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# UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

## Date of submission : December, 2017

Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel
is 400mm, Length of bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40 N/mm2, characteristics strength of steel fy
=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter bars for main reinforcement and
horizontal links of 12mm diameter .

1. INTRODUCTION 3
1.1. APPLICATION OF CORBEL STRUCTURE 4
2. DESIGN NOTATION 5
Step 3.1 Determination of ultimate loads 6
Step 3.2 Corbel geometry 6
Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As 8
Step 3.3.1 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by assuming the value of ”X’’ 8
Step 3.3.2 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by using tables 9
Step 3.3.3 Area of Reinforcement ’’As” calculation 10
Step 3.3.4 Ft and adequacy of area of reinforcement (As) 10
Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions 12
Step 3.3.7 Check for minimum and maximum reinfrcements 12
Step 3.3.8 Check for bearing stress inside the bend 12
Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width 14
Step 3.3.10: check for spacing of bars 15
4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS 16

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1. INTRODUCTION

Corbels are typical short but deep cantilever beams, the principle of load analysis is the same as that of
cantilever beams but there are minor changes on the how stresses are transferred through the depth of
the corbel.
It is worth mentioning that the stresses in the corbel do follow the trajectories that can only be assessed
using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA), from the analysis results one can establish the load transfer
mechanism that helps the design procedure. Figure 1 to 2 shows the results of the FEA of the task in

Figure 1: The vertically deflected shape of the corbel structure due to both vertical and horizontal loads
acting at 400 mm from the face of the column.
As seen in figure 1 the magnitudes of deflections tends to decrease as one approaches the column face,
this is atypical cantilevered beam behavior.

Figure 2: Maximum shearing stresses (KN/m2) due the loading acting on the corbel

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It can be depicted from figure 4.2 that, punching shear is typical at the loaded area and as expected for
the cantilevered beam the shear at the support is of high magnitude.

Conclusively, it can be shown that the loading pattern given on this problem is causing compressive
stresses on the larger part of the structure by looking at the stress trajectories developed using the FEA
software LISA. The findings coincide with the theory of analysis of the corbel.

## 1.1. APPLICATION OF CORBEL STRUCTURE

The Corbel structure is among the oldest technologies that have been applied for ages and famously in
architectural works for holding canopies and porticos however in heavy duty loading system they have
been extensively used in
• Industrial building for supporting crane rails that move heavy loads longitudinally (along the
building length) or transversally (along the building width).
• In bridges they are used as brackets for supporting the approach slab that reduce the settlement
of the embankment fill in order to eliminate the kink at the bridge-embankment joint.

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Recommendation/Remarks Date
Approved by:
Reference Descriptions/Calculations Output

2. DESIGN NOTATION

## av Distance from centre of load to nearest face of

column for a corbel
As Area of steel reinforcement in tension to resist bending
Ash Area of horizontal steel reinforcement to resist shear in
corbel
b Width of corbel
d Effective depth from centre of tensile reinforcement to the
bottom of the corbel
fy Characteristic yield strength of steel
fcu Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Ft Steel tensile force
Fbt Tensile force in reinforcement at start of a bend
h Overall depth of corbel
p Percentage of tensile reinforcement
r Internal radius of a bend in a bar
Sh Spacing of horizontal links in a corbel
T Tension force applied to corbel along with vertical load
v Shear stress in concrete (N/mm2) )
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Ve Design shear stress in concrete (N/mm )
x Distance of neutral axis from bottom of corbel
z Depth of lever arm
β Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in a
corbel
ɛs Strain in steel reinforcement
ɛc Strain in concrete
Φ Diameter of reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a
group of bars

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Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the
concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel is 400mm, Length of
bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40, characteristics strength of steel fy
=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter
bars for main reinforcement and horizontal links of 12mm
diameter .

V
av=400

Lecture T
Notes

380

h=750

600 600
Width of Corbel 400
Colunm :
600 x 400

## Step 3.1 Determination of ultimate loads

(Ignore small eccentricity of horizontal Load from Tension steel)

## • Line of action of Load at 400mm from face of the column

• Size of the column =600mm x 400mm
• Corbel about the major axis of the column
• Width of Corbel =400mm
• fcu=40N/mm2
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• fy=460N/mm2
• Minimum cover to Reinforcement =30mm
• Assumed diameter of main reinforcement=25mm
• Assumed diameter of horizontal links=12mm

## Effective depth (d) = h-cover- Φ /2 (figure No. 2 bellow)

= 750mm-30mm-25mm/2
= 707.5mm
d = 707.5mm
Check for the minimum effective depth (d)

## At the column face, the maximum allowable concrete shear stress is

0.8√ fcu (5.05 N/mm2 ) or 5N/mm2 which ever is less.

