939 , Knight divided the artist's work chronologically into
several stages .where each stage represents a significant development or transformation in the
artist's style of painting.
The grammars for different stylistic stages are parametric , general and minimally detailed in
order to focus on, and clearly illustrate, the transformations from one stylistic stage ,or
grammar , to the next. The rules of each grammar are divided into rules that define
relationships between forms or lines a, and rules that define relationships between colors .

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Figure ( 79) Vantongerloo's paintings Stages I,II,III,V,VI and VII


Source: Knight, T.W.1994b, p.195

Stage I: Beginnings(1919-1920)
The paintings of this stage follow closely the De Stijl horizontal and Vertical style of
composition and resemble some of the works of Mondrian produced about the same time.
The grammar of Vantongerloo's stage I generates very general language of De Stijl style as it
generates all possible divisions of a rectangle into smaller, colored rectangles.
The initial shape of the grammar is a labeled rectangle .the spatial label X identifies
rectangles that do not contain smaller rectangles .The spatial label I identifies the four lines
that form the boundaries of a composition.
The form rules of the grammar consist of two rules ,rule 6 and 7 .Rule 6 subdivides a
rectangle into two smaller rectangles ,rule 7 combines two rectangles to form a larger
rectangle.

Stage II: Transition (1919-1920)


The second stage of Vantongerloo's work marks an important transition from the use of a
very general system of rectangular division to the use of more specific and personal one . this
stage was presented in one painting in the same period of Stage I.
The grammar for Stage I is transformed into a grammar of Stage II using the three operations:

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adding new division rules , deleting a rule from Stage I ( rule that delete the boundary lines of
a composition) and lightly changing some rules that concerns the painting properties ( Line
thickness , colors and labels)

Stage III: A theme (1929-1937)


Stage three is the longest stage in the period of Vantongerloo's paintings. It follows an
interval of nine years in which Vantongerloo focused on sculpting. After resuming painting in
1929 , the general system of rectangular divisions was abandoned in favor o a dynamic –
looking Pinwheel system which allows for parallel as well as perpendicular divisions of
rectangles. The visual effect of parallel divisions leads to stylistic innovations un subsequent
stages.
the transformations of Stage II grammar into Stage III essentially involves the deletion of
rectangular division rules and the insertion of new pinwheel division rule for secondary
parallel divisions. Changing rules then occurs by ,changing the line thickness , changing the
labels , the transformation of perpendicular into parallel divisions and finally by changing
color rules.

Stage IV: Experimentation (1936-1937)


Vantongerloo's Stage four is mainly a testing stage where he appears to be testing the limits
and possibilities of the compositional devices he has created so far . Compositions are
eclectic and structured around multiple pinwheels ,repeated parallel divisions, and more
general rectangular divisions. The grammar of this Stage is left undefined.

Stage V: A theme renewed (1937-1938)


The eclecticism of Stage four is followed by a return to a purer and simpler compositional
format in Stage five. A new coloring system is introduced and the colored curves are
completely new and are the first deviation from De Stijl rectilinear principles.
Stage V grammar is derived directly from the grammar of stage III by transforming color
rules only that should be applied recursively to place colored curves within a rectangle.

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Stage VI: Transition (1938)


This stage - like stage II- is represented with one painting where the curved lines introduced
in the previous stage as part of a new coloring system have here become integrated with a
considerably loosen pinwheel division system.
The stage V grammar is transformed into Stage VI grammar by changing the pinwheel rule
and deleting all other rules.

Stage VII: A theme undone (1938-1939)


In the final stage , the pinwheel has disappeared completely , releasing the colored lines and
curves introduced in stage V from their rectangular confines.
The grammar for stage VI is transformed into a grammar for stage VII by removing the one
remaining form rule for pinwheel divisions and by adding back color rules from stage V .

Figure ( 80) Shape grammars representing the seven stages in the development of Vantongerloo's
paintings
Source: Knight, T.W.1994b, p.172

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5.3.3.2 The Transformation of Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie houses into his
Usonian houses

Like the De Stijl art grammars , Knight (1994b, p.218-243) traced the transformations of
Frank Lloyd Wright Prairie houses into his Usonian houses grammars . based on the prairie
grammars , the Usonian houses spatial relations deviate starting from the first rules by
relocating the living room to the fireplace ( the core ) then the next transformations occurred
by changing rules on three levels each level contains three transformations:
1. Changing the relation between the living zone and the service zone in a core unit.
2. Changing the relation between a zone in a core unit and an extension( the obligatory
extensions) .
3. Changing the relation between a zone in a core unit and an extension perpendicularly.
No detailing rules were employed in order to concentrate on the conceptual transformation of
forms rules.

(a)

(c) (b)

Figure ( 81) (a) derivation of the Prairie Houses grammar (b) Usonian Houses created from the
grammar (c) the transformation of the Prairie spatial relations to Usonian Spatial
relation
Source: Knight, T.W.1994b, p.236

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DISCUSSION

There are some distinctions between analytical and synthetic grammars. For example,
analytic applications of grammars basically simulate designers that want to constantly create
one specific type of design while having no clue about how to create any other type of design.
While synthetic applications of grammars simulate designers that want to control their
process while having no clue about where this process will lead up to . Things in life are not
exactly as black or white as it has been suggested especially when the whole discussion is
concerns design. Design often starts from the analysis of an existing corpus of designs in
terms of some spatial, programmatic, functional, or other types of descriptions pertinent to
the design problem at hand, or alternatively, from the direct synthesis of some spatial,
functional, and other types of descriptions that are of interest to the designer. Often, an
analysis of some descriptions is part of the synthesis process and synthesis of some
descriptions is part of an analytic process for the better understanding of the design problem .

