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# Chapter 5

conduction

Contents

Chapter 3

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 2 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.1 Why numerical methods?
Why numerical methods?
Numerical methods are useful for handling problems involving
nonlinearities, complex geometries, complicated boundary conditions or a
system of coupled partial differential equations.

## Finite difference method

Powerful technique for solution of heat transfer problem.
Domain of given problem

## node (nodal point)

x
m, n  1
y m, n

m  1, n m  1, n

m, n  1
Nodal network

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 3 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.2 Finite difference formulation of differential equations

## Finite difference formulation of differential equation

Consider steady one-dimensional heat transfer in a plane wall of thickness L with
heat generation and constant conductivity k.
The wall is subdivided into M intervals.
T ( x)
x  L/ M Tm1
xm  mx Tm
Tm1
T ( xm )  Tm
L
M+1 points: 0 x
0 1 2 m1 m m1 M

0, 1, 2, 3, , m1, m, m1, , M m
1
m
1
2 2
1 1
The first derivative at m  and m  :
2 2
dT Tm  Tm1 dT Tm1  Tm
 and 
dx m
1 x dx m
1 x
2 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 4 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.2 Finite difference formulation of differential equations

## The second derivative at a node m becomes

dT dT
 Tm1  Tm Tm  Tm1
dx 1 dx 1 
d 2T m m T  2Tm  Tm1
 2 2
 x x  m1
2
dx m x x x2

d 2T g
2
 0
dx k

## Tm1  2Tm  Tm1 g m

  0, m  1, 2, 3, , M 1
x 2
k
gm : heat generation at node m

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 5 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

## Energy balance approach

Consider steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane wall of thickness L
with heat generation and constant conductivity k.

## The wall is subdivided into M. Volume

element
of node m
E g
x  L/ M
xm  mx Q cond, left Q cond, right
E s
L
T ( xm )  Tm 0 x
0 1 2 m 1 m m 1 M

x x
x

0 (∵ steady state)
Q cond, left  E g  Q cond, right +E s
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 6 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

The rate of heat conduction at the left and right surfaces can be expressed as

T T T T
Qcond, left  kA m1 m and Qcond, right  kA m m1
x x

The rate of heat generation within the volume element can be expressed as

## Substituting to energy balance Eqn.

Tm1  Tm T T
kA  g m Ax  kA m m1
x x
simplifying

## Tm1  2Tm  Tm1 g m

  0, m  1, 2, 3, , M  1
x 2
k

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 7 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Boundary conditions
x
Volume element
A 2
of node 0
E g
Q left surface Q cond, right
0 L x
0 1 2 
x x

## Q left surface  E g  Q cond, right

Where
x T T
E g  ( g 0 A  ), Q cond, right  kA 0 1 , Q left surface  ?
2 x
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 8 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

## 1. Specified heat flux boundary condition : Q left surface  q0 A

2. Convection boundary condition : Q left surface  hA(T  T0 )
3. Radiation boundary condition : Q left surface   A(T 4  T 4 )
surr 0

## Q left surface  hA(T  T0 )   A(Tsurr

4
 T04 )
or Q h
left surface A(T  T )
combined  0

Interface
5. Interface boundary condition:
k A E
g, A
E g , B k B
Tm1  Tm Q cond, left Q cond, right
kA A  g A, m A(x / 2)
x x
m 1 m m 1
T T
 g B , m A(x / 2)  k B A m m1 x x
x A 2 A

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 9 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.1
Consider a large uranium plate of thickness L = 4 cm and thermal conductivity k = 28
W/m·℃, in which heat is generated uniformly at a constant rate of g  5  10 W/m . One
6 3

side of the plate is maintained at 0℃ by iced water while the other side is subjected to
convection to an environment at T∞ = 30℃ with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 45
W/m2·℃.
Considering a total of three equally spaced nodes in the medium, two at the
boundaries and one at the middle, estimate the exposed surface temperature of the plate
under steady conditions using the finite difference approach.

