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Chilled-Water Systems

A Trane Air Conditioning Clinic

ACES Training K Y Yow


23 Jan 2015

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chilled-Water Systems
period one
Types of Water Chillers

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Driving Sources

compressor-driven heat-driven

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Compressor Types

scroll

reciprocating

helical-rotary centrifugal
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Condenser Types

air-cooled

water-cooled

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Air-Cooled or Water-Cooled

water-cooled
air-cooled

0 tons 500 tons 1,000 tons 1,500 tons 2,000 tons 2,500 tons 3,000 tons
[0 kW] [1,759 kW] [3,517 kW] [5,276 kW] [7,034 kW] [8,793 kW] [10,551 kW]

chiller capacity

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


air-cooled or water-cooled
Comparison

air-cooled water-cooled
 Lower maintenance  Greater energy efficiency
 Packaged system  Longer equipment life
 Better low-ambient
operation
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1–2013
 Energy standard
 Building design and
materials
 Minimum equipment
efficiencies
 HVAC system design

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


ASHRAE Standard 15–2004
 Safety standard for
refrigerating systems
 Mechanical equipment
room
 Refrigerant monitors
 Alarms
 Mechanical ventilation
 Pressure-relief piping

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


equipment certification standards
AHRI Standard 550/590

 Purpose
 Establish definitions, testing,
and rating requirements
 Scope
 Factory designed and
prefabricated water chillers
 Vapor-compression
refrigeration
 Air-cooled and water-cooled
condensing

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chilled-Water Systems
period two
Chilled-Water System Design

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chilled-Water System Components

cooling tower

cooling coil

chiller
pumps
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chilled-Water System

air-cooled
chiller

coil
pump

control
valve

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Load-Terminal Control Options
 Three-way
modulating valve
 Two-way
modulating valve
 Face-and-bypass
dampers

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Three-Way Valve Control

airflow

three-way bypass
modulating pipe
valve

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Two-Way Valve Control

airflow

two-way
modulating valve

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Face-and-Bypass Damper Control

bypass
damper

airflow

face
damper
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Load-Terminal Control Options
 Three-way modulating valve
 Constant water flow
 Variable return-water temperature
 Two-way modulating valve
 Variable water flow (pump energy savings)
 Constant return-water temperature
 Face-and-bypass dampers
 Constant water flow
 Variable return-water temperature
 Enhanced dehumidification capability with “wild” coils
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chiller Evaporator Flow
 Constant flow is most
common
 Variable flow is
possible
 Can reduce energy
consumption
 Use only with evaporator
advanced chiller and
system controls

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Single-Chiller System
air-cooled
chiller

coil
pump

© American Standard Inc. 2001


three-way valve Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Multiple-Chiller Systems
 Redundancy
 Part-load efficiency

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


chillers piped in parallel
Single Pump
54°F
[12.2°C]
off

42°F 48°F
[5.6°C] [8.9°C]
on
54°F
[12.2°C]

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


chillers piped in parallel
Dedicated Pumps

off

42°F
[5.6°C]
on
54°F
[12.2°C] 60% to 70%
of system flow

coil starved for flow


© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
chillers piped in parallel
Dedicated Pumps

2 pumps

1 pump
head pressure

system
curve
65% 100%

percent flow
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chillers Piped in Series
electric
chiller
absorption
chiller

three-way valve

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


chillers piped in series
Equal Set Points
set point = 42°F [5.6°C] set point = 42°F [5.6°C]

42°F
48°F [5.6°C]
[8.9°C]

54°F
[12.2°C]

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


chillers piped in series
Staggered Set Points
set point = 48°F [8.9°C] set point = 42°F [5.6°C]

42°F
48°F [5.6°C]
[8.9°C]

52°F
[11.1°C]

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Primary-Secondary Configuration

production
pumps

distribution
pump
production
loop

distribution
loop

© American Standard Inc. 2001


two-way valve Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Primary-Secondary System Rules
 The bypass pipe should be free of restrictions
 Sized for minimal pressure drop
 Avoid random mixing of supply- and return-water
streams
 No check valve

