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Electric Propulsion Systems

Permanent Magnet Motors


– Overview of Direct Current Machines
– Construction
– Principle of Operation
– Types of DC Machine
– Power Flow Diagram
– Speed Control


• Upon completion of the chapter the student
should be able to:
– State the principle by which machines convert
mechanical energy to electrical energy.
– Discuss the operating differences between different
types of generators
– Understand the principle of DC generator as it
represents a logical behavior of dc motors.


Background • Energy • Power • Power loss • Analysis • Test Open .

• Example: “effort” times “speed” Open . Energy • Work is energy. • Example: “effort” times “displacement” – Force is effort – Distance is displacement Power • Power is how fast work gets done.

Power • Power is a measure of how fast work gets done. • POWER = EFFORT x FLOW (speed) “EFFORT” “FLOW” – force –travel speed – torque –rotating speed – pressure –flow of fluid – voltage –flow of electrons – thinking –doing Open .

cables – Bearings. balls. guides – Tires. belts. Power Loss in the Mechanism • Some power from the motor is lost due to friction in the mechanism – Gears. or other deformable items – Damage – Contamination • Power loss is heat Open .

Power required at the motor • Power at the motor = power required at the point of use + power lost in the mechanism • Power loss is heat Open .

Use appropriate gear ratio. Overloading will cause excessive temperature rise. damping. Power loss in the motor • Power is lost in the motor due to friction. and electrical resistance • Power loss is heat. Open .

speed is rotating FLOW – Torque = force x radius • Voltage is electrical EFFORT. current is FLOW of electrons • Power = EFFORT x FLOW – Mechanical power P(mech) = torque x speed – Electrical power P(elec) = Open voltage x current . Basic Theory • Torque is rotating EFFORT.

kW) . 1 lb. mNm) k = kilo. Alternate Item here Comment SI unit iation unit Conversion Force Mechanical effort newton N lb.45 N Distance Mechanical displacement metre m In.= one thousand (km.0254 m Speed Travelling speed metre/second m/s mph 1 mph = 0.= one thousandth (mm. h 1 h = 3600 s Voltage V Electrical effort volt V Current i Electrical flow ampere A Power P Rate of work watt W hp 1 hp = 746 W Resistance R Cause of power loss as heat ohm W Energy Work joule (Nm) J ft-lb Pressure Fluid effort pascal (N/m2) Pa psi 1 psi = 6900 Pa 3 Flow Fluid flow (at stated pressure) cubic metre/s m /s CFM 1 CFM = 0. = 4.00047 m3/s Open Prefixes: m = milli. Units. Conversions International System (SI) of units Symbol used Abbrev. 1 in..105 rad/s Time Don’t have much second s min.45 m/s Torque t Turning effort newton metre Nm lb-in Angle Angular displacement radian rad degree 360 ° = 2p rad Speed w Rotating speed radian/second rad/s rpm 1 rpm = 0. = 0.

Basic Motor Theory Open .

Electrical Components Open .

Basic Motor Theory Open .

Basic Motor Theory
Important motor parameters

• Applied voltage ( V )

• Stall torque ( tstall )
• Stall current ( istall )
• Free speed ( wfree )

Open • Resistance ( R )

Fisher-Price Motor


Fisher-Price Motor (2005)
From data sheet:

Stall torque t stall = 0.65 Nm

Stall current istall = 148 A
Free speed w free = 2513 rad/s
Reference voltage V = 12 V

Resistance R = 12 V /148 A = 0.081 W


W 1500 Input power.50 0.Power loss Fisher-Price motor 2000 Output power. W Power (W) 1000 500 407 W 0 0.30 0.00 0.10 0.70 Torque (Nm) Peak power occurs when torque = t stall / 2. Open and when speed = w free /2 .40 0. W 1800 W Power loss.60 0.20 0. Fisher-Price Motor .

12 AWG wire: 1. 6 AWG wire: 0.5 mW/ft. Real World: Power loss 14 AWG wire: 3.0 mW/ft.2 mW/ft. (Copper at .9 mW/ft. Open 10 AWG wire: 1.

