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18.04.

2011

BU Motors and Generators training

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© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 1

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18.04.2011

Dear Student,

ƒ Welcome to Technical introduction to motors and generators e-learning


course program! •K115e
ƒ K110e •K116e
ƒ K111e •K117e
ƒ K112e •K118e
ƒ K113e
ƒ K114e
ƒ Database needed:
ƒ ABB Library, http://inside.abb.com/library (for ABB personnel only)
ƒ Inside web pages, http://inside.abb.com/ (for ABB personnel only)
ƒ External web pages: http://www.abb.com/motors&generators
ƒ Course administration:
BU Motors and generators training
motorsandgenerators.training@fi.abb.com
ƒ Questions and discussions
ƒ Technical assistance
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 2

Welcome to the Technical introduction to motors and generators e-learning


course program!
This course program has been developed as an introduction to our products for new sales
person in BU Motors and generators. It leads you to the basic electrical and mechanical
structure of our motors and explains the technical details of the different types of motors and
generators.

To study the courses, you will need access to ABB Library, ABB Inside and our external web
pages.
Course consist of courses from K110e to K118e.
Even though this course is on the Internet and you can study alone where and whenever your
want, please be active and ask questions. Our training team will assist you in this training,
please send an e-mail to motorsandgenerators.training@fi.abb.com

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Course description

ƒ Course duration
ƒ Course type
ƒ Prerequisites and Recommendations
ƒ Main topics:
ƒ Basics of electrical motors and standards
ƒ DC Motors
ƒ HV Motors
ƒ LV Motors
ƒ Motors for explosive atmospheres
ƒ Servomotors
ƒ Synchronous motors and generators
ƒ Generators for wind turbine applications
ƒ Permanent magnet motors

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 3

These are a web-based training courses, which are designed to be studied according to your individual
plan, usually within five weeks. The duration of the course depends on the participant. Each course is
equivalent to 0,5 days classroom training.
The language of the course is English.

A basic knowledge and experience with using PCs and the Windows environment is recommended
before attending the course. It is assumed users are new to e-learning software and methods. Course
program K100e-K105e is recommended before studying Technical introduction to motors and
generators course program.

Main topics are:


Basics of electrical motors and standards
DC Motors
HV Motors
LV Motors
Motors for explosive atmospheres
Servomotors
Synchronous motors and generators
Generators for wind turbine applications
Permanent magnet motors

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Course material

ƒ Access to course material / See Notes page-text and


attachments
ƒ Course material
ƒ Final exam
ƒ Course evaluation / feedback form

ƒ Turn on the volume to hear the recorded material

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 4

Choose Notes to see the whole course material. To exit from the unit, click Exit in the upper,
right corner and Exit now. If you want to take a break in your studies, you can continue
afterwards from were you left off by choosing Review and yes to resume your presentation.
Once you start studying and open a unit, the status of this unit changes from Not Attempted to
Incomplete. The status changes from Incomplete into Complete when you have studied all the
material.

The Student binder for this course can be found from the course in the Attachments. In
connection to this course there is a final exam. 50% of the questions have to be answered
correctly to pass the course. Remember to turn on the volume if you want to hear the recorded
material

Please remember to fill in the course evaluation form. We highly appreciate your feedback
since it helps us to improve the quality of the course. The information you give is treated in
strict confidence.

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Learning paths

ƒ Learning paths for motors and generators:


http://fi.inside.abb.com/product/ap/seitp322/0e41c4bb2bfb6ceac12578080
05495d9.aspx
ƒ Course K110e is mandatory for all technical sales persons in BU Motors
and Generators

ƒPlease look up a terminology in TermBank

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 5

New employees in our motors sales have different educational backgrounds and work experience. Learning
paths have been designed to help you to choose the correct courses for your individual needs.
This course program has been developed as an introduction to our products for new sales person in BU
Motors and Generators. We recommend to start your studies with K110e Basics of electrical motors and
standards e-learning course which is a mandatory course for all sales people. It leads you to the basic
electrical and mechanical structure of our motors and explains the technical details of the different types of
motors and generators. After completing this first course, you may continue with other courses within this
course program starting from K111e to K118e. You are recommended to select the courses you deal with in
your job area.

During your studies, you can look up a terminology through the Termbank linked in ABB Intranet.

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Learning paths
Technical introduction

E-learning courses
Seminars K110e K111e G977 G978

K112e G954/G982
G951e1_2

K113e G952/G953/G982

K114e

Course program G951e Technical introduction


K115e has been replaced by course program K110e – K118e.

K116e

K117e

K118e
© ABB
BU Motors
BU Motors
and Generators
and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 6

BU Motors and Generators training offers technical introduction for motors and generators e-learning course
program: K110e-K118e (former G951e1_2-G951e10). You may still find some of these courses with the old
code G951e. For more information about our learning paths, please see our web pages.

Code explanations:
K110e Basics of electrical motors and standards (G951e1_2)
K111e DC Motors (G951e3)
K112e High voltage motors (G951e4)
K113e Low voltage motors (G951e5)
K114e Motors and Generators for explosive atmospheres (G951e6)
K115e Servomotors (G951e7)
K116e Synchronous motors and generators (G951e8)
K117e Generators for wind turbine applications (G951e9)
K118e Permanent magnet motors (G951e10)
Former G951e Course program (G951e1_2 – G951e10) equals to courses K110e – K118e
G977 DC Motor sales tool training
G978 DC Motor hands-on training
G953 LV Motor training
G952 LV Motor technical training
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G954 HV Motors and generators technical training
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Reference material

ƒ Reference materials to Motors:


ƒ http://inside.abb.com/product/us/9AAC133417.aspx
ƒ www.abb.com/motors&generators
ƒ Motor Guide
ƒ Low voltage Process performance motors
ƒ Low voltage Industrial performance motors
ƒ Low voltage General performance motors
ƒ High voltage induction motors technical catalogue
ƒ High voltage induction motors for Chemical, Oil and
Gas EN 02-2008
ƒ Motors for explosive atmospheres
ƒ DMI Catalogue

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 7

During the courses you will need to refer to ABB’s internal or external web sites. Here you can also find links
to catalogues which you can use during the course.

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Introduction to Motors and Generators

ƒ For information on our training events, please see:


http://inside.abb.com/product/ap/seitp322/2e061a8c3afe448fc125
78010026cede.aspx
ƒ K110e – K118e, produced for ABB, BU Motors and Generators,
2011. First Edition (v.1.0)
ƒ Contact information:
BU Motors and Generators training
P.O.Box 633, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
Tel. +358-50 33 44350
Fax. +358-10 22 47372
e-mail:
motorsandgenerators.training@fi.abb.com

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 8

For information on our training events, visit us at motors and generators training web site.
The course program has been produced for ABB Business Unit Motors and Generators in 2011. This is the
first edition, version 1.0, copyright 2011 by ABB, BU Motors and Generators
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or copied without permission of ABB, BU
Motors and Generators

Good luck and have fun in learning!

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© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 9

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K110e
Unit 1 Basics of electrical
motors and generators

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 10

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Objectives

ƒ After completing this


course module you will
understand:
ƒ the basics of the
electrical motor
ƒ the structure and
demands of a motor
ƒ the physical
background of the
induction motor
ƒ the electrical structure
of ABB's low and high
voltage induction
motors and generators

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 11

After successfully completing this course module you will be able to describe the basics of the electrical
motors and understand the structure and demands of a motor.
This module will also explain the physical background of the induction motor and the electrical structure of
ABB's low and high voltage induction motors and generators, including the electrical motor components,
torque and speed, power factor, efficiency, rating plate, winding, and insulation.

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Electrical motor

ƒ More than half of the electrical energy produced is used


by electrical motors
ƒ Electrical motors are used worldwide in many industrial,
utility, commercial, or residential applications

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 12

Electricity is an important source of energy in our society. More than half of the electrical energy produced is
used by electrical motors. Electrical motors are used worldwide in many industrial, utility, commercial, or
residential applications.

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Principles of action of electrical motors and generators

ƒ Used to convert
mechanical power into
electrical energy or vice
versa
ƒ All rely on electromagnetic
induction

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 13

Rotating electrical machines are used to convert mechanical power into electrical energy or vice versa. All
electrical machines, whether motors or generators using direct or alternating current, rely on the principles of
electromagnetic induction for their action.

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Principles of action of electrical motors and generators

ƒ A conductor moving across a magnetic field creates an


electromotive force (emf)
ƒ Resulting current flow and magnetic field around the conductor
tend to oppose the motion that is producing the emf

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 14

A conductor moving across a magnetic field becomes the seat of an electromotive force (emf). The direction
of the emf is in the right angle to both the direction of the motion and the direction of the magnetic field.
The amount of "induced“ voltage depends upon the length of the conductor actually in the field, the speed of
the relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field, and the strength of the magnetic field.
Because of the direction or polarity of the induced emf, the resulting current flow and the magnetic field
around the conductor produced by it tend to oppose the motion that is producing the emf. The principle of this
action can be presented in best for instance, an elementary generator consisting of a loop of wire that is
mechanically rotated within a magnetic field.

