You are on page 1of 4

*Paint coating  produk cair yg relatif kental bila diaplikasikan pada permukaan benda kerja

akan membentuk lapisan pelindung yg melekat dengan baik pada benda kerja dan melindungi
permukaannya dari pengaruh lingkungan. Sebelum diaplikasikan cek kekentalan cat
*fungsi umum coating  dekorasi, proteksi, identifikasi
*mekanisme proteksi paint coating  barrier protection (memisahkan logam dengan
lingkungan), chemical inhibitors, galvanic (cathodic) protection (SACP)
*proteksi oleh lapisan cat (paint film)  proteksi katodik (zinc rich pigment cat  coating,
proteksi katodik), inhibitive pigment (menghambat korosi dengan membentuk lapisan
inhibive), barrier coating (memisahkan logam dengan lingkungan)
*paint system primiring coat/primer/kontak dengan material (mencegah korosi),
undercoat/intermediete/diatas primer coat (mencegah korosi, pigment inert/memberikan
ketebalan), finishing coat/top coat (mencegah abrasi, melindungi UV, dekorasi)
*paint composition  binder, pigment, solvent (pelarut), additiv)

*binder  bahan pengikat yg ditambahkan pada cat yg akan mengubah cairan cat menjadi
padatan dan membentuk lapisan tipis
*sifat binder  mengering dengan cepat, tahan air, tahan zat kimia, perubahan fisis, wetability
*jenis binder  oxidation = untuk pengecetan di ruang terbuka (binder bereaksi dengan
oksigen membentuk lapisan padat yg keras), solvent evaporation = ruang terbuka (pelarut yg
ada di binder menguap sehingga membentuk lapisan padat yg keras), chemical reaction = ruang
tertutup (pada binder terjadi reaksi kimia sehingga terbentuk lapisan yg keras)
* pigment  partikel padatan yg tidak larut sehingga perlu dicampur dengan binder dan
solvent, bahan pigment bisa dari mineral alam atau sintetik dari bahan organik pigment
mempunyai penggunaan yg efektif untuk lapisan pelindung (dapat memberikan warna)
*tujuan pigment memberikan warna/dekorasi, proteksi terhadap resin binder, penghambat
korosi, penguat lapisan cat, sag control, hide & gloss control, adhesion
*jenis pigment yg meningkatkan ketahanan korosi  red lead pb, white lead, zinc chromate,
titanium chromate, basic lead silicon chromate

*jenis inhibitiv pigment  zinc oxide, zinc phosphate, zinc molybdate, calsium borosilicate,
zinc phosposilicate, barium metaborate
*solvent (fungsi sebagai pelarut)  melarutkan binder, menurunkan viskositas, mengontrol
pengeringan lapisan cat basah, menentukan daya lekat cat
*contoh solvent  ketones (methyl, ethyl katone), esters, aromatics (toluene, xylene),
alyphatic hydrocarbones (mineral spirits)
*mek soluble coating (laquers, latex product, oil based product (initially))
*mek insoluble coatings (chemically, reacting products, oil based product (after aging))
*curing/memadat  konversi sebuah lapisan cair menjadi lapisan pelindung padat
(pembentukan lapisan polimer)
*mekanisme pembentukan lapisan non-convertible (thermoplastics)  evaporasi solvent, latex
coalescence, perubahan fasa
*mekanisme curing dalam convertible (thermoseting) coating  oksidasi udara dari minyak
kering unsaturated, reaksi kimia komponen, reaksi dengan kelembapan atau karbon dioksida
*keuntungan lacquers cepat mengering & reacoating (blasting), bagus dalam ketahanan
kimia, bagus dalam imersi air, durabillity, bagus dalam glass retention possible
*keterbatasan lacquers  high in VOCS (volatile organic compound), ketahanan pelarut
rendah, pembentukan lapisan rendah, blast cleaned surface necessary for coating
*contoh water emulsion (latex) coatings  acrylics, PVAS (polyvinyl acelate)
*keuntungan water emulsion  ramah lingkungan, mudah diaplikasikan, top coat, repair, cepat
kering untuk coating, fleksibilitas baik, murah
*kekurangan water emulsion  durabillity terbatas, ketahanan chemical, &pelarut yg jelek,
pembasahan permukaan jelek, jelek dalam immersion service
*keuntungan Alkyds & other air oxidizing coatings  , mudah diaplikasikan, top coat, repair,
fleksibilitas baik, pembersihan permukaan dan adhesi yg baik
*kekurangan alkyds  relatif tinggi VOCS, poor performance insevere environment, poor
chemical and solvent resitance, poor alkali resitance

*sifat lapisan cat  adhesion, flexibility, hardness, abrasion resitance, permeability


*metode preparasi permukaan  degreasing (SP1), hand and power tool cleaning (SP2&3),
chemical stripping (TU6) = u/menghilangkan lapisan oksida, abrasive blasting (SP5,10.6,14.7),
water cleaning (SP12)
*metode degreasing  solvent cleaning, steam cleaning, alkali cleaning, detergent/water clean
*solvent cleaning  removes greases, oil, dirt, use clean, soaked rags, wear gloves
*alkali cleaning  removes grease & oil, may damage aluminium, zinc & wood
*detergent/water cleaning  may removes light deposits of grease,oil & dirt
*chemical cleaning  alkaline (base for oil based coating), solvent (best for latex paints),
SARA (best for thermosetting coating)
*selective adhesion release agents (SARA)  water emulsion of solvent, relative low
foxicities, biodegradable, no objectionable odor, can be applied by brush, dip or spray