Simplified electrical system model Open .

in speed control applications… Open . • DC machines have DC outputs just because they have a mechanism converting AC voltages to DC voltages at their terminals. DC machines are also called commutating machines.e. • While dc motors are widely used. because direct current. therefore. is mainly produced by electronic rectifiers. Overview of Direct Current Machines • Direct-current (DC) machines are divided into dc generators and dc motors. they have AC voltages and current within them. aircraft. and portable electronics. • DC generators are not as common as they used to be. such automobile. • Most DC machines are similar to AC machines: i. • This mechanism is called a commutator. when required.

• In this example. DC Generator • A dc generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy (dc voltage and current) by using the principle of magnetic induction. the ends of the wire loop have been connected to two slip rings mounted on the shaft. while brushes are used to carry the current from the loop to the outside of the circuit. Principle of magnetic induction in DC machine Open .

• An dc motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by supplying a dc power (voltage and current). • An advantage of DC motors is that it is easy to control their speed in a wide diapason. DC Motor • DC motors are everywhere! In a house. Open . almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an DC (direct current) motor.

Open . Construction of DC machine Cutaway view of a dc motor Stator with poles visible.

brushes Open . Construction of DC machine segments Rotor of a dc motor.

armature Stator is the stationary part .field Armature coil Brushes Stator: non-moving coil Rotor: rotating part Open . Construction of DC machine Rotor is the rotating part .

loops are generally placed in slots of an iron core • The iron acts as a magnetic conductor by providing a low-reluctance path for magnetic lines of flux to increase the inductance of the loops and provide a higher induced voltage. Open Loops of wire are wound around slot in a metal core DC machine armature . commutator. • The entire assembly of iron core. • The commutator is connected to the slotted iron core. and windings is called the armature. • The windings of armatures are connected in different ways depending on the requirements of the machine. ARMATURE • More loops of wire = higher rectified voltage • In practical.

ARMATURE WINDINGS • Lap Wound Armatures – are used in machines designed for low voltage and high current – armatures are constructed with large wire because of high current – Eg: . p=no of poles Open . M=p . This permits the current capacity of each winding to be added and provides a higher operating current – No of current path.are used is in the starter motor of almost all automobiles – The windings of a lap wound armature are connected in parallel.

M=2 Open . but the current capacity remains the same – are used is in the small generator in hand-cranked megohmmeters – No of current path. ARMATURE WINDINGS (Cont) • Wave Wound Armatures – are used in machines designed for high voltage and low current – their windings connected in series – When the windings are connected in series. the voltage of each winding adds.

ARMATURE WINDINGS (Cont) • Frogleg Wound Armatures – the most used in practical nowadays – designed for use with moderate current and moderate armatures voltage – the windings are connected in series parallel. Open Frogleg wound armatures . – Most large DC machines use frogleg wound armatures.

• Two types of field windings are used : – series field – shunt field Open . FIELD WINDINGS • Most DC machines use wound electromagnets to provide the magnetic field.

– The use of square wire permits the windings to be laid closer together. FIELD WINDINGS (Cont) • Series field windings – are so named because they are connected in series with the armature – are made with relatively few windings turns of very large wire and have a very low resistance – usually found in large horsepower machines wound with square or rectangular wire. which increases the number of turns that can be wound in a particular space Open .

FIELD WINDINGS (Cont) – Square and rectangular wire can also be made physically smaller than round wire and still contain the same surface area Square wire contains more surface than round wire Open Square wire permits more turns than round wire in the same area .

– high resistance is used to limit current flow through the field. the armature. Open . or shunt. it has a much higher resistance than the series field. thus. – is intended to be connected in parallel with. FIELD WINDINGS (Cont) • Shunt field windings – is constructed with relatively many turns of small wire.

Open . • The windings are wound on the pole pieces in such a manner that when current flows through the winding it will produce alternate magnetic polarities. FIELD WINDINGS (Cont) • When a DC machine uses both series and shunt fields. each pole piece will contain both windings.

