You are on page 1of 9

Spreadsheet for the optimized design of a conventional activated sludge system for secondary treatment

Copyright 2007 - JGM van der Lubbe and Adrianus van Haandel

System configuration consists of an aeration tank, final settler, sludge thickener and anaerobic digester
It is assumed that nitrification does not develop

Section 1: Input data

1. General data for the activated sludge system

Y= 0.45 b= 0.24 k= 0.46 Sfd = 2


fcv = 1.5 fv = 0.7 vo = 144 Sfth = 1.5
f= 0.2 eta = 1.2 DSVI = 120 Hd = 4
fn = 0.1 Hth = 3
fp = 0.025

2. Influent composition

Qi = 10000 Sti = 650 Nti = 50 T min = 20


P.E. = 1000 fns = 0.1 Pti = 15 T max = 24
fnp = 0.08 T dig = 20

3. Financial data

Cr = 175 i= 0.06 Cel = 0.15 p= 3.0 % of the investments costs per year
Cd = 300 n= 20 Csd = 200 o= 1.0 % of the investments costs per year
Cth = 400 Ch = 0.35 m= 2.0 % of the investments costs per year
Cdi = 350 fac = 1.6 n= 0.3 % of the investments costs per year
Cae = 3500 fi = 1.35

Section 2: System calculations

Rs 1 COD removal is substantially complete at lower values of Rs: higher value is required to obtain a sludge that settles well

A - Optimisation of the System Consisting of the Aeration Tank and the Final Settler

(a1) Calculate the sludge mass that will develop

mXa = 0.30 MXa = 1934 Xa 1.37


mXe = 0.01 MXe = 93
mXi = 0.0533333333 MXi = 347
mXv = 0.37 MXv = 2374 Xv 1.68
mXt = 0.52 MXt = 3391 fat 0.57
Cr = 0.36
(a2) Determine the optimal sludge concentration in the aeration tank

total construction construction costs in million dollars


1.80
Xt Vr Vd costs aeration tank final settler total k = 0,46 l.g-1

Construction costs (million US$)


TSS
1.0 3,391 880 857,459 0.59 0.26 0.86 v 0 = 144 m.d-1
1.2 2,826 965 783,993 0.49 0.29 0.78 1.60
1.4 2,422 1,058 741,237 0.42 0.32 0.74
1.6 2,119 1,160 718,832 0.37 0.35 0.72
1.8 1,884 1,272 711,149 0.33 0.38 0.71 1.40
2.0 1,696 1,394 714,938 0.30 0.42 0.71
2.2 1,541 1,528 728,265 0.27 0.46 0.73
2.4 1,413 1,676 749,971 0.25 0.50 0.75
1.20
2.6 1,304 1,837 779,392 0.23 0.55 0.78
2.8 1,211 2,014 816,200 0.21 0.60 0.82
Total
3.0 1,130 2,208 860,299 0.20 0.66 0.86 cost
3.2 1,060 2,421 911,776 0.19 0.73 0.91 1.00 s
3.4 997 2,654 970,859 0.17 0.80 0.97
3.6 942 2,910 1,037,899 0.16 0.87 1.04
3.8 892 3,191 1,113,354 0.16 0.96 1.11 0.80
4.0 848 3,498 1,197,785 0.15 1.05 1.20 Settler
4.2 807 3,835 1,291,847 0.14 1.15 1.29
4.4 771 4,205 1,396,297 0.13 1.26 1.40 0.60
4.6 737 4,610 1,511,990 0.13 1.38 1.51
4.8 706 5,054 1,639,885 0.12 1.52 1.64
5.0 678 5,541 1,781,053 0.12 1.66 1.78
0.40
5.2 652 6,075 1,936,681 0.11 1.82 1.94
5.4 628 6,661 2,108,085 0.11 2.00 2.11 Reacto
r
5.6 606 7,302 2,296,715 0.11 2.19 2.30
5.8 585 8,006 2,504,171 0.10 2.40 2.50 0.20
6.0 565 8,778 2,732,215 0.10 2.63 2.73
6.2 547 9,624 2,982,783 0.10 2.89 2.98
6.4 530 10,551 3,258,003 0.09 3.17 3.26 0.00
6.6 514 11,568 3,560,214 0.09 3.47 3.56 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
6.8 499 12,682 3,891,984 0.09 3.80 3.89 Xt (kg TSS.m-3)
7.0 484 13,905 4,256,131 0.08 4.17 4.26