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Principles of action of electrical motors and generators

ƒ single-phase machine
ƒ delta connection

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 15

In the illustration, A will always be moving in the opposite direction of B, relative to the magnetic field, and
hence emf induced in A will be in the opposite direction to that of B.
These two emfs, therefore, add up when the coil sides are connected as shown. When the coil side A is in
position 1, it will be moving parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. There is no relative motion across
the field and no emf is induced. When the coil has rotated 90° to position 2, it will be moving at right angles to
the field and an emf is induced towards the observer’s direction, as shown by the arrows. Slip ring R1 will,
therefore, appear to have positive polarity with regard to R2.
After a further 90° rotation, coil side A will again be moving parallel to the direction of the field and no emf will
be induced. After a 270° rotation, in position 4, the coil side will again be moving at right angles to the field
and an emf will be induced in the opposite direction to that of position 2 since the direction of movement is
now reversed. Slip ring R1 will now appear to have negative polarity with regard to R2. This elementary
generator produces an emf that is alternating in direction with a complete cycle of positive and negative
changes taking place once per revolution. Since it is relative motion between conductor and field, which
includes the emf, it matters little whether the conductor is moving in a stationary field system or whether the
field system is moving within stationary conductors.
The alternator described in this example is known as a single-phase machine because there is only one
circuit where the emf is induced. It is possible to install 3 separate groups. Now the stator has three separate
groups of coils spaced 120 electrical degrees apart round the stator core. The voltages in each of these
"phases" reach maximum values at different times as the magnetic field passes them in succession. The
voltage, which appears between any of the 3 machine terminals, is that of two-phase windings in series.
Since these are 120° out of phase, the terminal voltage is 1.73 times that of the voltage of one phase.
Alternatively, the end of one coil group can be connected to the start of another to form a closed loop, the
joints forming the terminal connections. This is known as the delta connection. The terminal voltage is the
same as that of each phase and the line current is shared between the phase windings.

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Principles of action of electrical motors and generators

Video: rotation

Created by:
Roger Busque
Ingeniero Industrial & Master Project Manager por La Salle.
Industrial Engineer & Master Project Manager by La Salle

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 16

Here is a video clip showing the rotation phase described in the previous page.

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Principles of action of electrical motors and generators

ƒ To understand the basics,


see:
ƒ Faraday's law
ƒ Fleming's left hand rule

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 17

The illustration shows voltage in three phases of a three-phase alternator. To understand the basics more
deeply, take a look at the following web pages: About Faraday's law:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday's_law_of_induction and
http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/applist/induct/faraday.htm; About Fleming's left hand rule:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fleming's_left_hand_rule_for_motors It is not necessary to memorize the
formulas, instead, try to understand the idea behind the theory.

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Electrical motor components


Active parts of an HV motor

Stator Bearing

Rotor

Bearing

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 18

Here a high voltage motor/generator is illustrated. The basic construction of the AC induction motor is simple
and has changed very little over the years. Next, we will discuss the basic components of a motor.
The stator windings are insulated copper wire, which are inserted into slots in the stator laminations. These
slots have insulation between the windings and the steel laminations. This is called the "stator core". The
different winding designs provide different output and speed combinations. The stator core is inserted into the
stator frame. The ends of the winding are brought out through the motor casing to the terminal board in a
terminal box mounted on the frame. This is where the mains leads are connected.
The rotor consists of laminations, the shaft, and the rotor winding or bars. The type of winding will depend on
the type of motor required. If the rotor has a winding similar to that of the stator, it is known as a "wound rotor
motor" (also known as a slip-ring motor). If the "winding" consists of solid bars that are joined at either end by
a short-circuit ring, it is known as a "squirrel cage" motor. This is because the cage of the rotor resembles the
cage that squirrels play with when in captivity. The bars are generally aluminum, but can be copper or any
such material.
Aluminum is commonly used for LV induction motors and copper for HV motors and generators. The squirrel
cage rotor motor is the most common type in use today as it requires simple control gear and, in most cases,
can be used instead of a wound rotor motor. The stator core and rotor core constitute the active part of a
motor. The bearings are used to support the shaft and to enable it to rotate.

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Electrical motor components


Active parts of an HV motor

Video: the rotor packet

Created by:
Roger Busque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 19

Here is a video clip showing the stator packet and rotor packet, which constitute the active part of a motor.

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Electrical motor components


Active parts of a LV motor

Stator
Rotor
Bearing

Bearing

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 20

The illustration shows an example of a low voltage motor. The main difference between a low voltage motor
and a high voltage motor is the stator winding. The LV Motor is random-wounded, the HV Motor is form-
wounded.

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Electrical motor components


Active parts of a LV motor

Video: rotor
Created by:
Roger Busque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 21

The rotor consists of laminations, the shaft, and the rotor winding or bars.

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Voltage of a LV/HV motor and generator

Motors:

Low voltage 0 < U ≤ 1 kV


Medium voltage 1 < U ≤ 6.6 kV
High voltage 6.6 < U ≤ 11.5 kV

Generator: Low Voltage: 0 – 1kV


Medium Voltage: 1kV – 15 kV

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 22

Internally, sometimes the terms 'medium voltage' and 'high voltage' motors/generators can be used. It is good
to know the difference between them.

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Components of a HV motor/generator

© ABB
BU Motors
BU Motors
and Generators
and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 23

The illustration shows an explosion view of a high voltage motor/generator (AMA).

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Components of a LV motor

Terminal box lid


Terminal box
Terminal Bearing Fan cover
block

D-end
Fan
Bearing
N-end

Rotor

Shaft Frame
Stator core &
stator winding

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 24

The illustration shows the main components of a low voltage motor. The active parts of the motor are: rotor,
stator core, and stator winding.

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Magnetism

The illustration shows the equivalence between a


permanent magnet and a current.

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 25

A magnetic flux is created by the presence of magnetic poles, for example the north and south poles of a
magnet. ‘Flux’ is a term for the magnetic flow from the north to the south pole. The illustration shows the
equivalence between a permanent magnet and a current.

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Magnetism

Video: Magnetic flux 2


Video: Magnetic flux 1 Created by:
Created by: Roger Busque
Roger Busque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 26

Video clips of Magnetic flux 1 and 2.

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Magnetic field in a motor

FLUX

Stator core

Stator winding

Rotor Rotor
Air gap between
packet bar
stator and rotor

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 27

When a three-phase AC voltage supply is connected to the stator windings, a rotating magnetic field is
formed. This results a magnetic flux in the air gap where the torque of the motor is produced. The rotating
magnetic fields produced by the stator induce a current into the conductive loops of the rotor. The rotor has
conductive bars, which are short-circuited to form conductive closed loops.
The resulting form is similar to a squirrel cage. Once that occurs, the magnetic field causes forces to act on
the current-carrying conductors, which results in a torque on the rotor.

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Pole number

The pole number is the number of magnetizing poles


generated by the stator winding

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 28

The pole number is the number of magnetizing poles generated by the stator winding. Poles exist in pairs,
north and south poles, by the direction of the magnetic field, so the pole number is always an even number.
One north pole (N) and one south pole (S) form one pole pair (p), and they follow each other.
Stator winding produces a rotating magnetic field when supplied with a three-phase AC system.

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Magnetic field in a motor

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 29

The speed of the magnetic field rotating under a certain supply frequency depends on the pole number of the
winding. Windings with different pole numbers differ from each other with regard to coil shape and location in
the stator slots. Rotational speed of the magnetic field dependent on the winding pole number at 50 Hz supply
frequency in the following way: 2-pole (2p=2) winding produces 3,000 rpm speed; 4-pole (2p=4) winding
produces 1,500 rpm speed; 6-pole (2p=6) winding produces 1,000 rpm speed; and 8-pole (2p=8) winding
produces 750 rpm speed. At 60 Hz supply frequency the speed values are 20 % higher. The abbreviation p
stands for “pole pair number” and the abbreviation 2p means “pole number”.

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Windings

ƒ Windings designed for a specific voltage and frequency


ƒ Slot windings used as
ƒ stator windings
ƒ rotor windings in the induction motors/generators

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 30

The windings are designed for a given voltage and frequency. Slot windings are used as stator windings and
also as rotor windings in the induction motors/generators.

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Stator winding

ƒ Random winding
ƒ Form wound winding

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 31

Windings in a motor provide a path for the AC current to flow along, which, in turn, produces the rotating
magnetic field that causes the rotor to rotate.
Winding is done by putting conductive copper into the stator slots so that the current flowing in the copper
generates a rotating magnetic field in the air gap between the stator and the rotor. This magnetic field grabs
the rotor bars and forces the rotor to rotate along with the magnetic field. In one slot there can be up to 150
turns of copper in random wound winding and up to 50 in form wound winding.
There are two basic stator winding styles: random winding and form wound winding.
In random winding the copper used in the winding is in the form of wire and in any one slot the turns are more
or less in random order. There are many different ways of doing random winding - some are more suitable for
machine winding, others have superior mechanical strength or desirable effects on efficiency. Random
winding is the winding style used for most low voltage motors.
In form wound winding rectangular copper wires are used instead of round wires. Form wound winding is
used when high voltage motors and generators are wound.
The stator winding design of the HV motors and generators combines the class F insulation system with
vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). This method has been used since 1977 and is well known for its high
reliability. While the insulation meets the requirements of the thermal class F (temperature limit 155oC), the
motors are normally rated to class B, which gives a good overload margin and provides a long life. The basic
impulse level exceeds IEC requirements. The windings are designed to cope with the highest mechanical
stresses, including the effects of rapid auto-reclosure in phase opposition.

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Poles Winding Diagram

ƒ Single layer
ƒ 2p = 4 poles
ƒ Q1 = 72 slots
ƒ q1 = 6 slots (for every
pole of every phase)
ƒ W = 15 teeth
(between entrance
and exit of one turn)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 32

The diagram is a tool for transferring information between the designer and manufacturing. For different pole
numbers there are different winding diagrams to indicate the order of the wires. In a winding diagram every
phase is marked with a different color.

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Insulation

ƒ Insulation systems are dimensioned according to:


ƒ voltage level
ƒ Supply voltage type
ƒ environmental conditions
ƒ Endurance tests when new insulation systems are
developed:
ƒ electrical aging
ƒ thermal aging
ƒ mechanical aging
ƒ aging due to surrounding conditions
ƒ combined aging

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 33

Insulation systems are dimensioned according to several factors: voltage level, supply voltage type (DOL =
Direct On Line, PWM-converter, cycloconverter), environmental conditions, for example, height of the site
above sea level, temperature, and humidity.
Endurance tests are needed when new insulation systems are developed. Typical endurance tests are
electrical aging, thermal aging, mechanical aging (for example vibration), aging due to surrounding conditions,
and combined aging (for example, thermal and electrical). Aging tests are typically very long lasting, even
years. To reduce the time, they are normally done as so-called accelerated tests with higher stresses (for
example, voltage and frequency and temperature) than in real operation. The life-times corresponding to the
stresses in real operation can be calculated from these results.
When developing insulation systems, the manufacturing point of view also has to be taken into account, in
other words, how to manufacture reliably and economically without occupational safety problems.