MACHINE WINDINGS OVERVIEW Winding armature field Self excited Separately Excited Wave Lap Frogleg M=2 M=p Open series shunt compound .

ii. and iv. the speed at which the conductor is moved. the angle at which the conductor cuts the magnetic field. iii. voltage is generated in the conductor. • The AMOUNT of voltage generated depends on: i. Principle operation of Generator • Whenever a conductor is moved within a magnetic field in such a way that the conductor cuts across magnetic lines of flux. the length of the conductor within the magnetic field Open . the strength of the magnetic field.

Principle of operation (Cont) Open .

Fleming’s Right hand rule (Generator Rule) • Use: To determine the direction of the induced emf/current of a conductor moving in a magnetic field. Open . • The POLARITY of the voltage depends on the direction of the magnetic lines of flux and the direction of movement of the conductor.

THE ELEMENTARY GENERATOR • The simplest elementary generator that can be built is an ac generator. • Sliding contacts (brushes) connect the loop to an Elementary Generator external circuit load in order to pick up or use the induced emf. • An elementary generator consists of a wire loop mounted on the shaft. • This will produce an induced emf in the loop. The dc generator will be discussed later. Open . the ac generator will be discussed first. • For this reason. so that it can be rotated in a stationary magnetic field. • Basic generating principles are most easily explained through the use of the elementary ac generator.

Elementary Generator (Conclusion) • Observes – The meter direction – The conductors of the armature loop – Direction of the current flow Open .

The position is called neutral plane. and no voltage is induced in the loop • Note that the brushes make contact with both of the commutator segments at this time. 00 Position (DC Neutral Plane) Open . THE ELEMENTARY DC GENERATOR • The loop is parallel to the magnetic lines of flux.

THE ELEMENTARY DC GENERATOR • Observes – The meter direction – The conductors of the armature loop – Direction of the current flow Open .

• If a loop contains 20 turns of wire. the voltage induced in the loops will add. the total voltage for this winding would be 40V (2V x 20 loops = 40 V). Since the loops form a series path. Effects of additional turns • To increase the amount of output voltage. it is common practice to increase the number of turns of wire for each loop. if each loop has an induced voltage of 2V. • In this example. • The reason for this is that each loop is connected in series with the other loops. the induced voltage will be 20 times greater than that for a single-loop conductor. Open Effects of additional turns .

By adding more armature coils. Effects of additional coils • When more than one loop is used. • Therefore. • Since there are now four commutator segments in the commutator and only two brushes. the average output voltage is higher and there is less pulsation of the rectified voltage. • Since there are four segments in the commutator. Effects of additional coils Open . the ripple is limited to the rise and fall between points A and B on the graph. a new segment passes each brush every 900 instead of every 1800. the ripple effect can be further reduced. Decreasing ripple in this way increases the effective voltage of the output. the voltage cannot fall any lower than at point A.

The Practical DC Generator • The actual construction and operation of a practical dc generator differs somewhat from our elementary generators • Nearly all practical generators use electromagnetic poles instead of the permanent magnets used in our elementary generator • The main advantages of using electromagnetic poles are: (1) increased field strength and (2) possible to control the strength of the fields. the output voltage of the generator can be controlled. Open Four-pole generator (without armature) . By varying the field strength. By varying the input voltage. the field strength is varied.

DC Motor Operation Open .

which opposes the electromagnetic torque. which drives some load. Generator Animation Open 48 . The load provides a mechanical torque. Motor: An eclectic current interacts with a magnetic field to cause an electromagnetic torque. Generator: A mechanical torque is applied to turn conductors through a magnetic field and generate electric current. The mechanical torque is opposed by an electromagnetic torque that results from the interaction of the current with the magnetic field.

Negative Battery Positive Battery Terminal Terminal Magnetic Field Lines When current moves through a conductor a circular magnetic field is induced around the conductor Open .

The Right Hand Rule The direction of the magnetic field surrounding the conductor can be found using your right hand Position the thumb of your right hand pointing in the direction of conventional current (Positive to Negative) and your fingers will wrap around the conductor in the direction of the induced magnetic field. Open .

