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The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers’ needs and wants better than competitors. Marketers are always looking for emerging customer trends that suggest new marketing opportunities. Successful marketing requires that companies fully connect with their customers. Adopting a marketing orientation means understanding customers – gaining a 360-degree view of both their daily lives and the changes that occur during their lifetimes so that the right products are marketed to the right customers in the right way. WHAT INFLUENCES CONSUMER BEHAVIOR? A consumer’s buying behavior is influenced by cultural, social, and personal factors. Cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence. Cultural Factors Culture is the fundamental determinant of a persons’ wants and behaviors. Each culture consists of smaller subcultures that provide more specific identification and socialization for their members. A) Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions. B) Multicultural marketing grew out of careful marketing research that revealed that different ethic and demographic niches did not always respond favorable to massmarket advertising. C) Virtually all human societies exhibit social stratification. Social stratification sometimes takes the form of a caste system where members of different castes are reared for certain roles and cannot change their caste membership. D) More frequently, it takes the form of social classes, relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society that are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior. E) One class depiction of social classes in the United States defined seven ascending levels: 1) Lower lowers 2) Upper lowers 3) Working class 4) Middle class 5) Upper middles 6) Lower uppers 7) Upper uppers F) Social classes have several characteristics:
E) Marketers try to reach opinion leaders by identifying demographic and psychographic characteristics associated with opinion leadership. identifying the media read by opinion leaders. professional groups that tend to be more formal. a consumer’s behavior is influenced by such social factors as reference groups. 1) Groups having a direct influence on a person are called membership groups. Social Factors In addition to cultural factors. G) Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in many areas. and directing messages at opinion leaders. 2) Reference groups expose an individual to new behaviors and lifestyles. family. H) Social classes differ in media preferences. 3) They create pressures for conformity that may affect actual product and brand choices. etc. b. D) An opinion leader is the person in informal. . 4) People are also influenced by groups to which they do no belong: a. product-related communications who offers advice or information about a specific product or product category. Some membership groups are secondary groups such as religious. Aspiration groups are those a person hopes to join. a. and co-workers with whom the person interacts fairly continuously and informally. neighbors. friends.1) Those within a class tend to behave more alike than persons from two different social classes 2) Persons are perceived as occupying inferior or superior positions according to social class. Some memberships groups are primary groups such as family. C) Manufacturers of products and brands where group influence is strong must determine how to reach and influence opinion leaders in these reference groups. 3) Social class is indicated by a cluster of variables (occupation. b. The buyer evaluates these elements together with the monetary cost to form a total customer cost. 4) Individuals can move up or down the social-class ladder.) rather than by any single variable. Dissociative groups are those whose values or behavior an individual rejects. and social roles and statuses. A) A person’s reference groups consists of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence on his/her attitudes or behavior. I) There are language differences among the social classes. income. influencing attitudes and self-concept.
stability. Occupation and Economic Circumstances Occupation influences consumption patterns and economic circumstances influence product. the vast majority of husbands and wives engage in more joint decision-making. Age and Stage in the Life Cycle People buy different goods and services over a lifetime. Roles and Statuses A) A person participates in many groups and a person’s position in each group can be defined in terms of role and status. Adults experience certain “passages” or “transformations” as they go through life. 2) A more direct influence on everyday buying behavior is the family of procreation –namely. B) Each role carries a status. C) Marketers must be aware of the status symbol potential of products and brands. B) The makeup of the family has changed dramatically. occupation and economic circumstances. 1) The family of orientation consists of parents and siblings. A) We can distinguish between two families in the buyer’s life. one’s spouse and children. personality and selfconcept. F) Another shift in buying patterns is an increase in the amount of dollars spent and the direct and indirect influence wielded by children and teens. and family members constitute the most influential primary reference group. E) Men and women may respond differently to marketing messages. These include the buyer’s age and stage in the life cycle. Product choice is greatly affected by economic circumstances including: A) Spendable income (level. C) Marketers are interested in the roles and relative influence of family members in the purchase of a large variety of products and services. and time pattern) B) Savings and assets C) Debts D) Borrowing power E) Attitudes toward spending and saving .Family The family is the most important consumer-buying organization in society. A) Critical life events or transitions give rise to new needs. Personal Factors A buyer’s decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics. and lifestyle and values. D) With expensive products and services.
and opinions. social class. D) Lifestyles are shaped partly by whether consumers are money-constrained or timeconstrained. D) Although in some cases. the match may be based on the consumer’s ideal self-concept (how we would like to view ourselves). A) The idea is that brands have personalities and consumers are likely to choose brands whose personalities match their own. A lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities. interests. KEY PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES The starting point for understanding consumer behavior is the stimulus-response model. . doing two or more things at the same time. Personality: A set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli. Jennifer Aaker identified the following five traits: 1) Sincerity (down-to-earth) 2) Excitement (daring) 3) Competence (reliable) 4) Sophistication (upper-class) 5) Ruggedness (outdoorsy) C) Consumers also choose and use brand that have a brand personality consistent with their own actual self-concept (how one views themselves). and opinions. B) Marketers search for relationships between their products and lifestyle groups. C) Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities. and occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. Lifestyles and Value A) People from the same subculture. Lifestyle portrays the “whole person” interacting with his or her environment. E) Consumers who experience time famine are pront to multitasking.Personality and Self-Concept Each person has personality characteristics that influence his or her buying behavior. B) We define brand personality as the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. E) Others self-concept (how we think others see us). interests.
Some needs are: A) Biogenic (arise from physiological states of tension such as hunger). A) Maslow’s answer is that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy. sentence completion. These satisfiers will make the major difference as to which brand the customer buys. . Maslow’s Theory Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times. they are: 1) Physiological needs 2) Safety needs 3) Social needs 4) Esteem needs 5) Self-actualization needs Herzberg’s Theory Frederick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) from satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction). Motivation: Freud. B) Motivation researchers often collect “in-depth interviews” to uncover deeper motives triggered by a product. Maslow. A) Herzberg’s theory has two implications: 1) Sellers should do their best to avoid dissatisfiers. and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. B) In order of importance. 2) Sellers should identify the major satisfiers or motivators of purchase in the market and supply them. C) A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive the person to act. 1) Projective techniques such as word association. B) Others are psychogenic and arise from a need for recognition. The absence of dissatisfiers is not enough. Herzberg A person has many needs at any given time. esteem. from the most pressing to the least pressing. Freud’s Theory Sigmund Freud assumed that the psychological forces shaping people’s behavior are largely unconscious. A) A technique called laddering can be used to trace a person’s motivations from the stated instrumental ones to the more terminal ones. or belonging. satisfiers must be present to motivate a purchase.A) The marketer’s task is to understand what happens in the consumer’s consciousness between the arrival of the outside marketing stimuli and the ultimate purchase decisions. and role-playing are used.