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DC motors winding and insulation

ƒ Windings designed for a specific voltage


ƒ Coils used as stator windings
ƒ Slot windings used as rotor windings

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 34

The windings are designed for a given voltage. Coils are used as stator windings, and slot windings are used
as rotor windings in these motors or generators.

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DC Motor stator winding

ƒ The main tasks of the DC motor stator:


ƒ produce a fixed magnetic flux to
interact with the armature
ƒ house the commutating windings
and compensation windings
ƒ Main components of the stator:
ƒ frame of laminated electroplates
ƒ main poles and interpoles of
laminated electroplates,
ƒ stator windings and commutation
windings of varnish-insulated
copper wire
ƒ compensation windings (not DMI
180-225)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 35

The windings in the motor provide a path for the DC current to flow along, which, in turn, produces the
rotating magnetic field that causes the rotor to rotate.
The main task of the DC motor stator is to produce a fixed magnetic flux to interact with the armature. This is
done by the excitation winding. The stator also houses the commutating windings and compensation
windings, which are auxiliary devices that are used to prevent deformation of the main flux.
A compensation winding is installed on the magnetic poles of the stator to smoothen the field across the pole.
Without the compensation winding the left side of the N-pole would get saturated because of the additional
magnetic field.
Commutating windings or interpoles are installed between the magnetic poles to straighten the magnetic field.
Because of armature reaction, the magnetic field bends and causes misplacement in the inducted voltage at
the armature winding.
The main components of the stator are: frame of laminated electroplates; main poles and interpoles of
laminated electroplates; stator windings and commutation windings of varnish-insulated copper wire; and
compensation windings (not DMI 180-225).

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DC 6 Poles winding diagram

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 36

The winding diagram indicates the order of the wires, as shown in this diagram for 6 poles.

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DC Insulation

ƒ Insulation system:
ƒ moisture-resistant
ƒ suitable for use in tropical climates without modification
ƒ Armature coils and stator windings have dual insulation
coats
ƒ Copper wire insulation, the Nomex and the impregnation
varnish have a temperature index above class H

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 37

The motors comply with the requirements of Class 200 /H insulation. The insulation system is moisture-
resistant and is suitable for use in tropical climates without modification. The armature coils and stator
windings have dual insulation coats. The base coat is a polyesterimide with a top coat of polyamide-imide
enamel. The insulation to earth is of amid fiber (Nomex). All windings are impregnated with varnish, which
gives high mechanical strength.
The copper wire insulation, the Nomex and the impregnation varnish have a temperature index well above
class H. There is, therefore, a high margin of safety in addition to the high overload capacity.

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© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 38

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K110e
Unit 2 Torque, speed and
formulas

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 39

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Torque and speed of an AC motor

ƒ locked-rotor torque
ƒ pull-up torque
ƒ breakdown torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 40

An asynchronous motor is a motor whose rotor does not rotate at exactly the same speed as the stator field.
The locked-rotor torque is the minimum measured torque the motor develops at its shaft extension with the
rotor stationary and the rated voltage and frequency applied.
The pull-up torque is the smallest torque the motor develops between zero speed and the speed
corresponding to the breakdown torque when the motor is supplied with the rated voltage and frequency. This
definition does not apply to induction motors, whose torque continuously decreases with increasing speed.
This value applies to the usual mean torque characteristic, which excludes transient effects. The breakdown
torque is the maximum torque the motor develops with the rated voltage and frequency applied at the
operating temperature and when constantly loaded. This term does not apply to motors whose torque steadily
decreases with increasing speed. They do not have definite breakdown torque. If the rotor is mechanically
driven by an external machine at a speed that is greater than that of the rotating magnetic field, with the
machine connected to the power network and the direction of rotation the same as that of the stator field, the
asynchronous machine becomes an asynchronous generator. The asynchronous generator returns the power
applied mechanically to its rotor as electric power to the network, in this case over-synchronously because
the slip is negative. The rotor currents are reversed and the torque produced opposes the rotation of the
machine, that is, it tends to retard it.

40
18.04.2011

AC Speed - magnetic field

f [Hz ] × 120
ns [RPM]=
pole number
ƒ The synchronous speed can be calculated with the
formulas

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 41

The speed of the rotating field is constant and it rotates at synchronous speed. The synchronous speed is
dependent on the frequency and the pole number of the winding. The synchronous speed can be calculated
with the formula shown in this slide. The synchronous speed of the motor is determined by the frequency of
the supply voltage and the pole number of the motor. f in the formula stands for Electrical frequency in Hz
(50Hz or 60 Hz).

41
18.04.2011

AC Voltage versus time

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 42

An AC Voltage is defined by the value of volts and the frequency. p = Number of pole pairs (=number of poles
/ 2). The flux is rotated at a speed called "synchronous speed", corresponding to the electrical frequency of
the network and to the number of pole pairs. As long as the rotor is rotated at synchronous speed, no current
is induced in the rotor bar, and consequently no torque is developed by the motor. Current only exists in the
rotor bar if the speed of the rotor (n) is below the synchronous speed (as soon as a load torque is applied to
the shaft), which means that the speed of the rotor does not rotate at synchronous speed, and the rotor speed
lags behind the speed of the magnetic field. In a case of generating, the speed of the rotor is above the
synchronous speed.

42
18.04.2011

AC Torque curve

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 43

The difference between the rotating speed of the flux and the rotating speed of the rotor is called the slip of an
asynchronous motor (the opposite of synchronous machines, where no slip exists, even in the presence of
load torque).

43
18.04.2011

Slip

The slip can be expressed


Slip [RPM] = ns − n ƒ
in either rpm or per unit
e.g. 1000 rmp – 992rpm ƒ n = nominal speed
ƒ ns = synchronous speed

ns − n
Slip [% ] =
ns
e.g. 1000 rmp – 992rpm
1000 rmp

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 44

The slip can be expressed in either rpm or per unit, as is shown in the formulas. n stands for nominal speed
and ns stands for synchronous speed.

44
18.04.2011

Torque v.s. speed for Asynchronous motor

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 45

The illustration shows the effect of increased speed on torque for an asynchronous motor. The magnitude of
the (mechanical) torque available at the shaft depends on the magnitude of the slip – that is, on the amount
the rotor speed lags behind the speed of the rotating magnetic field. The relationship between the torque and
the speed of the motor is illustrated by the speed-torque characteristic.

45
18.04.2011

Torque v.s. speed for Synchronous motor

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 46

The illustration shows the effect of increased speed on torque for a synchronous motor.

46
18.04.2011

Torque

ƒ An increase in power
increases the torque,
whereas an increase in
speed decreases the torque
ƒ T = Torque (Nm)
ƒ P = Output power (kW)
ƒ n = Speed (r/min)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 47

Torque is generated when the magnetic field of the stator winding forces the rotor bars to turn around the
centre of the axis shaft. From the equation one can see that an increase in power increases the torque,
whereas an increase in speed decreases the torque. These three features are bound by the fact that T * n / P
is always 9550. In the equation: T = Torque (Nm); P = Output power (kW); and n = Speed (r/min). When
calculating torque, it is important to take into account: the starting torque; the maximum torque; the starting
current; and the minimum torque.

47
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 48

This graph is typical for an LV motor. It shows the Torque/speed curve. The shape of the torque/speed curve
is determined by the slot shapes and slot alignment in the stator and rotor. The level of the Nominal torque is
determined by the winding (number of turns). According to IEC, the maximum torque (Tmax) of the motor
should always be more than 1.6 times the nominal torque (Tn). At a speed of 0 rpm the motor can give
starting torque (Ts). This Ts should be big enough to counter the decelerating masses of the load and rotating
rotor body in less than the given maximum permitted starting time.

48
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 49

This graph is typical for an MV or large motor. The minimum torque (Tmin) is not always at 0 rpm, for
example a double cage rotor has minimum torque at around 0.7 times the nominal speed. This should be
taken into account when dimensioning motors for constant torque applications. At direct-on-line start the
torque produced by the motor has to be greater than the load torque (with reasonable gap) at any speed. If
the load torque at any speed is greater than the torque created by the motor, the motor will not be able to start
or achieve nominal speed.

49
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 50

The starting current of large motors may cause voltage dips, especially in weak grids. Therefore, motors have
to be able to start with reasonable under voltage.

50
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 51

51
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 52

A high current is generated when an asynchronous motor is switched on. The starting current depends on the
motor design; the value is usually between 6.5 and 7.5 times the nominal current and the shape is determined
by the same parameters as the torque design.
The illustration shows the "shape" of torque and current versus speed for small motors.

52
18.04.2011

Torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 53

The illustration shows the "shape" of torque and current versus speed for large motors.

53
18.04.2011

Formulas

P(kW) = T(Nm) x w(rd/s) / 1000

ω(rd/s) = 2pn / 60 (where n is rpm)

P(kW) = T(Nm) x n x 2p / 60 000


or
P(kW)
[ ][ ]
60 000
T(Nm) = x
2π n

P(kW)
[
T(Nm) = 9549.30
][
x
n ]
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 54

Torque is the rotational equivalent of linear force and, for any rotating machine, if Power and Speed are
known, the Torque is given by the formula shown in the blue background. In the formula: T = Torque (Nm),
P= Output power (kW), and n= Speed (r/min).
In the formula , 9550 is a constant, which can be calculated with the either of the formulas shown on the right.

