# Solution of Problems on Semiconductors & Superconductors

1. σ = e ( pµ p + nµ n ) = 1.6 × 10 −19 (8 × 10 20 × 0.05 + 5 × 1019 × 0.09) = 7.12 ohm–1 m–1

RH =
2. R H =

2
2
2
2
1 pµ p − nµ n
8 × 10 20 × (0.05) − 5 × 1019 × (0.09)
=
= 0.005
e ( pµ p + nµ n ) 2 1.6 × 10 −19 (8 × 10 20 × 0.05 + 5 × 1019 × 0.09) 2

2
2
1 pµ p − nµ n
=0 ⇒
e ( pµ p + nµ n ) 2

pµ p2 = nµ n2

pµ p
nµ n

=

µn
µp

Current density due to electrons alone, J n = e nµ n E
Total current density, J = e ( pµ p + nµ n ) E

∴ Fraction of current carried by electrons, f =

3. σ = A e

1+

1
=
pµ p
nµ n

1
1+

µn
µp

=

µp
µ p + µn

− E g / 2 kT
− E g / 2 k ( 20 + 273)

σ (20°C ) e
= −E
σ (0°C )
e

Je
nµ n
=
=
J
pµ p + nµ n

g

/ 2 k ( 0 + 273)

=

2
(given)
0.7

Eg ⎛ 1
1 ⎞
2 × 1.38 × 10 −23 273 × 293
⎛ 2 ⎞
⎛ 2 ⎞

×
× ln ⎜

⎟ = ln ⎜
⎟ which gives E g =
⎟ eV = 0.724 eV
−19
2 k ⎝ 273 293 ⎠
20
1.6 × 10
⎝ 0.7 ⎠
⎝ 0.7 ⎠

4. Intrinsic concentration of charge carriers,
3/ 2
⎛ 2π k T ⎞
− E / 2 kT
*
* 3/ 4
ni = 2 ⎜
e g
⎟ me m h
2
⎝ h

(

)

3/ 2

⎡ 2 × 3.142 × 1.38 × 10 − 23 × 300 ⎤
−19
− 23
−31
− 31 3 / 4
= 2× ⎢
× e −0.7×1.6×10 / (2×1.38×10 ×300 )
⎥ × 0.07 × 9.1 × 10 × 0.4 × 9.1 × 10
−34 2
6.625 × 10
⎣⎢
⎦⎥
18
3
= 2.3 x 10 /m
Eg 3
⎛ m * ⎞ 0.7 3 1.38 × 10 −23 × 300
⎛ 0 .4 ⎞
+ k T ln ⎜⎜ h* ⎟⎟ =
+ ×
× ln ⎜
Ef =
⎟ = 0.384 eV above the Valence Band
−19
2 4
2 4
1.6 × 10
⎝ 0.07 ⎠
⎝ me ⎠

(

)

(

)

5. Density of Ge atoms = 4.41 × 10 28 /m3
Density of As atoms = 0.1 % of density of Ge atoms = 4.41 × 10 25 /m3
Intrinsic carrier density, ni = 2.37 x 1019 /m3
Electron density, ne = density of donor (As) atoms as all of these are ionized
= 4.41 × 10 25 /m3
2
ni2
2.37 × 1019
2
=
= 1.27 × 1013 /m3
n e n h = ni ⇒ n h =
25
ne
4.41 × 10
1
1
1
=
=
= 0.47 ohm-m
Resistivity of intrinsic Ge, ρ i =
19
σ i ni e ( µ e + µ h ) 2.37 × 10 × 1.6 × 10 −19 × (0.38 + 0.18)
Resistivity of doped Ge,
1
1
1
=
=
= 3.73 × 10 − 7 ohm-m
ρ ex =
−19
25
13
σ ex e ( ne µ e + n h µ h ) 1.6 × 10 × ( 4.41 × 10 × 0.38 + 1.27 × 10 × 0.18)

(

)

