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Fall Issue 2016, Volume 42, Issue 3

Roy Diblik: An Interview page 6

The Vermont Flower Show page 10

The Plant 1Lounge: Prairie Dropseed page 24
Ed Burke Bartlett Tree Experts
Rocky Dale Gardens 184 Tamarack Rd BUDGET AND FINANCE
806 Rocky Dale Road Charlotte, VT 05445 COMMITTEE CHAIR
Bristol, VT 05443 802.296.1797 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
802.453.2782 802.425.5222
VICE-PRESIDENT Vermont Technical College Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
PO Box 500 802.453.2782
Hannah Decker Randolph Center, VT 05061
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc. 802.728.1207 LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
7 Blackberry Hill Road Shannon Lee - Sisters of Nature
Fairfax, VT 05454 802.825.1851
802.849.2775 Shannon Lee Sisters of Nature MARKETING & EDUCATION
Waterville, VT 05492 Ed Burke - Rocky Dale Gardens
Nate Carr 802.825.1851 802.453.2782
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
Charlotte, VT 05445 Ashley Robinson VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
802.425.5222 Ashley Robinson Landscape Designer 802.425.6222 PO Box 28
DIRECTORS 802.922.1924 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts 802.425.6222
David Burton
Ashley Robinson - Ashley Robinson
Ginkgo Design, LLC
Landscape Designer
22 Pearl Street ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY 802.922.1924
Essex Junction, VT 05452
802.857.5104 Kristina MacKulin RESEARCH & AWARDS Green Works/VNLA COMMITTEE CHAIR
P.O. Box 92 VJ Comai - Bartlett Tree Experts
Carrie Chalmers
N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473 802.296.1797
Carrie Chalmers Design
Toll Free: 888.518.6484
239 Lawrence Hill Road
P: 802.425.5117; F: 802.425.5122 VERMONT CERTIFIED HORTICULTURIST
Weston, VT 05161 COMMITTEE
802.375.5930 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.

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The Ro

PRESIDENT’S LETTER Ed Burke, Rocky Dale Gardens

Happy November Friends!
Another season draws to a close after a spectacular display of fall foliage. inside this
We now enter what we Vermonters fondly call “Stick Season”. From a
landscape design point of view, I really enjoy November, without foliage issue
and hopefully without snow. Though days are short, there seems to be light
everywhere, (when it’s sunny) and long shadows streak still green lawns.
Un-mowed Vermont fields are tall with brown forbs and deadheads and Board of Directors 2
masses of gray dogwood. It’s a unique time and opportunity to assess your
woody plantings both as specimens and how as a group they lend The President’s Letter 3
proportion, texture, and body to your landscape. I actually look forward to
the perennials and annuals withering away so I can focus on these workhorses that can quite easily The Buzz 4
make or break a landscape. Green Works Summer
Meeting & Twilights
Of course I’m aware that not everyone feels that way and pulling out annuals and cutting back
Roy Diblik: Author &
perennials is actually physically painful for some people, mainly our customers! As far as
professional gardeners go, it seems we all can’t wait for the first frost; we are done! Keynote Speaker
New Members
In my early days in the business, bedding out annuals was pretty common as was having a garden Remembering Long-
full of ornamentals set apart from the rest of the landscape: a centerpiece in the middle of a lawn or Time Member
a pretty little bed in the corner of the yard where the grass wouldn’t grow. And of course, these
Act 83 & Pollinator
gardens required a lot of clean up at the end of the season and our customers wanted them to be
“tidy”. Today’s movement of using natives, mass plantings, and creating “wilder” looking landscapes Protection in VT
that are experiential and ecologically designed has really changed the pattern of maintenance. We 2017 VT Flower Show
leave a lot of perennials standing through the winter, some never get cut back and some get cut back Calendar of Events
en masse with a lawn mower! Gardening sure has changed in the last 30 years and I think we’re
better for it. Leonard’s Clippings 12

Just as garden designers and landscape architects at the end of the 19th and start of the 20th The Lab 14
centuries brought new light to the cultivated landscape that encouraged beauty, experience and Observations from
interaction, today’s revolution in gardening is a response to restoring and aiding nature while still UVM Diag. Lab
encouraging a new kind of interaction and beauty. White Pine Needle
We are fortunate to have had many leaders of the new garden movement speak at our Green Works
meetings and help us better understand how we can be a part of this trend and offer our customers The Idea Factory 18
new and exciting landscapes that are dynamic and healthy. Continuing in that vein, this coming
February we are pleased to have grower and writer Roy Diblik speak at our winter meeting. Roy is Strictly Business 21
one of those people who not only enjoys the gardens created by the likes of Piet Oudolf, but he Business Planning:
knows how to manage them and will share that knowledge with us. You won’t want to miss out! Some Thoughts &
And that reminds me to remind you to renew your membership if you haven’t already! Membership Running a Business is
gets you into that Winter Meeting with Roy Diblik at the member rate. Of course you’ll receive four Complex
issues or our industry publication, “The Dirt” and get member rates on the summer meeting and all
other Green Works events. Renew now before the holidays hide that renewal form under stacks of The Plant Lounge 24
cards and well wishes! Also don’t forget our signature event, The Vermont Flower Show, is coming Prairie Dropseed
up in March, 2017. Please see the update on page 10! Burr & Swamp White
There’s lots going on, so keep in touch! Meanwhile, have a great Thanksgiving. I look forward to seeing
you all at the winter meeting (and also at the set up for the Vermont Flower Show!!)

Ed Cover Photo: Ed Burke;
Sporobolus heterolepsis -
Prairie Dropseed planted at
Rocky Dale Gardens.

the low down on what’s up!

Green Works Summer Meeting of the Rotary Botanical Garden, how they operate as a non-profit
with a small budget and the innovations they have implemented
and Twilights Recap to create such a successful year-round botanical garden.

Many people I have spoken to are looking back on this past During the morning break members took time to visit exhibitors,
summer as the PERFECT summer, with the exception of the network, and catch up with friends before sitting down to a
drought everyone had to deal with. delicious lunch provided by Lucky Star
One of those perfect days was our Catering. After lunch a special business
Summer Meeting and Trade Show held meeting was held to review and discuss
at Rocky Dale Gardens in Bristol, VT membership dues. In February of 2014
on August 24, 2016. We could not the membership agreed to review
have asked for better weather or a membership dues annually. Following
more beautiful location. discussion a motion was made and
seconded to increase membership dues
We were close to breaking a summer for 2017 by approximately 3%. The
meeting attendance record with some motion passed unanimously.
140 exhibitors and attendees. The day
began with our The business
keynote meeting was
speaker, Mark followed up by
Dwyer, director our annual
of horticulture auction led by
at the Rotary member and
Botanical “auctioneer
Gardens in extraordinaire”
Jonesville, WI. David Loysen.
Wisconsin must Thanks to the
be doing generous
something right donation of
because our auction items
Winter Meeting from members and
Speaker, Roy Diblik, also exhibitors and some
hails from Wisconsin. lively bidding from
participants, the auction
Mark gave two raised $1,854 for our
fascinating scholarship and research
presentations related to fund. The amount raised
the Rotary Botanical broke our record!
Garden. He first spoke
about some very new The afternoon sessions
and exciting plants to included a presentation
choose from, complete by Bradley Tompins, VT
with design ideas. Department of Health
Rotary Botanical’s on “The Facts About
displays gardens Tickborne Diseases in
contain over 3,000 Vermont”. His
varieties of perennials and 900 varieties of annuals. Mark’s presentation included updates on what tickborne diseases are
second presentation illustrated the fascinating story of the origin present in Vermont, who is at most risk for contracting these

diseases (most of our membership!) and the times of year especially felt like we were all on an oasis for the day –
people are most at risk. Bradley also spoke about strategies beautiful gardens and great company. Thanks to all who were
that can be used to protect yourself when outdoors. able to attend and exhibit!