54
18.04.2011

Operation

1. Toutput = k × φ×IA
IA 2. φ = f(I f)
3. TAcc = Toutput− Tload
Ud E
DC
Motor
(U −E)
4. IA = d
Ri
5. E = k ×n× φ
6. Ud = E+ (R i×IA)
U − (Ri×IA)
If Φ 7. n= d
k×φ

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 55

(1) The output torque of the motor is proportional to the armature current as long as (2)the excitation is kept
constant.
(3) If the output torque exceeds the load torque, there is acceleration torque and the speed of the motor starts
to increase.
(4) The armature current and, accordingly, the output torque can be increased by increasing the voltage
supplied by the DC converter.
(5) When the armature starts to rotate through the magnetic flux of the stator, a voltage (emf) is induced, the
polarity of which is the opposite of the supply voltage.
(6) To maintain the current (and torque), the supply voltage has to be increased as the speed and armature
emf increase. The speed can be controlled by the supply voltage until the nominal armature voltage has
been reached.
(7) This normally coincides with reaching the maximum output voltage of the supplying DC converter. The
speed range from standstill up to this point is called the basic speed range. To increase the speed above
the basic speed range, the armature emf has to be decreased.
As we have seen (5), the armature emf depends on excitation as well as speed. The speed can be further
increased by decreasing the excitation (7). However, since torque is a direct function of excitation (2), from
this point on the available torque decreases in inverse proportion to the speed. This speed range is called
the field weakening speed range. For motors without compensation windings the relationship between
basic and field weakening speed range is 1:3, and for compensated motors 1:5. The ultimate speed limit
of a DC motor is set by mechanical parameters.

55
18.04.2011

Controlling torque and speed by excitation

UN

Armature Voltage UA

IN

Armature Current IA

IN

Excitation Current If

TN

Torque T

PN

Power P

nmax
n
Basic Speed nb Field
Weakening
Speed
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 56

As is evident from equations 1 and 2, it is also possible to control the magnitude and direction of the torque
entirely by varying the field current. Nevertheless, this is rarely done in modern drives, because the excitation
winding has a much higher impedance than the armature, which makes torque by this method slower.

56
18.04.2011

DMI Motor characteristics


Torque as a function of speed

Torque
1,2

Constant Torque
1 (P=k x n)

Constant Power
0,8 (P=k)
Torque (Nm)

Commutation limit
0,6 (P=k/n)

Commutation Limit
0,4 (compensation
winding)
Mechanical Limit
0,2

Basic Field Weakening

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Speed [rpm]

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 57

This graph demonstrates the relationship between torque and rotational speed (RPM).
Maximum torque is generated when the rotor is stationary and to a very low speed. In the range for Constant
power, torque drops off sharply, while the power generated is at a maximum.
The commutation limit is where both torque and power fall due to limitation of current flow by the resistance of
commutator brushes and the maximum voltage that can be applied across each winding.
The mechanical limit is the maximum safe speed of the rotor.

57
18.04.2011

DMI Motor characteristics


Power as a function of speed

Power
1,2

Constant Torque
1 (P=k x n)

Constant Power
0,8 (P=k)
Power (kW)

Commutation Limit
0,6 (P=k/n)

Commutation Limit
0,4 (compensation
winding)
Mechanical Limit
0,2

Basic Field Weakening Speed Range

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Speed [rpm]

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 58

This graph demonstrates the relationship between power and rotational speed (RPM).
Maximum torque is generated when the rotor is at an optimum speed.
In the Constant Torque range, power developed rises sharply until it reaches its maximum. This maximum
power output is maintained across a range of rotation speed.
Again, the limitations of the commutator design for DC motors is shown by the fall of the power generated
even as the motor speed increases.

58
18.04.2011

Speed trimming

UN

Armature Voltage UA

IN

Armature Current IA

IN

Excitation Current If

TN

Torque T

PN

Power P
n
Nominal Speed nmax
Trimmed Speed

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 59

If the basic speed range is too low but the available torque is sufficient, permanently field weakening the
motor can expand the basic speed range. This is referred to as trimming. Adjustment of the base speed of
DMI motors by speed trimming should not exceed 30% of the nominal base speed.

59
18.04.2011

Electrical formulas

Calculation of the torque


P [ kW ] × 9550
ƒ
[Nm]:
T[Nm] =
n [RPM]
ƒ Calculation of the nominal
f [Hz ] × 120 speed [rpm]:
n [RPM]=
pole number
ƒ T = Torque [Nm]
ƒ P = Output power [kW]
ƒ n = Speed [r/min]

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 60

In many cases motor selection can be calculated manually. The most important formulas can be found in this
section.
The basic formulas for calculating the torque and the nominal speed are shown in the slide.
In the formulas: T = Torque [Nm], P = Output power [kW], and n = Speed [r/min]. If there is a gearbox
between the driven equipment and the motor, the following things should be taken into consideration when
selecting a motor: the power [kW] is equal for the both speeds, the torque [Nm] will vary according to the
ratio, and the moment of inertia J [kgm2] varies quadratically to the ratio.

60
18.04.2011

Formulas

Motor torque
3,5

2,5
TL
2
T / TN
Resultant operating point
1,5
where load torque curve
1 crosses motor torque /
0,5 speed curve
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Speed r/min

Load torque

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 61

In this example case we select a suitable motor according to the following criteria:
Fan or Pump duty = Quadratic torque
LV cast iron motor
Supply Frequency is 50Hz
Supply Voltage is 400V
Load speed range is 0 - 1 500 r/min, and
Load is 108 kW at approximately 1500 r/min.
To choose the right motor,
Calculate the torque with the formula T = 108kW x 9550 / 1500rpm) = 688NM.
Check the catalogue. The nominal torque at least 688Nm.
The correct motor type is M3BP 315SMA 4.

61
18.04.2011

Different environments

To choose the correct motor:


1. Calculate the efficiency and power factor.
2. Check the Motor guide for ambient factors.
3. Calculate the required output.
4. Check the efficiency in the Motor Guide.
5. Check the power factor in the Motor Guide.

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 62

In this example we select the suitable motor type according to the following criteria and environmental
conditions: LV cast iron motor, Ambient temperature +50oC, Altitude 2500 m, Class B temperature rise, 380
V, 50 Hz supply, and 55 kW, 988 RPM. To choose the correct motor: 1. Calculate the efficiency and power
factor. 2. Check the Motor guide for ambient factors: Temperature x Altitude = 0.93 x 0.88 = 0.8184. 3.
Calculate the required output: At least (55kW / 0.8184) = 67.2 kW. Motor: M3BP 315SMA 6 (Nominal output
75kW). 4. Check the efficiency in the Motor Guide, page 66, table for Efficiency: 55kW / 75kW = 73% -->
75% Efficiency = 0.95. 5. Check the power factor in the Motor Guide page 69, table for Power Factor: 55kW /
75kW = 73% --> 75% Power Factor = 0.76. Note that MotSize can be used for making the calculations and
datasheets for LV motors, and Cuusamo for HV motors and generators.

62
18.04.2011

Some useful conversion factors (US -> SI)

ƒ Power: 1hp (UK, US) = 0.746 kW

ƒ Inertia: 1lb - ft2 = 0.04214 kgm2

ƒ Torque: 1 lb - ft = 1.355818 Nm
5
ƒ Temperature: °C = (°F-32)
9
ƒ Mass: 1 lb = 0.454 kg

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 63

Here are some useful conversion factors from US to SI units. The conversion factors for power, inertia,
torque, temperature, and mass are shown.

63
18.04.2011

Starting methods: Direct-On-Line (DOL) starting

ƒ Direct-on-line starter only required starting method when


motor is connected directly to the mains supply
ƒ Preferred starting method
ƒ Limitation: high starting current

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 64

The simplest way to start a squirrel cage motor is to connect it directly to the mains supply. When it is
connected directly to the mains supply, a direct-on-line (DOL) starter is the only starting equipment required.
However, the limitation with this method is that it results in a high starting current. Still, it is the preferred
method, unless there are special reasons for avoiding it.

64
18.04.2011

Starting methods: Y/D starting

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 65

The graph shows a Y-D start where the starting current is about 2,2 times the nominal current. The torque
values in the Y connection are much lower than in the D connection, which is why dimensioning motors for Y-
D starts should be done with care, especially in bigger motors.
If it is necessary to restrict the starting current of a motor due to supply limitations, the Y/D method can be
employed. This method where, for instance, a motor wound 400 VD is started with the winding Y connected
will reduce the starting current to about 30 per cent of the value for direct starting. The starting torque will be
reduced to about 27 per cent of the DOL value.
However, before using this method, one must first determine whether the reduced motor torque is sufficient to
accelerate the load over the whole speed range.
The starting time depends on the characteristics of the load and on the starting method. Large inertias of the
load will cause long starting times, which can cause overheating in the motor.
It is important to remember that the term ‘starting current’ refers to the steady-state rms value. This is the
value measured when, after a few cycles, the transient phenomena have died out. The transient current, the
peak value, may be about 2.5 times the steady-state starting current, but it decays rapidly. The starting torque
of the motor behaves in a similar way, and this should be taken into account if the moment of inertia of the
driven machine is high, since the stresses on the shaft and coupling can be very great.
Please contact your nearest sales office for the MotSize calculation program.

65
18.04.2011

Starting methods

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 66

The different starting methods of a motor are evaluated to satisfy the voltage drop requirement.

66
18.04.2011

Power factor

F USEFUL = F APPARENT * cos ϕ

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 67

The relationship between the useful force and the apparent force is calculated as shown in the formula.

67
18.04.2011

Power factor

magnetic field
Apparent
Q power (VA)
Reactive S
power
(VAR)

ϕ P

Active power (W)


heat

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 68

The power factor (=cos j) is a relevant characteristic of each motor, defining the active power used for running
the motor. This factor also depends on the need for a magnetic field to create the flux: reactive power.

68
18.04.2011

Power factor

P INPUT = 3 * U * I * cos ϕ
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 69

The power factor indicates the need of reactive power Q compared with effective power P. A power factor of
1.0 means that the machine only draws effective power from the supplying network. The power factor of the
induction motor should be 0.85-0.95. Power factors are likely to be lower in certain special cases, for example
with multi-speed motors, motors with a high pole number, down-rated motors, and motors with frame sizes
below 100. The power factor is determined by measuring the input power, voltage, and current at the rated
output. The effective input power (active power) in the motor is given by the formula.