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Production Loop

production
pumps
supply
tee

return
tee
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Manifolded Production Pumps

production
pumps

isolation
valves

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Distribution Loop
supply
tee
distribution
pump

return
tee

two-way valve
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Primary-Secondary System Rules
 The bypass pipe should be free of restrictions
 Load terminals should use two-way
modulating control valves

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Varying Distribution Flow

B
pump
curve

head pressure
A

pressure 0 50 100
difference percent flow
variable-speed control riding the pump curve
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Multiple Distribution Pumps

distribution
pumps

return
from loads

supply
© American Standard Inc. 2001
to loads Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Multiple Distribution Pumps

distribution
pumps
return
from loads
A
B
supply
C to loads
B C
A
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Tertiary Pumping

distribution
pump

tertiary
pump

two-way
valve
bleed line
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Distribution Loop Characteristics
 Reduced pump
energy use
 Distribution loop
sized for system
diversity
 Higher return-water
temperatures

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Primary-Secondary System Rules
 The bypass pipe should be free of restrictions
 Load terminals should use two-way
modulating control valves
 All chillers should be selected for the same
leaving chilled-water temperature and T

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


System Operation

supply
tee
production
loop

distribution
loop
return
tee

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Deficit Flow
1,000 gpm at 42°F
[63 L/s at 5.6°C]

1,000 gpm at 56°F


[63 L/s at 13.3°C] 1,200 gpm at 44.3°F
[76 L/s at 6.8°C]

1,200 gpm at 56°F


© American Standard Inc. 2001 [76 L/s at 13.3°C] Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Excess Flow
2,000 gpm at 42°F
[126 L/s at 5.6°C]

2,000 gpm at 54.6°F


[126 L/s at 12.6°C] 1,800 gpm at 42°F
[114 L/s at 5.6°C]

1,800 gpm at 56°F


© American Standard Inc. 2001 [114 L/s at 13.3°C] Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Control of Primary-Secondary System
condition response

deficit flow for start another


specified period of chiller and pump
time

excess flow greater turn off next chiller


than 110% to 115% of and pump
next pump to turn off

neither do nothing
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Types of Fluid Flow Meters
 Pressure-based
 Pitot tube
 Venturi
 Orifice plate
 Differential pressure
 Turbine and impeller
 Vortex
 Magnetic
 Ultrasonic
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Temperature-Based Calculations
supply
tee

system-level
controller
return
tee

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Chilled-Water Systems
period three
System Variations

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Electric Utility Deregulation

0.30
price of electricity, $/kWh

0.20

0.10

San Diego, CA
2000 May June July August September
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Fuel Choice Options

absorption
thermal storage
power

indirectly-coupled,
gas-engine
chillers
control interface
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chiller Efficiency Improvements
0.9 8.0
COP
chiller efficiency (kW/ton)

chiller efficiency (COP)


0.8 7.0

0.7 6.0

0.6 5.0
kW/ton
0.5 4.0

1970 1980 1990 2000


year
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Greater Focus on System Efficiency

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Trend Toward Lower Flow Rates
electric-driven chiller yesterday today

evaporator 2.4 gpm/ton 1.5 gpm/ton


flow rate [0.043 L/s/kW] [0.027 L/s/kW]

leaving 44°F 41°F


chilled-water [6.7°C] [5°C]
temperature

condenser 3.0 gpm/ton 2.0 gpm/ton


flow rate [0.054 L/s/kW] [0.036 L/s/kW]

entering 85°F 85°F


condenser-water [29.4°C] [29.4°C]
temperature
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Low-Flow Systems

750,000
annual energy consumption, kWh

600,000
chiller
450,000

300,000

150,000 pumps
cooling tower fans
0
base case low flow
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Variable-Primary-Flow Systems

variable-flow
pumps

check
valves
control
valve
two-way
valve
optional bypass
with three-way valve
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Critical VPF System Requirements
 Chillers must handle variable evaporator flow
 System must include a bypass
 System-level controls must limit the rate-of-
flow change
 Adequate time to design and commission
controls
 Operator must understand the system