Analytic and synthetic grammars also capture modes of inquiry routinely applied in the
design studio. This interchangeable role of analysis and synthesis in a design problem is
adequately captured in the structure of the two types of grammars. This may be the reason for
the successful application of shape grammars in architectural education . the application of
rules reflects the continuous loop between analysis and synthesis, seeing and doing, reflection
and action, all primary parts of design activity . One of the best models in this area is
Knight’s method for developing new languages of design on the basis of existing ones

5.4 CONCLUSIONS

The research presented in this chapter concludes three important methods of using shape
grammars in the creation of new designs . This gives a designer the alternatives to choose
between in order to develop his own grammars.
The proposed outline for the synthetic processes helps in the understanding and teaching of
the compositional ideas of forms and shapes relations in architectural education.
Unlike analytical grammars, the selection of the appropriate method for design is not based
on the design properties but on the designer's preferences.

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Chapter Six:
Computer Implementations of Shape Grammars

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Types of Computer Implementations
6.2.1 Interpreter Program
6.2.2 Parsing Program
6.2.3 Inference Program
6.2.4 CAD Program
6.3 Current Shape Grammars Interpreters
6.3.1 GEdit
6.3.2 Shaper2D
6.3.3 3D Shaper
6.3.4 ArchiDNA
6.4 Discussion
6.5 Conclusions

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CHAPTER SIX:
COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

“The computer handles the bookkeeping tasks (the representation and


computation of shapes, rules, and grammars, and the presentation of correct
design alternatives) and the designer specifies, explores, develops design
languages, and selects alternatives.”
Tapia 1999, p.59

Developing computer implementations for shape grammars was the main motivation for the
invention of the theory. Computer implementations are good demonstration tools for showing
novices the range and power of shape grammars. They can allow students and designers who
do not wish to deal with the technicalities of grammars, to develop or use shape grammars
with success. For advanced shape grammarians, who understand how shape grammars work,
they allow for rapid explorations of rules and design possibilities. Shape grammars are
powerful devices and the power of computers is needed to explore their limits.
Computer implementations may not be as effective as by-hand applications of grammars.
By-hand applications of rules require careful thinking about how rules work. In the long term,
this results in a better understanding of grammars and better quality design work. Computer
implementations of grammars can encourage mindless defining and testing of rules.
Interesting or useful designs may be arrived at, but by chance and with no understanding of
how the designs were generated or how to generate other results. (Knight 1999b).
Developing a computer implementation of shape grammars requires symbolic and visual
skills. Developers here deal with the visual images and interfaces and their underlying
symbols (html text, symbol based JavaScript or Java program, or any writing program
symbols) .This is why Gips sees that the tension in computer implementation of shape
grammars is the tension between the visual nature of shape grammars and the people who
want to use them and the inherently symbolic nature of the underlying computer
representations and processing. (Gips 2000, p.2)

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

6.2 TYPES OF COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS


Computer implementations of shape grammars are grouped into four types of programs that
carry out possible tasks to implement shape grammars. (Gips 2000,pp.2-3)

6.2.1 Interpreter Programs

The most common type that aids in the generation of shapes from shape grammars is called a
shape grammar interpreter. The process involves entering a shape grammar into the computer
and the program either generates shapes in the language or the user guides the program.
For example, in selecting the rule to be applied and where in the current shape to apply it.
The program can have a particular shape grammar built-in, so it only generates plans for a
design type , or it can allow the user to enter in a shape grammar of a certain(restricted) type.

6.2.2 Parsing Programs

A parsing program is given a shape grammar and a shape. The program determines if the
shape is in the language generated by the grammar and, if so, gives the sequence of rules that
produces the shape. This is an analysis problem rather than a design problem. Here we might
be given a plan and a shape grammar for determining a design style and the program would
tell us whether or not the plan is indeed a syntactically correct plan of a that style or not.

6.2.3 Inference Programs

The grammatical inference program is given a set of shapes, and it constructs a shape
grammar that generates the shapes (plus other shapes in the same "style"). So, we would give
a grammatical inference program a corpus of known plans for a design style and the program
would automatically generate its shape grammar.

6.2.4 CAD Programs

The Computer Aided Design program helps the user to design shape grammars. It would be
more than a shape grammar interpreter. It would assist the user in creating a shape grammar
by providing sophisticated tools for the user. This follows Terry Knight's (1998b) statement
that "the process of developing an original grammar is analogous to the traditional design

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

process." the result of this type of program would be a shape grammar plug-in for a
traditional computer aided design program that would use shape grammars to help the
practicing designer.
Unfortunly, the second and third types are not yet realized and efforts accomplished in this
field revolves on developing shape grammars interpreters beside the potentials of CAD.
The next table provides a list of shape grammars implementations:

Name Reference Tools 2D/3D


1 simple interpreter Gips 1975 SAIL [a] 2D
2 Shepard-Metzler analysis Gips 1974 SAIL 2D/3D
3 shape grammar interpreter Krishnamurti 1982 2D
4 shape generation system Krishnamurti Giraud PROLOG [b] 2D
1986
5 Queen Anne houses Flemming 1987 PROLOG 2D
6 shape grammar system Chase 1989 PROLOG/Mac 2D
7 Genesis (CMU) Heisserman 1991 C/CLP 3D
8 GRAIL Krishnamurti 1992 2D
9 Grammatical Carlson 1993
10 Stouffs 1994 2D/3D
11 Genesis (Boeing) Heisserman 1994 C++/CLP 2D/3D
12 GEdit Tapia 1996 LISP [c]/Mac 2D
13 shape grammar editor Shelden 1996 AutoCAD/AutoLisp 2D
14 implementation of basic grammar Duarte Simondetti AutoCAD/AutoLisp 3D
1997
15 shape grammar interpreter Piazzalunga Fitzhorn ACIS/LISP[d] 3D
1998
16 SG-Clips Chien, et al. 1998 CLIPS 2D/3D
17 3D architecture form synthesiz Wang 1998 Java/Open Inventor 3D
18 coffee maker grammar Agarwal &Cagan 1998 Java 2D/3D

Table (I) Computer implementations of shape grammars till 1998


Source: Gips 2000,p.3
19 2DShaper Mcgill 2000 Java 2D
20 Shaper 3D Yufei Wang 1999 Java 3D
21 ArchiDNA Java and server- client
Kwon and Ellen Do 2003 2D/3D
technology

Table (II) Computer implementations of shape grammars from 1998 to 2003

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

6.3 CURRENT SHAPE GRAMMARS INTERPRETERS

6.3.1 GEdit
Tapia (1999) developed GEdit, a two-dimensional shape grammar interpreter that provides an
interface for users to make or control the rules for spatial layout (Fig 82). A designer arranges
shapes and defines the rules in the graphic window. The result of applying the rules is shown
in another window.

Figure (82) Screenshot of GEdit Interface


Source: Tapia, M. 1999
6.3.2 Shaper2D
McGill (2000) developed Shaper 2D as an interpreter for standard shape grammar with a
graphic interface. It allows the design of two rules at the same time with result displayed in
the same window (Fig 83). It helps the designer test many alternative rules in a short time.
Shaper2D was used in a studio as a tool for learning shape grammars and generating shapes
to inform a design process.

Figure (83) Screenshot of Shaper 2D Interface


Source: McGill, 2000

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

Figure 84 illustrates the process of applying the generated result to the design process. The
designer first generates 2D shape configurations in Shaper 2D, and then places it on a site
drawing in CAD system . Finally, the designer further developes the 2D shape into an
architectural building plan ,.

Figure (84) Illustrations for using the result of Shaper2D in the design process (a) The generated
result in Shaper 2D (b) Site planning with the result (c) Plan designing with the result
Source: McGill, 2000

6.3.3 Shaper 3D
Yufei Wang (1999) developed 3D shaper, ( Fig 85a ) .with a dialogue interface for 3D object
creation and rule definition. A designer types numerical parameters in the dialogue interface
or the size, type and labels of shapes as well as the spatial arrangement between shapes. Then
the system generates 3D forms and creates 3D Open Inventor files. The resulting 3D form is
then displayed in an Open Inventor Viewer ( Fig 85b ).

Figure (85) (a) Screenshot of 3D Shaper Interface (b) Screenshot of SGI Open Inventor Viewer to
see the 3D result of 3D Shaper.
Source: Wang, Y. 1999

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

6.3.4 ArchiDNA
Kwon and Ellen Do (2003) developed ArchiDNA, a system for generating designs inspired
by Peter Eisenman 's design of Biocentrum ( Eisenman 1999)(Kwon & Ellen 2003), an
example of form generation from abstract design concepts ( Fig 86a ) Eisenman developed
the buildings with concept of DNA ( Fig 86b ) . A DNA chain is composed of four initial
shapes ( A,T,C and G) ( Fig 86c ) Observing Eisenman's design , 3 principles were extracted
for his form generation ( Fig 87 ) replication of the source forms , rotation of the generative
form , and rescaling of the generative form to fit the width of the selected form

(a) (b) (c)

Figure (86) (a) Biocentrum (b) Diagram of DNA showing Amino Acids (c) Four distinct shapes
in Amino Acids.
Source: Eisenman, 1999(Kwon, D. & Ellen, Do.2003)

Figure (87) Four Shape Operations with applier-shape to base-shape


Source: Kwon, D. 2003, p.36

In ArchiDNA interface ( Fig 88) , a designer draws initial shapes and then select any shape to
apply the parametric shape generation . This generates 3D massing as well as 2D shapes and
can translate a 3D VRML format for the web ( Fig 89a ) or CAD systems( Fig 89b ).

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

Figure (88) Screenshot of ArchiDNA Interface.


Source: Kwon, D. 2003, p.45

Figure (89) (a) ArchiDNA 3D model in VRML Viewer ,Cortona (b) ) ArchiDNA 3D model in
modeling system ,FormZ
Source: Kwon, D. & Ellen, Do.2003

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COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATIONS OF SHAPE GRAMMARS CHAPTER 6

6.4 DISCUSSION
In spite of their theoretical appeal , little effort has been directed to computer
implementations . Tapia (1999,p.2) gave preference that this is most probably the result of
several factors:
1- the relative complexity of the underlying algorithms
2- the general lack of awareness of this technique (shape grammars ) within the
computer science communities.
3- The difficulty of developing an integrated system
Very little effort was also directed to the user interface . Currently most computer
implementations do not have interfaces that make them easy for non programmers to use,
More efforts have gone to computational problems rather than to user interface . Therefore,
there is a need for Developers that think well both visually and symbolically to implement
simple , graphical and non-symbolic software ( Knight 1999a,p.6;Gips 2000,p.4)

6.5 CONCLUSIONS

This chapter concludes that the potentials of shape grammars in design computations are not
yet realized .Although there are some applications that embody novel ideas about the
implementations of shape grammars interpreters, one does not hear about the development of
shape grammars parsing and inference programs and still consider them as aims that will
probably be realized after solving the symbolic and algorithmic problems underlying the
interpreters of shape grammars and the creation of an efficient user friendly interface
software.