Solution
1. Given • A total of three equally spaced nodes in the medium, two at the boundaries
and one at the middle
• One side of the plate is maintained at 0 ℃ by iced water while the other side
is subjected to convection to an environment at T∞=30℃
• The heat transfer coefficient: h = 45 W/m2·K
• g  5  10 W/m , L  4 cm, T  30C
6 3

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 10 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

## 2. Find • The exposed surface temperature of the plate

3. Schematic
Uranium h  45 W /m 2   C
plate
T  30  C
k  28 W/m  C
0℃
g  5  10 6 W/m 3
L
0 x
0 1 2

## 4. Assumption 1. Constant properties and steady state condition.

2. One-dimensional conduction in x-direction.
3. Negligible radiation heat transfer.

## 5. Properties • The thermal conductivity of the Uranium plate : k = 28 W/m·K

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 11 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

6. Solve Uranium h  45 W /m 2   C
plate
T  30  C
M  3, k  28 W/m  C
0℃
L 0.04 m g  5  10 6 W/m 3
x    0.02 m L
M 1 3 1 0 x
0 1 2

## T0  2T1  T2 g1 g1x 2

Node 1, a interior node:  0 2T1  T2 
x 2 k k
T1  T2
Node 2, a boundary node: kA  g 2 ( Ax / 2)  hA(T2  T )
x
hx hx g 2x2
T1  (1  )T2   T 
k k 2k
Solving
2T1  T2  71.43 T1  103.8C, T2  136.1C
T1 1.032T2  36.68
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 12 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.3 One-dimensional steady heat conduction

7. Comment
The analytical solution at x=L=0.04 m

 2 / k  gL
0.5 ghL   T h  2
gx
T ( x)  x T2.analytical  136.0C
hL  k 2k
※ T2.numerical  136.1C

The above result is almost identical to the result obtained here with the approximate
finite differential method.
Highly accurate results can be obtained with numerical methods by using a limited
number of nodes.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 13 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Consider a rectangular region in which heat conduction is significant in the x- and
y-directions.
m, n  1
Divide the x-y plane of the region into Δx and Δy.
Node count in the x-direction
m  0, 1, 2, , M E g
x  mx m  1, n m  1, n
m, n
Node count in the y-direction
n  0, 1, 2, , N y
y
y  ny
x m, n  1
In the z-direction, Δz = 1 x
T ( xm , yn )  Tm , n Volume element : x  y  1
Energy balance:

## Q cond, left  Q cond, bottom  E g  Q cond, right  Q cond, top

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 14 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## The energy balance relation becomes

Tm 1, n  Tm , n Tm , n 1  Tm , n Tm , n  Tm 1, n Tm , n  Tm , n 1
k y  k x  g m , n xy  k y  k x
x y x y

## Tm 1, n  2Tm , n  Tm 1, n Tm , n 1  2Tm , n  Tm , n 1 g m , n

  0
x 2
y 2
k

for m  0, 1, 2, , M  1 and n  0, 1, 2, , N  1

g m , n x 2
 x  y Tm 1, n  Tm 1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n 1  4Tm , n  0
k
→ No heat generation Tm , n  (Tm1, n  Tm1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n1 )/4

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 15 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## Node at an external corner with convection

m, n  1
y
E g

m  1, n m, n m  1, n (h1 , T1 )
x
m, n  1 (h2 , T 2 )

## Q cond, left  Q conv, bottom  E g  Q conv, right  Q cond, top

Left side:

 y Tm1, n  Tm , n   g ( xy )
E
Qcond, left  k ( ) , g m, n
2 x 4
x
Q conv, bottom  h2 ( )(Tm , n1  Tm , n )
2 Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 16 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Right side:
y x Tm , n  Tm , n 1
Q conv, right  h1 ( )(Tm , n  Tm 1, n ) 
Qcond, top  k ( )
2 2 y

Substituting

y Tm 1, n  Tm , n x xy
k( )  h2 ( )(Tm , n 1  Tm , n )  g m , n ( )
2 x 2 4
y x T  T
 h1 ( )(Tm , n  Tm 1, n )  k ( ) m , n m , n 1
2 2 y

