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UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (CoET)

DEPARTMENT OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY

Course Name : Advanced Design of Reinforced Concrete

Course Code : SD 672

Course Instructor : Dr. J.K. Makunza

Task of Work : Home Work

Student Name : Madirisha, Musa

Registration Number : 2017-06-02071

Date of submission : December, 2017

Task Given:

Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel
is 400mm, Length of bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40 N/mm2, characteristics strength of steel fy
=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter bars for main reinforcement and
horizontal links of 12mm diameter .
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

1. INTRODUCTION 3
1.1. APPLICATION OF CORBEL STRUCTURE 4
2. DESIGN NOTATION 5
3. TASK GIVEN: 6
Step 3.1 Determination of ultimate loads 6
Step 3.2 Corbel geometry 6
Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As 8
Step 3.3.1 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by assuming the value of ”X’’ 8
Step 3.3.2 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by using tables 9
Step 3.3.3 Area of Reinforcement ’’As” calculation 10
Step 3.3.4 Ft and adequacy of area of reinforcement (As) 10
Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions 12
Step 3.3.7 Check for minimum and maximum reinfrcements 12
Step 3.3.8 Check for bearing stress inside the bend 12
Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width 14
Step 3.3.10: check for spacing of bars 15
4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS 16

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1. INTRODUCTION

Corbels are typical short but deep cantilever beams, the principle of load analysis is the same as that of
cantilever beams but there are minor changes on the how stresses are transferred through the depth of
the corbel.
It is worth mentioning that the stresses in the corbel do follow the trajectories that can only be assessed
using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA), from the analysis results one can establish the load transfer
mechanism that helps the design procedure. Figure 1 to 2 shows the results of the FEA of the task in
hand using the loading for the structure.

Figure 1: The vertically deflected shape of the corbel structure due to both vertical and horizontal loads
acting at 400 mm from the face of the column.
As seen in figure 1 the magnitudes of deflections tends to decrease as one approaches the column face,
this is atypical cantilevered beam behavior.

Figure 2: Maximum shearing stresses (KN/m2) due the loading acting on the corbel

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It can be depicted from figure 4.2 that, punching shear is typical at the loaded area and as expected for
the cantilevered beam the shear at the support is of high magnitude.

Conclusively, it can be shown that the loading pattern given on this problem is causing compressive
stresses on the larger part of the structure by looking at the stress trajectories developed using the FEA
software LISA. The findings coincide with the theory of analysis of the corbel.

1.1. APPLICATION OF CORBEL STRUCTURE

The Corbel structure is among the oldest technologies that have been applied for ages and famously in
architectural works for holding canopies and porticos however in heavy duty loading system they have
been extensively used in
• Industrial building for supporting crane rails that move heavy loads longitudinally (along the
building length) or transversally (along the building width).
• In bridges they are used as brackets for supporting the approach slab that reduce the settlement
of the embankment fill in order to eliminate the kink at the bridge-embankment joint.

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Recommendation/Remarks Date
Designed by: Madirisha, Musa (2017-06-02071)
Checked by: Madirisha, Musa (2017-06-02071)
Approved by:
Reference Descriptions/Calculations Output

2. DESIGN NOTATION

av Distance from centre of load to nearest face of


column for a corbel
As Area of steel reinforcement in tension to resist bending
Ash Area of horizontal steel reinforcement to resist shear in
corbel
b Width of corbel
d Effective depth from centre of tensile reinforcement to the
bottom of the corbel
fy Characteristic yield strength of steel
fcu Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days
Ft Steel tensile force
Fbt Tensile force in reinforcement at start of a bend
h Overall depth of corbel
p Percentage of tensile reinforcement
r Internal radius of a bend in a bar
Sh Spacing of horizontal links in a corbel
T Tension force applied to corbel along with vertical load
v Shear stress in concrete (N/mm2) )
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Ve Design shear stress in concrete (N/mm )
V Vertical load on corbel
x Distance of neutral axis from bottom of corbel
z Depth of lever arm
β Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in a
corbel
ɛs Strain in steel reinforcement
ɛc Strain in concrete
Φ Diameter of reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a
group of bars

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3. TASK GIVEN:

Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the
concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel is 400mm, Length of
bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40, characteristics strength of steel fy
=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter
bars for main reinforcement and horizontal links of 12mm
diameter .