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER7

Chapter Seven:
Discussion and Conclusions

7.1 Discussion
7.2 Conclusions

95
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER7

CHAPTER SEVEN:
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In this thesis , Shape grammars theory was studied as a creative approach to formulate
design. Design formulation approaches and shape grammars applications promise to be part
of the present and the whole future for the computer aided architectural design applications as
a generation rather than representation ,simulation and optimization CAAD tools. Every
evolution in theories of design formulation provides human knowledge with better
understanding of the mechanism of human thinking ,skills and design processes. This
influenced the structure of this thesis and consequently dividing it into two parts :

In the first part , a literature review was conducted through research papers ,books,
articles , web papers and lectures of design formulation ,its concepts and approaches .A
criteria was given , all approaches were evaluated and shape grammars was presented as the
most creative process to formulate design . Its theoretical approach was then studied through
its history , components and stage of developments.

The second part illustrated the potentials of shape grammars in both analysis and
synthesis examples in order to extract principles about the analytical grammars strategies and
the synthetic grammars methods. It was concluded that analytical strategies are : subdivision
,addition, grid and simple relations of shapes . And each strategy was examined through its
examples : The Diebenkorn ocean park paintings and Caravanserais grammars for the
subdivision strategy, the Frank Lloyd Wright prairie houses and the Taiwanese temple
grammars for the addition strategy, the Palladian grammars for the grid strategy and
educational examples like the church plan grammar for the simple relation of shapes. It was
also concluded - with examples - that Synthetic methods are : From Scratch (Fallen Towers
Museum) , applicable grammar (the Hayat Houses grammars) and transformations of rules.
(the transformations of George Vantongerloo's paintings ).

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER7

7.1 DISCUSSION

When first introduced , shape grammars were viewed as a general solution to the
problems pertaining to architectural form and its generation. Some of these problems were
solved and several of these claims have been reexamined .

Firstly, the success of Shape grammars in analyzing styles of designs. Grammarians have
clearly demonstrated that designers tend to employ a limited set of spatial relationships to
produce seemingly distinctive designs. Another success is that shape grammars have
demonstrated the existence of spatial transformations from one style to another. This is like
the architectural historian who attempts to discover the principles underlying a given building
or styles of buildings. Shape grammars also shows interesting and innovative designs that
come out from playing with shapes and spatial relations in an abstract level.
The most successful application of shape grammars is in the field of design and
architectural education. rules make explicit or externalize a student’s design ideas so that they
can be examined, changed, communicated more readily. rules also make possible multiple
design solutions rather than a single solution thus increasing the possibilities of choosing
between different solutions. The process of evaluating and selecting among different designs
again brings into focus a student’s design intentions.

On the other hand, for instance , the association with linguistic grammars is now
considered to be misleading and imprecise. It conveys a linguistic association in that spatial
grammars ought to somehow be able to act as a reference by means of which designs can be
analyzed, understood and specified in lexical, semantic, pragmatic, epistemic terms that one
associates with common language. Grammars should only be interpreted in their strict
technical sense.
The computational potentials that was claimed to be achieved by shape grammars when
first invented is now considered limited to one type of computational programs . three of four
types of implementations are not yet realized. Even in interpreting shape grammars , numbers
of computational problems are still under-research . Part of the difficulty stems from the
technical considerations of implementing grammars.

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER7

7.2 CONCLUSIONS

- The shape grammars approach is a creative process to formulate design .It has the
ability to produce innovative designs and could be combined with other evaluation
and testing tool to produce creative artifacts in a generate-and-test process of design.

- The shape grammars theory is a short hand description of form arrangement. Shape
grammars consist of a small set of rules that can concisely specify a very large set of
designs. For example, a set of finite rules of a grammar can generate many (almost
infinite) possible designs.

- Analytical grammars strategies vary according to the visual characteristics of the


corpus of plans (design) that need to be analyzed. Designs which exhibit modular
respect or rectangular repetitions could be analyzed using the grid strategy. If designs
in a language are distinguished with the same exterior boundary or frame , the use of
the subdivision strategy to analyzed them is probably convenient. When designs in a
language have irregular or diverse kinds of boundaries , they could be analyzed by the
addition strategy. And finally , if designs in languages are analyzed to extract general
compositional ideas for pedagogical reasons , the simple relation of shapes strategy is
more adequate to use.

- A successful analytical grammar application covers all sides and details of the
language and has the potential to generate old (existing) and new designs that exhibits
the same stylistic characteristics .

- Synthetic grammars methods vary according to the designer's interest. If the designer
is motivated by the success of certain designs under certain conditions and desired to
employ the same model in a contemporary context , then applicable grammar method
is suitable to use. If the designer want to explore new and unlimited compositional
relations of shapes for practice or educational projects , he will use the from scratch
method. If the designer is inspired by historical model or a designer technique and
want to create his own grammar starting from this point , the transformations of rules
method will be convenient.

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER7

- A successful synthetic grammar application that simulates design process may involve
a Analytic/synthetic grammars in order to have fewer problems in dealing with the
goals and constraints of a design project.