Optimal (minimal costs) solution = 711,149


Xt = 2.40 !! Enter in the cell to the left the value of Xt for which the construction costs are mimimum !!
Vr = 1,413
Vd = 1,676

Vx 288 Rhdmax = 3.0 for s = sc


kXt 1.104 Rdh = 2.0 for s = 1
sc = 0.35 Xr 4.8 for s = 1
B - Optimization of the System Consisting of Sludge Thickener and Anaerobic Digester

(b1) Determine the optimum thickened sludge concentration

q= 1413
MEt = 3391

Construction costs (m illion US $)


MEv = 2374
total construction construction costs in million dollars
Xthr Xthl Fl qth Vth Vdi costs thickener digester total

12.0 9.1 82.4 282.6 185 7,065 2,546,730 0.07 2.47 2.55
12.5 9.7 72.0 271.3 212 6,782 2,458,616 0.08 2.37 2.46
13 10.2 62.5 260.9 244 6,521 2,380,125 0.10 2.28 2.38 3.50 k = 0,46 l.g -1 TSS
13.5 10.8 54.1 251.2 282 6,280 2,310,787 0.11 2.20 2.31
v0 = 144 m.d -1
14 11.3 46.6 242.2 327 6,056 2,250,333 0.13 2.12 2.25
14.5 11.8 40.1 233.9 381 5,847 2,198,687 0.15 2.05 2.20
3.00
15 12.4 34.3 226.1 445 5,652 2,155,972 0.18 1.98 2.16
15.5 12.9 29.3 218.8 520 5,470 2,122,513 0.21 1.91 2.12
16 13.4 25.0 211.9 611 5,299 2,098,860 0.24 1.85 2.10
2.50
16.5 13.9 21.2 205.5 719 5,138 2,085,814 0.29 1.80 2.09 Total costs
17 14.4 18.0 199.5 848 4,987 2,084,459 0.34 1.75 2.08
17.5 15.0 15.2 193.8 1,002 4,844 2,096,206 0.40 1.70 2.10
18 15.5 12.9 188.4 1,186 4,710 2,122,855 0.47 1.65 2.12 2.00
18.5 16.0 10.8 183.3 1,407 4,583 2,166,663 0.56 1.60 2.17
19 16.5 9.1 178.5 1,672 4,462 2,230,433 0.67 1.56 2.23 Digester
19.5 17.0 7.7 173.9 1,990 4,348 2,317,624 0.80 1.52 2.32 1.50
20 17.5 6.4 169.6 2,372 4,239 2,432,488 0.95 1.48 2.43
20.5 18.0 5.4 165.4 2,832 4,136 2,580,229 1.13 1.45 2.58
21 18.5 4.5 161.5 3,386 4,037 2,767,212 1.35 1.41 2.77 1.00
21.5 19.0 3.8 157.7 4,053 3,943 3,001,206 1.62 1.38 3.00
22 19.6 3.1 154.1 4,857 3,854 3,291,690 1.94 1.35 3.29
Thickener
0.50
Optimal (minimal costs) solution = 2,084,459

Xthr = 17 !! Enter in the cell to the left the value of Xthr for which the construction costs are mimimum !!
0.00
Vth = 848 Rhth = 14.4 qth = 199 Xrth (kg TSS.m-3)
12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0
Vdi = 4987 Rdi = 25.0 q - qth = 1213
C - Finalization of System Design

(c1) Nutrient demand (c2) Oxygen demand (c3) Digester performance

MNl = 237.4 MSti = 6500 fav = 0.81


MNp = 59.3 MOc = 2289 MEv = 2374
Nl = 23.7 OUR = 67.5 Rdp = 0.494
Pl = 5.93 Pb,avg = 79 Rdn = 0.138
Nte = 26.3 Pb,max = 119 MSd = 1524
Pte = 9.1 Pdiss = 56.3 MSxve = 2036
MEve = 1358
MEte = 2375
Xte = 11.9
fve = 0.57
conversion effic. 0.35
Mch4 = 381
(c4) Mass balances Pch4 = 78