69
18.04.2011

Benefits of a high power factor

„ Feasible to transmit only effective power


through the electrical network
„ Production or compensation can be made
with synchronous machines or capacitors

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 70

A high power factor has the following benefits:


It is feasible to transmit only effective power through the electrical network, so if the motor draws reactive
power from the network, Q should be produced somewhere near the load. Production or compensation can
be made with synchronous machines or capacitors. Power companies charge more for this compensation
than the price of effective power P, hence a high power factor is a desirable feature in an electrical motor.

70
18.04.2011

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 71

71
18.04.2011

K110e
Unit 3 Basics of efficiency

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 72

72
18.04.2011

Efficiency

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 73

ABB Motors are designed to meet changing world attitudes towards energy efficiency and motor
performance. For instance, by increasing the efficiency in the production processes, and installing energy-
efficient devices, industrial processes will consume less electricity and by this play a significant part in
reducing CO2 emissions. An energy-efficient motor produces the same output power (torque) but uses less
electrical input power (kW) than a motor with lower efficiency

73
18.04.2011

Efficiency, definition

Energy supply
η = P Output U I P cosφ
P Input PInput rpm

POutput POutput
η =
POutput + Σ PLosses load

PInput − Σ P ∑ PLosses
η = Losses
ƒ Efficiency is ratio between mechanical output
P and electrical input
Input
ƒ High efficiency means that the motor is
converting electrical power to mechanical power
with small losses

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 74

Efficiency is ratio between mechanical output and electrical input. To the left you can find the
formula for energy efficiency.
High efficiency means that the motor is converting electrical power to mechanical power with
small losses.

74
18.04.2011

Losses split into five major areas

Piron Pfriction & windage


Pinput
Protor
Pwinding
Pinput = Electrical power input
Poutput = Mechanical power
output

Poutput

PLL
ƒ Stator winding losses (Pws) ƒ Additional load losses (PLL)
ƒ Rotor losses (Pwr)
ƒ Iron losses (Pfe) Additional load losses are due to:
ƒ Friction + Windage losses (Pfw) leakage flux, mechanical imperfections
in the air gap and irregularities in the
air gap flux density

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 75

Additional load losses (PLL): Stray losses, all other losses ( ~ 15% of all losses). Additional load
losses are losses that are not clearly or easily measured. “indefinite”.

75
18.04.2011

Losses and efficiency in electrical motors

Electrical
energy in
(Pin)

Pcu1 35 %
Stator winding

Pout 94 %

Mechanical Mechanical Pcu2 20 %


Rotor winding
energy out energy out
(Pout)
Losses 6 % PFe 20%
Iron

PFr Friction 10 %
η = 100 x
Pout
[%]
Pin PLL 15 %
Additional

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 76

Description of typical losses for a LV motor, the percentage of all losses are given based on the old standard:

Friction (P friction): Caused by the fan and bearings. This loss is independent of the load (P output) ( ~ 10%
of all losses)
Iron (P iron): Needed energy to magnetize the motor ( ~ 20% of all losses)
Winding (P winding): Heat created by the current running in the windings ( ~ 35% of all losses)
Rotor (P rotor): Heat created in the rotor ( ~ 20% of all losses)
Additional load losses (PLL): All other losses ( ~ 15% of all losses). Additional load losses are losses that are
not clearly or easily measured.

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18.04.2011

Efficiency measurement methods


IEC 60034-2-1; 2007

ƒ IEC/EN 60034-2-1: 2007 establishes harmonized methods


for determining efficiencies of rotating electrical machines
and also the methods of obtaining specific losses
ƒ Covers asynchronous, synchronous and DC electrical
machines
ƒ Published by the International Electrotechnical Commission
in September, 2007

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 77

The efficiency measure method was published by the International Electrotechnical Commission in
September, 2007.
The standard establishes harmonized methods for determining efficiencies of rotating electrical machines and
also the methods of obtaining specific losses. It covers asynchronous, synchronous and DC electrical
machines

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18.04.2011

Efficiency measurement methods


IEC 60034-2-1; 2007

ƒ IEC offers two ways of measuring efficiency


ƒ Direct method
ƒ Measurement of the input power based on voltage and current,
and the output power based on rotational speed and torgue
ƒ No change compared to the old IEC 60034-2
ƒ Indirect method
ƒ Measurement of the input power and calculation of the output
power based on the losses of motor
ƒ Specifies following parameters for measuring efficiency according to
indirect method:
ƒ Reference temperature
ƒ Three alternatives for determining additional load losses
ƒ Measurement
ƒ Assigned value
ƒ Mathematical calculation
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 78

Using the direct method, the MECHANICAL power on the shaft and the ELECTRICAL power on
the terminals have to be measured.
The efficiency is then calculated as the ratio between the mechanical and the electrical power.
As it is very difficult and expensive to purchase and maintain equipment to measure the exact
mechanical power, the indirect method is used.
Using indirect method, measurement of the torque and speed is carried out at different loads.
Based on these measurements, the additional load losses are calculated.
Indirect method is also called the summation of losses method.
IEC’s new method is closer to the IEEE method

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18.04.2011

IEC 60034-2-1; 2007


Losses and uncertainty of measurement

ƒ Winding, rotor, iron and frictions losses can be determined from input
power, voltage, current, rotational speed and torgue
ƒ Additional losses PLL are much more difficult to determine
ƒ IEC/EN 60034-2-1 specifies different methods to determine the
additional losses :
ƒ Low uncertainty – measurement (IEEE 112-B & CSA390-98)
ƒ Medium uncertainty – assigned value and/or mathematical
calculation
ƒ High uncertainty – assigned value
ƒ Which method can be used depends on the motor efficiency class
determined by IEC/EN 60034-30

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 79

You can find more detailed information about the low, medium and high uncertainty from Table
2 in the IEC/EN 60034-2-1 standard.
IEC/EN 60034-30 defines which IE classes are connected to which method.

79
18.04.2011

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 80

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18.04.2011

K110e
Unit 4 General about standards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 81

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18.04.2011

Objectives

ƒ This course module gives


an overview of the
standards concerning
electrical motors and
generators
ƒ After successfully
completing this module,
you will be able to
recognize the different
electrical and mechanical
requirements of the
commonly used standards
(IEC, NEMA)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 82

This course module presents a brief overview of the standards concerning electrical motors and generators.
After successfully completing this module you will be able to recognize the different electrical and mechanical
requirements of the commonly used standards IEC and NEMA.

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18.04.2011

Standard definitions

ƒ Standard:
ƒ technical specification or other document available to
the public
ƒ based on the consolidated results of science,
technology and experience
ƒ aimed at the promotion of optimum community
benefits and approved by a body recognized on the
national, regional or international level
ƒ The most common standards in the motor business:
ƒ IEC
ƒ EN
ƒ NEMA

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 83

Standard is defined in the following way:


"A technical specification or other document available to the public, drawn up with the cooperation and
consensus or general approval of all interests affected by it based on the consolidated results of science,
technology and experience, aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits and approved by a body
recognized on the national, regional or international level. In some languages the word "standard" is often
used with another meaning than in this definition, and in such cases, it may refer to a technical specification
which does not satisfy all the conditions given in the definition, for example: "company standard". (www.tsk.fi)

ABB low voltage standard motors and generators are of the totally enclosed, three phase squirrel cage type,
built to comply with international standard IEC-standards, CENELEC and relevant VDE-regulations, and DIN-
standards. Motors conforming to other national and international specifications are also available on request.

All ABB motor production units are certified to ISO 14001 international quality standard and conform to all
applicable EU Directives.

ABB strongly supports the drive to harmonize European standards and actively contributes to various working
groups within both IEC and CENELEC.

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18.04.2011

Standard definitions

ƒ Directive:
ƒ EC document issued by the European Community
ƒ aimed at harmonizing national provisions to ensure the
environment and safety aspects within each State
ƒ published in the Official Journal of European
Communities (OJEC)
ƒ CE as proof of conformity to the following directives:
ƒ Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC, amended by
93/68/EEC
ƒ EMC Directive 89/336/EEC, amended by 92/31/EEC
and 93/68/EEC

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 84

A directive is an EC document issued by the European Community, the aim of which is to harmonize national
provisions to ensure the environment and safety aspects within each State. A directive is published in the
Official Journal of European Communities (OJEC).
Products are stamped "CE" as proof of conformity to the following directives: Low Voltage Directive
73/23/EEC, amended by 93/68/EEC and EMC Directive 89/336/EEC, amended by 92/31/EEC and
93/68/EEC. Refer to the EC Declaration of Conformity delivered with each motor.

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IECEx System

ƒ The IECEx System is the International Electrotechnical


Commission (IEC) System for the certification of equipment and
services for use in explosive atmospheres
ƒ The IECEx System was created in September 1999
ƒ IECEx certification is not the same as IEC certification, even
though both relate to the same IEC standards
ƒ The final objective of the IECEx System is worldwide acceptance
of one standard, one certificate and one mark

ƒ Four different certification Systems available

ƒ More information about IECEx: http://www.iecex.com/

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 85

The IECEx System is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) System for the certification of
equipment and services for use in explosive atmospheres.
The IECEx System was created in September 1999.
IECEx certification is not the same as IEC certification, even though both relate to the same IEC standards.
The final objective of the IECEx System is worldwide acceptance of one standard, one certificate and one
mark.

There are four different certification Systems available:


IECEx Certified Equipment System
IECEx Certified Service Facilities System
IECEx Conformity Mark Licensing System
IECEx Certification of Personnel Competencies System

More information about IECEx can be found from http://www.iecex.com/

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Standard definitions

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC):


ƒ International standards and conformity assessment body
for all fields of electrotechnology
ƒ Created in 1906
ƒ Head office in Geneva, Switzerland
ƒ Standards cover the whole electromechanical branch
ƒ Status of the IEC standards not strong: national electrical
standards are in common use in many countries

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 86

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the international standards and conformity
assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology. It was created in 1906 and the commission's head office
is situated in Geneva, Switzerland. The membership consists of more than 50 participating countries,
including all the world's major trading nations and a growing number of industrializing countries.
(http://www.iec.ch/home-e.htm). The standards cover the whole electromechanical branch. The essential
content of the rotating electrical machine standardization is in section 34 "Rotating electrical machines",
where there are 18 parts. Each part covers a particular issue in the rotating electrical machine’s construction
or performance. The main problem with the IEC standards is that their status in the world is not strong
enough; national electrical standards are in common use in many countries.