v = V/(b*d)
d =V/ vb
d =750000/(5*400)
d = 375mm<707.5mm, the provided effective depth is greater
than the required, hence OK
BS 8110, The actual shear stress at the column face
Part 1, 1997:
Clause v = V/(b*d)
3.4.5.2 = (750 x 103 )/ (400 * 707.5mm) v =
= 2.65N/mm2<5N/mm2 2.65N/mm2
reinforcement bar
V
av=400

380

d h=750

600 600

## Width of Corbel 400

Colunm : 600 x 400
Figure No.4 Position of effective diameter

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Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As

## Consider strunt and tie diagram below

av neutral axis

Lecture
Notes Z

( a) T
β

V Fc

(b)

Figure No. 5 (a) Strut and tie diagram for the reinforced corbel force,
strain and stress diagrams and (b) Resolution of forces acting on the
Corbel

## From figure No. 3 above the following relationship can be derived

T = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………….……………..…….(1)

V = Fc*Sin β …………..……………………………………..…………..……...….(2)
But
Fc = 0.45*0.9x*Cos β *fcu*b
= 0.405x*fcu*b*Cos β …………..…………………………..…………….....(3)
T = 0.87fy*As …………………………………………………………….…..….….(4)

## Substituting equation (4) to equation (1), we get

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0.87fy*As = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………………….(5)
Also substituting equation (2) to equation (5), we get

## 0.87fy*As = V * Cosβ ……………………………………………………….(6)

sin β
Lecture
Notes Making As the subject from equation (6) we get

As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av
0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z

Z = d - 0.45x ……………………………………………….………………..(7)

## From equation (3)

X= Fc ………………………………..………..…..(8)
0.405* fcu*b *Cos β

## Determination of the lever arm ”Z” by assuming the value of ”X0”

and,m the calculating other values from the equation given above (i.e
tanβ, sin β, cosβ and Fc) and then recalculate the actual value of ”X”
based on equation (8). Repeat until the assumed value equals to the
actul valu. (See table bellow for the five trials)

1 2 3 4 5

## X0(mm) 353.75 243.10 250.50 249.97 249.98

z 548.313 598.105 594.775 595.014 595.011
tanβ 1.371 1.495 1.487 1.488 1.488
Sinβ 0.808 0.831 0.830 0.830 0.830
cosβ 0.589 0.556 0.558 0.558 0.558

## FC(KN) 928.36 902.268 903.832 903.719 903.720

X(mm) 243.089 250.468 249.938 249.975 249.975
X =
249.975mm
Therefore, from the above table, the value of ’’X’’ is 249.975mm
Z1 =
Z1 = d-0.45x
595.011mm
= 707.5mm-0.45*249.975mm
= 595.011mm

## Step 3.3.2 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by using tables

v/fcu = 2.65/40
= 0.066
av/d = 400/707.5
= 0.57
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From figure 5.1 (see section 4.2 appendix ) for v/fcu =0.066 and
av=0.57, then,
z/d = 0.83, therefore,
z = 0.83d
= 0.83 x 707.5mm(d = 707.5mm from above) Z2 = 594.8mm
= 587.2mm
Z2 = 587.2mm
Therefore from z = d-0.45x X = 258.6mm
X = (d-z)/0.45
= (707.5mm-594.5mm)/0.45
X = 258.6mm
Z = 591.1mm
Hence use Z=591.1mm and X=254.3mm as average values

## From Z = 594.8mm and from equation (6) above

As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av
0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z
Lecture
Notes As = 750,000N*400mm
0.87*460N/mm2*591.1mm

As = 1,268.2mm2

## From strut and tie diagram

Ft=582.27kN
Ft = Vav/Z + T
= (750000 x400 )/(591.1) + 75x103
= 582.27 x 103 N

ɛs = 0.0035 x (707.5-254.3)/254.3
= 0.006238>0.002; therefore the steel will be at yield stess.

## As = Ft/0.87fy (From BS part 1 )

= (582.27 x 103)/(0.87 x 460)
=1,455mm2

## Ft/0.87fy ≥ 0.5V/ 0.87fy + T/ 0.87fy

1,455mm2 ≥ 0.5 x 750,000 + 75x1,000
0.87x460 0.87x460

## 1,455mm2 ≥ 1,124mm2; which is Ok. Provide 4Y25(As=1,963mm2 ) Provide

4Y25(As =
in order to provide resistance to horizontal force by adding more than
1,963mm2 )
50% of As provided for the vertical load (Clauses 5.2.7.2.1 and
5.2.7.2.4 of BS 8110, 1997 Part 1)
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Step 3.3.5 Check for shear

p = 100AS
bd
= 100x1963
400x707.5
= 0.52

## From figure 11.5 Vc = 0.69

V’c = (2d/av)VC
= (2x707.5) x 0.69
Lecture 400
Notes = 2.45mm2 < 2.65mm2 V’c = 2.45 mm2

## Assuming horizontal links are provided at a spacing(sh) of 250mm

center to center.