Motor (armature) rotation is caused by the simultaneous attraction and repulsion between the electromagnetic field in the armature and a fixed magnetic field Armature Fixed Magnets Open .

A Conductor in a Fixed A Current Carrying Conductor Magnetic Field in a Fixed Magnetic Field Force Fixed Magnetic Field Open Induced Magnetic Field (Due to current) .

. A Motor Armature in a Fixed Magnetic Field S N Direction of Force (Torque) acting to turn the Armature (Conductor) The magnetic field surrounding a current carrying conductor interacts with an Open existing magnetic field.

Fleming's Left Hand (Motor) Rule Thumb = Direction of Conductor Motion Fore Finger = Direction of Fixed Magnetic Field (N to S) Middle Finger = Conventional Current Direction Determines the direction of DC current carrying conductor in a fixed magnetic field Open .

Fleming's Left Hand (Motor) Rule Direction of Rotation Fixed Magnetic Field Direction Conventional Current Direction S N Open .

A S Use the Left Hand Rule to Determine the Rotation Direction of the Armatures in A and B N Hint: You will have to turn your left hand upside down for example A B Notice that when the current through the armature is reversed. S Open it moves (Rotates) in the opposite direction N .

be/LAtPHANEfQo https://youtu. DC Machine Equivalent Circuit Open .

• This induced voltage is represented by a voltage source. DC Machine Equivalent Circuit • The magnetic field produced by the stator poles induces a voltage in the rotor (or armature) coils when the generator is rotated. which is connected in series. • The pole flux is produced by the DC excitation/field current. which is magnetically coupled to the rotor • The field circuit has resistance and a source • The voltage drop on the brushes represented by a battery Open . • The stator coil has resistance.

Self-excited Open . DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 1. Separately excited 3. Permanent magnet 2.

so low torque. Permanent magnet • The poles are made of permanent magnets. • Disadvantage is low flux density. Open . • Small size. DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 1. • No field winding required.

DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 2. B Armature Field winding winding Open . Separately excited The field flux is derived from a separate power source independent of the generator itself.

DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 3. Self-excited • Shunt machine The field flux is derived by connecting the field directly across the terminals of the generator. B Open .

DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 3. Self-excited Series machine • field are connected in series with armature B Open .

Self-excited Compounded dc generator • both a shunt and a series field are present Open . DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 3.

DC Machine Equivalent Circuit 3. Self-excited Compounded dc motor • both a shunt and a series field are present Open .

The field coils producing the magnetic flux are represented by inductor LF and resistor RF. Equivalent circuit of a DC motor The armature circuit (the entire rotor structure) is represented by an ideal voltage source EA and a resistor RA. Open . The resistor Radj represents an external variable resistor (sometimes lumped together with the field coil resistance) used to control the amount of current in the field circuit. A battery Vbrush in the opposite to a current flow in the machine direction indicates brush voltage drop.

which produce the magnetic flux. Open Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor.  The separate resistor Radj represents an external variable resistor used to control the amount of current in the field circuit. are represented by inductor LF and RF.  The field coils.  The brush voltage drop is represented by a small battery Vbrush opposing the direction of the current flow in the machine. DC Motor Equivalent Circuit. .  The armature is represented by an ideal voltage source EA and a resistor RA.

 Therefore. the internal resistance of the filed coils is sometimes lumped together with the variable resistor. the brush drop voltage may be left out or approximately included in the value of RA. Figure below. and the total is called RF . A Simplified Equivalent Circuit eliminating the Brush Voltage Drop and Combining Radj with the Field Resistance .  Also.  The brush drop voltage is often only a very tiny fraction of the generated voltage in the motor. Open . in cases where it is not critical.

2. Since no field windings are needed. Motor types: The permanent-magnet DC motor A permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor is a motor whose poles are made out of permanent magnets. There is always a risk of demagnetization from extensive heating or from armature reaction effects (via armature mmf). 2. Advantages: 1. Since no external field circuit is needed. Since permanent magnets produces weaker flux densities then externally supported shunt fields. these motors can be considerable smaller. Disadvantages: 1. Open . there are no field circuit copper losses. such motors have lower induced torque.

