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Original Title: [Heat Transfer] Chapter 5

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conduction

Contents

Chapter 3

5.1 Why numerical methods?

Why numerical methods?

Numerical methods are useful for handling problems involving

nonlinearities, complex geometries, complicated boundary conditions or a

system of coupled partial differential equations.

Powerful technique for solution of heat transfer problem.

Domain of given problem

x

m, n 1

y m, n

m 1, n m 1, n

m, n 1

Nodal network

5.2 Finite difference formulation of differential equations

Consider steady one-dimensional heat transfer in a plane wall of thickness L with

heat generation and constant conductivity k.

The wall is subdivided into M intervals.

T ( x)

x L/ M Tm1

xm mx Tm

Tm1

T ( xm ) Tm

L

M+1 points: 0 x

0 1 2 m1 m m1 M

0, 1, 2, 3, , m1, m, m1, , M m

1

m

1

2 2

1 1

The first derivative at m and m :

2 2

dT Tm Tm1 dT Tm1 Tm

and

dx m

1 x dx m

1 x

2 2

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 4 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.2 Finite difference formulation of differential equations

dT dT

Tm1 Tm Tm Tm1

dx 1 dx 1

d 2T m m T 2Tm Tm1

2 2

x x m1

2

dx m x x x2

d 2T g

2

0

dx k

0, m 1, 2, 3, , M 1

x 2

k

gm : heat generation at node m

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Consider steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane wall of thickness L

with heat generation and constant conductivity k.

element

of node m

E g

x L/ M

xm mx Q cond, left Q cond, right

E s

L

T ( xm ) Tm 0 x

0 1 2 m 1 m m 1 M

x x

x

0 (∵ steady state)

Q cond, left E g Q cond, right +E s

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 6 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

The rate of heat conduction at the left and right surfaces can be expressed as

T T T T

Qcond, left kA m1 m and Qcond, right kA m m1

x x

The rate of heat generation within the volume element can be expressed as

Tm1 Tm T T

kA g m Ax kA m m1

x x

simplifying

0, m 1, 2, 3, , M 1

x 2

k

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Boundary conditions

x

Volume element

A 2

of node 0

E g

Q left surface Q cond, right

0 L x

0 1 2

x x

Where

x T T

E g ( g 0 A ), Q cond, right kA 0 1 , Q left surface ?

2 x

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 8 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

2. Convection boundary condition : Q left surface hA(T T0 )

3. Radiation boundary condition : Q left surface A(T 4 T 4 )

surr 0

4

T04 )

or Q h

left surface A(T T )

combined 0

Interface

5. Interface boundary condition:

k A E

g, A

E g , B k B

Tm1 Tm Q cond, left Q cond, right

kA A g A, m A(x / 2)

x x

m 1 m m 1

T T

g B , m A(x / 2) k B A m m1 x x

x A 2 A

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.1

Consider a large uranium plate of thickness L = 4 cm and thermal conductivity k = 28

W/m·℃, in which heat is generated uniformly at a constant rate of g 5 10 W/m . One

6 3

side of the plate is maintained at 0℃ by iced water while the other side is subjected to

convection to an environment at T∞ = 30℃ with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 45

W/m2·℃.

Considering a total of three equally spaced nodes in the medium, two at the

boundaries and one at the middle, estimate the exposed surface temperature of the plate

under steady conditions using the finite difference approach.

Solution

1. Given • A total of three equally spaced nodes in the medium, two at the boundaries

and one at the middle

• One side of the plate is maintained at 0 ℃ by iced water while the other side

is subjected to convection to an environment at T∞=30℃

• The heat transfer coefficient: h = 45 W/m2·K

• g 5 10 W/m , L 4 cm, T 30C

6 3

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 10 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

3. Schematic

Uranium h 45 W /m 2 C

plate

T 30 C

k 28 W/m C

0℃

g 5 10 6 W/m 3

L

0 x

0 1 2

2. One-dimensional conduction in x-direction.

3. Negligible radiation heat transfer.

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 11 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