- Shape grammars are well-suited for educational purposes such as:


1- Teaching composition and visual correlates such as proportion and symmetry
2- to learn about styles or languages of designs (at least compositionally) by either
studying shape grammars already written for languages or by writing grammars
oneself.

- Computer implementations of Shape grammars are still limited to use and even
systems that are really useful are difficult to implement.

99
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of Architecture, Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ إﺑﺪاﻋﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ آﺄداة ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎریﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫ﻓﻲ أواﺧﺮ اﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘ‪K‬ﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿ‪K‬ﻲ ﻇﻬ‪K‬ﺮت آﺘﺎﺑ‪K‬ﺎت ﺗﻨ‪K‬ﺎدي ﺑﺎﺗﺠ‪K‬ﺎﻩ ﺟﺪی‪K‬ﺪ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ اﻟﺒﺤ‪K‬ﺚ و ﻋﻠ‪K‬ﻮم ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘ‪K‬ﺎت اﻟ‪K‬ﺬآﺎء‬
‫اﻻﺹﻄﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬هﺬا اﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ یﺪﻋﻲ إﻣﻜﺎﻥﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ و ﺗﺤﻮیﻠﻬ‪K‬ﺎ ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ إﺑﺪاﻋﻴ‪K‬ﺔ إﻟ‪K‬ﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ یﻤﻜ‪K‬ﻦ‬
‫اﺱﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ و اﻟﻘﻮاﻥﻴﻦ و اﻟﻨﻈﺮیﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺹﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ آﻤﺜﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻌﻠﻮم اﻟﻨﻈﺮیﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻒ ی‪K‬ﺮﻓﺾ ﺗﺤﻮی‪K‬ﻞ‬
‫وﻗﺪ أﺙﺎرت هﺬﻩ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎت ﺟﺪﻻ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻷوﺱﺎط اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ و ردود ﻓﻌ‪K‬ﻞ ﻣﺘﺒﺎیﻨ‪K‬ﺔ ﻣ‪K‬ﺎ ﺑ‪K‬ﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺹ‪K‬ﺮ ﻟﻬ‪K‬ﺎ و ﻣﺨ‪K‬ﺎﻟ ٍ‬
‫اﻹﺑﺪاع اﻹﻥﺴﺎﻥﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻗﻮاﻟﺐ ﺟﺎﻣﺪة ‪ .‬و ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ هﺬا اﻟﺠﺪال ﻓﻘﺪ أدى ﻇﻬﻮر هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﻈﺮیﺔ اﻟﺠﺪی‪K‬ﺪة إﻟ‪K‬ﻰ ﺗﺸ‪K‬ﺠﻴﻊ آﺜﻴ‪K‬ﺮ ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺒﺎﺡﺜﻴﻦ ﻋﻠ‪K‬ﻰ اﻟﺒﺤ‪K‬ﺚ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻃ‪K‬ﺮق وﻟﻤ‪K‬ﺪاﺧﻞ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔ‪K‬ﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨ‪K‬ﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ ‪ .‬و ﻗ‪K‬ﺪ أدى ه‪K‬ﺬا اﻟﺠﻬ‪K‬ﺪ إﻟ‪K‬ﻰ اﻟﻮﺹ‪K‬ﻮل إﻟ‪K‬ﻲ ﻋ‪K‬ﺪة اﻗﺘﺮاﺡ‪K‬ﺎت‬
‫ﻟﻄ‪K‬ﺮق ﺗﻘﻨ‪K‬ﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬و ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ أﺵ‪K‬ﻬﺮ ه‪K‬ﺬﻩ اﻟﻄ‪K‬ﺮق " ﻗﻮاﻋ‪K‬ﺪ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻞ " ‪ Shape Grammars‬و اﻟﺘ‪K‬ﻲ ﺗ‪K‬ﻢ اﺧﺘﺮاﻋﻬ‪K‬ﺎ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻋ‪K‬ﺎم‬
‫‪ . 1975‬ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ أﺑﺴﻂ ﺗﻌﺮیﻔﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ وﺟﻮد ﺗﺸ‪K‬ﺎﺑﻪ ﺑ‪K‬ﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ و ﺗﻜ‪K‬ﻮیﻦ اﻟﻌﺒ‪K‬ﺎرات ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ اﻟﻠﻐ‪K‬ﺔ ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ‬
‫ﺡﻴﺚ اﻟﻤﻔﺮدات و ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺘﻜ‪K‬ﻮیﻦ و ﺑﻨ‪K‬ﺎء اﻟﺠﻤ‪K‬ﻞ ودﻻﻻت اﻷﻟﻔ‪K‬ﺎظ‪ .‬و یﻌﺘﻤ‪K‬ﺪ ه‪K‬ﺬا اﻷﺱ‪K‬ﻠﻮب ﻋﻠ‪K‬ﻰ ﺗﺤﺪی‪K‬ﺪ ﻗﻮاﻋ‪K‬ﺪ ﻣﺤ‪K‬ﺪدة ﻟﻠﺘﻜ‪K‬ﻮیﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮاﻏﻲ ﻟﻸﺵﻜﺎل یﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺧﻄﻮة ﺑﺨﻄﻮة ﺡﺘﻰ اﻟﻮﺹﻮل إﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺬ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪ ،‬أﺙﺒﺘﺖ ﻃﺮیﻘ‪K‬ﺔ ﻗﻮاﻋ‪K‬ﺪ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻞ ﻥﺠﺎﺡ‪K‬ﺎ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﺗﺤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻞ ﺑﻌ‪K‬ﺾ اﻷﺱ‪K‬ﺎﻟﻴﺐ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺎریﺨﻴ‪K‬ﺔ أو اﻟﺨﺎﺹ‪K‬ﺔ ﺑﺄﺡ‪K‬ﺪ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻤﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎریﻴﻦ أﻣﺜﺎل ﻓﺮاﻥﻚ ﻟﻮیﺪ رایﺖ و أﻟﻔﺎرو ﺱ‪K‬ﻴﺰا ‪ .‬آ‪K‬ﺬﻟﻚ أﺙﺒﺘ‪K‬ﺖ إﻣﻜﺎﻥﻴ‪K‬ﺎت ﻋﺪی‪K‬ﺪة ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻣﺠ‪K‬ﺎل ﺗﺨﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻖ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻤﺎت‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎریﺔ و ﻏﻴﺮهﺎ‪.‬هﺬا إﻟﻰ ﺟﺎﻥﺐ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﺤﺎﺱﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ و اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري‪.‬‬