VJ Comai of Bartlett Tree Experts and Summer Twilights
Tim Schmalz gave a joint presentation
using live samples on pests and We held several Summer Twilight
diseases encountered this season. gatherings this past summer. Dan
They spoke about proper Redondo led a kayak tour of Winona
identification and cultural, biological Lake in Bristol on September 7 (photo
and chemical options for managing left). The following day Charlotte
these problems. Ed Burke led two Albers and Sarah Salatino led a tour at
tours of Rocky Dale’s gardens and UVM Horticulture Research Center of
retail space. Ed shared the ins and the new pollinator garden amid one of
outs of operating Rocky Dale Gardens the few summer thunderstorms.
as well as future projects underway at
Rocky Dale. Earlier in the summer on August 10,
Marsha Pierce hosted a tour at Hidden
The Summer Meeting is a one day reprieve from the regular Gardens in Hinesburg led by Paul Wieczoreck. It was a
business day. It is a chance to step back, hear some great beautiful summer evening tour of Marsha’s spectacular
speakers, catch up with exhibitors, friends and colleagues and gardens. Thanks to all our presenters and those who were able
eat some good food! Being at Rocky Dale this past August to attend the summer twilights!

Welcome New Green Works Members!
Mike Kiernan R. Schuyler Watson
Bee the Change River Walk
803 Sheep Farm Road 42 Dorset Street
Middlebury, VT 05753 Charlotte, VT 05445
802-349-2741 802-355-7553
Active Member Active Member
Category: Landscape Install Maintenance; plant forage Category: Wholesale Nursery, Propagator, Wholesale Broker,
habitat in solar fields Landscape Design/Build

Heather Bullett Shari Gilbert
University of Vermont Shari Gilbert Design & Maintenance
96 Village Green 206 Greystone Drive, Unit 101
Burlington, VT 05408 Jeffersonville, VT 05464 802-730-4285
Student Member
Active Member
Gabriel Bushey Category: Landscape Install/Maintenance
Crafted Landscapes, LLC
4800 Basin Harbor Road Andrew Stowe
Vergennes, VT 05491 Waits River Farms, LLC
802-233-8551 50 Randolph Avenue Randolph, VT 05060 802-505-1041
Active Member
Category: Landscape Design Build; Landscape Install Active Member
Maintenance Category: Commercial farm, forestry, ginseng orchards and
ornamental perennials

Roy Diblik, Author and Keynote
Speaker: An Interview

Green Works is excited to have Q. What most appeals to you about perennials?
Roy Diblik, author and A. I enjoy perennials because of their lifestyle. Most have a
nurseryman, be our keynote giving nature, they are adaptable to many conditions, are
speaker at our upcoming Winter actually easy to grow and care for, and I enjoy learning where
Meeting and Trade Show on they live and flourish in their native locations. Perennials offer
February 7, 2017. Roy is a tremendous diversity, having many types of flowers, color,
designer and nurseryman best foliage, stems, and roots. They also have beautiful growth habits
known for supplying the and structural forms. To me they are living art and a simple
extraordinary perennials— indication of the diversity of earth.
around 26,000 plants in all—for
Dutch designer Piet Oudolf’s
Q. I love the different artists’ palettes and paintings that
inspiring Lurie Garden at
inspire many of the plans. Why did you choose these
Millennium Park in downtown
Chicago. Roy actually grew many
of the plants and helped with the A. I used the impressionistic artists to provide inspiration for
layout and design. He has more myself. I made plant lists relating to the tonal changes of color
than 35 years of experience as co- in the paintings and also used the flow of the colors to influence
owner of Northwind Perennial the percentage of certain plants grouped together. I used the
Farm located in the rolling hills of plant lists to create the patterns in the designs, knitting
southeastern Wisconsin. everything together with short grasses and sedges. For me there
is a connected feeling between the artists, their work, and the
In 2014 Roy published “The Know gardens I create.
Maintenance Perennial Garden”,
which became an instant hit.
The book contains 62 garden
plans laid out in color-coded
grids. Many of the plans express
themes, Roy’s notes, that are “loosely inspired by the colors,
compositions, and emotions” of Impressionist paintings by
Cezanne, Monet, and Van Gogh, among others. Some plans
replicate Piet Oudolf’s pioneering use of grasses for The High
Line in New York City, and others recreate the dynamic plantings
at England’s Great Dixter Garden in Sussex. A special chapter at
the end of the book profiles nine exceptional gardeners whose
work Roy singles out for praise, showcasing their beautiful Q. Your tagline for the book is: “Knowing your plants
plantings and designs. means less work.” Is that your main message?

Roy will be giving two presentations at our meeting related to A. There is so much confusion about buying and placing plants.
his book as well as talking about the issue of maintenance and Plants are purchased based on initial appearance and generally
how we can apply it to the broader landscape. placed together based on bloom time and flower color. Many are
short-lived, fashionable plants that decline quickly in average
Following is an interview with Roy Diblik which was conducted garden conditions and then are frequently replaced. I believe if
by Joyce H. Newman from the New York Botanical Garden. Joyce we take time to come to “know” plants as we do our friends, we
holds a certificate in horticulture from NYBG and has been a can create healthier relationships—plants with plants, plants
tour guide there for 7 years. She is also a blogger for Garden with people, and people with people.
Variety News and the former editor of Consumer Reports. This Q. How did you go about “testing” the plant combinations?
article is reprinted with permission from the author and the New
A. I designed each one based on an impressionistic painting or
York Botanical Garden. Photographs are taken from The Know
places I have visited and read about. I have been growing these
Maintenance Perennial Garden© Copyright 2014 by Roy Diblik
plants in the ground since 1978, so I know them well and have
and published by Timber Press, Portland, OR and used with
used many of the patterns and combinations to create different
mixtures. With just a few, you can create continuous patterns.

A.The plans and patterns can be cut in thirds, curved, and one (Carex brevior), then share all the ways we can create and design
style blended with another. The plants can be spaced with this plant and others.
differently, or you can leave a few out. And vegetables can be
placed within the planting. Q. In your preface to the book, you mention planting
kohlrabi with your grandma as a child. Do you think a
child’s introduction to gardening—like your own—is
important for cultivating future gardening interests?

A. I think gardening with children is as important as math,
science, and all computer skills. To have a sense of nurturing
plants and their relationships to each other, the soil, rain, sun,
and people promotes all the other forms of knowledge that
relate to a person. Humans are not the only daily contacts we
require. It’s in our genes to relate to other living beings.

Q. You met
Piet Oudolf in
the summer of
2001. How did
work on the
Lurie Garden

A. He contacted
me through a
mutual friend,
letting me know
he wanted to meet and discuss the Millennium Park project in
Chicago. He came out to Northwind and knew we could work
together because our farm reminded him of his own place in the
Netherlands. As a person he is thoughtful, inquisitive, sensitive
and sharing. He’s a friend to all he meets. Piet is good at what he
does because he’s continuously focused on his style and process
and understands the current history of ecology-based
gardening. For the Millennium Park project, I was responsible
for growing many of the plants and lining up other growers to
supply the 26,000 plants for the garden. I also helped him lay
out the plants and guided the contractor in planting.

