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This table is designed to help you decide which statistical test or descriptive statistic is

appropriate for your experiment. In order to use it, you must be able to identify all the

variables in the data set and tell what kind of variables they are.

The "hidden" nominal variable in a regression is the nominal variable that groups together

two or more observations; for example, in a regression of height and weight, the hidden

nominal variable is the name of each person. Most texts don't count this as a variable, and

you don't need to write it down (you could just group the the height and weight numbers by

putting them on the same line), so that's why I'm calling it "hidden."

test purpose notes example

variables variables variables

exact test for 1 - - test fit of used for small count the number of males and

goodness-of-fit observed sample sizes females in a small sample, test

frequencies to (less than expected 1:1 ratio

expected 1000)

frequencies

G-test for 1 - - test fit of used for large count the number of red, pink

goodness-of-fit observed sample sizes white flowers in a genetic cros

frequencies to (greater than fit to expected 1:2:1 ratio

expected 1000)

frequencies

Chi-square test 1 - - test fit of used for large count the number of red, pink

for goodness- observed sample sizes white flowers in a genetic cros

of-fit frequencies to (greater than fit to expected 1:2:1 ratio

expected 1000)

frequencies

Randomization 1 - - test fit of used for small count the number of offspring

test for observed sample sizes trihybrid genetic cross, test fit

goodness-of-fit frequencies to (less than expected 27:9:9:9:3:3:3:1 ratio

expected 1000) with a

frequencies large number

of categories

G-test of 2+ - - test hypothesis large sample count the number of apoptotic

independence that sizes (greater non-apoptotic cells in liver tiss

proportions are than 1000) organic chemists, molecular

the same in biologists, and regular people,

different the hypothesis that the proport

groups are the same

Chi-square test 2+ - - test hypothesis large sample count the number of apoptotic

of that sizes (greater non-apoptotic cells in liver tiss

independence proportions are than 1000) organic chemists, molecular

the same in biologists, and regular people,

different the hypothesis that the proport

groups are the same

Fisher's exact 2 - - test hypothesis used for small count the number of left-hande

test that sample sizes right-handed grad students in

proportions are (less than Biology and Animal Science, t

the same in 1000) the hypothesis that the proport

different are the same

groups

Randomization 2 - - test hypothesis used for small count the number of cells in ea

test of that sample sizes stage of the cell cycle in two

independence proportions are (less than different tissues, test the hypot

the same in 1000) and that the proportions are the sam

different large numbers

groups of categories

Mantel- 3 - - test hypothesis - count the number of left-hande

Haenzel test that right-handed grad students in

proportions are Biology and Animal Science a

the same in several universities, test the

repeated hypothesis that the proportions

pairings of two the same; alternate hypothesis

groups consistent direction of differen

arithmetic - 1 - description of - -

mean central

tendency of

data

median - 1 - description of more useful median height of trees in fores

central than mean for most trees are short seedlings a

tendency of very skewed the mean would be skewed by

data data few very tall trees

range - 1 - description of used more in -

dispersion of everyday life

data than in

scientific

statistics

variance - 1 - description of forms the -

dispersion of basis of many

data statistical

tests; in

squared units,

so not very

understandable

standard - 1 - description of in same units -

deviation dispersion of as original

data data, so more

understandable

than variance

standard error - 1 - description of - -

of the mean accuracy of an

estimate of a

mean

confidence - 1 - description of - -

interval accuracy of an

estimate of a

mean

one-way 1 1 - test the model I: the compare mean heavy metal co

anova, model I hypothesis that nominal in mussels from Nova Scotia,

the mean variable is Maine, Massachusetts, Connec

values of the meaningful, New York and New Jersey, to

continuous differences whether there is variation in th

variable are among groups level of pollution

the same in are interesting

different

groups

one-way 1 1 - estimate the model II: the compare mean heavy metal co

anova, model proportion of nominal in mussels from five different

II variance in the variable is families raised under common

continuous somewhat conditions, to see if there is

variable arbitrary, heritable variation in heavy me

"explained" by partitioning uptake

the nominal variance is

variable more

interesting

than

determining

which groups

are different

sequential 1 1 - after a - compare mean heavy metal co

Dunn-Sidak significant in mussels from Nova Scotia+

method one-way vs. Massachusetts+Connecticu

model I anova, Nova Scotia vs.