Separately excited DC motor: a field circuit is supplied from a separate constant voltage power source. From the above figure. Motor types: Separately Excited DC motors. The Equivalent Circuit of Separately Excited dc Motor. VF IF  VT  E A  I A RA RF Open IL  IA .

 From the above figure. Motor types: Shunt DC motors. VF IF  RF VT  E A  I A RA IL  IA  IF Open . Shunt DC motor: a field circuit gets its power from the armature terminals of the motor. The Equivalent Circuit of a Shunt dc Motor.

Motor types: The series DC motor A series DC motor is a DC motor whose field windings consists of a relatively few turns connected in series with armature circuit. Therefore: VT  E A  I A RA  RS  Open .

Motor types: Compounded DC motor A compounded DC motor is a motor with both a shunt and a series field. Current flowing into a dotted end of a coil (shunt or series) produces a positive mmf. If current flows into the dotted end of one coil and out of the dotted end of Short-shunt another coil. the resulting mmfs connection subtract – differential compounding. Long-shunt connection If current flows into the dotted ends of both coils. the resulting mmfs add to produce a larger total mmf – cumulative compounding. Open .

Motor types: Compounded DC motor The Kirchhoff’s voltage law equation for a compounded DC motor is VT  E A  I A RA  RS  The currents in a compounded DC motor are VT I A  IL  IF IF  RF Cumulatively compounded The mmf of a compounded DC motor: Fnet  FF  FSE  FAR Differentially compounded The effective shunt field current in a compounded DC motor: N SE FAR I  IF  * F IA  NF NF Number of turns Open .

MACHINE WINDINGS OVERVIEW Winding armature field Self excited Separately Excited Wave Lap Frogleg M=2 M=p Open series shunt compound .

MACHINE WINDINGS OVERVIEW armature Wave Lap Frogleg M=2 M=p Open .

MACHINE WINDINGS OVERVIEW field PMDC Self excited Separately Excited series shunt compound Open .

Torque Equation T  k AI A T = torque of armature (N-m) kA = geometry constant = flux/pole (Wb) IA = armature current (A) Open .

Geometry Constant pN kA  ( rad / s ). 2pM pN kA  ' ( rpm ) 60 M p = number of field poles N = number of active conductors on armature M = number of parallel paths in armature winding (M=p for lap winding & M=2 for wave winding) Open .

Open . Power Equation P  EI A  Tw P=power (W) – not counting losses E = EMF induced in armature (back EMF) (Electromotive force) IA = armature current (A) T = torque of armature (N-m) w = speed of rotation (rad/s) Note that Pin = VTIT which will be higher than P because of loss in the field and armature windings as well as rotational (friction) losses.

EMF Equation (Electromotive force) E  k Aw  k n ' n 60w A 2p E = EMF induced in armature (V) kA = geometry constant = flux/pole (Wb) w = speed of rotation (rad/s) n = speed of rotation of armature (rpm) Open .

For Shunt DC motors the terminal Voltage Equation VT  E  I A RA VT = voltage at motor terminals E = EMF induced in armature (V) IA = armature current (A) RA = armature resistance Open . EX.

Speed Equation VT  I A R A n k A'  (applies to shunt connected motor only) Note that  can also be written as kfIf where kf is /If (normally a constant ratio) Ratio Equation n2 E 2  n1 E1 Open .

Speed-Torque Speed Differential Compound Shunt Cumulative Compound Series Torque Open .

Power flow and losses in DC
Unfortunately, not all electrical power is converted to mechanical power by a motor
and not all mechanical power is converted to electrical power by a generator…

The efficiency of a DC machine is:

 x100%
Pin  Ploss
 x100%


The losses in DC machines
There are five categories of losses occurring in DC machines.