Q. Do the outstanding gardeners/designers that you
profile in the book share a common approach?

A. The nine people in the last chapter are practicing planting
at a high level. They are concerned not only with the
Q. What are you working on now?
thoughtful use of plants, but with designed relationships—
A. I am growing common native, European, and Asian sedge with involving, educating, and engaging people. Their gardens
(Carex) to use as ground layer plantings under trees and shrubs and practices are integrated into community lifestyles. The
to take the place of wood mulch. The idea is to create living open spaces that they develop often teach visitors or
mulch, mow the sedge once a year, and incorporate more plants passersby that beauty is continually an engaging element for
within the sedge when there’s time and money. So I’m trying to all of us.
create enhanced gardening practices. It’s difficult to put a
healthy garden in at one sitting and many times it’s not healthy Reprinted with permission of the author, Joyce H. Newman and
for the future development of the planting. Right now we need the New York Botanical Garden.
to know as much as we can about the native shortbeak sedge

Remembering Long Time Member Our Hearts Go Out to Our
Randi Tomczak Central Vermont Community

Long-time member Randi Our Central Vermont Community has suffered a tragic
Anne Tomczak (Clagett) passed
loss in the lives of the Bive teenagers that were killed in the
away on June 18th at The
wrong way crash earlier this October. In particular, fellow
Vermont Respite Home. She Green Works VCH member and Vermont Technical College
was surrounded by her loving adjunct faculty member, Sarah Zschau, lost her son Cyrus,
husband, and beloved family in that accident.
members. Randi Was born July
31 1950, in New Haven, While it is difBicult to make sense of a tragedy like this it is
Connecticut. also important to recognize the many communities and
individuals that continue to come forward in support of
She moved to Middlebury, these families. Candlelight vigils, celebrations of life and
Vermont when her father fundraising soccer tournaments are some of the most
became a professor at recent events that have occurred to honor the lives of
these Bive young people who lost their lives, - Cyrus, Mary,
Middlebury College. She
Janie, Eli and Liam.
graduated from Middlebury
College with a B.A. in English literature, and always had a At times like these we often ask ourselves how we can
passion for reading and writing. support these families in a meaningful way - “What can we
do?” While I am sure events will continue to be organized
She was the co-owner of Arbortech Landscaping and then by various groups and people to support these families, a
went onto start her own business, Queen Bee Landscaping “Five Families Fund” has been set up via the Mad River
Service. She served the community for more than 30 years, Community Fund. Donations can be made at
planting beautiful flower gardens where she touched many or you can mail a
lives through her colorful work, and her involvement in A.A. contribution to Mad River Valley Community Fund, PO Box
353, WatisBield, VT 05673. All contributions are tax
Randi was an active member in our Association attending our deductible and will be shared equally among the Bive
meetings and volunteering at the Flower Show. Randi will be
remembered for her spectacular and unusual plants which she
We will continue to hold Sarah, her family and all the
would donate at every Summer Meeting auction. One year families close in our thoughts and in our hearts.
she appeared with a 6‘ tall Brugmansia in full bloom. Needless
to say it caused a bidding frenzy!

She is survived by her loving family; husband David Tomczak,
son John Clagett and his wife Melissa, with their children
Kiley and John. She is also survived by her sister Marjorie

She is predeceased by her parents John and Majorie Clagett.
She is survived by her in-laws James and Kay Tomczak,
David's Brothers and sisters Beth and Rodger Shafer, Susan
and John Currie, Andrew and O'Heara Tomczak, Jenny and
Scott DuBois, Christine and Steven Horton, Kathleen and AD
Kent, Steven and Renee Tomczak, and Natalie and Joel
Bradford. With many nieces and nephews.

Donations in her honor can be made to the Vermont Respite
Harwood Strong!
Home in Williston Also her family asks to please remember
her any time you see all the beautiful colors in the gardens we

Act 83 and Pollinator
Protection in Vermont
by Shannon Lee

In the Spring of 2016, the Vermont State Legislature enacted The first meeting of the Pollinator Protection Committee
a law to create a pollinator protection committee. Act 83 was was held September 15, 2016 at the VT Statehouse. Minutes
signed by the Governor and made effective on May 4, 2016. from this meeting may be found here-
The bill, as enacted, may be found at http:// ag/files/pdf/apiary/ Documents/2016/Docs/ Pollinator%20Protection%20Committee%20Meeting
ACTS/ACT083/ACT083%20As%20Enacted.pdf. The %20Minutes- DRAFT_unapproved_WEB.pdf.
committee created by Act 83 is charged with the task of :
A brief summary of committee activity follows:
1) Evaluating the causes and occurrences of reduced
pollinator populations in the State. 1) An overview of native pollinators in Vermont led to
discussion concerning practices involved in importing
2) Recommending measures the State can adopt to
bees, regulation of neonicotinoid pesticides, and use of
conserve and protect pollinator populations.
treated seeds in agriculture. The committee also
Members appointed were specified to represent the
questioned if pesticides are being deployed as needed
varied interests in our state's rich agricultural
following IPM techniques, or if pesticides are being used
more as prophylactic measure.
Membership of the Committee: (Listed in order as 2) Reporting on the status of beekeeping in Vermont
designated by the Act) Mike Palmer, French Hill Apiaries, St. followed. It brought forth discussion on beekeeping
Albans-Beekeeper, appointed by the Governor ; Catherine regulations and practices, questions regarding feral and
Ballard, Ballard Acre Farms, Georgia-Dairy Farmer, appointed abandoned hives, and the compliance rate for
by the Governor ; Leif Richardson, Vermont Center for registration of hives.
EcoStudies, Hartford-A non-profit advocate for pollinators, 3) Current state and federal status of pesticide regulations
appointed by the Governor ; Ross Conrad, Dancing Bee was covered. Questions arose regarding pesticide treated
Gardens, Middlebury-Beekeeper, appointed by the Speaker of articles, neonicotinoid applications, fungicide products
the House; Terence Bradshaw, University of Vermont Plant and their effects on pollinators, and mosquito spraying
& Soil Sciences, Burlington-University employee, appointed and resultant bee kills.
by the Speaker of the House ; John Hayden, The Farm 4) Critical elements of state pollinator protection plans
Between, Jeffersonville-Tree Fruit Farmer, appointed by the and how to incorporate native pollinators into the
Speaker of the House ; Jane Sorensen, River Berry Farm, Vermont protection plan were covered.
Fairfax-Vegetable Farmer, appointed by the Committee on
5) A general discussion of time and commitments required
Committees ; Eric Boire, Crop Protection Services,
by Act 83 elucidated the committee members concerns
Vergennes-Licensed pesticide applicator or dealer, appointed
on several topics. Crafting a plan by January being
by the Committee on Committees ; Chris Conant, Claussen’s
unlikely, the committee hopes to have a draft plan to
Greenhouses, Colchester-Greenhouse or Nursery operator,
present to organizations for use in their winter and
appointed by the Committee on Committees ; Charles R.
spring meetings. The committee believes that obtaining
Ross Jr., Secretary of Agriculture, Food & Markets.
input from many stakeholders (public and industry) is
essential and part of their charge.
Although the membership of the Committee is limited to 10
persons, the legislature knew that input from many state 6) And finally, Terry Bradshaw was appointed committee
partners would be needed to make this a successful.35 chairperson.
venture. As such certain state agencies or other entities
were identified in the Act. All meetings are open to the The next meeting date, location TBD is on December 1, 2016
public and will be posted on the Vermont Department of 9:30AM -12:30PM .
Libraries calendar. Inquiries about the committee meetings
should be directed to Linda Boccuzzo at 802.828.6417 or