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Standard definitions

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO):


ƒ worldwide federation of national standards
ƒ non-governmental organization established in 1947
ƒ The mission:
ƒ to promote the development of standardization and
related activities in the world
ƒ to facilitate the international exchange of goods and
services
ƒ to develop cooperation in the spheres of
intellectual, scientific, technological and economic
activity

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 87

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards
bodies from approximately 140 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization
established in 1947.
The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a
view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the
spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international
agreements that are published as International Standards.
The scope of ISO is not limited to any particular branch; it covers all technical fields except electrical and
electronic engineering, which is the responsibility of IEC. The work in the field of information technology is
carried out by a joint ISO/IEC technical committee.

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Standard definitions

CENELEC:
ƒ the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
ƒ established in 1973 as a non-profit-making organization under
Belgian Law
ƒ officially recognized by the European Commission as the European
Standards Organization in its field in Directive 83/189/EEC
ƒ works with 35,000 technical experts from 19 European countries to
publish standards for the European market
ƒ CENELEC standards covering the rotating electrical machines are
harmonized with the IEC standards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 88

CENELEC is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. It was set up in 1973 as a non-
profit-making organization under Belgian Law. It was officially recognized by the European Commission as
the European Standards Organization in its field in Directive 83/189/EEC. Its members have worked together
in the interests of European harmonization since the late 1950s, developing alongside the European
Economic Community. CENELEC works with 35,000 technical experts from 19 European countries to publish
standards for the European market (http://www.cenelec.org).
CENELEC standards covering the rotating electrical machines are harmonized with the IEC standards.
CENELEC also includes standards for the construction and testing of electrical apparatus for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres.

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Standard definitions

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA):


ƒ one of the leading standards development organizations in
the world
ƒ attempts to promote:
ƒ the competitiveness of its member companies
ƒ the establishment and advocacy of industry policies on
legislative and regulatory matters
ƒ the collection, analysis and dissemination of industry
data

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 89

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) has been developing standards for the electrical
manufacturing industry for more than 70 years and is today one of the leading standards development
organizations in the world. NEMA contributes to an orderly marketplace and helps ensure public safety.
NEMA also attempts to promote: the competitiveness of its member companies by providing a forum for the
development of technical standards that are in the best interests of the industry and the users of its products;
the establishment and advocacy of industry policies on legislative and regulatory matters that might affect the
industry and those it serves; and the collection, analysis and dissemination of industry data.
NEMA publishes over 200 standards and offers them for sale along with certain standards originally
developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Electrotechnical
Commission. The association promotes safety in the manufacture and use of electrical products, provides
information about NEMA to the media and the public, and represents industry interests in new and developing
technologies (http://www.nema.org).

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18.04.2011

IEC compared to NEMA

ƒ Temperature rise:
ƒ similar rules
ƒ Tolerances:
ƒ IEC defines some tolerances, but in NEMA standards
these are so-called guaranteed values
ƒ Methods of cooling and enclosure:
ƒ IEC defines a very detailed numeric coding system, but
NEMA standards are more general
ƒ Starting characteristics:
ƒ differences in the starting characteristics for normal
starting torque cage motors; locked rotor apparent
power versus kW rating is also different.

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 90

Normally, if the NEMA standards are fulfilled, the corresponding IEC standards are also fulfilled. However, if
the IEC standards are fulfilled, the corresponding NEMA standards are not necessarily fulfilled. The main
differences and some comments on the similarities are discussed in the following:
1. Temperature rise: IEC and NEMA include similar rules for the adjustment of temperature rise as a function
of non-standard coolant air, coolant water and/or altitude. There are some variations in the allowed
temperature rise: a higher temperature rise is allowed in service factor 1.15 of the NEMA standard.
Generally, a higher or equal temperature rise is allowed in the NEMA standards than in the IEC standards.
Note that IEC and NEMA define the maximum allowed temperature rise in a different way when the
ambient temperature is more than 40 ºC.
2. Tolerances: IEC defines some tolerances in efficiency, locked rotor current and power factor, but in the
NEMA standards these are so-called guaranteed values.
3. Methods of cooling and enclosure: The IEC standards define a very detailed numeric coding system
whereas the NEMA standards describe the cooling and enclosure systems more generally.
4. Starting characteristics: There are some differences in the starting characteristics for normal starting torque
cage motors; locked rotor apparent power versus kW rating is also different. BU Motors and Generators
strongly support the drive to harmonize European standards and actively contribute to various working
groups within both the IEC and CENELEC.

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18.04.2011

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 91

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K110e
Unit 5 Electrical standards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 92

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Electrical standards

IEC Electrical standards:


ƒ IEC 60034-1: Rating and performance
ƒ IEC 60034-2-1: Methods for determining the losses and
efficiency of rotating electrical machinery
ƒ IEC 60034-8: Terminal markings and direction of rotation
of rotating machines
ƒ IEC 60034-12: (for LV only) Starting performance of
single-speed three phase cage induction motors
ƒ IEC/EN 60034-30: 2008: Harmonization of efficiency
classification standards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 93

Here is a list of the IEC Electrical standards. The IEC/EN 60034-30 standard was published by the
International Electrotechnical Commission in October 2008. The standard defines new efficiency classes for
motors. Target is to harmonize the different requirements for induction motor efficiency levels around the
world. It provides a single international scheme for motor energy efficiency rating, measured by a common
test method.

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18.04.2011

Motors covered in IEC/EN 60034-30: 2008

ƒ IEC/EN 60034-30 covers almost all motors (for example


standard, hazardous area, marine, brake motors):
ƒ Single-speed, three-phase, 50 and 60 Hz
ƒ 2, 4 or 6-pole
ƒ Rated output from 0.75 to 375 kW
ƒ Rated voltage UN up to 1000 V
ƒ Duty type S1 (continuous duty) or S3 (intermittent
periodic duty) with a rated cyclic duration factor of 80%
or higher
ƒ Excluded are:
ƒ Motors made solely for converter operation
ƒ Motors completely integrated into a machine (for
example, pump fan or compressor) that cannot be
tested separately from the machine
© BU Motors and Generators
April 18, 2011 | Slide 94

IEC/EN 60034-30 covers almost all motors. Excluded are motors made solely for converter operation and
motors completely integrated into a machine (for example, pump fan or compressor).

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18.04.2011

New efficiency classes defined by IEC/EN 60034-30

Premium
IE3 Premium
efficiency

High Comparable to
IE2
efficiency EFF1

Standard Comparable to
IE1
efficiency EFF2

ƒ The standard also introduces IE4 (Super Premium


Efficiency), a future level above IE3 – efficiency values
have yet to be defined for this class.

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 95

The table shows the new efficiency classes defined by IEC/EN 60034-30.

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18.04.2011

IE efficiency classes for 50 Hz 4-pole motors

EFF Classes – 4 pole

IE Classes – 4 pole

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 96

Here are the EFF- and IE efficiency classes for 4-pole motors illustrated.
The standard also introduces IE4 (Super Premium Efficiency), a level above IE3.
Please note that there is now a lowest level in efficiency, which was missing in the old CEMEP classification.

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Electrical standards

Type Tolerance Note


Voltage deviation ±5% Continuous
(+10K)
±10% Short time
Power factor -1/6 of (1-cos ) Min.0,02/Max.0,07
Efficiency -15% of (1- ) P2 < 50 kW
10% of (1- ) P2 > 50 kW
Speed ± 20% of guaranteed
slip
Overspeed 120% for 2 min.
Start torque 15 to + 25%
Pull-up torque -15 %
Maximum torque -10% Min. 160% of Mn
Locked rotor current +20%
(or starting current)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 97

The nominal tolerances given by the IEC are large and easily met; with the current manufacturing technology,
the quality variation is smaller than that allowed by IEC. Some of our competitors may use this and ride with
the IEC tolerances to gain benefit or hide their weaknesses. This line is not encouraged by ABB but is
something worth keeping in mind.
The table shows the eelectric tolerances according to IEC 60034-1. See the graph in the next slide for term
definitions.

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Electrical standards

Maximum torque TMAX


Starting current Is
Locked-rotor current

Starting torque Ts

Minimum torque TMIN

Nominal torque TN

Names in blue are IEC designations


Names in black are NEMA designations

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 98

The graph includes definitions for the terms used in the table shown in the previous slide. The graph
illustrates the starting performance of an LV motor.

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18.04.2011

Electrical standards

Θ Θ Θ

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 99

The duty types S1-S3 will be discussed in the following.


S1 is a continuous duty that is an operation at constant load long enough for thermal equilibrium to be
reached.
S2 is a short time duty that is an operation at constant load for a given time that is shorter than the time
needed to reach thermal equilibrium, followed by a rest and a de-energized period that is long enough to
allow the motor to reach a temperature within 2 K of that of the coolant.
S3 is an intermittent duty that is a sequence of identical duty cycles, each including a period of operation at
constant load and a rest and a de-energized period. In this duty type the cycle of the starting current does not
significantly affect the temperature rise. The load period is generally not long enough for thermal equilibrium
to be reached.
The illustration shows the characteristics of duty types S1, S2 and S3.
In the illustration: P = output, PV = power losses, Q = temperature, tB = load period, tS = cycle duration, and
tSt = rest period.