6. Solve Uranium h 45 W /m 2 C

plate

T 30 C

M 3, k 28 W/m C

0℃

L 0.04 m g 5 10 6 W/m 3

x 0.02 m L

M 1 3 1 0 x

0 1 2

Node 1, a interior node: 0 2T1 T2

x 2 k k

T1 T2

Node 2, a boundary node: kA g 2 ( Ax / 2) hA(T2 T )

x

hx hx g 2x2

T1 (1 )T2 T

k k 2k

Solving

2T1 T2 71.43 T1 103.8C, T2 136.1C

T1 1.032T2 36.68

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 12 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

7. Comment

The analytical solution at x=L=0.04 m

2 / k gL

0.5 ghL T h 2

gx

T ( x) x T2.analytical 136.0C

hL k 2k

※ T2.numerical 136.1C

The above result is almost identical to the result obtained here with the approximate

finite differential method.

Highly accurate results can be obtained with numerical methods by using a limited

number of nodes.

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Consider a rectangular region in which heat conduction is significant in the x- and

y-directions.

m, n 1

Divide the x-y plane of the region into Δx and Δy.

Node count in the x-direction

m 0, 1, 2, , M E g

x mx m 1, n m 1, n

m, n

Node count in the y-direction

n 0, 1, 2, , N y

y

y ny

x m, n 1

In the z-direction, Δz = 1 x

T ( xm , yn ) Tm , n Volume element : x y 1

Energy balance:

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 14 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Tm 1, n Tm , n Tm , n 1 Tm , n Tm , n Tm 1, n Tm , n Tm , n 1

k y k x g m , n xy k y k x

x y x y

0

x 2

y 2

k

for m 0, 1, 2, , M 1 and n 0, 1, 2, , N 1

g m , n x 2

x y Tm 1, n Tm 1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n 1 4Tm , n 0

k

→ No heat generation Tm , n (Tm1, n Tm1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n1 )/4

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 15 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

m, n 1

y

E g

m 1, n m, n m 1, n (h1 , T1 )

x

m, n 1 (h2 , T 2 )

Left side:

y Tm1, n Tm , n g ( xy )

E

Qcond, left k ( ) , g m, n

2 x 4

x

Q conv, bottom h2 ( )(Tm , n1 Tm , n )

2 Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 16 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Right side:

y x Tm , n Tm , n 1

Q conv, right h1 ( )(Tm , n Tm 1, n )

Qcond, top k ( )

2 2 y

Substituting

y Tm 1, n Tm , n x xy

k( ) h2 ( )(Tm , n 1 Tm , n ) g m , n ( )

2 x 2 4

y x T T

h1 ( )(Tm , n Tm 1, n ) k ( ) m , n m , n 1

2 2 y

2T

m 1, n 2Tm , n 1 (4 )Tm, n ( T1 T2 g m , n ) 0

k k k k k

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.2

The 15-cm by 9-cm circuit board is populated on one side with five integrated circuits

(ICs), three transistors, three resistors, and a coil. The power dissipation of each

component is indicated in figure. The metal core, which spans the entire length and

width of the circuit board, is 0.8 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity of 165

W/m·K. A liquid-cooled cold plate maintains the bottom edge of the metal core at 40℃;

the other three edges of the core are free.

Using the finite difference

method, determine the

temperature distribution in the

metal core. Assume that no

heat is lost from the

components or the fiberglass-

epoxy surface to the

surroundings by convection or

radiation. Assume that the three

free edges of the circuit board

are insulated.

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Solution

1. Given • The power dissipation of each component is indicated in figure.

• A liquid-cooled cold plate maintains the bottom edge of the metal core at 40 ℃.

• The circuit board

2. Find • The temperature distribution in the metal core.

3. Schematic

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 19 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

2. Two-dimensional conduction in x- and y-direction.

3. The IC heat dissipation is modeled as internal heat generation

within the metal core.

4. The other components are treated as point heat sources applied to

a single node nearest the center of the component.

6. Solve

The node spacing is 1.5 cm.