The 2017 Vermont Flower Show
by Kristina MacKulin
Planning is well underway for the 2017 Vermont Flower Show The Flower Show is our signature event and HUGE public
- March 3 - 5, 2017 at Champlain Valley Expo! We are outreach project. We rely on the many generous donations of
especially excited to be expanding into Expo North where the time, materials and labor from our members
10" 4" and beyond.
Grand Garden Display will be located! The Garden Display
Committee and the Flower Show There are so many aspects of the Flower Show that enable our
1.25" to
Association and its members
Committee have spent many hours
in the planning process for our next really shine. Collaborating and
show and that work will continue. working on the design and
Our last show in 2015 broke implementation of the Garden
attendance records with Display (10,000 square feet +) is no
approximately 10,000 in attendance. small feat and is an incredible
The phone has been ringing with feeling once the doors open, the
people calling about the Flower public walks in and we hear all the
Show dates and asking when tickets oohs and aahs. The collaboration
go on sale! Consider giving flower does not stop there. There are
show tickets for a Christmas gift, many others who work together
available on our website. behind the scenes to deliver a show
that has something for everyone!
At this writing we are busy
collecting woody plants for forcing, Education is one of our key goals,
seeking cash sponsors and selling which is why we offer 40 seminars/
booth spaces - 52 are sold to date. workshops over the course of three
THANK YOU in advance to those days. We are excited to have
members who have committed to Claudia West from North Creek
donate plants, a list we will be Nurseries as our keynote speaker.
sharing with you in the future. Thus Claudia spoke at our Winter
far our cash sponsors are: Bartlett Meeting last year.
Tree Experts, Gardener’s Supply Co.,
Green Mountain Compost, and Pillsbury The Exhibition Hall is where 100 +
Manor Senior Communities (Bag 30.5" vendors share their services,4"expertise
Sponsors). We have two seminar sponsors: Marijke’s and wares - all things related to horticulture. Also included is
Perennial Gardens Plus and Gardener’s Supply Co. Other cash a Vermont Specialty Food/Spirits Pavilion to showcase local
sponsors include Vermont Compost Company (Pirate Sponsor) producers.
and North Country Organics. THANK YOU to our current
sponsors. Sponsorship dollars help ensure the success of our We work together with the local Phoenix Bookstore, the
show. Our media sponsors are Price Chopper, WCAX-Channel Vermont Garden Railway Society and Vermont Garden Clubs to
3, and Seven Days. Our hotel sponsor is The DoubleTree, S. create displays. Our Family Room offers hands-on projects for
Burlington, VT. young people as well as scheduled entertainment. You won’t
want to miss the Mermaid! And, lastly cooking from the
Why hold a flower show you ask? The Flower show offers
garden demonstrations are held all three days.
various marketing opportunities to our members:

• discounted booth space w/face-to-face contact with There are so many ways to get involved and be a part of the
thousands of attendees show - from being a sponsor, an exhibitor, a speaker12"
or simply
• member rate advertising in the Program and volunteering for a few hours. We NEED your help with set up,
Garden Guide (8,000 printed) staffing the show, and clean up (everyone’s favorite!). Feel
• speaker opportunities free to contact Kristina in the office ANYTIME to find out how
• sponsorship opportunities you can participate!

November 9-10, 2016 December 8, 2016 February 18-20 2017
Northeast Greenhouse Conference Ecological Landscape Alliance Webinar: NOFA Winter Conference
& Expo Evaluating Conservation and Landscape UVM Davis Center
Holiday Inn Designs - 7:00-8:00 pm. Burlington, VT
Boxborough, MA
December 9, 2016 March 3-5, 2017
November 30 - December 2, 2016 Creating Ecological Plant Communities: Vermont Flower Show
New England Grows Digging Deep into Plant Knowledge with Champlain Valley Expo
Boston Convention & Exhibition Center the Masters - 8am - 5pm Essex Junction, VT
Boston, MA Brooklyn Botanical Gardens Brooklyn, NY July 24-28, 2017
December 5-9, 2016 35th Perennial Plant Symposium
2016 Irrigation Show and Education February 7, 2017 Denver, CO
Conference Green Works/VNLA Winter Meeting
Las Vegas, NE and Trade Show UVM Davis Center
Burlington, VT

Green Works Reminders! Participate in the Green Works
It’s time to:
2016 Industry Awards Program

Renew your Membership!

Renew your VCH status!

Nominate a member or colleague
for a Green Works Award!


CBI (Country Business, Inc., S. Burlington, VT) is selling a
Landscaping, Garden Center and Nursery in Vermont.
Some details include:

• The business is well established for over 30-years
• Strong middle-management team in place
• Highly affluent and desirable Vermont community
• Manageable size and operation for a new owner Entry forms are available at
• The current owner is willing to train a buyer for up to 2
years if desired
• Sale includes 16.1 acres of prime real estate
• Business qualifies for an SBA loan, making the
acquisition affordable to an individual or partnership Deadline to enter is
For direct inquires to CBI you can contact December 31, 2016!
Stefan Bachofen at  

by Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Professor Emeritus

I often get the question, “I thought you were retired” 'Vermont's Pollinator Protection Committee", representing
Vegetable Farmers. UVM is also represented by Leif
which I officially am as of June 30. But if this were a
Richardson of the Gund Institute, John Hayden, previously of
course I’d be flunking, as I’m still doing much of what I
PSS, representing Tree Fruit Farmers and Terry Bradshaw,
was doing before—but all fun stuff, including helping
Director of the UVM Horticulture Center. 
your Association as with this article (just under a
different name, but a bit wider focus as appropriate and
Some other PSS summer highlights: Dr. Starrett visited the
Philly area and woody plant conference with students and
alums in August; Mark also continues to maintain the
Being affiliated with the Plant and Soil Science
Jeffords gardens and has given tours to the Master Gardeners
department still (with same office and email), I’ll
and Burlington Garden Club; Dr. Chen presented her
continue to provide some News from the U updates—lots
research on the Swede Midge on Kale on VPR; Anya Cutler
it seems this issue. Those of you reading this column in
presented her M.S. thesis at the Ecological Society of
the past know that each semester I provide an update on
America meeting in Fort Lauderdale FL early August; Dr.
courses, instructors, and enrollments to give a
Josef Gorres was a speaker at the second annual Soil Fest,
perspective on the department direction and student
hosted in June by the the Vermont Organics Reclamation
interest. This semester includes courses on Home and
(VOR); PSS graduate students Jason Kokkinos, M.S.candidate
Garden Horticulture (Starrett, 141 enrollment/ 279
in Landscape Horticulture and Elisabeth Hodgdon, Ph.D.
seats), Introduction to Ecological Agriculture (Izzo,
candidate in Entomology have received SARE funding for
106/106), Drawing and Painting Botanicals (Neronia,
their projects.
15/15), Entomology (Chen, 24/36), Weed Ecology
(Bosworth, 20/25), Woody Landscape Plants (Starrett,
On the staffing front, PSS is now in the process of
20/31), Landscape Design (Hurley, 19/20), Turfgrass
developing a job description and starting the advertising for
(Bosworth, 10/14), Permaculture (Izzo, 23/44), Soil
the Crop Breeding/Plant Genetics position—a position I
Science (Gorres, 80/81), Landscape Design for Pollinators
recall being talked about, and trying to get, at least since my
(Sorenson, 14/20), Advanced Agroecology (Mendez,
coming to UVM in 1981. It looks like this may now happen!
24/24), Soil Morphology (Gorres, 22/20), Professional
Stay tuned for updates.
Skills (Neher, 9/20), Quantitative Thinking (Merrill,
12/12). In addition are my online courses Indoor Plants
Also the Extension Master Gardener Coordinator Heather
(25/25), Garden Flowers (27/25), Home Fruit Growing
Carrington left in June, and recently hired for this position is
(50/50), Flowers and Foliage (23/25). Coming up for
Beret Halverson. Beret (pronounced Brett) worked with
winter session (the couple weeks between semesters)
Oregon State University Extension for 8 years, beginning in
will be my online course on Perennials for Pollinators.
2008 as a program assistant with the Portland Urban and
Community Horticulture program, and most recently serving
In other department news, Professor Ernesto Mendez
as the Faculty Coordinator for the Family and Community
was this year's recipient of the CALS Hubert W.
Health program. Beret’s previous education and experience
Vogelmann Award for Excellence in Research and
includes a degree in Environmental Studies from the
Scholarship. The recipient of this annual award has his/
University of Vermont and a MS in Public Administration
her name engraved on commemorative plaque and
from PSU. She has worked on several organic farms and with
receives an award of $2,500.00 which can be used to
garden projects in Vermont, India, New Zealand and Oregon.
support his/her research efforts. Congratulations also to
She helped to launch several garden programs in the
staff member Andy Bessette whom you may have seen at
Portland metro area.
the HREC, recipient of this year's College of Agriculture
and LIfe Sciences Staff Award. PSS instructor Jane
Gabriela Bucini will be joining the Social Ecological Gaming
Sorensen has been appointed to the newly formed
and Simulation Laboratory in PSS, led by Scott Merrill, as a