##  2h1x 2h2 x  2h1x 2h2 x x 2

2T
 m 1, n  2Tm , n 1  (4   )Tm, n   ( T1  T2  g m , n )  0
k k  k k k

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 17 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.2
The 15-cm by 9-cm circuit board is populated on one side with five integrated circuits
(ICs), three transistors, three resistors, and a coil. The power dissipation of each
component is indicated in figure. The metal core, which spans the entire length and
width of the circuit board, is 0.8 mm thick and has a thermal conductivity of 165
W/m·K. A liquid-cooled cold plate maintains the bottom edge of the metal core at 40℃;
the other three edges of the core are free.
Using the finite difference
method, determine the
temperature distribution in the
metal core. Assume that no
heat is lost from the
components or the fiberglass-
epoxy surface to the
surroundings by convection or
radiation. Assume that the three
free edges of the circuit board
are insulated.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 18 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Solution
1. Given • The power dissipation of each component is indicated in figure.
• A liquid-cooled cold plate maintains the bottom edge of the metal core at 40 ℃.
• The circuit board
2. Find • The temperature distribution in the metal core.

3. Schematic

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 19 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## 4. Assumption 1. Constant properties and steady state condition.

2. Two-dimensional conduction in x- and y-direction.
3. The IC heat dissipation is modeled as internal heat generation
within the metal core.
4. The other components are treated as point heat sources applied to
a single node nearest the center of the component.

## 5. Properties • The thermal conductivity of the metal core : k = 165 W/m·K

6. Solve
The node spacing is 1.5 cm.
The control volume for ICs is V  (1.5 cm) 2 (0.08 cm)  0.18 cm3  1.8  107 m3
So the internal heat generation for nodes 13, 14, 24, and 25 is
(0.400 W)/2
q   1.111  10 6
W/m 3

1.8  107 m3
Similarly, the internal heat generation for nodes 46, 47, and 48 is
(3.0 W)/3
q   5.556  10 6
W/m 3

1.8  107 m3
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 20 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction
And the internal heat generation for nodes 28, 29, 50, and 51 is
(0.450 W)/2
q  7
 1.250  106 W/m3
1.8  10 m 3

Nodes 16, 17, 18, 20, 42, 53, and 54 have point heat sources with the values

## Nodes 67 through 77 are set to 40 ℃, the temperature of the cold plate.

Insulated surface
The energy balance at the left-top corner is
 T T m, n m  1, n
Q cond, bottom  k (   ) m , n1 m , n
Q cond, bottom  Q cond, right 2 
 T T
Q cond, right  k (   ) m , n m1, n m, n  1
2 
 : thickness
The finite difference formulas at the corner nodes 1 and 11 are
T12  T2 T10  T22
T1  T11 
2 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 21 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## The energy balance at the left-edge is Insulated surface m, n  1

Q cond, bottom  Q cond, right  Q cond, top

 T T
Q cond, bottom  k (   ) m , n1 m , n m, n m  1, n
2 
T T
Q cond, right  k (   ) m , n m1, n
 m, n  1
 T T
Q cond, top  k (   ) m , n m , n1
2 
Substituting the rate equations into the energy balance and simplifying give
2Tm 1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n 1
2Tm 1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n 1  4Tm , n  0  Tm , n 
4
Similarly, the finite difference formulas at the right-edge nodes are
2Tm 1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n 1
2Tm 1, n  Tm , n 1  Tm , n 1  4Tm , n  0  Tm , n 
4

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 22 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction
m, n  1
The finite difference formulas at the interior nodes
with heat generation are E g

m  1, n m, n m  1, n
Tm1, n  Tm1, n  Tm , n1  Tm , n1  ( g m , n  ) / k
2

Tm , n 
4 E g  g m , n  2 m, n  1

## The finite difference formulas at the interior nodes m, n  1

with point heat sources are
E g
Tm1, n  Tm1, n  Tm , n1  Tm , n1  Q m , n / ( k )
Tm , n  m  1, n m, n m  1, n
4