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18.04.2011

NEMA MG 1

ƒ NEMA MG 1, Part 4 defines symbols for mounting


dimensions
ƒ Section I - General Standard Applicable to All
Machines
ƒ Section II - Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral)
Machines
ƒ Section III - Large Machines

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 100

NEMA MG 1, Part 4 defines symbols for mounting dimensions. It only defines dimensions up to frame number
series 500 (shaft height 12.5" = 317.5 mm).
NEMA MG 1 consists of four sections, which are as follows:
Section I, - General Standard Applicable to All Machines includes:
Reference Standards and Definitions
Terminal Markings
Dimensions, Tolerances and Mounting
Rotating Electrical Machines - Classification of Degree of Protection Provided by Enclosures for
Rotating Machines
Methods of Cooling (IC Code) and
Mechanical Vibration - Measurement, Evaluation and Limits.
Section II - Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Machines includes:
Small and Medium AC Motors
Tests and Performance - AC and DC Motors
Tests and Performance - AC Motors and
Frame Assignments for Alternating Current Integral Horsepower Induction Machines.
Section III - Large Machines:
Induction Machines

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18.04.2011

How is the IE class marked ?

ƒ Rating plate marking required


ƒ The lowest efficiency value and the
associated IE-code
ƒ Efficiency at the full rated load and
voltage (%), 75% and 50%
ƒ Year of manufacture
ƒ ABB has taken the new rating plate
design into use in 2009 for all the
motors valid according to IEC/EN
60034-30
ƒ As standard ABB will stamp 400V,
415V and 690V 50Hz and the
efficiency value is given for 400V

Example of the ABB’s new rating plate ƒ Material stainless steel

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 101

IEC/EN 60034-30 defines:


As a minimum, the lowest efficiency value and the associated IE-code (of all rated voltage/frequency/output
combinations) shall always be printed on the rating plate.
ABB will follow the standard.
ABB motor design is normally optimized to 400V/50Hz operating point, and has highest efficiency in that
point. Therefore 400V/50Hz value shall be the one we mark. If the motor is designed to other
voltage/frequency, that will be the IE value stamped on the rating plate. All other voltage ratings, which have
the same or higher efficiency may be in the same rating plate. Other ratings having lower IE value, need their
own separate rating plate.
ABB has taken the new rating plate design into use in 2009. Efficiency logo eff1 or eff2 has been removed
and new IEC/EN 60034-30 defined IE rating must be in all our motors.

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18.04.2011

Rating plates

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 102

The illustration shows examples of rating plates. The rating plate on the left is for an HV motor/generator
according to IEC. The rating plate on the right is a typical rating plate of an AMA motor/generator according to
NEMA.

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18.04.2011

Rating plates

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 103

The rating plates are for LV motor according to NEMA.

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18.04.2011

Direction of rotation and terminal marking

ƒ According to the IEC 60034-8 standard, the following


terminal markings are required:
ƒ windings are marked by letters (U, V, W),
ƒ end points are marked with an additional numerical
suffix (U1, V1, W1), and
ƒ similar windings of a group are marked with a numerical
prefix (1U, 1V, 1W).
ƒ Direction of rotation is the one observed or clockwise

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 104

According to the IEC 60034-8 standard, the following terminal markings are required: windings are marked by
letters, end points are marked with an additional numerical suffix and similar windings of a group are marked
with a numerical prefix. Direction of rotation is the one observed or clockwise.

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Direction of rotation and terminal marking

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 105

The illustration shows the connection diagram for main and auxiliary terminal boxes (HV motors).
The connection diagram for the main and auxiliary terminal boxes gives the customer the necessary
information for the main terminal cabling, control device cabling and layout. The following connections are
shown in the connection diagrams: phases U, V, W (or T1, T2, T3 acc. to NEMA); temperature detectors in
windings; anti condensation heaters; bearing temperature detectors; wire numbering (the same numbers are
stuck onto the terminal blocks); and other specific order-related accessories.

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18.04.2011

Direction of rotation and terminal marking

Diagram of connection Connection of terminals


Anschluss-Schema Anschluss des Motors
Schema de branchement Branchement des bornes

W2 U2 V2 W2 U2 V2 W2 U2 V2

U1 V1 W1 U1 V1 W1 U1 V1 W1
L1 L1
L2 L2
L3 L3
PE PE

Y-connection D-connection
Y-Schaltung D-Schaltung
Connection etoile Connection triangle

Direction of rotation with phase sequence shown in picture


Drehrichtung nach Schaltbild
Direction de rotation avec branchement ci-dessus

Motor No
Direction of rotation with reversed phase sequence Maschine Nr
Drehrichtung mit umgekehrter Phasenfolge No du moteur
Direction de rotation avec sequence de phase reversée
ABB Oy, Electrical Machines
LV Motors 3GZF321100-1 C

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 106

The illustration shows a connection diagram for a main terminal box (LV motors). LV motors are supplied with
a separate connection diagram for auxiliaries.

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18.04.2011

NEMA MG 1, Part 2 - Terminal Marking

ƒ Terminal markings:
ƒ line - L1, L2, L3, L4, etc.
ƒ stator - T1, T2, T3, T4, etc.
ƒ auxiliary markings, e.g. space heater H1, H2, H3, H4

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 107

NEMA MG 1, Part 2 covers terminal markings, direction of rotation, and the relation between the terminal
markings and the direction of the rotation. The following terminal markings are covered: line (L1, L2, L3, L4,
etc.); stator (T1, T2, T3, T4, etc.); also covers auxiliary markings, e.g. space heater H1, H2, H3, H4. The
standard direction of rotation for AC generators is clockwise when facing the end of the motor/generator
opposite the drive end (standard ABB practice is the IEC method). Terminal marking of polyphase induction
motors/generators are not related to the direction of rotation.

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18.04.2011

Direction of rotation and terminal marking

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 108

The illustration shows the connection diagram for main terminal box according to NEMA (LV motors).

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18.04.2011

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 109

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18.04.2011

K110e
Unit 6 Mechanical standards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 110

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18.04.2011

Mechanical standards
Shaft height

Shaft
height

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 111

Shaft height is the distance from the centre line of the shaft to the bottom of the feet. For example, the motor
type M3BP 315SMB 4 B3 has a shaft height of 315 mm.

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18.04.2011

Mechanical standards
IM mounting arrangements

ƒ IEC 60072-1: Dimensions and output series for rotating electrical


machines - Part1
ƒ IEC 60072-2: Dimensions and output series for rotating electrical
machines - Part2
ƒ IEC 60034-5: Classifications of degrees of protection
ƒ IEC 60034-6: Methods of cooling
ƒ IEC 60034-7: Classification of types of construction, mounting
arrangements and terminal box position (IM code)
ƒ IEC 60034-9: Noise limits (only low voltage motors)
ƒ IEC 60034-14: Measurement, evaluation and limits of vibration

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 112

IM is an abbreviation for ”International Mounting”.


IEC defines the following mechanical standards:
IEC 60072-1 covers the dimensions and output series for rotating electrical machines, part 1, frame
numbers from 56 to 400 and flange numbers from 55 to 1080.
IEC 60072-2 covers the dimensions and output series for rotating electrical machines, part 2, frame numbers
from 355 to 1000 and flange numbers from 1180 to 2360.
IEC 60034-5 covers degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating electrical machines (IP
code) and classifications.
IEC 60034-6 covers the methods of cooling.
IEC 60034-7 covers the classification of types of construction, mounting arrangements, and terminal box
position (IM code).
IEC 60034-9 covers noise limits (only low voltage motors)
IEC 60034-14 covers mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights of 56 mm and higher, as
well as measurement, evaluation, and limits of vibration.
IEC 60072 defines symbols for the mounting dimensions and several different dimensions for symbols (foot-
mounted: A, B, C; flange-mounted: M, N, P, R, S, T; shaft extension: D, E, F, GD, GE, GA).

112
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Mechanical standards
IM mounting arrangements

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 113

The diagram shows an example of designations according to Code II.


The first characteristic numeral indicates the basic construction of the motor/generator (mounting to
foundation, bearing arrangement). The second and third numerals indicate more detailed construction,
depending on the first numeral. The fourth numeral indicates the amount and shape of the shaft extension(s).
IEC 60034-7 specifies two ways of stating how a motor is mounted.
According to Code I, an alpha-numeric designation is applicable to motors/generators with end shield
bearing(s) and only one shaft extension.
According to Code II, an all-numeric designation is applicable to a wider range of types of motors/generators,
including types covered by Code I.

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Mechanical standards
IM mounting arrangements

Code II First numeral Second and Fourth Motor/ Code I Sketch


third numeral numeral generator
type

IM 1001 Foot-mounted Two bearings, One HXR, AMA, IM B3


motors/generators with normal feet, feet cylindrical AMK
end shield bearing(s) down, shaft shaft
only horizontal extension

IM 3011 Flange-mounted Two bearings, One HXR IM V1


motors/generators with flange at D-end, cylindrical
end shield bearing(s) access to back of shaft
only, with a flange as flange, face of extension
part of an end shield flange faces
towards D-end,
shaft vertical
downwards

IM 4011 Flange-mounted Two bearings, One AMA, AMK IM V10


motors/generators with flange at D-end, cylindrical
end shield bearing(s) access to back of shaft
only, with a flange not flange, face of extension
part of an end shield but flange faces
an integral part of the towards D-end,
frame or other shaft vertical
component downwards

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 114

The table shows examples of common HV motor mounting arrangements.

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Mechanical standards
IM mounting arrangements

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 115

Examples of common LV motor mounting arrangements are shown in this slide.

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Mechanical standards
IM mounting arrangements

F -1
Letter
Numeral

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 116

The diagram above shows symbols for mounting arrangement for high voltage motors and generators
according to NEMA MG 1. The letter indicates the mounting to the foundation, the numeral indicates the
location of the terminal box.
The illustrations below the diagram are examples of standard mountings (floor mounting).

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International Standards
Method of Cooling (IC code, short one normally used)

IC = International cooling
A = Air as coolant
W = Water as coolant

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 117

The diagram shows the method of cooling for low voltage motors according to IEC 60034-6.
ABB can deliver motors as below:
IC 410 Totally enclosed motor without fan
IC 411: Totally enclosed standard motor, frame surface cooled with fan
IC 416: Totally enclosed motor with auxiliary fan motor
IC 418: Totally enclosed motor, frame surface cooled without fan
IC 01 : Open motors
IC 31W: Inlet and outlet pipe or duct circulated: water cooled

Note: Motors without fan can deliver same output power provided installation are according to IC 418.