Post-Doctoral Research Fellow. She will be working on a Education. UVM scored well particularly in credits
USDA-funded project that seeks to reduce the impact of for research, co-curricular education, water use
potential emergent diseases on herd health (PI Dr. Julie reduction, and initiatives to address diversity and
Smith, Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, affordability.
University of Vermont). Her primary responsibility will be
to develop agent-based models depicting our hoofstock In some horticulture and non-UVM news, we had successful
industries (e.g., dairy) including the integration of day bus tours for gardeners in August (day shopping tour to
experimental gaming data into these agent-based three northern Vermont nurseries), and September (the
models. Gabriela’s primary interests are in quantitative annual day trip to the Montreal Botanic Gardens and Chinese
ecology.  lanterns display). Thanks to your Association for
collaborating on these which I led under my new Green
There are 7 new graduate students in PSS this fall: Mountain Horticulture consultant business.
Edoardo Alimandi, MS Horticulture, with Terry Bradshaw;
Holly Greenleaf, MS Landscape Design, with Stephanie Also, thanks once again to Green Works for supporting our
Hurley; Deborah Kraft, MS Wastewater Treatment, with Waterfront Park display gardens, photos and plant list and
Stephanie Hurley; Bennett Lafond, MS Agroecology, with ratings on my website( Finally, if
Ernesto Mendez; Michael LeDuc,  MS Entomology with you’re reading this prior to our Nov. 9-10 Northeast
Bruce Parker; Rachel Mason, PhD, with Scott Merrill & Greenhouse Conference ( at its new
Josef Gorres; Alissa White, MS Agroecology with Ernesto location in Boxboro, MA at the Holiday Inn, I hope to see you
Mendez. there if you’re a greenhouse grower, floriculture retailer, or
In the bigger picture, news from the UVM front which you perennial grower or designer—there are talks and vendors for
may already have seen elsewhere, includes a $66 million all these areas.
grant from dual-degree alumnus and Vermont native
Robert Larner '39, M.D.'42, and his wife, Helen. To
recognize and express gratitude for their extraordinary
commitment to medical education at UVM, the University
of Vermont Board of Trustees voted to re-name the
College of Medicine in honor of Dr. Larner. The medical
school will now be known as The Robert Larner, M.D.
College of Medicine at The University of Vermont. This
gift, when realized, will be the largest philanthropic
commitment ever to a public university in New England.

Have or know of a student interested in attending UVM,
or a possible donor? If so, here are some of the national
rankings and headlines that UVM provides:
• UVM a Top School for High Salary Grads—UVM
ranks 40th on a list of the 50
U.S. colleges whose bachelor’s degree candidates
earn the highest salaries and is the 7th ranked
public university.
• Among top 10 for Student Success—The Educate
to Career College Rankings index places UVM 9th
among 1,182 schools in the country preparing
students to land good jobs after graduation, and
without the burden of excessive loans.
• UVM receives STARS Gold from AASHE—The
University of Vermont has received the
prestigious STARS Gold rating, the highest
designation, from the Association for the
Advancement of Sustainability in Higher

putting it under the lens . . .

Observations from the UVM
Plant Diagnostic Lab
Ann Hazelrigg, PhD.

Hot and dry are the best two words to describe summer 2016.
Many trees and shrubs are showing scorch damage (leaf edge
dieback) and thinning crowns. All leaves were on the ground
by August on my horse chestnut. Evergreens may suffer if
they don’t get enough moisture to go into the winter well-
watered. Any other stress (forest tent caterpillar, mites,
girdling roots, etc.) will only add to the stress of a dry season.
The good thing about a dry season is the lack of foliar fungal

Amelanchier or serviceberry showed a lot of damage from the
hawthorn lacebug, an insect with piercing-sucking
mouthparts that causes stippling of the foliage on the upper
side of the leaf. The 1/8-1/3 inch insects are obvious on the
undersides, along with lots of their black frass and cast skins.
These insects also attack hackberry, rhododendron,
Rose slug (L), which is actually a sawfly, was also common on
basswood, white oak, bur oak, willow, chokecherry, hawthorn
serviceberry. This insect feeds and causes skeletonized
and cotoneaster. There are two generations per year and when
damage on the upper leaf surface. Cedar quince rust (R) on
populations are high, heavy feeding can cause severe leaf
discoloration and premature leaf drop in late summer.
Hydrangea leaftier on hydrangea
(L). The ½ inch long green caterpillar
with a black head attaches 3-4 leaves
together with silk and feeds inside
protected from predators. Although
not that damaging, the pouches can
look unsightly. Once inside, it is
difficult to control with any

David Cappaert, MSU 14
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Landscape Distribution Center
472 Marshall Avenue, Williston, Vermont

Phone: 802-658-2433 • Fax: 802-860-2936 • E-mail:

insecticide so clipping out and destroying is best. Fireblight (R) was
severe this year. Be sure to prune out any strikes that are remaining.

Suspected bleeding canker on a maple in my backyard, caused by
Phytophthora. This is a soil-borne fungus-like organism that can attack
a lot of trees. It prefers wet conditions and cankers typically start low
in the plant and work their way up.

As always, we are here to help so if you have a picture of an unknown
problem send to, call 656-0493 or send/drop
off a sample to Plant Diagnostic Clinic, Jeffords Hall, 63 Carrigan
Drive, UVM, Burlington, VT 05405.

White Pine Needle Browning and Defoliation - Pest Alert
By Bruce Fraedrich Ph.D., Lorraine Graney, Neil Hendrickson Ph.D.
Bartlett Tree Research Laboratories June, 2016

Widespread foliage browning and defoliation has occurred on collected by Bartlett Laboratory staff after thorough
inspections of symptomatic white pines. Many samples were
Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) throughout the Northeast
heavily infested with pine bark adelgid but this pest is not
from northern New England through New Jersey and eastern
known to cause extensive foliage browning. A small number of
Pennsylvania. Symptoms began to appear in late winter and
samples were infected with fungal pathogens such as
have intensified during spring months. In many instances,
Lophophacidium dooksii (formerly Canavirgella banfieldii),
trees are totally defoliated except for current season (2016)
Septorioides strobi (previously referred to as Septoria pini), and
foliage that has recently emerged. In most cases, buds, twigs
Lecanosticta acicola (formerly Mycosphaerella dearnessii) that
and branches are healthy: the damage appears to be isolated to
can cause needle blight or needlecast disease. These fungi were
foliage produced prior to 2016. In most cases, the entire crown
not consistently associated with the symptoms occurring this
is affected but there are trees where only a portion of the
spring: the majority of brown foliage had no evidence of an
crown or just a few branches in an otherwise healthy crown are
infectious disease agent or serious insect or mite pest.
symptomatic. Some arborists have reported that symptoms
Outbreaks of needle blight diseases have become increasingly
began or were more severe on portions of the crown that
common in recent years but symptoms of these diseases are
receive the most sun or that are facing roadways. This could
usually evident on current season needles beginning in June
not be corroborated by Lab staff that performed site
and July. Some forest pathologists have referred to these
inspections in the Northeast. The damage occurs in developed
needle blight diseases as White Pine Needle Damage (WPND).
landscapes regardless of exposure but appears to be less
prevalent in natural settings. In many instances, severely
Due to the widespread nature of the symptoms and the
affected white pines were growing immediately adjacent to
absence of a biotic pest that is known to cause these
trees with little or no damage.
symptoms, the needle browning and defoliation is likely due to
an abiotic (non-living) stress factor or factors. Abnormally dry
More than 100 foliage and branch samples have been
to moderate drought conditions occurred in the early spring
submitted by Bartlett Arborist Representatives or
and again in the fall months of 2015 in many areas of the