‫یﻬﺘﻢ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻌﺮض و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺼ‪K‬ﻨﻴﻒ إﻣﻜﺎﻥﻴ‪K‬ﺎت ﻥﻈﺮی‪K‬ﺔ ﻗﻮاﻋ‪K‬ﺪ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻞ و ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻬ‪K‬ﺎ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻣﺠ‪K‬ﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻞ و اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎري آﻤﺪﺧﻞ ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪاﺧﻞ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪.‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻨﻘﺎط اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺑﺤﺚ و ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ اﻟﻄﺮق و اﻟﻤﺪاﺧﻞ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬


‫‪ -2‬دراﺱﺔ ﻥﻈﺮیﺔ ﻟﺘﺎریﺦ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ و أﺱﻠﻮب ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻟﺘﺨﻠﻴﻖ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬دراﺱﺔ أﺙﺮ ﻥﺸﻮء ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻥﻮاع ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﺤﺎﺱﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫و یﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ هﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﻘﺎط ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺤﺚ آﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫أوﻻ ‪ :‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴﻦ و هﻤﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺑﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻄﻮر ﻣﺒﺪأ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻋﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮیﻔﺎت و ﺗﺤﺪیﺪ اﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺑﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ أﺹﻞ ﻣﻌﻴﺎر اﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ و هﻮ ﻣﻌﻴﺎر اﻹﺑﺪاع ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﻘﺎرﻥﺎت ﺑ‪K‬ﻴﻦ أﻥ‪K‬ﻮاع اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻌﺮوﻓ‪K‬ﺔ‬
‫) ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪي – ﻣﺒﺘﻜﺮ– إﺑﺪاﻋﻲ( ‪ ،‬آﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﺮض ﻥﻤﻮذج ﻣﻌﻴﺎري ﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ اﻹﺑﺪاع و اﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪Ar-1‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ إﺑﺪاﻋﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ آﺄداة ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎریﺔ‬

‫و ﺑﻨﺎءًا ﻋﻠﻰ هﺬا یﺘﻢ اﺱﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻌﻴ‪K‬ﺎر اﻹﺑ‪K‬ﺪاع ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﺗﻘﻴ‪K‬ﻴﻢ اﻟﻄ‪K‬ﺮق اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ‪K‬ﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨ‪K‬ﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼ‪K‬ﺎ ﺑﻌ‪K‬ﺪ ذﻟ‪K‬ﻚ أن اﻟﻨﻤ‪K‬ﻮذج‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﻮي هﻮ أآﺜﺮهﻢ إﺑﺪاﻋﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺙﺎﻥﻴ‪ًK‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻤ‪KK‬ﻞ دراﺱ‪KK‬ﺔ ﻥﻈﺮی‪KK‬ﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺱ‪KK‬ﺘﻌﺎﻥﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﺑﺤ‪KK‬ﺎث و اﻟﺮﺱ‪KK‬ﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴ‪KK‬ﺔ و اﻟﻜﺘ‪KK‬ﺐ واﻟ‪KK‬ﺪوریﺎت و اﻟﻤﻘ‪KK‬ﺎﻻت و اﻟﻤﺤﺎﺿ‪KK‬ﺮات و‬
‫ﺵﺒﻜﺔ اﻹﻥﺘﺮﻥﺖ ﻟﺘﻮﺹﻴﻒ و ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ و ﻋﻨﺎﺹﺮ و أﺱﻠﻮب ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ آﺄﺡﺪ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﻤ‪K‬ﻮذج اﻟﻠﻐ‪K‬ﻮي‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺙﺎﻟﺜﺎ ‪ :‬اﺱﺘﺨﺪام اﻷﺱﻠﻮب اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪیﺪ اﻷﺗﻲ‪:‬‬


‫‪ -1‬اﻻﺱﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻃﺒﻘ‪K‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﺨﺼ‪K‬ﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﻤ‪K‬ﺮاد ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬ‪K‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻻﺱﺘﻨﺒﺎط ﻗﻮاﻋﺪهﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬أﺱﺎﻟﻴﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻢ ﻟﻸﺱﻠﻮب اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺱﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺵﺨﺼﻴًﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬أﻥﻮاع ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﺤﺎﺱﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬

‫ویﺘﻢ ﻋﺮض هﺬا آﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل هﻴﻜ‪K‬ﻞ اﻟﺒﺤ‪K‬ﺚ اﻟ‪K‬ﺬي یﺒ‪K‬ﺪأ ﺑﻤﻘﺪﻣ‪K‬ﺔ ﻋ‪K‬ﻦ أه‪K‬ﺪاف اﻟﺒﺤ‪K‬ﺚ و اﻟﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻌ‪K‬ﺔ ﺧ‪K‬ﻼل اﻟﺪراﺱ‪K‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ‬
‫یﻨﻘﺴﻢ إﻟﻰ ﺟﺰأیﻦ ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول اﻟﺪراﺱﺔ اﻟﻨﻈﺮیﺔ و یﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎﺑﻴﻦ ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ‪ :‬ﻃﺮق و ﻣﺪاﺥﻞ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬

‫و ﻓﻴﻪ یﺘﻢ ﺱﺮیﻌﺎ اﺱﺘﻌﺮاض ﺗﻄﻮر اﺗﺠﺎهﺎت اﻟﺒﺤﻮث ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺪءًا ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﻜﺮیﻦ اﻟﺮوﻣﺎن وﺹ‪K‬ﻮﻻ إﻟ‪K‬ﻲ ﻇﻬ‪K‬ﻮر ﻣﺒ‪K‬ﺪأ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻮم اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﻘ‪K‬ﻴﻢ اﻟﺤﺴ‪K‬ﻴﺔ و اﻹﺑﺪاﻋﻴ‪K‬ﺔ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﺔ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ‪ .‬آ‪K‬ﺬﻟﻚ ی‪K‬ﺘﻢ ﻋ‪K‬ﺮض ﺗﻌﺮی‪K‬ﻒ ﻣﺨﺘﺼ‪K‬ﺮ ﻟﻤﺎهﻴ‪K‬ﺔ‬
‫اﻹﺑﺪاع و اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﻴﻦ اﻹﺑﺪاع و اﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎر و ﻣﻌﻨﻰ أن یﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ أو اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ إﺑ‪K‬ﺪاﻋﻲ ‪.‬ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ یﺘﻨ‪K‬ﺎول اﻟﻨﺼ‪K‬ﻒ اﻟﺜ‪K‬ﺎﻥﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺎب ﺵﺮح و ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ اﺗﺠﺎهﺎت و ﻃ‪K‬ﺮق ﺗﻘﻨ‪K‬ﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ ﺧ‪K‬ﻼل ﻃ‪K‬ﺮح ﻣﺒ‪K‬ﺪأي ﺗﻄ‪K‬ﻮیﺮ ﻥﻤ‪K‬ﺎذج ﻟﻠﺘﺼ‪K‬ﻤﻴﻢ و دراﺱ‪K‬ﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت اﻟﻤﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ‪ .‬یﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﻋﺮض أﻥﻮاع اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج و ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج اﻟﻠﻐﻮي ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ ی‪K‬ﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﻴ‪K‬ﻴﻢ ﻣ‪K‬ﺪى إﺑ‪K‬ﺪاع ه‪K‬ﺬﻩ اﻟﻨﻤ‪K‬ﺎذج‬
‫ﻓ‪KK‬ﻲ ﺹ‪KK‬ﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻗﻮاﻋ‪KK‬ﺪ ﻟﻠﺘﺼ‪KK‬ﻤﻴﻢ و ﻋﻠﻴ‪KK‬ﻪ ی‪KK‬ﺘﻢ اﺱ‪KK‬ﺘﺨﻼص أن اﻟﻨﻤ‪KK‬ﻮذج اﻟﻠﻐ‪KK‬ﻮي ﻟﻠﺘﺼ‪KK‬ﻤﻴﻢ ه‪KK‬ﻮ أآﺜﺮه‪KK‬ﺎ ﻗ‪KK‬ﺪرة و إﺑ‪KK‬ﺪاﻋﺎ ﻋﻠ‪KK‬ﻰ ﺗﻘﻨ‪KK‬ﻴﻦ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺗﻢ یﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻟﺒﺎب ﻓﻲ ﻋﺮض ﺱﺮیﻊ ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻵراء و اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺶ ﻣﺪى إﺑﺪاع اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎت ﻥﺘﺎج اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬
‫اﻟﻠﻐﻮي‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ‪ :‬ﻧﻈﺮیﺔ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬

‫یﺒﺪأ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺎب ﺑﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﺗﺸﺮح اﻟﻨﻈﺮی‪K‬ﺔ ﻣ‪K‬ﻦ ﺡﻴ‪K‬ﺚ اﻟﻤﺸ‪K‬ﺎﺑﻬﺔ اﻟﻠﻐﻮی‪K‬ﺔ أو اﻟﻤﻔﻬ‪K‬ﻮم اﻟﺮیﺎﺿ‪K‬ﻲ ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ یﻤﻀ‪K‬ﻲ اﻟﺒ‪K‬ﺎب ﺵ‪K‬ﺎرﺡًﺎ ﺧﺼ‪K‬ﺎﺋﺺ‬
‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮی‪KK‬ﺔ و ﻣﻜﻮﻥﺎﺗﻬ‪KK‬ﺎ و ﻣﺮاﺡ‪KK‬ﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬ‪KK‬ﺎ ﻣ‪KK‬ﻊ إﻟﻘ‪KK‬ﺎء ﻥﻈ‪KK‬ﺮة ﻋﺎﻣ‪KK‬ﺔ ﻋﻠ‪KK‬ﻰ اﻷﻥ‪KK‬ﻮاع و اﻻﺗﺠﺎه‪KK‬ﺎت اﻟﺠﺪی‪KK‬ﺪة اﻟﺘ‪KK‬ﻲ ﺧﺮﺟ‪KK‬ﺖ ﻣ‪KK‬ﻦ ﺗﺤ‪KK‬ﺖ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎءﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪Ar-2‬‬
‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ إﺑﺪاﻋﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪ :‬ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ آﺄداة ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻖ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎریﺔ‬

