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Forces and Motion QP Set-A

1. Fig. 1.1 shows the speed-time graph for the first 125 s of the journey of a lorry.

(a) During the motion shown, describe what happens to


(i) the speed of the lorry,

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(ii) the acceleration of the lorry.

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[4]
(b) Determine the maximum speed of the lorry in m/s and in km/h.

speed = .................................. m/s

speed = ................................ km/h


[2]

[Total 6 marks]

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 1
2. Fig. 2.1 shows a free-fall parachutist falling vertically downwards. Fig. 2.2 shows how the speed
of the parachutist varies with time.

Fig. 1.1 Fig. 1.2

(a) (i) State the name of the downward force acting on the parachutist.

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(ii) State the name of one upward force acting on the parachutist.

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[2]
(b) (i) State the initial value of the acceleration of the parachutist. Give the unit of your answer.

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.

(ii) Explain why the acceleration decreases from A to B.

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(iii) Explain why the parachutist falls at a constant speed after B.

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.

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[4]

[Total 6 marks]

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 2
3. A train travels from one station to the next. It starts from rest at time t = 0 and accelerates uniformly for
the first 20 s. At t = 20 s it reaches its top speed of 25 m/s. It then travels at this speed for a further 30 s before
decelerating uniformly to rest. The total time for the journey is 60 s.

(i) Sketch a speed-time graph for the motion of the train. Do not use graph paper. Put the speed of the train
on the y-axis and time along the x-axis.

[3]

(ii) Write down the equation, in words, that relates acceleration, time and change in velocity.

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(iii) Explain what is meant by a uniform acceleration.

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(iv) Use your graph to calculate the deceleration of the train as it comes to rest.

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(b) Several forces act on the train when it is moving.

(i) Name the horizontal and vertical forces that act on the train and give the direction of each force.

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 3
(ii) Explain whether the horizontal forces are balanced or unbalanced,

1. when the train accelerates,

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2. when the train travels at constant speed,

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3. when the train decelerates.

You may draw diagrams to help your explanations.

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(c) A second train has a non-uniform acceleration. Sketch a speed-time graph showing a non-uniform
acceleration. Do not use graph paper.

[1]
[Total 15 marks]

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 4
4. A cyclist starts from rest. He accelerates and then travels at a constant speed. At 12 s, the cyclist applies
the brakes and slows down. Photographs are taken of the cyclist at 4 s intervals. Fig. 4.1 shows the results.

Fig.4.1

(a) On Fig. 4.1, draw a possible position of the front wheel of the cycle at 16 s. [1]

(b) On Fig. 4.2, plot a distance-time graph of the cyclist for the first 16 s. [4]

Fig. 4.2

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(c) Calculate the average speed of the cyclist during the first 12 s.

average speed = ................................... [2]

[Total 7 marks ]

5. Two athletes, A and B, run a 100 m race. At time t = 0, a gun is fired to start the race. Fig. 1.1 shows the
distance-time graph for the two athletes.

Fig. 5.1

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 6
(a) Describe the motion of athlete A during the first 8 s of the race.

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.

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.

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(b) State the distance between the two athletes as the winner passes the 100 m mark.

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[1]

(c) Calculate the speed of athlete A between t = 4 s and t = 15 s.

speed = ................................................ [2]

[Total 5 marks]
6. Fig. 6.1 shows the horizontal forces acting on a moving car.

Fig.6.1

(a) Compare the sizes and directions of the two forces when the car is

(i) moving along a straight road at constant speed,

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(ii) accelerating.

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(b) Suggest the direction of the resultant force on the car when the car turns a corner at constant speed.

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(c) Fig. 6.2 shows the speed-time graph for the first 24 s of the motion of the car along a straight road.

Fig.6.2

(i) During the motion there is a period of uniform acceleration. State both the start and finish times
of this period.

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[1]

(ii) State the main energy changes that occur in the 24 s.

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 8
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(iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car during the first 5 s. State clearly the equation that you use.

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[3]

(iv) Determine the distance travelled in the first 5 s.

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(d) The car is stopped by applying the brakes. Various factors can affect the distance travelled by
the car during the time that the brakes are applied. Apart from the force applied by the brakes,
state two of these factors.

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 9
[Total 15 marks]

7. Fig. 7.1 represents the motion of Earth and the planet Venus around the Sun. The orbits shown are circles.

(a) On Fig. 7.1, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. [1]

(b) Information about Earth and Venus is given in the table.

(i) Use the information in the table to show that Venus has a greater speed than Earth.

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.

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(ii) As Earth and Venus move in their orbits, the distance between them changes. Calculate the largest
possible distance between them.

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 10
distance = ...................................... million km [1]

[Total 4 marks]

8. When a car driver sees an emergency ahead, he applies the brakes. During his reaction time the car
travels at a steady speed and covers a distance known as the thinking distance. The braking distance is the
distance travelled by the car after the brakes are applied.

(a) State the energy change that occurs as the car brakes.

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(b) Fig. 3.1 shows the speed-time graph of a car. The driver sees the emergency at time t = 0. The total mass
of the car is 800 kg.

Fig. 8.1
Determine

(i) the thinking distance,

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(ii) the braking distance,

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 11
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(iii) the deceleration of the car during braking,

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(iv) the force provided by the brakes.