Each lead atom contributes 1 free electron.9 × 105 A / m 2 1 − 14 14.4 × 105 = H c0 ⎢1 − ⎛⎜14 ⎞⎟ ⎥ Tc ⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡ ⎤ LL(2) and 4.1 × 10 −31 = 0.023 × 10 × 11. ⎛ m λo = ⎜⎜ 2 ⎝ µo n e ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 2 = 9.9 × 105 × ⎡1 − 4.6.2 14.2 K ) = 21.28 × 10 28 /m3 OR n = 207. Critical field at any temperature T.47 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ( ) ( ) 8.5 ⇒ Tc = 14.6 × 10 ) London penetration depth at any other temperature. λT = λo 1 − ⎛⎜ T ⎞⎟ ⎝ Tc ⎠ 4 .4 × 105 Then from (1).52 J kmol −1 K −1 7.28 × 10 × (1.3 × 10 = 3. ∴No.19 London penetration depth at 0 K. 2 ⎡ ⎤ H c = H c0 ⎢1 − ⎛⎜ T ⎞⎟ ⎥ T ⎣ ⎝ c⎠ ⎦ 2 ⎡ ⎤ LL(1) ∴1.21 mT ⎪⎩ ⎝ 7 ⎠ ⎪⎭ ∆C el (at T = Tc ) = Tc ⎛ d Bc ⎜ µ o ⎜⎝ d T ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ 2 = ( 7 × 25 × 10 −3 −7 4π × 10 ) 2 = 3481. of atoms per unit volume = Avogadro’s no.05 × 105 A / m H c (4. Critical field varies parabolically with temperature ⎧⎪ ⎛ T ⎞ 2 ⎫⎪ d Bc 2T 2 Bc = Bc0 ⎨1 − ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎬ ⇒ = − 2 B c0 = − Bc dT Tc 0 Tc ⎪⎩ ⎝ Tc ⎠ ⎪⎭ ∴ Bc0 = − Tc d Bc 2 dT =− T =Tc for T = Tc 7 (− 25) = 87. ⎧⎪ ⎛ 6 ⎞ 2 ⎫⎪ Bc = Bc0 ⎨1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ = 23. H c0 = = 21.47 K 2 1 − ⎛⎜14 ⎞⎟ ⎝ Tc ⎠ 1.2 × 105 = H c0 ⎢1 − ⎛⎜13 ⎞⎟ ⎥ Tc ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ ⎦ Dividing (2) by (1) : 1 − ⎛⎜13 ⎞⎟ ⎝ Tc ⎠ 3= 2 ⇒ Tc2 = 209. x density /Atomic weight 26 3 6. of free electrons per unit volume = No.47 2 ⎤ = 20.3 nm −7 28 −19 2 4π × 10 × 3.5 mT 2 Critical field at 6 K .293 × 10 −7 m = 29.

3 1 − 3.4 × 10 × 1.02 × 10 6 m/s h v F 1. I c = 2 π r ( H c − 2 H ) ( Minimum diameter of wire = 2 r = ) Ic 20 = = 1.56 × 10 5 × ⎡1 − 4.15 × 10 −3 m = 1.15 mm 5 4 π ( H c − 2 H ) 3. 2 ∆ = 3.22 = 30.2 K 2 ⎡ ⎛ T ⎞2 ⎤ ⎤ = 1.9 × 10 −6 m = 3.4 × 10 −4 eV. 5 ⎢ ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎝ c⎠ ⎦ Each turn of wire in the solenoid is under the effect of the field produced by the solenoid.4% 29. The solenoid is at the temperature of liquid He.61 ) 4 7.255 × 10 − 2 × 6 × 10 ) . Energy gap.2 ⎟ ⎥ T 9 .02 × 10 6 = 3.9 µm = −4 −19 2∆ 3.3 × 100 = 3.61 K.05 × 10 −34 × 2.255 × 10 5 A/m Critical field at this temperature. ξ = Fermi velocity.61 = Percentage increase in λ = ( 29. Intrinsic coherence length.e..3 − 29.3 9.∴ Penetration depth at 3.3 nm 30. 4. v F = 2. H c = H co ⎢1 − ⎜ = 1. i.6 × 10 10. ∴Transverse applied filed. H = 6 x 104 A/m From Silsbee’s rule for such a situation. λ3.142 × (1.