1. Electrical or copper losses – the resistive losses in the armature and field
windings of the machine.

Armature loss: PA  I A2 R A
Field loss: PF  I RF2

Where IA and IF are armature and field currents and RA and RF are armature and
field (winding) resistances usually measured at normal operating temperature.


The losses in DC machines
2. Brush (drop) losses – the power lost across the contact potential at the
brushes of the machine.

Where IA is the armature current and VBD is the brush voltage drop. The voltage
drop across the set of brushes is approximately constant over a large range of
armature currents and it is usually assumed to be about 2 V.

Other losses are exactly the same as in AC machines…


Core losses – hysteresis losses and eddy current losses. These losses vary as the cube of rotation speed n3.5 (speed of rotation of the magnetic field). They vary as B2 (square of flux density) and as n1. Open . Stray (Miscellaneous) losses – losses that cannot be classified in any of the previous categories. 4. stray losses are assumed as 1% of full load. For many machines. Mechanical losses – losses associated with mechanical effects: friction (friction of the bearings) and windage (friction between the moving parts of the machine and the air inside the casing). They are usually due to inaccuracies in modeling. 5. The losses in DC machines 3.

For a DC motor: Electrical power is input to the machine. The remaining power is ideally converted from electrical to mechanical form at the point labeled as Pconv. The power-flow diagram On of the most convenient technique to account for power losses in a machine is the power-flow diagram. Open . and the electrical and brush losses must be subtracted.

and core losses are subtracted. the stray losses. and the remaining mechanical power is output to the load. Open . The power-flow diagram The electrical power that is converted is Pconv  E A I A And the resulting mechanical power is Pconv  t indwm After the power is converted to mechanical form. mechanical losses.

120V DC lap-wound shunt motor has 960 conductors in the armature.8 A  60  n  w   638rpm  2p  E  VT  I A RA  120V  23. field winding current is 1.9rad / s  hp   K A 153 10 x10 3  I A  I L  I F  25 A 1.0 mWb.8 A0. It takes 25. flux/pole=10.4 KW.24kW KA  pN  6960  153 T   33. E  K Aw  746W  P  3hp  E 102V   2.24kW w   66.5 N  m w 66.75W  102V P 2. Armature resistance is 0.75W.20A. Find the speed and torque.9rad / s 2pM 2p 6 Open .2 A  23. 2. Example 1 A 6 pole.0 A from the supply at full load.

6 N  m Tnew  K A K F I Anew  0.025 P  Tw IA 2 40 A2 P 7.2 N  m 2 2 w 188rad / s Open .02530 A  22. 115V Dc series motor takes 40A at its full load speed of 1800rpm.46kW T   39. Example 2 A 10hp.6 N  m K AKF    0.46kW T  K AKF I A 2  hp  T 39. What is the torque at 30A? 2pn 2p 1800  T  K AI A  K A K F I F I A w   188rad / s 60 60 IF  I A  746W  P  10hp    7.

5 A  2. (a) What is the torque? VT 220V IF    0.5 A RF 440W 2pn 2p 1800  w   188rad / s 60 60 I A  I L  I F  10 A  0.07kW Open .5 A P 2. Example 3 (a) A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm.2W  218V P  EI A  218V 9.5 A  9.07 kW T   11. The armature resistance is 0.0 N  m w 188rad / s E  VT  I A RA  220V  9.2W and field winding resistance is 440W.5 A0.

16 T 20 N  m 60w IA    17.3 A  0. (b) What will be the speed and line current at a torque of 20 N-m (if field current is constant)? E  K Aw I L  I A  I F  17.8 A K A  E  218V  1.79 x10 3 rpm K A 1.16 2p (shunt is constant speed) Open . The armature resistance is 0.2W  217V w 188rad / s E 217V w   187 rad / s T  K AI A K A 1.16 E  VT  I A RA  220V  17.30. Example 3 (b) A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm.3 A n  1.5 A  17.2W and field winding resistance is 440W.