‫اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﺜﺎﻥﻲ و هﻮ اﻟﺪراﺱﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴﺔ و یﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ﺙﻼﺙﺔ أﺑﻮاب ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺮاﺏﻊ‪ :‬ﺕﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‪:‬‬

‫و ﻓﻴ‪KK‬ﻪ ی‪KK‬ﺘﻢ اﺱﺘﻜﺸ‪KK‬ﺎف ﻗ‪KK‬ﺪرات ﻗﻮاﻋ‪KK‬ﺪ اﻟﺸ‪KK‬ﻜﻞ ﻓ‪KK‬ﻲ ﺗﺤﻠﻴ‪KK‬ﻞ اﻟﺘﺼ‪KK‬ﻤﻴﻤﺎت ﻋ‪KK‬ﻦ ﻃﺮی‪KK‬ﻖ ﻋ‪KK‬ﺮض أول ﻣﺜ‪KK‬ﺎل ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘ‪KK‬ﻲ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠ‪KK‬ﻲ و ﻗﻮاﻋ‪KK‬ﺪﻩ‬
‫اﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺙﻢ یﻤﻀﻲ اﻟﺒﺎب ﻣﺼﻨﻔﺎ اﺱ‪K‬ﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻞ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻠﻲ إﻟ‪K‬ﻲ أرﺑ‪K‬ﻊ أﺹ‪K‬ﻨﺎف و ه‪K‬ﻲ ‪ :‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻞ ﺵ‪K‬ﺒﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴ‪K‬ﻞ ﺗﻘﺴ‪K‬ﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫) ﺗﺠﺰﺋﺔ( ‪ ،‬ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻌﻲ و اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮیﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻷﺵ‪K‬ﻜﺎل ‪ .‬و ﻋﻨ‪K‬ﺪ ﻋ‪K‬ﺮض آ‪K‬ﻞ اﺱ‪K‬ﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ی‪K‬ﺘﻢ ﺗﻔﺴ‪K‬ﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺮﺗﻬﺎ اﻷﺱﺎﺱﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺱﻴﺎق اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺙﻢ یﺨﺘﺘﻢ اﻟﺒﺎب ﺑﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻟﻤﺪى ﻣﺼﺪاﻗﻴﺔ هﺬا اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴ‪K‬ﻖ و ﺗﻮاﻓﻘ‪K‬ﻪ ﻣ‪K‬ﻊ‬
‫اﻷﺱﻠﻮب اﻟﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﻤﻢ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‪ :‬ﺕﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪:‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ یﺒﺪأ هﺬا اﻟﺒﺎب ﺑﺎﺱﺘﻜﺸﺎف ﻗﺪرات اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﺱﺘﺨﺪام ﻗﻮاﻋ‪K‬ﺪ اﻟﺸ‪K‬ﻜﻞ ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ ی‪K‬ﺘﻢ ﻋ‪K‬ﺮض اﻷﻣﺜﻠ‪K‬ﺔ اﻷوﻟ‪K‬ﻰ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ه‪K‬ﺬا‬
‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل یﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ أﺱﺎﻟﻴﺐ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﺱﺘﺨﺪام ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﺿﺤًﺎ ﻓﻜ‪K‬ﺮة آ‪K‬ﻞ ﻣﻨﻬ‪K‬ﺎ و ﻋﺎرﺿ‪ًK‬ﺎ اﻷﻣﺜﻠ‪K‬ﺔ اﻟﺘﻮﺿ‪K‬ﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠ‪K‬ﻰ‬
‫آﻞ أﺱﻠﻮب ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺴﺎدس ‪ :‬ﺕﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﺤﺎﺱﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ‪:‬‬

‫یﺘﻢ ﻓ‪K‬ﻲ ه‪K‬ﺬا ﻟﺒ‪K‬ﺎب ﻋ‪K‬ﺮض ﺟﻬ‪K‬ﻮد اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠ‪K‬ﺔ و ﺗﻄ‪K‬ﻮیﺮ اﻟﺒ‪K‬ﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘ‪K‬ﻲ ﺑ‪K‬ﺪأت ﻣ‪K‬ﻊ ﻇﻬ‪K‬ﻮر اﻟﻨﻈﺮی‪K‬ﺔ ﺙ‪K‬ﻢ یﺼ‪K‬ﻨﻒ اﺗﺠﺎه‪K‬ﺎت ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘ‪K‬ﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﺱﺐ اﻵﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﺮیﺔ و یﻘﺪم ﻋﺮﺿﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﺰا ﻷﻓﻀﻞ اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﺹﺮة ﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺙﻢ یﻨﺘﻬﻲ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻥﺠﺤﺖ و ﻓﺸﻠﺖ ﻥﻈﺮیﺔ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺡﺘﻰ اﻵن یﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ اﻻﺱ‪K‬ﺘﻨﺘﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺘ‪K‬ﻲ ﺧﻠ‪K‬ﺺ إﻟﻴﻬ‪K‬ﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺒﺎﺡﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺪراﺱﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Ar-3‬‬

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