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Preferential Chiller Loading

distribution
pump

equally
loaded
absorption
chiller
preferentially
loaded

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Sidestream Configuration

distribution
pump

heat-recovery
chiller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Heat-Recovery Chiller
heat-recovery
condenser

standard
condenser
evaporator

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Heat-Recovery Chiller Options
heat-recovery auxiliary
(dual) condenser condenser heat pump
 Second, full-  Second, smaller-  No extra
size condenser size condenser condenser
 Large heating  Preheating loads  Large base-heating
loads  Moderate
loads or continuous
 High hot-water hot-water operation
temperatures temperatures  Highhot-water
 Controlled  Uncontrolled
temperatures
 Controlled
 Degrades  Improves chiller
chiller efficiency efficiency  Good heating
efficiency
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Heat-Recovery Chiller Efficiency
cooling heat-recovery
chiller type mode mode
cooling-only 0.57 kW/ton not
centrifugal chiller [6.2 COP] applicable

heat-recovery 0.60 kW/ton 0.69 kW/ton


centrifugal chiller [5.9 COP] [5.1 COP]

cooling mode conditions:


• evaporator T = 44°F to 54°F [6.7°C to 12.2°C]
• condenser T = 85°F to 95°F [29.4°C to 35.0°C]
heat-recovery mode conditions:
• evaporator T = 44°F to 54°F [6.7°C to 12.2°C]
• condenser T = 85°F to 105°F [29.4°C to 40.6°C]
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Control of a Heat-Recovery Chiller
120
percent maximum pressure differential

100 A
B

unloading with
80
constant leaving hot-
C water temperature
unloading with
constant entering hot-
60 water temperature

0 50 100
© American Standard Inc. 2001
percent load Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Asymmetric Design
 Different chiller
capacities 10,000

annual operating hours


 Different chiller 8,000
efficiencies
6,000 lag
chiller
4,000

2,000 lead
chiller
0
50% / 50% 60% / 40%
chiller split
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Swing Chiller
equal-capacity
large chillers
small-capacity
“swing” chiller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Swing Chiller
100
swing chiller
80
percent cooling load

swing chiller
60
chiller 2
40

20
swing chiller chiller 1
0
chiller sequence
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
“Free” Cooling
 Airside economizer
 Waterside economizer
 Strainer cycle
 Plate-and-frame heat exchanger
 Refrigerant migration

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


waterside economizer
Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger

distribution
pump

plate-and-frame
© American Standard Inc. 2001
heat exchanger Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
waterside economizer
Refrigerant Migration
from
compressor

condenser
shutoff
valve
vapor
to migration
compressor
shutoff
valve evaporator
liquid
flow
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Application Outside Range of Chiller
240 gpm at 45°F
air-cooled [15 L/s at 7.2°C]
chiller

240 gpm at 56.7°F


[15 L/s at 13.7°C]
80 gpm at 45°F
[5 L/s at 7.2°C]
80 gpm at 80°F
[5 L/s at 26.7°C]

process load

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chilled-Water Systems
period four
Chiller-Plant Control

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chiller Controls
 Start–stop
 Chilled-water
temperature
control
 Monitor and
protect
 Adapt to
unusual
conditions

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Key Issues for Chiller-Plant Control
 When to turn a chiller on or off
 Which chiller to turn on or off
 How to recover from an equipment failure
 How to optimize system efficiency
 How to communicate with the operator

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chiller Sequencing
 Turning on an additional chiller
 Turning off a chiller
 Which chiller to turn on or off?