Tm , n 
4

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 23 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

More than 100 iterations are required for the temperatures to converge to within a
tolerance of 0.1℃.
A B C D E F G H I J K
1 68.3 68.7 69.4 70.3 71.8 73.1 72.6 70.2 67.9 66.1 65.4
2 67.9 68.6 69.3 70.0 71.9 74.0 73.5 70.2 67.6 65.5 64.8
3 66.4 66.9 67.7 68.6 71.3 77.4 76.8 69.5 65.7 63.5 62.8
4 62.9 63.6 64.5 65.5 67.3 70.4 69.7 65.3 62.2 60.1 59.3
5 58.2 60.1 61.1 61.8 61.9 67.1 66.5 59.7 56.7 55.2 54.3
6 49.6 50.1 50.5 50.9 51.4 52.7 52.3 50.2 48.7 47.9 47.5
7 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0

## 7. Comment Resister, 40 mW Transisto

68 r 150
IC, 400 mW 72 mW
76
IC, 400 mW IC, 450 mW
64

60
IC, 3 W IC, 450 mW
56
52 Coil 250
48 mW
44

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 24 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## In cylindrical and spherical coordinate system

 2T 1 T 1  2T 1
  2 2  g ( r , )  0
r 2
r r r  k

## 2T Tm1, n  2Tm, n Tm1, n

  O(r2 )
r2 m,n
r 2
m, n  1

n2
2T Tm, n1  2Tm, n Tm, n1 m, n
  O(2 ) m  1, n
2 m,n
 2
m  1, n m, n  1
n 1
T Tm1, n Tm1, n r
  O(r )2 n0
r 2r m0 1 2 3 4 
m, n

therefore  r ,  )  g m , n )
( r  mr and g(

1  1 1  1 gm, n
2
(1 )Tm1, n  2T  (1 )Tm1, n   (T
2 m, n1
 2T  Tm, n1)  0
 m r
m, n m, n
r  2m 2m 2
k

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 25 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Ex 5.3
Using the energy balance method, derive the finite-difference equation for the m, n
nodal point located on a plane, insulated surface of a medium with uniform heat
generation.

Solution
1. Given • Network of nodal points adjoining an insulated surface.
2. Find • Finite-difference equation for the surface nodal point
3. Schematic
Insulated surface m, n  1

Eg
m, n y
m  1, n k

m, n  1
x / 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 26 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

## 4. Assumption 1. Constant properties and steady state condition.

2. Two-dimensional conduction in x- and y-direction.
3. Uniform internal heat generation.
5. Properties
6. Solve
Applying the energy conservation requirement to the control volume about the region
(Δx/2· Δy·1) associated with the m, n node, it follows that, with volumetric heat
generation at a rate ,

## Q cond, left  Q cond, bottom  E g  Q cond, top

T T x
Q cond, left  k (y 1) m1, n m , n , E g  g (  y 1)
x 2

x T T x T  T
Q cond, bottom  k ( 1) m , n 1 m , n , Q cond, top  k ( 1) m , n m , n1
2 y 2 y

Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 27 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.5 Two-dimensional steady heat conduction

Substituting
Tm 1, n  Tm , n x Tm , n 1  Tm , n x x Tm , n  Tm , n 1
k (y 1)  k ( 1)  g (  y 1)  k ( 1)

x 2 y 2 2 y

## Taking Δx= Δy and dividing by k/2 give

g xy
2Tm1, n  Tm , n1  Tm , n 1  4Tm , n  0
k

7. Comment

The same result could be obtained by using the symmetry condition, Tm1,n  Tm 1,n
g  x 
2

## , with the finite-difference equation Tm,n 1  Tm.n 1  Tm1,n  Tm 1,n   4Tm ,n  0

k
for an interior nodal point.

