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You are on page 1of 6

GOAL 1 USING LOGISTIC GROWTH FUNCTIONS

What you should learn

GOAL 1 Evaluate and graph In this lesson you will study a family of functions of the form

logistic growth functions.

c

GOAL 2 Use logistic growth y =

ºrx

1 + ae

functions to model real-life

where a, c, and r are all positive constants. Functions of this form are called

quantities, such as a yeast

logistic growth functions.

population in Exs. 50 and 51.

To solve real-life EXAMPLE 1 Evaluating a Logistic Growth Function

problems, such as modeling

the height of a sunflower 100

Evaluate ƒ(x) =

º2x

for each value of x.

in Example 5. AL LI 1 + 9e

FE

RE

SOLUTION

100 100 100

a. ƒ(º3) = ≈ 0.0275 b. ƒ(0) = = = 10

1 + 9eº2(º3) 1 + 9eº2(0) 10

100 100

c. ƒ(2) = ≈ 85.8 d. ƒ(4) = ≈ 99.7

1 + 9eº2(2) 1 + 9eº2(4)

ACTIVITY

Developing

Concepts Graphs of Logistic Growth Functions

1 Use a graphing calculator to graph the logistic growth function from

Example 1. Trace along the graph to determine the function’s end behavior.

2 Use a graphing calculator to graph each of the following. Then describe the

basic shape of the graph of a logistic growth function.

1 10 5

a. y = b. y = c. y =

1 + eº x 1 + 5eº2x 1 + 10eº2x

yc

function ƒ(x) increases without bound as

x increases. On the other hand, the logistic growth decreasing

increasing

c growth

function y =

ºrx

has y = c as an upper bound. growth

rate

1 + ae rate

Logistic growth functions are used to model real-life x

quantities whose growth levels off because the rate of point of maximum growth

growth changes—from an increasing growth rate to a

decreasing growth rate.

Page 1 of 2

c

The graph of y =

ºrx

has the following characteristics:

1 + ae

• The horizontal lines y = 0 and y = c are asymptotes.

c

• The y-intercept is

1+a

.

• The domain is all real numbers, and the range is 0 < y < c.

• The graph is increasing from left to right. To the left of its point of

maximum growth, ln a c

r 2

, , the rate of increase is increasing. To

the right of its point of maximum growth, the rate of increase is decreasing.

6

Graph y =

º0.5x

.

1 + 2e

SOLUTION

Begin by sketching the upper horizontal asymptote, y

y = 6. Then plot the y-intercept at (0, 2) and the point y6

ln0.52 62

of maximum growth , ≈ (1.4, 3). Finally,

6

from left to right, draw a curve that starts just above y (1.4, 3)

1 2e0.5 x

the x-axis, curves up to the point of maximum growth, 1

(0, 2)

and then levels off as it approaches the upper

1 x

horizontal asymptote.

50

STUDENT HELP Solve

º3x

= 40.

NE

1 + 10e

ER T

HOMEWORK HELP

INT

www.mcdougallittell.com 50

for extra examples. = 40 Write original equation.

1 + 10eº3x

50 = (1 + 10eº3x)(40) Multiply each side by 1 + 10e–3x.

1

º ln 0.025 = x Divide each side by º3.

3

1.23 ≈ x Use a calculator.

Page 1 of 2

Logistic growth functions are often more useful as models than exponential growth

functions because they account for constraints placed on the growth. An example is a

bacteria culture allowed to grow under initially ideal conditions, followed by less

favorable conditions that inhibit growth.

L

AL I EXAMPLE 4 Using a Logistic Growth Model

FE

RE

Biology A colony of the bacteria B. dendroides is growing in a petri dish. The colony’s area A

(in square centimeters) can be modeled by

49.9

A =

º1.96t

1 + 134e

where t is the elapsed time in days. Graph the function and describe what it tells you

about the growth of the bacteria colony.