117
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International Standards
Method of Cooling

COMPLETE DESIGNATION IC 8 A 1 W 7
SIMPLIFIED DESIGNATION IC 8 1 W

Code letters
Circuit arrangement
Primary coolant
Method of movement of primary coolant
Secondary coolant
Method of movement of secondary coolant

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 118

The diagram shows the method of cooling for high voltage motors and generators.

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International Standards
Method of Cooling

Characteristic Circuit arrangement Method of movement


numeral

0 Free circulation Free circulation

1 Inlet pipe or inlet duct-circulated Self-circulation

2 Outlet pipe or outlet duct-circulated - (reserved for future use)

3 Inlet and outlet pipe or duct-circulated -

4 Frame surface-cooled -

5 Integral heat exchanger (using surrounding medium) Integral independent component

6 Motor/generator mounted heat exchanger (using Motor/generator-mounted independent


surrounding medium) component

7 Integral heat exchanger (using remote medium) Separate and independent component
or coolant system pressure

8 Motor/generator-mounted heat exchanger (using Relative displacement


remote medium)

9 Separate heat exchanger (using surrounding or All other components


remote medium)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 119

The table shows the characteristic numeral for circuit arrangement as well as the method of movement.

119
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International Standards
Method of Cooling

Characteristic letter Coolant


A Air
F Freon
H Hydrogen
N Nitrogen
C Carbon dioxide
W Water
U Oil
S Any other coolant
Y Coolant not yet selected

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 120

The table shows the characteristic letter for each coolant.

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Symbols for degree and protection


IP code

IEC 60034-5 and NEMA MG 1 Part 5

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 121

In the International Protection code (IP code), the first characteristic numeral indicates the degree of
protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies and the second indicates the degree of protection
against ingress of water.
When necessary, the degrees of protection for electrical motors/generators may have the following letters
added after the second numeral:
W = open weather-protected motor/generator (NEMA specifies after the IP Code),
S = motor/generator tested for harmful ingress of water at standstill, and
M = motor/generator tested for harmful ingress of water when running.

IP protection is protection of persons against getting in contact with (or approaching) live parts and against
contact with moving parts inside the enclosure. Also protection of the machine against ingress of solid foreign
objects. Protection of machines aginst the harmful effects due to the ingress of water.

Classification of degrees fo protection provided by enclosures of rotating machines refers to Standard IEC
60034-5 or EN 60529 for IP code.

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Protection Classes (IEC 60034-5)

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 122

The table shows the explanations of the protection codes.

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18.04.2011

Protection Classes (IEC 60034-5)

Protection Brief Description Definition Cooling Motor/ NEMA


generator type
IP23 Motor/generator protected Contact with or approach to live or moving parts inside the IC01 AMA, AMK ODP
against solid objects enclosure by fingers or similar objects not exceeding 80
greater than 50 mm mm (3.1496 in) in length.
(1.9685 in) Ingress of solid objects exceeding 12 mm (0.4724 in) in
diameter.
Motor/generator protected Water falling as a spray at an angle up to 60° from vertical
against spraying shall have no harmful effect.
water
IP24W Motor/generator protected Contact with or approach to live or moving parts inside the IC01 AMA, AMK WP I
(IEC) against solid objects enclosure by fingers or similar objects not exceeding 80 WP II
IPW24 greater than 50 mm mm (3.1496 in) in length.
(NEMA) (1.9685 in) Ingress of solid objects exceeding 12 mm (0.4724 in) in
diameter.
Motor/generator protected Water splashing against the machine from any direction
against spraying shall have no harmful effect.
water Weather-protected so designed that ingress of rain, snow
and airborne particles into the electrical parts is reduced.
IP55 Dust-protected Contact with or approach to live or moving parts inside the IC411 HXR TEFC
motor/generator enclosure.
IC611 AMA, AMK TEAAC
Ingress of dust is not totally prevented but dust does not
enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with satisfactory IC81W AMA, AMK TEWAC
operation of the machine.
Motor/generator protected Water projected by a nozzle against the machine from any
against water jets direction shall have no harmful effect.

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 123

The table shows the standard IP protection for high voltage motors and generators.

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Degrees of protection
IK code

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 124

IK code is the classification of degrees or protection provided by enclosure for motors against external
mechanical impacts.
Classification of degrees fo protection provided by enclosures of rotating machines refers to Standard EN
50102 for IK code.

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Insulation

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 125

ABB uses class F insulation systems, which, with temperature rise B, is the most common requirement
among industry today.
The use of Class F insulation with Class B temperature rise gives ABB products a 25° C safety margin. This
can be used to increase the loading by up to 12 per cent for limited periods, to operate at higher ambient
temperatures or altitudes, or with greater voltage and frequency
tolerances. It can also be used to extend insulation life. For instance, a 10 K temperature reduction will extend
the insulation life.

Class F insulation system


– Max ambient temperature 40° C
– Max permissible temperature rise 105 K
– Hotspot temperature margin + 10 K
Class B rise
•Max ambient temperature 40° C
•Max permissible temperature rise 80 K
•Hotspot temperature margin + 10 K
Insulation system temperature class
•Class F 155° C
•Class B 130° C
•Class H 180° C

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Frequency converter drives


Customer values

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 126

Squirrel cage induction motors offer excellent availability, reliability and efficiency. With a frequency converter
– a variable speed drive (VSD) – the motor will deliver even better value. A variable speed drive motor can be
started softly with low starting current, and the speed can be controlled and adjusted to suit the application
demand without steps over a wide range. Also the use of a frequency converter together with a squirrel cage
motor usually leads to remarkable energy and environmental savings.

Speed control has several benefits: it allows accurate process control, and thus creates better end product
quality. Speed control also creates less stress to mechanics and electrical network due to soft starting and
precise control. It increases production capacity without additional investments.

An AC induction motor, that is, an asynchronous squirrel cage AC motor, is most commonly used in industry.
It has some basic advantages like robust design, simple construction, high IP class, and so on. An
asynchronous motor needs frequency converter to control its speed.

A modern frequency converter has many advanced protection features that protect the drive itself, equipment
connected to the drive and even the production process. It has inbuilt programmability that allows it to control
a production process without an additional external controller, or PLC. Programmability means the user can
fine tune the variable speed drive, or VSD, to get the most out of the whole equipment.

Requirements for the flexibility and accuracy of external control methods can best be fulfilled with a modern
VSD which can be connected to just about any fieldbus or analog or digital control signal. Even remote
monitoring via the Internet is possible.
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Rotor Construction – Balancing

ƒ Standards for mechanical vibration:


ƒ ISO 1940/1: Balance quality requirements for rigid
rotors, Part 1
ƒ ISO 1940/2: Balance quality requirements for rigid
rotors, Part 2
ƒ ISO 11342: Methods and criteria for the balancing of
flexible rotors
ƒ Balancing quality grades:
ƒ G2, 5 for medium and large armatures with special
requirements
ƒ G6, 3 for medium and large armatures without special
requirements

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 127

The following standards cover the balancing of the rotor construction:


ISO 1940/1 for mechanical vibration covers the balance quality requirements for rigid rotors in Part 1:
Determination of permissible residual unbalance.
ISO 1940/2 for mechanical vibration covers the balance quality requirements for rigid rotors in Part 2:
Balance errors.
ISO 11342 for mechanical vibration covers the methods and criteria for the balancing of flexible rotors.
Imbalance is a condition, which exists in a rotor when a vibratory force or motion is imparted to its bearings as
a result of centrifugal forces.
The balancing quality grades are:
G2, 5 for medium and large armatures with special requirements and
G6, 3 for medium and large armatures without special requirements.
As standard, rotors are balanced with half key; the coupling must also be balanced with half key. The
balancing procedure is permanently marked on the shaft end with 'H' (H = half key, F = full key).

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Vibration

ƒ Vibration is a response of a system to an internal or


external stimulus causing it to oscillate or pulsate
ƒ Three important parameters:
ƒ frequency
ƒ amplitude
ƒ phase

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 128

Vibration is the response of a system to an internal or external stimulus causing it to oscillate or pulsate.
While it is commonly thought that vibration itself damages motors and structures, it does not. The damage is
done by dynamic stresses that cause fatigue in the materials. The dynamic stresses are included in the
vibration.
Vibration has three important parameters, which can be measured:
Frequency, that is, how many times does the motor or structure vibrate per minute or per second.
Amplitude, that is, how much is the vibration in microns, mm/s or g's.
Phase, that is, how is the member vibrating in relation to the reference point.
The following standards cover mechanical vibration:
ISO 10816- Mechanical vibration: Evaluation of machine vibration by measurement of non-rotating parts,
NEMA MG 1, Part 7: Mechanical vibration - Measurement, evaluation and limits,
ISO 7919: Mechanical vibration of non-reciprocating machines - Measurement of rotating shafts and
evaluation criteria, and
IEC 60034-14: Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights of 56 mm and higher -
Measurement, evaluation and limits.

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M, IP, IC

ƒ International Standards CEI EN 60034:


ƒ CEI EN 60034- 5: degrees of protection provided by
the integral design of rotating electrical machines (IP
code) – Classification,
ƒ CEI EN 60034- 5: degrees of protection provided by
the integral design of rotating electrical machines (IP
code) – Classification, and
ƒ CEI EN 60034- 7: classification of types of
construction, mounting arrangements and terminal box
position (IM Code).

© BU Motors and Generators


April 18, 2011 | Slide 129

The following issues are covered by the International Standards CEI EN 60034:
CEI EN 60034-5 covers the degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating electrical
machines (IP code) – Classification,
CEI EN 60034-5 covers the degrees of protection provided by the integral design of rotating electrical
machines (IP code) – Classification, and
CEI EN 60034-7 covers the classification of types of construction, mounting arrangements and terminal box
position (IM Code).

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April 18, 2011 | Slide 130

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