No of magnet of turns per coil. Nph . Rro -Motor length. ns . Bg . Design estimation of radial FLUX motor • Back EMF equation: (emf / ωm) = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppNphns (V/(rad/s) • Torque per phase equation: Tper phase = (NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppns)I (N.Maximum flux density.pitch factor (kp).m/phase) There are many design parameters. Nm . most important are: -Rotor outside radius.current I . skew factor (ks) and no of slots per pole per phase (Nspp) are typical design geometric and motor winding type factors. distribution factor (kd). L . Open .no of phase.

Design estimation of radial FLUX motor • Estimate back emf constant and torque constant of a radial flux electric motor with no of magnets. Bg = 1. Rro = 0. rotor radius. Nm = 6. Given: distribution factor. kp = 0. skew factor.833 and no of slots per pole phase.86 T.333.12 m. Nph = 3.m/phase) Open . Nspp = 1. current limited peak torque and maximum speed. Ke=(emf / ωm) = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppNphns (V/(rad/s) Tper phase = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppnsI (N. motor length. Vt = 72 V. no of turns per winding. ns = 30. Rs is 0.35 ohm. Is is 60 Amp and the phase-to-phase internal resistance. maximum current. determine the motor theoretical peak torque. L = 0. • If the supply voltage. pitch factor. ks = 0. air gap flux density. kd = 1.03 m. no of phases.

333 x 0. for this analysis we are only using values derived from similar design as given. Thus.86 x 0. kd.333 x 0. ks would require detail design refinements of the motor geometry. Ke = 6 x 1 x 0.985 N.1 N.86 x 0. Tmax = 3 x 6 x 1 x 0.833 x 1.m/phase) • For 3 phases and Imax = 60 A. VT = 72 V. • From the equation for back emf constant: Ke = (emf / ωm) = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppNphns (V/(rad/s) • Thus.03 x 0.105 V/rpm • If the supply voltage.002 x (2π/60) V/rpm = 0.m/A Open .12 x 1 x 30 x 60 = 59.105 = 686 rpm • The motor peak torque per single phase is given by: Tper phase = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppnsI (N.m and Kt = 0. the estimated motor top speed is: ωmax = 72 / 0.03 x 0. You can refer to the excel file for detail motor properties.12 x 1 x 3 x 30 = 1.002 V/(rad/s) • Or Ke = 1. Solution • Obviously to solve for kp.833 x 1.

2 rad/s) Open .985)) – = 489 rpm (51.345 = 205.105)(72 – (59. We can estimate the theoretical peak torque (no limit on current) of the motor utilizing the following equation: • Thus.35 Ω. at 0 rpm.6 N. Te = (72 – 0. Solution • Given Rs = 0.105 x 0) x 0.985 ÷ 0. – ω = (1/Ke)(Vt –TexRs/Kt) – = (1/0.1 x 0.m • The motor torque characteristic is plotted below: • At the knee region (rated speed).345 / 0.

Open . Solution • Estimated plot for Power (P = Tω) using only 3 points: • • Note: Actual plot would required more points as the peak power would occur around the knee region.

Open http://www. propose a design of a radial flux permanent magnet motor capable to deliver 20 Estimate the peak power output and using a CAD package. Group Activity 1 • Using the following magnet properties and dimensions. show your design.kjmagnetics.asp?prod=AX2C45-N&cat=168 .m peak torque at 16 A (72 V) from 0 rpm until 350 rpm rated speed.

Your design should be based on magnets you can find from K&J Magnetics. You may include gearing if necessary and you can choose either radial or axial flux configuration. Show your design using a CAD software and plot the proposed circuit schematics. Inc. Radial flux PM motor (emf / ωm) = NmkdkpksBgLRroNsppNphns Axial flux PM motor (emf / ωm) = Nm kd kp ks Bg Nspp ns Nph (Ro2-Ri2) Open . Group Activity 2 • Your company has been given a task to design a compact 3- phase permanent magnet generator system capable of generating 48 VDC (5 kW output) from a river turbine rotating at 30 rpm. Propose a suitable design for the generator and the power electronics required to convert from 3 phase input of the generator to 48 VDC output used to recharge a battery bank.