COD (-) kg CZV/d Nitrogen (-) mg N/l Phosphorus (-) mg P/l

mSte = 0.10 650 Nti = 1.00 50.0 Pti = 15


mSo = 0.35 2289 Nl = 0.47 23.7 Pl = 0.40 5.9
mSd = 0.23 1524 Nle = 0.27 13.6 Ple = 0.23 3.4
mSXve = 0.31 2036 Nld = 0.20 10.2 Pld = 0.17 2.5
Bo = 1.00 6500 Nte,max = 0.73 36.4 Pte,max = 0.77 11.6
Nte,min = 0.53 26.3 Pte,min = 0.60 9.1
Bn = 1.00 50.0 Bp = 1.00 15.0
D - Financial Analysis

i= 0.06 a_i,n = 11.5


n= 20 anual = 0.087

Construction costs Volume Costs Fraction of total costs

Aeration Tank 1,413 250,000 4%


Final Settler 1,676 500,000 7%
Thickener 848 340,000 5%
Digester 4,987 1,750,000 25%
Aeration Equipment 119 420,000 6%

Total constr. Main Units 8,923 3,260,000 46%


Add. Constr Units 1,140,000 16%
Total construction costs 4,400,000 63%
Total investment costs 2,640,000 7,040,000 38%

Annualized treatment costs Per yer US$ ct per m3 US$ ct per P.E. Fraction

Financing cost 610,000 16.7 610.0 46%


Aeration costs 100,000 2.7 100.0 8%
Costs of sludge disposal 170,000 4.7 170.0 13%
Personnel costs 210,000 5.8 210.0 16%
Operational costs 70,000 1.9 70.0 5%
Maintenance costs 140,000 3.8 140.0 11%
Insurance costs 20,000 0.5 20.0 2%
Cost of digester heating 0 0.0 0.0 0%
Total operational costs 710,000 19.5 710.0 54%
Total costs 1,320,000 36.2 1320.0 100%
Symbol list

Symbol Description Unit of measure

a_i,n = annualization factor (-)


b= decay rate 1/d
Bn = mass balance recovery factor for nitrogen (-)
Bo = mass balance recovery factor for COD (-)
Bp = mass balance recovery factor for phosphorus (-)
Cae = construction cost of aeration system US$/kW
Cd = construction cost of the final settler US$/m3
Cdi = construction cost of the anaerobic digester US$/m3
Cel = cost of electricity US$/kWh
Ch = cost of heating (gas) US$/m3 natural gas
conversion effic.efficiency of gas motor %
Cr = construction cost of the aeration tank US$/m3
Cr = specific active sludge production per unit mass daily applied biodegradable COD mg VSS/(mg COD/d)
Csd = cost of sludge disposal US$/ton sludge
Cth = construction cost of the thickener US$/m3
DSVI = diluted sludge volume index ml/g TSS
eta = oxygen transfer efficiency kg O2/kWh
f= endogenous residue mg VSS/mg VSS
fac = fraction of construction costs for additional units (-)
fat = active sludge fraction mg VSS/mg TSS
fav = active fraction of volatile sludge mg VSS/mg VSS
fcv = proportionality constant between bacterial mass and mass of COD mg COD/mg VSS
fi = additional investment costs (non construction) (-)
Fl = limiting solids flux kg TSS/(m2*d)
fn = nitrogen fraction in biomass mg N/mg VSS
fnp = non biodegradable, particulate influent COD fraction mg COD/mg COD
fns = non biodegradable, soluble influent COD fraction mg COD/mg COD
fp = phosphorus fraction in biomass mg P/mg VSS
fv = ratio between volatile and total sludge concentration mg VSS/mg TSS
fve = volatile sludge fraction in stabilized sludge mg VSS/mg TSS
Symbol Description Unit of measure