V
av=400

Lecture T
Notes

380

h=750

600 600
Width of Corbel 400
Colunm :
600 x 400

Figure 3: Corbel geometry and parameters

NOTE: All dimension in mm otherwise indicated

Step 3.1 Determination of ultimate loads

• Vertical Load V=750KN


• Horizontal Load T=75KN
(Ignore small eccentricity of horizontal Load from Tension steel)

Step 3.2 Corbel geometry

• Line of action of Load at 400mm from face of the column


• Size of the column =600mm x 400mm
• Corbel about the major axis of the column
• Width of Corbel =400mm
• fcu=40N/mm2
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• fy=460N/mm2
• Minimum cover to Reinforcement =30mm
• Assumed diameter of main reinforcement=25mm
• Assumed diameter of horizontal links=12mm

Effective depth (d) = h-cover- Φ /2 (figure No. 2 bellow)


= 750mm-30mm-25mm/2
= 707.5mm
d = 707.5mm
Check for the minimum effective depth (d)

At the column face, the maximum allowable concrete shear stress is


0.8√ fcu (5.05 N/mm2 ) or 5N/mm2 which ever is less.

v = V/(b*d)
d =V/ vb
d =750000/(5*400)
d = 375mm<707.5mm, the provided effective depth is greater
than the required, hence OK
BS 8110, The actual shear stress at the column face
Part 1, 1997:
Clause v = V/(b*d)
3.4.5.2 = (750 x 103 )/ (400 * 707.5mm) v =
= 2.65N/mm2<5N/mm2 2.65N/mm2
reinforcement bar
V
av=400

380

d h=750

600 600

Width of Corbel 400


Colunm : 600 x 400
Figure No.4 Position of effective diameter

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Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As

Consider strunt and tie diagram below

av neutral axis

Lecture
Notes Z

( a) T
β

V Fc

(b)

Figure No. 5 (a) Strut and tie diagram for the reinforced corbel force,
strain and stress diagrams and (b) Resolution of forces acting on the
Corbel

Step 3.3.1 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by assuming the value of ”X’’

From figure No. 3 above the following relationship can be derived

T = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………….……………..…….(1)

V = Fc*Sin β …………..……………………………………..…………..……...….(2)
But
Fc = 0.45*0.9x*Cos β *fcu*b
= 0.405x*fcu*b*Cos β …………..…………………………..…………….....(3)
T = 0.87fy*As …………………………………………………………….…..….….(4)

Substituting equation (4) to equation (1), we get


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0.87fy*As = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………………….(5)
Also substituting equation (2) to equation (5), we get

0.87fy*As = V * Cosβ ……………………………………………………….(6)


sin β
Lecture
Notes Making As the subject from equation (6) we get

As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av
0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z

Z = d - 0.45x ……………………………………………….………………..(7)

From equation (3)

X= Fc ………………………………..………..…..(8)
0.405* fcu*b *Cos β

Determination of the lever arm ”Z” by assuming the value of ”X0”


and,m the calculating other values from the equation given above (i.e
tanβ, sin β, cosβ and Fc) and then recalculate the actual value of ”X”
based on equation (8). Repeat until the assumed value equals to the
actul valu. (See table bellow for the five trials)

1 2 3 4 5

X0(mm) 353.75 243.10 250.50 249.97 249.98


z 548.313 598.105 594.775 595.014 595.011
tanβ 1.371 1.495 1.487 1.488 1.488
Sinβ 0.808 0.831 0.830 0.830 0.830
cosβ 0.589 0.556 0.558 0.558 0.558