Northeast where white pine is affected. Abnormally dry Treatment Program for Defoliated White Pines:
conditions again occurred in the April and May, 2016. These
drought conditions were not extreme and have occurred many • Mulch the critical root zone and irrigate trees during
times in the past without causing extensive damage to a native periods of dry weather to reduce the impacts of
plant species like Eastern white pine. drought stress.
• Take soil samples from affected trees and apply
Temperatures in the past six months have been very abnormal mineral nutrients and adjust pH per the soil analysis
and variable. The average monthly temperature in most areas report to prevent nutrient stress. Apply Phosphite 30
of the Northeast in November and December was 8° to 15°F or to stimulate host defenses and reduce the likelihood of
more above normal. Average temperatures were near normal root disease and possibly other pest infestations.
for January and February but most areas experienced near • Treat pine bark adelgid if present. Monitor the trees for
record low temperatures during the second week of February. evidence of insect and disease pests and treat as
In coastal areas of New England, temperatures dropped below needed.

For more information contact: Bruce Fraedrich
Ph.D. Plant Pathologist @; Lorraine Graney.
Diagnostic Services Manager @, or Neil Hendrickson Ph.D.
Northeast Technical Support @

0°and reached -10° to -20°F in the interior regions of New
York, New Jersey and New England. March and early April had
unprecedented warm weather interspersed with subfreezing
temperatures. These temperature extremes combined with -./+)0"+)'()$)**#"+'1$/2)$0'
abnormally dry soil conditions may have influenced winter
hardiness of this species that resulted in freezing injury and/or
desiccation of white pine foliage. '

Most affected trees are producing shoots and foliage from
viable buds throughout the crown but shoot growth is minimal
and foliage is somewhat dwarfed due to the health impacts
from defoliation. Affected trees will likely appear thin for the '
next two to three years until a full complement of needles are
retained and growth resumes normally. Trees will be more
sensitive to stress from drought or other weather extremes and '
will be more prone to secondary insect and disease agents such
as bark beetles, borers and canker disease fungi. Protecting the
current season growth from further damage from insect pests,
disease agents and environmental stress is critical to recovery.
If further loss of foliage occurs, trees will likely decline and C@DECBFED33A'
die. The following remedial treatment program is
recommended for affected white pines.
tips & trends, food for thought…

My Favorite Gardening Tool What Will Be Trending for
by Justin Pearson Landscaping in 2017?
by Ed Burke
My name is Justin Pearson, I am the Gardening Foreman
for Church Hill Landscapes, and my favorite gardening tool
Here is a quick synopsis of a recent American Nurseryman’s
is the half-a-heart, also known as the Korean Cultivator article I read: 6 Standout Landscaping Trends for 2016. There
Tool (KCT). The KCT is a hand gardening tool that has a 7’’ continues to be a focus on outdoor living, planting for
forged steel curve blade attached to a wooden handle. The wildlife, eco-friendly garden design, planting edibles and
ideal uses for this tool are native plants, and water wise gardening and rainwater
planting, edging, cutting harvesting. With outdoor kitchens, fireplaces and living
into the earth, and weeding. spaces (rivaling those of indoor versions), seeming to be an
At my first gardening job in unstoppable trend, it’s nice to see the popularity of eco-
2011 at Estate Care in friendly garden design making a statement!
Sharon, Connecticut, From the American Society of Landscape Architects poll last
everyone used this tool. We winter on trends for 2016 (that we can see lasting well into
planted a lot of annuals, 2017 and beyond), they found the following:
mostly 4” pots, and used it
for regular gardening work • 73% of landscape architects surveyed predicted that
as well. I became a fast and their projects this year would include adaptations or
efficient gardener within my first year as a professional creations of eco-friendly rain gardens.
using the KCT. The biggest feature I appreciate about it is • 75% percent of those polled responded that clients
the ergonomic design; the shape and long handle take would require the incorporation of fruits and
advantage of gravity while you use it. For example, using a vegetables and on larger properties, orchards and
hori knife can strain your wrists because you are constantly vineyards into this year’s landscape plans.
making a “stabbing” motion and twisting your wrists, which • On permeable paving: “Runoff is waste”, and 77% of
affects gardeners with carpal tunnel. With the KCT you can landscape architects have clients who are aware of
let gravity take over, swinging the tool into the soil. It that and asked for solutions.
provides leverage for stubborn weeds, and is great for • 86% of respondents to the ASLA survey said that
picking up edging or burying irrigation hoses. For this they’ll be asked to specify native plants; 85% said
reason alone, the KTC could be argued as a better tool than that native adapted plants which require fewer inputs
those regularly reached for by gardeners. The only downside (esp. water) would be in great demand.
I've experienced is the curved blade can be somewhat • 85% of those surveyed said their clients want low
difficult for getting deep, straight taproots out in one piece. maintenance landscapes.
After moving to Vermont, my co-workers were very • 72% of those polled indicated clients want “smart”
intrigued with my cultivator, asking to borrow it to try it out irrigation solutions and less turfgrass areas.
and finding they loved it. It took me some time to convince • Some 90% of those polled said that rainwater/
my boss that the KCT was a great investment to help his graywater harvesting is the #1 priority due to threats
gardeners be faster and more efficient. Now, everyone on of drought and stricter water regulations across the
my crew has them. country.

You can view the entire article at

"There is no spot of ground, however arid, bare or
ugly, that cannot be tamed into such a state as may “The leaves fall, the wind blows, and the farm
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~Gertrude Jekyll ― Henry Beston
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BUSINESS PLANNING: Some Thoughts and Tools
to Help You Plan for Your Business
by Steve Paddock


In Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, Alice comes Here are five key reasons that businesses typically engage in
to a fork in the road and asks: planning efforts:

“Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” • Map the future
“That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said
• Support growth and secure funding
the Cat.
“I don’t much care where–” said Alice. • Develop and communicate a course of action
“Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat.
• Help manage cash flow
Goals Come First
Successful businesses and individuals know where they want to • Support a strategic exit
go and they direct their energy and resources toward getting
… or as many business owners eloquently express it: So I can
there. Clarity of both personal and business goals will help you
sleep at night.
evaluate options and choose opportunities that you decide will
lead you to meeting your goals. Unless you have clear goals,
the Cat has it right: “…it doesn’t matter which way you go.”