Hd = height of final settler m


Hth = height of sludge thickener m
i= interest rate %
I= investment costs US$
k= vesilind constant l/g TSS
m= maintenance costs % of I per year
Mch4 = daily production of methane kg CH4/d
MEt = daily excess sludge production kg TSS/m3
MEte = daily production of stabilized sludge kg TSS/d
MEv = daily volatile excess sludge production kg VSS/m3
MEve = daily production of stabilized volatile sludge kg VSS/d
MNl = daily nitrogen demand for excess sludge production kg N/d
MNp = daily phosphorus demand for excess sludge production kg P/d
MOc = daily oxygen demand kg O2/d
mSd = fraction of influent COD that is digested (-)
MSd = daily amount of digested COD kg COD/d
mSo = fraction of influent COD that is oxidized (-)
mSte = fraction of influent COD leaving the system with the effluent (-)
MSti = daily applied COD load kg COD/d
MSxve = daily amount of COD in the stabilized excess sludge kg COD/d
mSXve = fraction of influent COD leaving the system with stabilized excess sludge (-)
mXa = specific active sludge production per unit mass daily applied COD mg VSS/(mg COD/d)
MXa = total active sludge mass in system kg VSS
mXe = specific endogenous sludge production per unit mass daily applied COD mg VSS/(mg COD/d)
MXe = total endogenous sludge mass in system kg VSS
mXi = specific inert sludge production per unit mass daily applied COD mg VSS/(mg COD/d)
MXi = total inert sludge mass in system kg VSS
mXt = specific total sludge production per unit mass daily applied COD mg TSS/(mg COD/d)
MXt= total sludge mass in system kg TSS
mXv = specific volatile sludge production per unit mass daily applied COD mg VSS/(mg COD/d)
MXv = total volatile sludge mass in system kg VSS
n= insurance costs % of I per year
n= economical lifetime years
Symbol Description Unit of measure

Nl = influent Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration removed with the excess sludge mg N/l
Nld = influent Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in digested sludge (i.e. released to liquid phase) mg N/l
Nle = influent Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration removed with the stabilized excess sludge mg N/l
Nte = effluent total nitrogen concentration mg N/l
Nte,max = maximum nitrogen effluent concentration (all released nitrogen recycled to aeration tank) mg N/l
Nte,min = mimimum nitrogen effluent concentration (no recyle of released nitrogen to aeration tank) mg N/l
Nti = influent Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration mg N/l
o= operational costs % of I per year
OUR = oxygen uptake rate mg O2/(l.h)
p= personnel costs % of I per year
P.E. = people equivalents ---
Pb,avg = average blower capacity kW
Pb,max = maximum blower capacity kW
Pch4 = power recovered from sludge digestion kW
Pdiss = dissipated power W/m3
Pl = influent phosphorus concentration removed with the excess sludge mg P/l
Pl = influent phosphorus concentration removed with the excess sludge mg P/l
Pld = influent phosphorus concentration in digested sludge (i.e. released to liquid phase) mg P/l
Ple = influent phosphorus concentration removed with the stabilized excess sludge mg P/l
Pte = effluent total phosphorus concentration mg P/l
Pte,max = maximum phosphorus effluent concentration (all released phosphorus recycled to aeration tank) mg P/l
Pte,min = mimimum phosphorus effluent concentration (no recyle of released phosphorus to aeration tank) mg P/l
Pti = influent phosphorus concentration mg P/l
q= excess sludge flow m3/d
qth = thickened excess sludge flow m3/d
Rdi = hydraulic retention time in sludge digester days
Rdn = degree of solids conversion inert and endogenous sludge (-)
Symbol Description Unit of measure

Rdp = degree of solids conversion active sludge (-)


Rs = sludge age days
Rth = hydraulic retention time in sludge digester hours
sc = critical sludge recirculation factor (-)
Sfd = safety factor in design final settler (-)
Sfth = safety factor in design sludge thickener (-)
Sti = influent COD concentration mg COD/l
T dig = temperature in the anaerobic digester deg C
T max = maximum reactor temperature deg C
T min = minimum reactor temperature deg C
Vd = volume of final settler m3
Vdi = digester volume m3
vo = vesiling constant m/d
Vt = volume of aeration tank m3
Vth = thickener volume m3
Xa = active sludge concentration (in aeration tank) kg VSS/m3
Xr = return sludge concentration kg TSS/m3
Xt = total sludge concentration (in aeration tank) kg TSS/m3
Xte = stabilized total sludge concentration kg TSS/m3
Xthl = limiting thickening sludge concentration kg TSS/m3
Xthr = thickened sludge concentration kg TSS/m3
Xv = volatile sludge concentration (in aeration tank) kg VSS/m3
Y= yield mg VSS/mg COD