## Ash ≥ b*sh*(V-V’c) = 400mm*250mm*(2.65-2.45)

0.87fy 0.87*460N/mm2
= 49.0mm2
Required: 1-legged 12mm diameter link, which is difficult to provide,
hence provide 2-legged 12mm diameter links.
For two-third of the depth of corbel = (2/3)*707.5mm = 471.7mmm
of which requires 3 sets of links of 12mm diameter at 250mm center to
center.
Therefore, total area = 678.6mm2<0.5*As provide
= 678.6mm2<0.5*1,963mm2
= 678.6mm2<981.5mm2
Therefore use 5 sets of links 12mm diameter at 100mm center to
center (As =1,131mm2) as detailed on the sketch bellow.

4 Φ25

## Figure No. 6 Main and links reinforcement sketches

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Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions

## Maximum bearing conrete stress under the plate = 0.8fcu=32N/mm2

V = 0.8fcu*(Area for bearing plate)
750,000N = 0.8*40*200mm*wb( wb=width of bearing plate)
wb = 750,000/(0.8*40*200)
wb = 117mm; Provide 150mm by 200mm bearing plate

## 0.004*b*h < As < 0.04*b*h

(0.004*400*750)mm2 < 1,963mm2 < (0.04*400*750)mmm2
1,200mm2 < 1,963mm2 < 12,000mm2 which
satisfies the condition.

## Reinforcement in elevation view for showing dimension of cover and

center to center (all dimension are in mm)

Fbt = Ft * As required
no. of bars As provided
= 582.27kN *1,455mm2
4 1,963mm2 Fbt =
= 107.90k 107.90kN

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Also,

Fbu = 0.5*(fcu)1/2
= 0.5*(40)1/2 Fbu =
= 3.16N/mm2 3.16N/mm2
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: Anchorage bond length required for the above Fbu (La)
Clause
3.12.8.4 La = Fbt = 107,900N
equation 49 π* Φ*Fbu 3.14*25mm*3.16N/mm2

= 435mm

Straight length of a bar before start of bend is taken as one third of the
anchorage bond length (1/3*La =1/3*431mm=215.4mm say 150mm).

Tension force in a bar at the start of the bend is two third of Fbt.

= 71.93kN

## r = internal radius of bend

= 4* Φ = 4*25mm (Φ=25mm)
= 100mm

= 32.5mm + 25mm
= 57.5mm

## The center to center distance of bars is 77.5mm>57.5mm, Ok.

Check for

(2/3)*Fbt ≤ 2*fcu
r *Φ (1+(2Φ/ab))
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: (2/3)* 107,900 N ≤ 2*40N/mm2
Clause 100mm*25mm (1+(2*25mm/57.5mm))
3.12.8.25.2
equation 50 28.77N/mm2 ≤ 42.79N/mm2, which satisfies the above
Condition

## Calculation of anchorage bond length for standard bend for 900 is

given by 12* Φ = 12*25mm=300mm

## Minimum projection length of bar in the column is as follows

= 435mm – 300mm – 150mm+(4* Φ mm), Φ = 25mm
= 85mm

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Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width

## Note: This step is optinal and it included to show the method of

calculation of crack with of corbel.
Moment at the face of column= 750*0.4N=300KN.m
Assume As`=0

Let m = =12.95

As (prov) =1,963mm2

x =243.0mm

z =d - = 707.5- =626.5mm

## fsh (Reinforcement stress) = = =38.2N/mm2 due to horizontal

fs=fsb+fsh =243.94+38.2=282.14N/mm2

ɛs = = =

ɛh = =

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ɛ = ɛh -

= -

ɛhm =

## ac2 = -12.5 = 45.0mm

acr = 49.4mm

wcr =

= 0.259mm <0.3mm ; ok

## Minimum horizontal spacing = MSA +5 ≥ diameter of bar

=20+5=25mm
Where MSA is maximum size of aggregates

## Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension < 47,000 < 300

BS 8110, fs
Part, 1997: Where fs = 282.14 N/mm2 from step 3.8 above.
Clause
3.12.11.1 Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension = 47,000 < 300
282.14
= 167 < 300, Hence, Ok.
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: Actual clear spacing = 77.5-( Φ/2)*2 = 77.5-25=52.5<192,Ok
Clause
3.12.11.2.4

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4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS

## 4.1 APPENDIX – DRAWINGS CHARTS

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4.2 APPENDIX – CHARTS

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