Get Your Business Model Right
Write Down Your Goals
Whether your business stage is startup, growth, or maturity,
You may be comfortable thinking that you have your goals all
you must ensure that your business model is right. Great ideas
worked out in your head, but goals take on an entirely different
and potential can fail, without the right business model to
quality when they are written down in clear, simple language –
move them forward. Lean Startup, Business Model Canvas,
preferably with some numbers included. Here is an example of
and Value Proposition Design and Customer Discovery, are
a powerful goal statement, “Within X number of years, I want
three trendy and tested business development tools that can
my business to provide $XXXXX a year for family living.” Find
help you take stock of where you are and effectively plan
the numbers and language that fit with your goals, and then
strategies and tactics to reach your goals. Each of these can be
write them down.
adapted for business at any stage or any size.
Share Your Goals Write It Down
It gets a lot more real when you share your goals with your Once you have your idea flowing, get it down on “paper.” Find
spouse, partner, business advisor, lender, investors, and others or create an outline for your plan. Here are a few that you can
who are part of your planning and support network. Get review to find the one that may fit your business and your
feedback from others to help you sharpen your goals to make style:
them most effective and meaningful to you and your business.
• VtSBDC Business Plan Guidelines
Update Your Goals • Microsoft Simple Business Plan Outline
Of course, they change. Times change, you change, families • SCORE Startup Business Plan
change, your business changes. Update your goals at least • Small Business Administration (SBA) Online
annually to ensure you are working with your most relevant Business Plan writing tool
dreams and objectives. • University of Minnesota Rural Business Owners
online tool

Website Sources: want to improve or expand. You can create a smaller plan for
plan-guidelines.pdf; just that target area, without undertaking a full plan for your
articles/how-to-write-a-business-plan; entire business.
Business_O.doc; WHY PLAN?
business-plan; and
Plans are worthless, but planning is everything.
If you don’t need a full business plan, take a look at Growth Dwight D. Eisenhower
Tools (
unbranded/Growth%20Tools_Gazelles2015_unbranded.pdf) or The process of planning takes you into both the creative and
the One-Page Strategic Plan ( practical areas of your role as business owner. Often, business
resources/tools/en-unbranded/GT_Straegy_OPSP_unbranded) owners tell us they benefit as much from the process of
to see if they might fit your need. planning as they do from having the finished plan document.
Plans become outdated as changes occur in the business, the
Start simple. Don’t try to write a finished document from the market, and the business environment. The process of
start. Use bullet points to get your ideas down, then add depth planning enhances the ability of owners to respond to those
and polish to the extent that fits your need for the plan. If it’s changes as they occur, to ensure that their business strategies
just for your in-house use, you may not need extensive do not become outdated.
formatting and style features. Make the plan that is right for
you and your use.
Here are a few links to further resources that can help you
Share It grow and develop your business to help meet your goals:
Get it out to others for ideas and feedback. The Vermont
Small Business Development Center (, SCORE Vermont Small Business Development Center Resource List -
(, and the Vermont Center
for Women and Enterprise ( are some of
the resources available to help you develop and implement a Small Business Administration VT office -
plan for your business. If you would like a little more help to offices/district/vt/montpelier.
get started contact an area business advisor from the VT Small
Vermont Agency of Commerce and Community Development -
Business Development Center to discuss how they can help
FULL BUSINESS PLAN About the author: Steve Paddock is the Area Business Advisor
for the Vermont Small Business Development Center in
You may be interested in a full, comprehensive business plan. Bennington County. VtSBDC provides high quality, no-cost
Many businesses use segments such as a marketing plan, business coaching and advising to people throughout Vermont.
promotion plan, human resource plan, operations plan, Last year, the VtSBDC helped clients raise more than $23 million
financial plan, customer loyalty plan, and so on to address in capital, start 69 new businesses, and create 193 new jobs.
their needs. Think about an area in your business that you Contact:

Running a Business is Complex
by Carrie Chalmers

Running a business is a complex and challenging mission, and appreciate other’s voices, and acknowledge difficulties. In this
I am guessing that many of us have found ourselves in a place mindset we can embrace conflicts and listen deeply before
where the stress and difficulties overwhelm the joy of our reacting. We pay attention to the work itself rather than
chasing success. He calls this approach “leading from the
work. Perhaps our relationship with our employees is not as
inside out”, and emphasizes the courage and daring it takes to
positive as we want, or the work place culture be vulnerable rather than defensive when
is not motivating to our employees, or our evaluating the business. He writes, “As
client interactions feel stressful. The mindful leaders we are expected to step into
complexities of being a boss may be further exposure rather than cover up-trust our
challenged by the fact that many us have instincts and intelligence rather than dodge
life’s circumstances.”
spent more time developing our horticultural
skills than our business or interpersonal skills.
Meditation is the key tool in developing the
Michael Carroll’s book, The Mindful Leader: skills to be present without an agenda. It is a
Ten Principles for Bringing Out the Best in practice that has quietly entered the
Ourselves and Others offers an interesting and mainstream experience, and is practiced by
accessible guide to cultivating traits that will many to bring clarity and awareness to their
help us become calmer, focused, and more lives. Scientific research is confirming the
physical benefits as well, with studies linking
effective leaders of our businesses.
improved immune response, heightened
emotional intelligence, reduced anxiety and
depression, and sustained levels of
In the first section of the book, Carroll
satisfaction. Though Carroll describes the
outlines a vision of a leadership that veers
pitfall of thinking about meditation as a way
away from the top down model of a boss that
to achieve results. He writes, “in mindfulness meditation we
demands results and is marked by will, power and ambition. In
are working to perfect what is traditionally called the effort of
contrast, mindful leadership cultivates openness, intelligence,
‘non-achievement,’ in which we finally become comfortable
and vulnerability. “Lids are common at work: unreasonable
with who we are rather than anxiously trying to become
deadlines, rude colleagues, careless managers, onerous
someone else. It is a profound sense of ultimate honesty in
bureaucracy, frivolous demands-unfortunately the list is long
which we are willing to finally rest with whatever we are
and familiar. Such lids are permitted to cover the organization
experiencing, and such ease is the foundation of genuine
when we, as leaders, lose our perspective and become out of
touch with the realities of getting the job done. Instead of
taking a wide, realistic view of work, we mistakenly hurry
In the second part of the book, Carroll outlines how the act of
through our circumstances, overlooking advice, chasing
sitting still cultivates the essential qualities of mindful
deadlines, ignoring business facts, and frantically pursuing
leadership: simplicity, poise, respect, courage, confidence,
success. And despite all our good intentions, such a narrow,
enthusiasm, patience, awareness, skillfulness, and humility. I
determined view drives us to put lids of pointless pressure on
would encourage you to read the book to understand how
ourselves and others-demanding results rather than inspiring
meditation fosters these qualities and how they translate into
them, chasing opportunities rather than inviting them,
the business experience, as it is far more than can be distilled
insisting on respect rather than earning it. In the end when
into a short article. The profound message of this book is that
lids are placed on organizations, we can find ourselves losing
you build stronger leadership skills by cultivating clarity of
patience with our lives and in turn trying to conquer or
your self and the present moment through the act of sitting
dominate our work rather than accomplish it.”
still with your mind.
He posits that by first opening ourselves fundamentally to the
Michael Carroll’s book appeals to me as I finish up a
world around us we become available to what is actually going
particularly frenetic season. The idea of opening up space to
on. This involves stepping into the moment in a neutral,
see more clearly and respond without judgement and anxiety
observational way that is free of defensiveness, expectation, or
makes sense as both a way to live and a way to be in business.
our vision of the future. The power of this is that we focus only
on present circumstances, recognizing opportunities,

wiry stems, hairy leaves and bodacious blooms. . .

Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) -
Bringing Your Garden Design Together
by Scott Stewart, Ph.D.