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(c) Using ideas about friction and deceleration state and explain how the braking distance is affected by

(i) using new tyres rather than badly worn tyres,

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(ii) the car skidding on a wet road,

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[2]

(iii) the car carrying a heavy load of passengers.

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 12
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[2]

[Total 15 marks]

9. A piece of paper falls from 4.0 m above the ground. Fig. 9.1 shows how the height h above the ground
varies with the time t.

Fig. 9.1

(a) State what happens to the speed of the paper as it falls.

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(b) Calculate the speed of the paper at time t = 1.5 s.

S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 13
speed = ………………………………… [2]

(c) As the paper falls, energy changes from one form to another. State the main energy change between
t = 1.0 s and t = 2.0 s.

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[Total 6 marks]

10. Fig. 10.1 shows the horizontal forces as a cyclist travels forwards.

Fig. 10.1

The cyclist produces the driving force that acts on the back wheel. In this question, you may ignore any
frictional force acting on the front wheel.

(a) The bicycle accelerates until a constant speed is reached.

(i) Describe how the size of the air resistance changes during this time.

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(ii) Compare the sizes of the two horizontal forces when the bicycle is accelerating.

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 14
(b) The total mass of the bicycle and the cyclist is 75 kg. At one instant, the speed of the bicycle is 4.0 m / s,
the driving force is 30 N and the air resistance is 20 N. Calculate

(i) the total kinetic energy of the bicycle and the cyclist,

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(ii) the acceleration of the bicycle and the cyclist.

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As the bicycle moves, energy is transmitted from the pedals to the back wheel. Fig. 10.2 shows what happens
to the energy input to the pedals.

(i) As energy is transmitted to the back wheel, some is lost. Explain how this happens.

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(ii) Calculate the efficiency of the bicycle in transmitting energy from the pedals to the back wheel.

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 15
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(d) Some bicycles are made from low density materials. Explain why this is an advantage.

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[Total 15 marks]

11. Fig. 11.1 shows the speed-time graph of a ball. The ball is dropped at time t = 0.

Fig.11.1

(a) After t = 0.20 s, the ball falls at a constant speed. Explain, using ideas about forces, why the speed of the
ball is constant after time t = 0.20 s.

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(b) At t = 0, a different ball is dropped from rest. Until t = 0.20 s, this ball has a constant acceleration equal to
the acceleration of free-fall. After t = 0.20 s, its acceleration decreases.

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(i) State the value of the acceleration of free-fall.

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(ii) Determine the speed of the second ball at t = 0.20 s.

speed = ...................................................... [2]

(iii) On Fig. 11.1, draw the speed-time graph for the second ball from t = 0 to t = 0.28 s. [2]

[Total 6 marks]

12. Fig. 12.1 shows the speed-time graph for a car.

Fig. 12.1

At time t = 15 s, the brakes are applied and the car comes to rest with uniform deceleration.

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(a)(i) State the speed of the car just before the brakes are applied.

speed = .......................................................... [1]

(ii) Explain what is meant by uniform deceleration.

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.

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(b) A lorry travels at a constant speed of 18 m / s for 15 s. At time t = 15 s, the brakes are applied and the
lorry slows down with the same deceleration as the car.

(i) On Fig. 12.1, draw the speed-time graph for the lorry. [2]

(ii) Explain how your graph shows that, while braking, the lorry travels further than the car.

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[Total 6 marks]

13. Fig. 13.1 shows a sky-diver falling vertically downwards at terminal velocity.

Fig. 13.1

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Arrows X and Y show the two main forces acting on the sky-diver.

(a) (i) State the name of force X and the name of force Y.\

X .....................................................................................................................................................................................

Y .....................................................................................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii) Explain why force Y acts upwards.

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(b) When the sky-diver first started to fall, forces X and Y were unbalanced.

(i) Describe and explain the effect of the unbalanced forces on the motion of the sky-diver.

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(ii) State what happened to the size of force X and the size of force Y as the sky-diver fell and reached
terminal velocity.

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[Total 6 marks]

14. Fig. 14.1 shows a sky-diver falling vertically.

Fig. 14.1

The sky-diver starts from rest at time t = 0.


His acceleration is non-uniform until he reaches a steady speed of 50 m / s at t = 10 s.
He opens his parachute at t = 20 s and decelerates until t = 25 s.
From t = 25 s he falls at a steady speed of 5 m / s.

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(a) (i) On Fig. 14.2, draw the speed-time graph for the sky-diver. [4]

Fig. 14.2

(ii) State how your graph shows that the acceleration is non-uniform between t = 0 and t = 10 s.

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(b) Explain, in detail, why after the sky-diver opens his parachute, he decelerates and eventually reaches a
steady speed.

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.

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S. Mahmud, Sr. Faculty (Physics), BAF SEMS, Ex-Faculty, Creative American School, Oman, 01818-714517 Page 20
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(c) For the time interval between t = 10 s and t = 20 s, calculate the distance that the sky-diver falls.

distance = ...........................................................[1]

(d) The mass of the sky-diver is 60 kg. For the time interval between t = 20 s and t = 25 s,

(i) calculate the average deceleration of the sky-diver,

average deceleration = .......................................[2]

(ii) calculate the average resultant force acting on the sky-diver,

force = ................................................................[2]

(iii) state how your graph in Fig. 9.2 may be used to obtain the distance that the sky-diver falls.

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.

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[Total 15 marks]

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