FC(KN) 928.36 902.268 903.832 903.719 903.720


X(mm) 243.089 250.468 249.938 249.975 249.975
X =
249.975mm
Therefore, from the above table, the value of ’’X’’ is 249.975mm
Z1 =
Z1 = d-0.45x
595.011mm
= 707.5mm-0.45*249.975mm
= 595.011mm

Step 3.3.2 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by using tables

v/fcu = 2.65/40
= 0.066
av/d = 400/707.5
= 0.57
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From figure 5.1 (see section 4.2 appendix ) for v/fcu =0.066 and
av=0.57, then,
z/d = 0.83, therefore,
z = 0.83d
= 0.83 x 707.5mm(d = 707.5mm from above) Z2 = 594.8mm
= 587.2mm
Z2 = 587.2mm
Therefore from z = d-0.45x X = 258.6mm
X = (d-z)/0.45
= (707.5mm-594.5mm)/0.45
X = 258.6mm
Z = 591.1mm
Hence use Z=591.1mm and X=254.3mm as average values

Step 3.3.3 Area of Reinforcement ’’As” calculation

From Z = 594.8mm and from equation (6) above


As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av
0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z
Lecture
Notes As = 750,000N*400mm
0.87*460N/mm2*591.1mm

As = 1,268.2mm2

Step 3.3.4 Ft and adequacy of area of reinforcement (As)

From strut and tie diagram


Ft=582.27kN
Ft = Vav/Z + T
= (750000 x400 )/(591.1) + 75x103
= 582.27 x 103 N

ɛs = 0.0035 x (707.5-254.3)/254.3
= 0.006238>0.002; therefore the steel will be at yield stess.

As = Ft/0.87fy (From BS part 1 )


= (582.27 x 103)/(0.87 x 460)
=1,455mm2

Ft/0.87fy ≥ 0.5V/ 0.87fy + T/ 0.87fy


1,455mm2 ≥ 0.5 x 750,000 + 75x1,000
0.87x460 0.87x460

1,455mm2 ≥ 1,124mm2; which is Ok. Provide 4Y25(As=1,963mm2 ) Provide


4Y25(As =
in order to provide resistance to horizontal force by adding more than
1,963mm2 )
50% of As provided for the vertical load (Clauses 5.2.7.2.1 and
5.2.7.2.4 of BS 8110, 1997 Part 1)
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Step 3.3.5 Check for shear

p = 100AS
bd
= 100x1963
400x707.5
= 0.52

From figure 11.5 Vc = 0.69

V’c = (2d/av)VC
= (2x707.5) x 0.69
Lecture 400
Notes = 2.45mm2 < 2.65mm2 V’c = 2.45 mm2

Therefore V’C< V , shear reinforcement is required

Assuming horizontal links are provided at a spacing(sh) of 250mm


center to center.

Ash ≥ b*sh*(V-V’c) = 400mm*250mm*(2.65-2.45)


0.87fy 0.87*460N/mm2
= 49.0mm2
Required: 1-legged 12mm diameter link, which is difficult to provide,
hence provide 2-legged 12mm diameter links.
For two-third of the depth of corbel = (2/3)*707.5mm = 471.7mmm
of which requires 3 sets of links of 12mm diameter at 250mm center to
center.
Therefore, total area = 678.6mm2<0.5*As provide
= 678.6mm2<0.5*1,963mm2
= 678.6mm2<981.5mm2
Therefore use 5 sets of links 12mm diameter at 100mm center to
center (As =1,131mm2) as detailed on the sketch bellow.

5 Φ12 at 100mm c/c

4 Φ25

Figure No. 6 Main and links reinforcement sketches

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Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions

Maximum bearing conrete stress under the plate = 0.8fcu=32N/mm2


V = 0.8fcu*(Area for bearing plate)
750,000N = 0.8*40*200mm*wb( wb=width of bearing plate)
wb = 750,000/(0.8*40*200)
wb = 117mm; Provide 150mm by 200mm bearing plate

Step 3.3.7 Check for minimum and maximum reinforcements

0.004*b*h < As < 0.04*b*h


(0.004*400*750)mm2 < 1,963mm2 < (0.04*400*750)mmm2
1,200mm2 < 1,963mm2 < 12,000mm2 which
satisfies the condition.

