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American colonization

THE START OF THE COMING OF THE UNITED STATES

• The Americans supported the revolt of the Cubans against Spain which led to the start of the
Spanish-American War (1895).
• The war ended in 1898 in the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Where by the Spain ceded the
Philippines to the United States.
• The battle of Manila Bay is were the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet the war began at
5:41 am and ended at noon of May 1,1898.
• Commodore George Dewey’s victory marked the end of Spain as a world power and heralded
the rise of America as global power.
• Governor General Basilio Augustin appealed to the Filipino people to sympathize Spain in the
time of its need, but all of its effort had failed because Filipino’s no longer desired reforms. They
wanted freedom.

THE FILIPINO-AMERICAN COLLBORATION

• Due to the war General Aguinaldo was caught in Singapore in which he had several secret
meeting and interviews with the Consul General of America Mr. E. Spencer Pratt.
• Aguinaldo rushed to Hong Kong to meet Dewey but unfortunately failed due to the reason that
Dewey is in Manila.
• Aguinaldo talked and bribed the American Consul General of Hong Kong Rounceville Wildman
for the purchase of arms for the Filipinos.
• Aguinaldo came back to the Philippines and arrive at Cavite on May 19, 1898.
• Aguinaldo calls the patriots of the country rushed to arms and revolt against the Spanish.
• He captured Fort Santiago in which the Spaniards were trapped within the city walls.
• Aguinaldo offered Governor General Augustin for terms of honorable surrender but he rejected
the offer waiting for the reinforcements that never came.

THE START OF PHILIPPINE INDEPENDECE

• Aguinaldo had brought with him from Hong Kong a constitution for federal Government but
his advisor Ambrocio Bautista convinced him that the country was not ready for a Republic
Government but needed Dictatorial Government for a while.
• On June 12, 1898, The Philippine Independece was declared in Kawit, Cavite.
• It was the first time, The Philippine flag made in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo was
unfurled, while the “Marcha Nacional Filipina”, a composition of Juan Felipe was playing.
• The decleration of Independe was written and read by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista.
• Aguinaldo established a republic that was not sovereign, but a mere “protectorate”, under
the protection of the United States.

REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT

• On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree establishing a Revolutionary Government.


• The decree created four agencies of the government:
o Department of Foreign Relations, Navy and Commerce.
o Department of War and Public Works
o Department of Police, Internal Order, Justice, education and Cleanliness
o Department of Finance, Agriculture, Industry and Manufacturing.

• It also created the Congress which was task to look after the people’s interests, implements the
revolutionary laws, uphold agreements and debts, study and affirm the reports of the Secretary
of Finance and new Taxes.

THE AMERICAN CONQUEST OF THE PHILIPPINES 1899 – 1903

• On December 21, 1898 President Mckinley made his benevolent assimilation proclamation.
• He announced that the US would enforce its sovereignty over the Filipinos.
• He also ordered his military chief in the Philippines to extend US rule in the country.
• On January 4, 1899, General Elwell Otis attempted to hide the real contents of the “Benevolent
Assimilation” by publishing a watered down version of the proclamation.
• But General Miller, another American official, published the proclomation’s original version.
• When the revolutionary government had taken hold of the proclamation they immediately
condemned it.
• Antonio Luna, editor of La Independencia led in assailing the proclamation.
• He called it a plot to temporarily silence the people before launching and unleashing all the
hateful characteristics of governance as employed by the Spaniards in the Philippines.
• On January 5, 1899, Aguinaldo replied to the proclamation. He protested against the US
Government.

THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION

• On January 21, 1899 Aguinaldo proclaimed the Malolos Constitution.


• It created a state where the government is divided into 3 departments: Executive, Legislative
and Judiciary. The Legislative, which was composed of the assembly of the representative was
the most powerful.
• Some of the important provisions of the constitution are the separation of church and state,
recognition of each other’s situation, free public education at the primary level, protection of
lives, homes and properties lastly, collection of taxes as mandated by law.
• On January 23, 1899 Aguinaldo founded the Republic of the Philippines in which he is also
declared as the President.

THE OUTBREAK OF THE FILIPINO – AMERICAN WAR

• The flames of war were ignited on the eve of February 4, 1899


• Private Willie Grayson’s group patrolled at San Juan
• Grayson fired at Filipino soldiers, prompting an exchange of fires between two groups.
• Gen. Mc Arthur ordered to or assault the Filipino troops. But denies it in the later part.

THE HUNT FOR AND THE CAPTURE OF AGUINALDO

• Gen. Luna died and when Aguinaldo found this out, he escaped and hid.
• In order to capture not just Aguinaldo but also the Filipinos, the Americans made an extra effort
to use wealthy Filipino traitors.
• Aguinaldo fell to the hands of the Americans as he was captured.
• US imperialism only managed to colonize the Philippines after thorough and merciless wars.

UNITED STATES OBJECTIVE IN COLONIZING THE PHILIPPINES

• The Americans needed new market for their products.


• They were also for lookout for new sources of cheap raw products.
• The US hoped to use the Philippines as its base in its drive to control the entire Pacific Ocean
and other countries.
• However, Pres. McKinley and Pres. Wilson made the Filipinos believe that the Americans
intention was to teach the latter about democracy and governance.

ECONOMIC POLICIES

• The American colonial government expanded and speeded up the production of raw materials
like sugar, coconut and wood products.
• Philippine exports to the U.S. increased in 1913, after free trade was implemented.
• It was a set up that made the entry of goods into Philippines duty free and tax free.
• Although it boosted production, free trade made out economy focused on exporting raw
materials while importing expensive manufactured goods.
• The summary of what the Americans invested in our country are the ff.: a.) Increased of raw
materials production b.) Trading in light manufactures c.) Infrastructures development d.)
Foreign bank loan and e.) implemented the Homestead Act where the farmers could avail the
titles of the land they used to farm.

POLITICAL POLICIES

• The Military Government of the US started in August 1898.


• The power of the Gov. Gen. who served under this gov’t. came directly to the president of the
US.
• They organized civilian courts, including the Supreme Court Justice. They also appointed the first
filipino supreme chief justice.
• They established local government in every town and province.
• They called for an election, but those who are well off and educated can be voted or elected.
• The civil government had been attempted to be establish twice and failed in the first try because
of some revolutionaries.
• The Philippine Commission composed mostly of American civilians and military personnel,
performed the executive and legislative functions.
• The Partido Liberal is the first political party of the country founded by Dr. Paterno, Dr. T.H.
Pardo Tavera.
• The Philippine Commission passed the Sedition Act which imposed imprisonment and death
penalty to anyone advocating freedom or separation from the U.S. even through peaceful
means.
• The Philippine Assembly was established in 1902 and served as the Lower Chamber. It took on
the roles of facilitating tax collection and allocating government revenues.
• 1916 U.S. Congress passed the Jones Law, also known as law on the Philippine Autonomy. It was
the first formal and official American commitment to grant independence to the Philippines, “ as
soon as a stable government can be established herein.”

CULTURAL POLICIES

• the process of molding the Filipino Market came American movies, radio, automobiles,
literature, dance and games.
• Americans established the public educational system that used English as the medium of
instruction.
• Schools were established, the americans give away free books and supplies and candies,
chocolates to encourage the children to attend.
• The first teachers were the American soldiers followed by trained teachers who arrived in the
country aboard the ss Thomas.
• U.S. trade policies encouraged the export of cash crops and the importation of manufactured
goods; little industrial development occurred.
• Meanwhile landlessness became a serious problem in rural areas;peasants were often
reduced to the status of serfs.