The control volume for ICs is V (1.5 cm) 2 (0.08 cm) 0.18 cm3 1.8 107 m3

So the internal heat generation for nodes 13, 14, 24, and 25 is

(0.400 W)/2

q 1.111 10 6

W/m 3

1.8 107 m3

Similarly, the internal heat generation for nodes 46, 47, and 48 is

(3.0 W)/3

q 5.556 10 6

W/m 3

1.8 107 m3

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 20 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

And the internal heat generation for nodes 28, 29, 50, and 51 is

(0.450 W)/2

q 7

1.250 106 W/m3

1.8 10 m 3

Nodes 16, 17, 18, 20, 42, 53, and 54 have point heat sources with the values

Insulated surface

The energy balance at the left-top corner is

T T m, n m 1, n

Q cond, bottom k ( ) m , n1 m , n

Q cond, bottom Q cond, right 2

T T

Q cond, right k ( ) m , n m1, n m, n 1

2

: thickness

The finite difference formulas at the corner nodes 1 and 11 are

T12 T2 T10 T22

T1 T11

2 2

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 21 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Q cond, bottom Q cond, right Q cond, top

T T

Q cond, bottom k ( ) m , n1 m , n m, n m 1, n

2

T T

Q cond, right k ( ) m , n m1, n

m, n 1

T T

Q cond, top k ( ) m , n m , n1

2

Substituting the rate equations into the energy balance and simplifying give

2Tm 1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n 1

2Tm 1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n 1 4Tm , n 0 Tm , n

4

Similarly, the finite difference formulas at the right-edge nodes are

2Tm 1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n 1

2Tm 1, n Tm , n 1 Tm , n 1 4Tm , n 0 Tm , n

4

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

m, n 1

The finite difference formulas at the interior nodes

with heat generation are E g

m 1, n m, n m 1, n

Tm1, n Tm1, n Tm , n1 Tm , n1 ( g m , n ) / k

2

Tm , n

4 E g g m , n 2 m, n 1

with point heat sources are

E g

Tm1, n Tm1, n Tm , n1 Tm , n1 Q m , n / ( k )

Tm , n m 1, n m, n m 1, n

4

Tm , n

4

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

More than 100 iterations are required for the temperatures to converge to within a

tolerance of 0.1℃.

A B C D E F G H I J K

1 68.3 68.7 69.4 70.3 71.8 73.1 72.6 70.2 67.9 66.1 65.4

2 67.9 68.6 69.3 70.0 71.9 74.0 73.5 70.2 67.6 65.5 64.8

3 66.4 66.9 67.7 68.6 71.3 77.4 76.8 69.5 65.7 63.5 62.8

4 62.9 63.6 64.5 65.5 67.3 70.4 69.7 65.3 62.2 60.1 59.3

5 58.2 60.1 61.1 61.8 61.9 67.1 66.5 59.7 56.7 55.2 54.3

6 49.6 50.1 50.5 50.9 51.4 52.7 52.3 50.2 48.7 47.9 47.5

7 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0

68 r 150

IC, 400 mW 72 mW

76

IC, 400 mW IC, 450 mW

64

60

IC, 3 W IC, 450 mW

56

52 Coil 250

48 mW

44

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

2T 1 T 1 2T 1

2 2 g ( r , ) 0

r 2

r r r k

O(r2 )

r2 m,n

r 2

m, n 1

n2

2T Tm, n1 2Tm, n Tm, n1 m, n

O(2 ) m 1, n

2 m,n

2

m 1, n m, n 1

n 1

T Tm1, n Tm1, n r

O(r )2 n0

r 2r m0 1 2 3 4

m, n

therefore r , ) g m , n )

( r mr and g(

1 1 1 1 gm, n

2

(1 )Tm1, n 2T (1 )Tm1, n (T

2 m, n1

2T Tm, n1) 0

m r

m, n m, n

r 2m 2m 2

k

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.3

Using the energy balance method, derive the finite-difference equation for the m, n

nodal point located on a plane, insulated surface of a medium with uniform heat

generation.