*metode pengontrolan particulate emissions  vacuum blasting, shop centrifugal blasting,


blasting rooms, sponge blasting, wet abrasive blasting
*water cleaning by pressure  low pressure water cleaning/LPWC (less than 5000psi/34MPa),
High pressure water cleaning/HPWC (5000-10000psi/34-70Mpa, high pressure water
jetting/HPWJ (10000-25000psi/70-170Mpa), Ultrahigh pressure water jetting (above 25000psi

Cleaning method Contaminant


Degreasing Grease and oil
Power washing Dirt and mildew
Hand and power tools Loose rust, millscale and loose paint
Low pressure water cleaning Dirt and mildew
High pressure water cleaning Marine fauling, loose rust and paint
High pressure water jetting Rust, mill scale, tight paint
Method SSPC Condition
Solvent cleaning 1 Removes grease and oil
Hand tool cleaning 2 Removes loose mill scale, rust and paint
Power tool cleaning 3 Removes loose mill scale, rust and paint
Power tool to base metal 11 Roughened surface visibly free of contaminant
Pickling 8 Removes mill scale and rust
*air abrasive blasting setup  air compresor, after cooler, breathing air compresor, NIOSH
approved supplied air compresor, CPI air filter (penyaring udara), ASME coded blast machine
*sifat bahan abrasive  ukuran, bentuk, kekerasan, karakteristik saat pecah
*tipe abrasive  natural mineral abrasive, slag abrasive, metallic abrasive, synthetic abrasive
*SSPC abrasive spesification  AB1 (natural mineral = type 1, slag = type 2), AB2 (recycled
steel grit/shot), AB3 (new/remanufactured steel grit/shot)

Standard Brush of commercial Near white metal White metal


SSPC SP7 SP6 SP10 SP5
NACE No4 No3 No2 No1
SWEDISH Sa1 Sa2 Sa2,5 Sa3
*condition A  completely covered with adherent mill scale, little or no rust visible
*condition B  covered with both mill scale and rust
*condition C  completely covered with rust, little or no pitting
*condition D  completely covered with rust, pitting visible
*condition E  previously painted, light colorred paint applied over blast cleaned surface
*condition F  previously painted, zinc rich paint applied over blast cleaned surface
*condition G  paintb applied over mill scale bearing steel, system througly weathered
*condition H  degrated paint system applied over steel, system througly weathered, blistered

*metode application coating  industry guides, factor affecting choice, application rates,
transfer efficiecy
Application method Square feet applied/hour Square meter applied/hour
Brush 75-125 7-12
Roller 150-300 14-28
Hulp spray 185-310 17-30
Conventional compressor 200-450 18-42
Air spray 200-450 18-42
Air assisted 300-600 28-56
Airless spray 300-600 28-56
Airless spray 500-1250 50-120
*faktor mempengaruhi efisiensi transfer  item size, item shape, equipment, distance, pressure
*relative order transfer efficiency (high to low)  manual, electrostatic spray, high volume
low pressure (HVLP) spray, air asisted airless spray, airless spray, convetional air spray
*spraying  metode paling ekonomis dan efisien dari pengaplikasian lapisan pelindung untuk
struktur industri yg besar, aplikasi spray  konvestional, airless, ais assited airless, high
volume low pressure, electro static, plural component
*forming conventional air spray patern  coating air value from pot to gun, open main air
value from compressor to pot, set regulator to recommended pressure, remove air cap, trigger/
increase fluid pressure to get 3 foot stream, replace cap
*keuntungan conventional air spray  finest atomization/finish, good operator control/
versatility, low initial investment, usually better with filled coatings, easier to change color
*kerugian conventional air spray  lower transfer efficiency, lower application rate, produce
over spray, viscous material may present problem

*airless spray system componet  high pressure hydraulic pump, coating container, high
pressure hose. Airless spray gun
*forming airless spray pattern  size and shape of orifice determine fan size and shape, start
fluid flow and increase until desired patern is obtained, coating viscosity can be reduced by
carefull thinning or heating
*keuntungan airless spray  high application rate, applies high viscousity material well,
reduced over spray fog, better transfer efficiency on large surface
* kerugian air spray  hazardous spray pressure, reduced operator control, reduced quality
finish, expensive to maintenance
*rust grade A  loose mill, light rust, no surface pitting
*rust grade B  light mill scale, overall rust, some pitting
*rust grade C  painted surface, heavy rust, pitting surface
*rust grade D  multi coated, or heavy pitted rust scale

Ket Production rate (ft/hour) Surface


Sa 3 Sa 2,5 Sa 2 Sa 1 condition
Ukuran 144 151 360 720 A
nozzel biasa 120 126 240 720 B
72 76 180 720 C
57 60 120 720 D
Ket Production rate (ft/hour) Surface
Sa 3 Sa 2,5 Sa 2 Sa 1 condition
Ukuran sulit 62 65 134 309 A
dijangkau 4 51 54 103 309 B
31 33 77 309 C
25 26 51 309 D