SOLUTION

The graph of the model is shown. The initial

area is Bacteria Growth

49.9 A A 49.9

A = ≈ 0.37 cm2.

Area (cm 2)

º1.96(0)

1 + 134e 40 49.9

(0, 0.37) A

The colony grows more and more rapidly until 1 134e1.96 t

20 (2.5, 25)

ln 134

t = ≈ 2.5 days.

1.96 0

t

0 2 4 6 8 10

Then the rate of growth decreases. The colony’s Time (days)

area is limited to A = 49.9 cm2, which might

possibly be the area of the petri dish.

L

AL I EXAMPLE 5 Writing a Logistic Growth Model

FE

RE

Botany You planted a sunflower seedling and kept track of its height h (in centimeters)

over time t (in weeks). Find a model that gives h as a function of t.

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

h 18 33 56 90 130 170 203 225 239 247 251

SOLUTION

A scatter plot shows that the data can be modeled

by a logistic growth function.

STUDENT HELP

NE

The logistic regression feature of a graphing

ER T

KEYSTROKE HELP calculator returns the values shown at the right.

INT

X=5 Y=170.21

www.mcdougallittell.com The model is:

to see keystrokes for

several models of 256

h =

º0.65 t

calculators. 1 + 13e

Page 1 of 2

GUIDED PRACTICE

Vocabulary Check ✓ 1. What is the name of a function having the form y =

c

1 + aeºrx

where c, a, and r

are positive constants?

Concept Check ✓ 2. What is a significant difference between using exponential growth functions and

using logistic growth functions as models for real-life quantities?

8

3. What is the significance of the point (ln 3, 4) on the graph of ƒ(x) = ?

1 + 3e–x

Skill Check ✓ Evaluate the function ƒ(x) = }}

º2x

12

for the given value of x.

1 + 5e

1

7. ƒ º

2

8. ƒ(10)

maximum growth.

5 8 2

9. ƒ(x) = 10. ƒ(x) = 11. ƒ(x) =

1 + 4eº2.5x 1 + 3eº0.4x 1 + 4eº0.25x

18 30 12.5

12. = 10 13. = 10 14. =9

1 + 2eº2x 1 + 4eºx 1 + 7eº0.2x

15. PLANTING SEEDS You planted a seedling and kept track of its height h (in

centimeters) over time t (in weeks). Use the data in the table to find a model

that gives h as a function of t.

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

h 5 12 26 39 51 88 94 103 112

7

STUDENT HELP EVALUATING FUNCTIONS Evaluate the function ƒ(x) = }}

ºx

for the

1 + 3e

given value of x.

Extra Practice

to help you master

16. ƒ(1) 17. ƒ(3) 18. ƒ(º1) 19. ƒ(º6)

skills is on p. 952.

20. ƒ(0)

3

21. ƒ

4

22. ƒ(2.2) 23. ƒ(º0.9)

4 3 2

24. ƒ(x) = 25. ƒ(x) = 26. ƒ(x) =

STUDENT HELP 1 + 2eº3x 1 + 2eº4x 1 + 3eº4x

HOMEWORK HELP A. B. C.

y y y

Example 1: Exs. 16–23

Example 2: Exs. 24–35

2 2 2

Example 3: Exs. 36–44

Example 4: Exs. 45–49

Example 5: Exs. 50, 51 1 x 1 x 1 x

Page 1 of 2

y-intercept, and point of maximum growth.

1 2 5

27. y = 28. y = 29. y =

1 + 6eºx 1 + 0.4eº0.3x 1 + eº10x

4 4 3

30. y = 31. y = 32. y =

1 + 0.08eº2.1x 1 + 3eº3x 1 + 3eº8x

8 10 6

33. y = 34. y = 35. y =

1 + eº1.02 x 1 + 6eº0.5x 1 + 0.8eº2x

SOLVING EQUATIONS Solve the equation.