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


load indicators
Temperature

supply-water
temperature

return-water
temperature

chiller-plant
controller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


load indicators
Flow

flow
meter
chiller-plant
controller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


load indicators
Capacity

supply-water
temperature
flow
meter

return-water
temperature

chiller-plant
controller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chiller Rotation

equal-capacity chillers

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Chiller Rotation

small electric
chiller large electric
chiller
absorption
chiller

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Heat Recovery

standard
electric chillers

preferentially-loaded
heat-recovery
chiller
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Variable-Primary-Flow Systems

variable-flow
pumps

check
valves
control
valve
two-way
valve
optional bypass
with three-way valve
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
System Failure Recovery
 Maintain flow of chilled water
 Keep it simple
 Lock out failed equipment
 Turn on the next chiller in the sequence
 Notify the operator
 Allow the operator to intervene

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Contingency Planning

piping
stubouts

electrical
connections
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
System Timers
 Load-confirmation timer
 Avoids transient conditions
 Staging-interval timer
 Allows time for the system to
respond to turning a chiller on
 Minimum-cycle timer
 Prevents excessive cycling

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Unload Before Start

2 pumps

1 pump
head pressure

system
curve

system flow rate 610 gpm 870 gpm


© American Standard Inc. 2001
[38.5 L/s] [54.9 L/s] Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Soft Loading
80°F
[26.7°C]
soft loading
supply-water temperature

(one chiller)

60°F
[15.6°C]

set point
40°F
[4.4°C] two chillers

0 30 60
© American Standard Inc. 2001 operating time, minutes Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
constant-volume pumping system
Chilled-Water Set Point Control
54°F
off [12.2°C]

37°F 45.5°F
[2.8°C] [7.5°C]
on
54°F
[12.2°C]

lowering operating
chiller set point
helps regain control
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
System Optimization
 Chiller
 Decrease condenser-water temperature
 Increase chilled-water temperature
 Chilled-water pump (variable-flow system)
 Increase chilled-water T
 Cooling tower
 Increase condenser-water temperature
 Condenser-water pump (variable-flow system)
 Increase condenser-water T
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chilled Water Reset
 Pros  Cons
 Reduces chiller energy  Increases pump energy
 Can work in constant- in variable-flow systems
flow systems  Can cause loss of
space humidity control
 Complicates chiller
sequencing control

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Condenser-Water Temperature
300,000
annual energy consumption, kWh

cooling
tower
200,000

chiller
100,000

85°F 70°F 55°F optimal


[29.4°C] [21.1°C] [12.8°C] control
© American Standard Inc. 2001 condenser-water temperature set point Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Control of Condensing Pressure

condenser

control
panel
evaporator

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Operator Training and Support

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Operator Interface

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


chiller operating log
ASHRAE Guideline 3
 Chilled-water inlet and outlet  Compressor-refrigerant suction
temperatures and pressures and discharge temperatures
 Chilled water flow  Oil pressures, temperature, and
 Evaporator-refrigerant levels
temperature and pressures  Refrigerant level
 Evaporator approach  Vibration levels
temperature
 Condenser-water inlet and  Addition of refrigerant or oil
outlet temperatures and
pressures
 Condenser water flow
 Condenser-refrigerant
temperature and pressures
 Condenser approach
temperature
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Chilled-Water Systems
period five
Review

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Review—Period One
 Vapor-compression
water chillers
 Air-cooled versus water-
cooled
 Absorption water
chillers
 Equipment rating
standards
 ASHRAE/IESNA
Standard 90.1-2013

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN


Review—Period Two
 Load-terminal control
 Three-way valve
 Two-way valve
 Face-and-bypass
dampers
 Parallel configuration
 Series configuration
 Primary-secondary
configuration primary-secondary system
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Review—Period Three
 Hybrid systems
 Low-flow systems
 Variable-primary-flow systems
 Preferential loading
 Heat recovery
 Asymmetric design
 “Free” (reduced-energy) cooling
 Application of a chiller outside its normal
operating range
© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN
Review—Period Four
 Chiller sequencing
 Failure recovery
 Contingency
planning
 System tuning
 System optimization
 Operator interface

© American Standard Inc. 2001 Air Conditioning Clinic TRG-TRC016-EN