Solution

1. Given • Network of nodal points adjoining an insulated surface.

2. Find • Finite-difference equation for the surface nodal point

3. Schematic

Insulated surface m, n 1

Eg

m, n y

m 1, n k

m, n 1

x / 2

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 26 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

2. Two-dimensional conduction in x- and y-direction.

3. Uniform internal heat generation.

5. Properties

6. Solve

Applying the energy conservation requirement to the control volume about the region

(Δx/2· Δy·1) associated with the m, n node, it follows that, with volumetric heat

generation at a rate ,

T T x

Q cond, left k (y 1) m1, n m , n , E g g ( y 1)

x 2

x T T x T T

Q cond, bottom k ( 1) m , n 1 m , n , Q cond, top k ( 1) m , n m , n1

2 y 2 y

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 27 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Substituting

Tm 1, n Tm , n x Tm , n 1 Tm , n x x Tm , n Tm , n 1

k (y 1) k ( 1) g ( y 1) k ( 1)

x 2 y 2 2 y

g xy

2Tm1, n Tm , n1 Tm , n 1 4Tm , n 0

k

7. Comment

The same result could be obtained by using the symmetry condition, Tm1,n Tm 1,n

g x

2

k

for an interior nodal point.

5.6 Transient heat conduction

Consider transient one-dimensional heat conduction

in a plane wall of thickness L with no heat Tmi11 Tmi1 Tmi11

i 1

generation and constant conductivity k t Tmi 1 Tmi Tmi 1

i

T T 2

2

t x

At a location x and time t, x x

i0 x

T ( x, t ) T (mx, it ) T

i

m m 1 m m 1

x0 L

T

2

T 2T T

i i i

m1 m

O(x2 )

m1

x L / M

x2 m, i

x2

x m x m 0, 1, 2, 3, , M

T Tmi1 Tmi

O(t) t it i 0, 1, 2, 3,

t m, i t

Solving

Tmi 1 Tmi Tmi 1 2Tmi Tmi 1

with a truncation error of O(t) O(x2 )

t x 2

Continue

Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 29 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

t t

Explicit form Tmi 1 (Tm

i

1 Tm

i

1 ) (1 2 )Tm

i

x 2

x 2

t

Fo

x 2

This finite-difference representation is called the explicit form because the unknown

temperature Tmi+1 at the time step (i+1) can be directly determined from the

knowledge of temperatures Tm-1i, Tmi, and Tm+1i at the previous time step (i) .

improved by decreasing the values of Δx and Δt

5.6 Transient heat conduction

Stability criterion

The stability criterion is satisfied if the coefficients of all Tmi in the Tmi+1

expressions are greater than or equal to zero for all nodes m.

t 1

0

x 2 2

Two-dimensional transient heat conduction

T 2T 2T

( 2 2 )

t x y

At a location (x, y) and time t, T(x, y, t) T(mx, ny, it) Tm, n , for x y

i

2T 2T Tmi1, n Tmi1, n Tmi, n1 Tmi, n1 4Tmi, n T Tmi,n1 Tmi, n

x2 y2

x2

m, n, i t m, n, i t

Solving

1

T i1

m, n [T i

m1, n Ti

m1, n Ti

m, n1 Ti

m, n1 ] (1 4 )T i

m, n ( 0 )

4

5.6 Transient heat conduction

Consider transient one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane wall of thickness L

with no heat generation and constant conductivity k.

T 2T

2

t x

At a location x and time t, time derivative is expressed in backward difference form as

x m, i1

2

x2 t m, i t

Solving

Tmi 1 Tmi Tmi 11 2Tmi 1 Tmi 11

t x 2

5.6 Transient heat conduction

i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1

1 Tm , n Tm , n Tm1, n 2Tm , n Tm1, n Tm , n 1 2Tm , n Tm , n1

i

+

t x 2

y 2

Tmi , n (1 4 )Tmi , 1n (Tmi 11, n Tmi 11, n Tmi , 1n1 Tmi , 1n1 )

5.6 Transient heat conduction

One should start the finite difference calculations with a coarse mesh, gradually

refining the mesh size and observing the convergence of the solution before choosing

the mesh size to perform the final computations

2. Repeat the calculations using a mesh size of Δx/2.

3. If the results obtained by halving the mesh size do not differ significantly

from the results obtained with the full mesh size, we conclude that the

error is at an acceptable level. But if the difference is larger than we can

accept, then we have to repeat the calculations using a mesh size Δx/4 or

even a smaller one at regions of high temperature gradients.

Finer mesh size is needed in the regions where the boundary conditions exhibit steep

temperature variations and where heat flow rates are to be determined.

An accurate determination of the heat flow rate requires the use of finer mesh size.

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