test the Massachusetts+Connecticut+N

homogeneity York

of means of

planned, non-

orthogonal

comparisons

of groups

Gabriel's 1 1 - after a - compare mean heavy metal co

comparison significant in mussels from Nova Scotia v

intervals one-way Maine, Nova Scotia vs.

model I anova, Massachusetts, Maine vs.

test for Massachusetts, etc.

significant

differences

between all

pairs of groups

Tukey-Kramer 1 1 - after a - compare mean heavy metal co

method significant in mussels from Nova Scotia v

one-way Maine, Nova Scotia vs.

model I anova, Massachusetts, Maine vs.

test for Massachusetts, etc.

significant

differences

between all

pairs of groups

Bartlett's test 1 1 - test the usually used to -

hypothesis that see whether

the variance of data fit one of

a continous the

variable is the assumptions of

same in an anova

different

groups

nested anova 2+ 1 - test hypothesis subgroups compare mean heavy metal co

that the mean must be in mussels from Nova Scotia,

values of the arbitrary Maine, Massachusetts, Connec

continous (model II) New York and New Jersey; se

variable are mussels from each location, w

the same in several metal measurements fr

different each mussel

groups, when

each group is

divided into

subgroups

two-way anova 2 1 - test the - compare cholesterol levels in b

hypothesis that of male vegetarians, female

different vegetarians, male carnivores, a

groups, female carnivores

classified two

ways, have the

same means of

the continuous

variable

paired t-test 2 1 - test the - compare the cholesterol level i

hypothesis that blood of people before vs. afte

the means of switching to a vegetarian diet

the continuous

variable are

the same in

paired data

linear - 2 - see whether - measure chirping speed in cric

regression variation in an at different temperatures, test

independent whether variation in temperatu

variable causes causes variation in chirping sp

some of the or use the estimated relationsh

variation in a estimate temperature from chir

dependent speed when no thermometer is

variable; available

estimate the

value of one

unmeasured

variable

corresponding

to a measured

variable

correlation - 2 - see whether - measure salt intake and fat inta

two variables different people's diets, to see

covary people who eat a lot of fat also

lot of salt

multiple - 3+ - fit an equation - measure air temperature, humi

regression relating body mass, leg length, see how

several X relate to chirping speed in cric

variables to a

single Y

variable

polynomial - 2 - test the - -

regression hypothesis that

an equation

with X2, X3,

etc. fits the Y

variable

significantly

better than a

linear

regression

analysis of 1 2 - test the first step is to measure chirping speed vs.

covariance hypothesis that test the temperature in four species of

different homogeneity crickets, see if there is signific

groups have of slopes; if variation among the species in

the same they are not slope or y-intercept of the

regression significantly relationships

lines different, the

homogeneity

of the Y-

intercepts is

tested

sign test 2 - 1 test often used as a compare the cholesterol level i

randomness of non- blood of people before vs. afte

direction of parametric switching to a vegetarian diet,

difference in alternative to a record whether it is higher or l

paired data paired t-test after the switch

Kruskal– 1 - 1 test the often used as a 40 ears of corn (8 from each of

Wallis test hypothesis that non- varieties) are judged for tastine

rankings are parametric and the mean rank is compared

the same in alternative to among varieties

different one-way

groups anova

Spearman rank - - 2 see whether often used as a 40 ears of corn (8 from each of

correlation the ranks of non- varieties) are judged for tastine

two variables parametric and prettiness, see whether pre

covary alternative to corn is also tastier

regression or

correlation

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