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# MECHANICAL ENGINEEING DEPARTMENT

## TUTORIAL-1: Calculation of Stress and Strain

1 A tube has an outer diameter of 60mm and wall thickness of 3.0 mm. It is subjected to a bending moment of
1.8 kN·m and a torque of 2.5 kN·m. Determine the maximum normal stress and the maximum shear stress.
2 A pipe with closed ends has an outer diameter of 80mm and wall thickness of 2.0 mm. It is subjected to an
internal pressure of 10MPa and a bending moment of 2.0 kN·m. Determine the maximum normal stress and
the maximum shear stress. Neglect the localized effects of the end closure.
3 A steel flat of thickness 10 mm tapers uniformly from 60 mm at one end to 40 mm at other end in a length of
600 mm. If the bar is subjected to a load of 80 kN, find its extension. Take E = 2 × 105 MPa. What is the
percentage error if average area is used for calculating extension?
4 The bar shown in Fig. is tested in universal testing machine. It is observed that at a load of 40 kN the total
extension of the bar is 0.280 mm. Determine the Young’s modulus of the material.

5 A bar of 25 mm diameter is tested in tension. It is observed that when a load of 60 kN is applied, the extension
measured over a gauge length of 200 mm is 0.12 mm and contraction in diameter is 0.0045 mm. Find Poisson’s
ratio and elastic constants E, G, K.
6 A compound bar consists of a circular rod of steel of 25 mm diameter rigidly fixed into a copper tube of internal
diameter 25 mm and external diameter 40. If the compound bar is subjected to a load of 120 kN, find the stresses
developed in the two materials. Take Es = 2 ×105 N/mm2 and Ec = 1.2 × 105 N/mm2.
7 An element of material is subjected to the following state of stress: σx = − 40, σy = 100, σz = 30, τxy = − 50,
τyz = 12, and τzx = 0MPa. Determine the following:
(a) Principal normal stresses and principal shear stresses.
(b) Maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress.
(c) Direction cosines for each principal normal stress axis.
8 Determine the octahedral normal and shear stresses for the state of stress: σx = 345MPa,
σy = 138MPa, σz = − 69MPa and τxy = 69MPa
9 A strain guage rosette of the type shown in Fig. is employed to measure strains on the free surface of an
aluminum alloy part, with the result being εx = 1900 × 10− 6, εy = 1250 × 10− 6, and ε45 = 2375 × 10− 6.
Determine the principal normal strains and the principal shear strains. Assume that no yielding has occurred.

10 Find the extension of the bar shown in Fig. 8.52 under an axial load of 25 kN.
TUTORIAL-2: Estimation of stresses and strain based on failure theories
11 A structure is composed of circular members of diameter d. At a certain position along one member the loading
is found to consist of a shear force of 10kN together with an axial tensile load of 20kN. If the elastic limit in
tension of the material of the members is 270MPa and there is to be a factor of safety of 4, estimate the
magnitude of d required according to the maximum principal stress theory, maximum shear stress theory and
the maximum shear strain energy theory. (Poisson’s ratio =0.283).
12 A thin cylinder pressure vessel with closed ends is required to withstand an internal pressure of 4MPa. The
inside diameter of the vessel is to be 500mm and a factor of safety of 4 is required. A sample of the proposed
material tested in simple tension gave a yield stress of 360MPa. Find the thickness of the vessel assuming
elastic failure to be the maximum shear stress and the maximum shear strain energy.
13 Determine the diameter of a cold-rolled steel shaft, 0.6 m long, used to transmit 50 hp at 600 rpm. The shaft is
simply supported at its ends in bearings. The shaft experiences bending owing to its own weight also. Use a
factor of safety 2. The tensile yield limit is 280 x 103 kPa and the shear yield limit is 140x103 kPa Use the
maximum shear stress theory.
14 In an engineering component made of ductile cast iron A 536 (65-45-12) material, the most severely stressed
point is subjected to the following state of stress: σx = − 50, σy = 120, σz = 40, τxy = − 60, τyz = 14, and τzx =
0MPa. Determine the safety factor against yielding by (a) the maximum shear stress criterion, and (b) the
octahedral shear stress criterion.
15 A steel shaft of 10 cm diameter is shrunk inside a bronze cylinder of 25 cm outer diameter. The shrink
allowance is 1 part per 1000 (i.e. 0.005 cm difference between the radii). Find the circumferential stresses in
the bronze cylinder at the inside and outer radii and the stress in the shaft.
Es = 210 x 106 kpa, Ebr = 107 x x 106 kpa, v = 0.3 for both metals.
16 A steel disk of 50 cm outside diameter and 10 cm inside diameter is shrunk on a steel shaft so that the pressure
between the shaft and disk at standstill is 364 3562 kPa. Take r = 0.0081/g kgm/cm3.
(a) Assuming that the shaft does not change its dimensions because of its own centrifugal force, find the speed
at which the disk is just free on the shaft.
(b) Solve the problem without making assumption (a).
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18 A steel tube has a mean diameter of 100mm and a thickness of 3mm. Calculate the torque that can be
transmitted by the tube with a factor of safety of 2.25 if the Tresca and Von Mises failure criteria are used. The
elastic limit in tension for steel is 225MPa.
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