8 10 3

36. =5 37. =9 38. =1

1 + 3eºx 1 + 2eº4x 1 + 18eºx

28 82 36

39. = 20 40. = 68 41. = 30

1 + 13eº2x 1 + 50eºx 1 + 7eº10x

41 9 3 40

42. =7 43. = 44. = 6.4

1 + 14.9eº6x 1 + 5e º0.2x 4 1 + 2.5eº0.4x

OWNING A VCR In Exercises 45–47, use the following information.

The number of households in the United States that own VCRs has shown logistic

growth from 1980 through 1999. The number H (in millions) of households can be

modeled by the equation

91.86

H = º0.4t

1 + 22.96e

where t is the number of years since 1980. Source: Veronis, Suhler & Associates

45. In what year were there approximately 86 million households with VCRs?

46. Graph the model. In what year did the growth rate for the number of households

stop increasing and start decreasing?

47. What is the long-term trend in VCR ownership?

The gross domestic product (GDP) of the United States has shown logistic growth

FOCUS ON from 1970 through 1992. The gross domestic product G (in billions of dollars) can be

APPLICATIONS

modeled by the equation

9200

G =

º0.121t

1 + 8.03e

where t is the number of years since 1970. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

48. In what year was the GDP approximately $5000 billion?

49. Graph the model. When did the GDP reach its point of maximum growth?

In biology class, you observed the biomass of a yeast population over a period of

time. The table gives the yeast mass y (in grams) after t hours.

L

AL I t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ECONOMICS

FE

RE

Gross domestic y 9.6 18.3 29.0 47.2 71.1 119.1 174.6 257.3 350.7 441.0

product, the focus of Exs. 48

and 49, is the value of all 50. Draw a scatter plot of the data.

goods and services

produced within a country 51. Find a model that gives y as a function of t using the logistic regression feature of

during a given period. a graphing calculator.

Page 1 of 2

Test 52. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM The table shows the population P (in millions)

of the United States from 1800 to 1870 where t represents the number of

Preparation years since 1800. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census

a. Use a graphing calculator to find an exponential growth t P

model and a logistic growth model for the data. Then

graph both models. 0 5.3

10 7.2

STUDENT HELP b. Use the models from part (a) to find the year when the

NE population was about 92 million. Which of the models gives 20 9.6

ER T

DATA UPDATE

INT

Visit our Web site a year that is closer to 1910, the correct answer? Explain 30 12.9

www.mcdougallittell.com why you think that model is more accurate. 40 17.0

c. Use each model to predict the population in 2010. Which 50 23.2

model gives a population closer to 297.7 million, the 60 31.4

predicted population from the U.S. Bureau of the Census?

70 39.8

★ Challenge 53. ANALYZING MODELS The graph of a logistic growth function

c c

y =

ºrx

reaches its point of maximum growth where y = .

1 + ae 2

ln a

Show that the x-coordinate of this point is x = .

r

MIXED REVIEW

WRITING EQUATIONS The variables x and y vary directly. Write an equation

that relates the variables. (Review 2.4 for 9.1)

54. x = 4, y = 36 55. x = º5, y = 10 56. x = 2, y = 13

57. x = 40, y = 5 58. x = 0.1, y = 0.9 59. x = 1, y = 0.2

60. log y = 0.9 log x + 2.11 61. ln y = 0.94 º 2.44x

62. log y = º1.82 + 0.4x 63. log y = º0.75 log x º 1.76

Write an exponential function of the form y = abx whose graph passes through

the given points. (Lesson 8.7)

1. (2, 3), (5, 12) 2. (1, 16), (3, 45) 3. (5, 9), (8, 35)

Write a power function of the form y = ax b whose graph passes through the

given points. (Lesson 8.7)

4. (2, 28), (8, 192) 5. (1, 0.5), (6, 48) 6. (5, 40), (2, 6)

7. FLU VIRUS The spread of a virus through a student population can be

5000

modeled by S = where S is the total number of students infected

1 + 4999eº0.8t

after t days. Graph the model and tell when the point of maximum growth in

infections is reached. (Lesson 8.8)

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