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 28 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

## The explicit method t

Consider transient one-dimensional heat conduction
in a plane wall of thickness L with no heat Tmi11 Tmi1 Tmi11
i 1
generation and constant conductivity k t Tmi 1 Tmi Tmi 1
i
T T 2
 2
t x
At a location x and time t, x x
i0 x
T ( x, t )  T (mx, it )  T
i
m m 1 m m 1
x0 L
T
2
T  2T T
i i i
 m1 m
 O(x2 )
m1
x  L / M
x2 m, i
x2

x  m  x m  0, 1, 2, 3, , M
T Tmi1 Tmi
  O(t) t  it i  0, 1, 2, 3, 
t m, i  t

Solving
Tmi 1  Tmi Tmi 1  2Tmi  Tmi 1
 with a truncation error of O(t)  O(x2 )
t x 2
Continue
Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 29 School of Mechanical Engineering
5.6 Transient heat conduction
t t
Explicit form Tmi 1  (Tm
i
1  Tm
i
1 )  (1  2 )Tm
i

x 2
x 2

## where τ is a finite-difference form of the Fourier number

t
  Fo 
x 2
This finite-difference representation is called the explicit form because the unknown
temperature Tmi+1 at the time step (i+1) can be directly determined from the
knowledge of temperatures Tm-1i, Tmi, and Tm+1i at the previous time step (i) .

## The accuracy of the finite-difference solution may be

improved by decreasing the values of Δx and Δt

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 30 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

Stability criterion
The stability criterion is satisfied if the coefficients of all Tmi in the Tmi+1
expressions are greater than or equal to zero for all nodes m.
t 1
0   
x 2 2
Two-dimensional transient heat conduction
T  2T  2T
( 2  2 )
t x y
At a location (x, y) and time t, T(x, y, t)  T(mx, ny, it)  Tm, n , for x y
i

2T 2T  Tmi1, n Tmi1, n Tmi, n1 Tmi, n1  4Tmi, n T Tmi,n1 Tmi, n
 x2  y2  
x2

  m, n, i t m, n, i t

Solving
1
T i1
m, n [T i
m1, n Ti
m1, n Ti
m, n1 Ti
m, n1 ]  (1 4 )T i
m, n ( 0   )
4

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 31 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

## The implicit method

Consider transient one-dimensional heat conduction in a plane wall of thickness L
with no heat generation and constant conductivity k.

T  2T
 2
t x
At a location x and time t, time derivative is expressed in backward difference form as

## 2T Tmi11  2Tmi1 Tmi11 T Tmi1 Tmi

 
x m, i1
2
x2 t m, i t

Solving
Tmi 1  Tmi Tmi 11  2Tmi 1  Tmi 11

t x 2

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 32 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

## Two-dimensional transient heat conduction

i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1
1 Tm , n  Tm , n Tm1, n  2Tm , n  Tm1, n Tm , n 1  2Tm , n  Tm , n1
i

 +
 t x 2
y 2

## Assuming Δx = Δy, it follows that

Tmi , n  (1  4 )Tmi , 1n   (Tmi 11, n  Tmi 11, n  Tmi , 1n1  Tmi , 1n1 )

## Multi Energy Transport (MET) Lab. 33 School of Mechanical Engineering

5.6 Transient heat conduction

## Controlling the error in numerical methods

One should start the finite difference calculations with a coarse mesh, gradually
refining the mesh size and observing the convergence of the solution before choosing
the mesh size to perform the final computations

## 1. Start the calculations with a reasonable mesh size Δx based on experience.

2. Repeat the calculations using a mesh size of Δx/2.
3. If the results obtained by halving the mesh size do not differ significantly
from the results obtained with the full mesh size, we conclude that the
error is at an acceptable level. But if the difference is larger than we can
accept, then we have to repeat the calculations using a mesh size Δx/4 or
even a smaller one at regions of high temperature gradients.

Finer mesh size is needed in the regions where the boundary conditions exhibit steep
temperature variations and where heat flow rates are to be determined.
An accurate determination of the heat flow rate requires the use of finer mesh size.