Temperate areas of the United States are lucky to have heterolepis serves to coalesce a mixture of perennial plants—
acting as an ecologically important and aesthetically effective
available a wide array of native and non-native perennial
connector among vertical and horizontal spaces within a
ornamental grasses for landscape design. These ornamental
matrix of mixed perennial plants.
grasses serve many roles in our landscapes—as showy focal
points themselves, as
Sporobolus heterolepis is a
framing or background to
terrific medium-height
flowering plant displays,
grass to bring fine-texture
or as screens or natural
to your landscape thanks
fence lines to hide
to the species’ clump form
unattractive elements.
growth and thin, lance-like
With all the wonderful
arching leaves. Adding to
ornamental grasses
the plant’s wonderful
available in today’s
characteristics is the year-
market, relegating these
round color interest.
adaptable plants to such
Prairie Dropseed brings
utilitarian uses as
rich green foliage to the
screening or as a backdrop
summer garden, which
is a missed opportunity.
fades to a golden rust color
Grasses—particularly our
in the fall months. Leaving
native perennial grasses—
plants standing into the
deserve to emerge from
winter will bring a light
the shadows to take a
yellow brown color to the
show-stopping lead role in
fine-textured mounded
our landscapes.
August, 2015 – Sporobolus heterolepis at its peak, displaying upright airy leaves in through the
flower heads above a vase-shaped mound of arching narrow leaves. winter months. As if the
Prairie Dropseed
texture and colors of
(Sporobolus heterolepis) is a
prairie dropseed were not
native perennial grass that
enough, the foliage and
has flexibility and
flowering stems of plants are tough enough to sustain their
adaptability in the landscape. A member of the Poaceae, S.
shape and upright stature, respectively, even under heavy
heterolepis is native to the tallgrass and mixed grass prairies of
central North America. Although not native to Vermont this
highly adaptable plant will more than just survive, but will
To add icing to the Prairie Dropseed cake, plants will bring
thrive, in that state’s gardens. Individual plants of prairie
ecological value and environmental service to the landscape.
dropseed can grow, in a garden setting, up to 3 feet tall with a
Sporobolus heterolepis will provide seed for birds and other
1-2 foot spread. The species is best planted in either large
animals throughout the fall and winter months, as well as
masses to achieve a ‘prairie-like’ aesthetic or, more
providing ample nest building material for birds in the late
interestingly, weaved sporadically within a mixed perennial
winter and early spring months. And for the humans, both the
planting. When used in the later manner, S.
flowers and seed of Prairie Dropseed have a buttered popcorn

The growth characteristics of S. heterolepis lend it well
to companion planting with rougher-textured plants,
acting as the ‘glue’ to bring together a mixed perennial
November, 2016 -
plant community. If used in a true mixed planting,
Sporobolus heterolepis in
prairie dropseed can be planted with other prairie-like
fall, showing its rusty brown
selections such as rattlesnake master (Eryngium
color while maintaining its
yuccifolium), coneflowers (Echinacea pallida, E.
upright seed heads above the
‘Virgin’, or E. tennesseensis), and blazing star (Liatris
browning foliage.
spicata). Prairie Dropseed will even work well in the
landscape when planted with denser, larger plants
Below: Prairie Dropseed can
such as Arkansas blue star (Amsonia hubrichtii) and
be integrated into mixed
wild indigo (Baptisia alba var. macrophylla or B. ‘Purple
perennial plantings, serving
Smoke’). Other perennial plants that work well with S.
to connect the variety of
heterolepis include: eastern bee balm (Monarda
sizes and textures in such
bradburiana), betony (Stachys officinalis ‘Hummelo’
planting communities.
and ‘Rosea’), and golden alexanders (Zizia aurea).

If the straight species of S. heterolepis is too large or
loose for your landscape project, consider the cultivar
‘Tara’—a selection by Roy Diblik of Northwind
Perennial Farm (Burlington, WI). ‘Tara’ is a much
refined, more upright form of S. heterolepis that
displays a more compact flower-head. The habit of
‘Tara’ makes it perfect for use in more formal or
structured landscapes.

Learn more about S. heterolepis and other terrific
perennial plants perfect for your Vermont gardens by
visiting the Lurie Garden’s website (
The Lurie Garden is a free, 2.5-acre, true four-season
public garden located in Millennium Park (Chicago, IL)
and designed by Gustafson Guthrie Nichol (Seattle,
WA) with perennial plant design by Piet Oudolf
(Hummelo, The Netherlands). The garden is the iconic
example of mixed new wave perennial planting
design, with a focus on sustainable and ecologically-
informed horticultural practices that are scalable
between the homeowner to the large public park

Scott is the Millennium Park Foundation Director, Lurie
Garden Millennium Park, Chicago, IL. You can contact
him at

January, 2016 Sporobolus heterolepis makes a wonderful
and bright addition to the winter garden.
Burr Oak and Swamp White Oak, Trees for Posterity
V.J. Comai

British author George Orwell said, “The planting of a tree,
especially one of the long-living hardwood trees, is a gift which
you can make to posterity at almost no cost and with almost no
trouble, and if the tree takes root it will far outlive the visible
effect of any of your other actions, good or evil.”

Each time I plant a tree it is my hope that the tree will far
outlive me and mature to be revered by future generations.
Two native species that top my list of favorites are Burr Oak,
Quercus macrocarpa, and Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor. I
am pleased to see that both are more commonly planted and
are more widely available in the trade in recent years. Both
species are members of the white oak family and can be
distinguished by their large leaves with rounded lobes. Their
native range extends from Canada to the Midwest and south to
Georgia and Texas.

The Burr Oak, with space to mature, is a true giant that grows
70-80 feet high with an equal spread although I have seen
specimens in Chittenden and Addison Counties with spreads
exceeding 100 feet. The bark is a gray-brown and develops
deep furrows and ridges with age. The acorn has a cap that is
distinguished by its mossy appearance thus the tree is
sometimes referred to as Mossycup Oak. This fruit is a favorite
of wildlife ranging from deer to turkey to a wide range of small

The Burr Oak is adaptable to a wide range of soils and I have
seen it thriving on sandy sites as well as the heavy clay soils of
southern Chittenden and Addison Counties. In winter this tree
has an impressive form with large and wide spreading limbs
and a relatively coarse appearance. It can be difficult to
transplant and the greatest success will come from
planting smaller balled and burlapped or container grown
trees. Once established it has a relatively fast growth
rate. Think long term in selecting a site for this species.
It’s a great choice for large properties, parks, and

The Burr Oak, Quercus macrocarpa

Swamp White Oak is similar to Burr Oak in overall form
but may not achieve the same overall size with a
typical mature height and spread of 50-60 feet. Leaves
will lack the deeply lobed appearance of the Bur Oak
leaves with not so rounded tips although I have seen
considerable variation between individual trees and the
two can be easily confused by someone not familiar
with the species. It is believed that the two species
have crossed to form commonly found hybrids in
the wild further adding to the misidentification
between them. The giveaway for the Swamp White
Oak is the white pubescence found on the
underside of the leaves and the lack of a mossy cap
on the acorn. It prefers a moist, slightly acidic soil
but I have seen it doing quite well on drier sites.
Like many of the oaks it can become chlorotic on
alkaline soils. The Swamp White Oak tends to be
easier to transplant than the Burr Oak and is likely
the reason that it seems to be more widely used
and available in the trade. The tree will appear
very coarse in texture in winter with a deeply
furrowed and ridged bark at maturity. With its
open canopy and sound structure, the Swamp
White Oak is likely to become the feature tree wherever planted.

These two natives, if properly sited with room to mature, are sure to become a gift
Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor
to posterity that will be admired by generations to come.

Cobble Creek Nursery, LLC

W e offer quality Vermont Grown trees and
shrubs and superior service. Natives, tried
and true, and hardy new cultivars are grown at
our nursery in Monkton.

Knowledgeable, experienced, Vermont Certified
Horticulturists on staff. Support your local
economy, buy Vermont Grown plants.

Call for a catalog or stop by for a visit.

John Padua
991 Tyler Bridge Road, Bristol, VT 05443
phone/fax: 802- 453-3889 / e-mail:

PO Box 92
North Ferrisburgh, VT 05473

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