Step 3.3.8 Check for bearing stress inside the bend

45 77.5 77.5 77.5 45

Figure No. 7 Main reinforcement spacing and cover sketches

Reinforcement in elevation view for showing dimension of cover and


center to center (all dimension are in mm)

Fbt = Ft * As required
no. of bars As provided
= 582.27kN *1,455mm2
4 1,963mm2 Fbt =
= 107.90k 107.90kN

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Also,

Fbu = 0.5*(fcu)1/2
= 0.5*(40)1/2 Fbu =
= 3.16N/mm2 3.16N/mm2
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: Anchorage bond length required for the above Fbu (La)
Clause
3.12.8.4 La = Fbt = 107,900N
equation 49 π* Φ*Fbu 3.14*25mm*3.16N/mm2

= 435mm

Straight length of a bar before start of bend is taken as one third of the
anchorage bond length (1/3*La =1/3*431mm=215.4mm say 150mm).

Tension force in a bar at the start of the bend is two third of Fbt.

= (2/3)*Fbt = (2/3)* 107.90kN


= 71.93kN

r = internal radius of bend


= 4* Φ = 4*25mm (Φ=25mm)
= 100mm

ab = cover + bar diameter for corner bar


= 32.5mm + 25mm
= 57.5mm

The center to center distance of bars is 77.5mm>57.5mm, Ok.

Check for

(2/3)*Fbt ≤ 2*fcu
r *Φ (1+(2Φ/ab))
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: (2/3)* 107,900 N ≤ 2*40N/mm2
Clause 100mm*25mm (1+(2*25mm/57.5mm))
3.12.8.25.2
equation 50 28.77N/mm2 ≤ 42.79N/mm2, which satisfies the above
Condition

Calculation of anchorage bond length for standard bend for 900 is


given by 12* Φ = 12*25mm=300mm

Minimum projection length of bar in the column is as follows


= 435mm – 300mm – 150mm+(4* Φ mm), Φ = 25mm
= 85mm
Therefore the standard radius bend will be adequate.

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Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width

Note: This step is optinal and it included to show the method of


calculation of crack with of corbel.
Service horizontal load=75KN
Servuce Vertical Load =750KN
Moment at the face of column= 750*0.4N=300KN.m
Assume As`=0

Let m = =12.95

As (prov) =1,963mm2

x =243.0mm

z =d - = 707.5- =626.5mm

fsb (Reinforcement stress) = = =243.94N/mm2 due to


vertical load

fsh (Reinforcement stress) = = =38.2N/mm2 due to horizontal


load
fs=fsb+fsh =243.94+38.2=282.14N/mm2

ɛs = = =

ɛh = =

ɛh = strain of soffit of concrete

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ɛ = ɛh -

= -

ɛhm =

Average strain for calculation for crack width

ɛm = ɛh- ɛhm =0.000188

ac1 = -12.5 = 49.4mm

ac2 = -12.5 = 45.0mm

acr = 49.4mm

wcr =

= 0.259mm <0.3mm ; ok

Hence, the crack is within the limit of 0.3mm as maximum

Step 3.3.10: check for spacing of bars

Minimum horizontal spacing = MSA +5 ≥ diameter of bar


=20+5=25mm
Where MSA is maximum size of aggregates

Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension < 47,000 < 300


BS 8110, fs
Part, 1997: Where fs = 282.14 N/mm2 from step 3.8 above.
Clause
3.12.11.1 Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension = 47,000 < 300
282.14
= 167 < 300, Hence, Ok.
BS 8110,
Part, 1997: Actual clear spacing = 77.5-( Φ/2)*2 = 77.5-25=52.5<192,Ok
Clause
3.12.11.2.4

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4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS

4.1 APPENDIX – DRAWINGS CHARTS

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4.2 APPENDIX – CHARTS

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