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corbel

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You are on page 1of 19

Task Given:

Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel

is 400mm, Length of bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40 N/mm2, characteristics strength of steel fy

=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter bars for main reinforcement and

horizontal links of 12mm diameter .

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

1. INTRODUCTION 3

1.1. APPLICATION OF CORBEL STRUCTURE 4

2. DESIGN NOTATION 5

3. TASK GIVEN: 6

Step 3.1 Determination of ultimate loads 6

Step 3.2 Corbel geometry 6

Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As 8

Step 3.3.1 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by assuming the value of ”X’’ 8

Step 3.3.2 Lever arm ’’Z’’ by using tables 9

Step 3.3.3 Area of Reinforcement ’’As” calculation 10

Step 3.3.4 Ft and adequacy of area of reinforcement (As) 10

Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions 12

Step 3.3.7 Check for minimum and maximum reinfrcements 12

Step 3.3.8 Check for bearing stress inside the bend 12

Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width 14

Step 3.3.10: check for spacing of bars 15

4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS 16

2

1. INTRODUCTION

Corbels are typical short but deep cantilever beams, the principle of load analysis is the same as that of

cantilever beams but there are minor changes on the how stresses are transferred through the depth of

the corbel.

It is worth mentioning that the stresses in the corbel do follow the trajectories that can only be assessed

using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA), from the analysis results one can establish the load transfer

mechanism that helps the design procedure. Figure 1 to 2 shows the results of the FEA of the task in

hand using the loading for the structure.

Figure 1: The vertically deflected shape of the corbel structure due to both vertical and horizontal loads

acting at 400 mm from the face of the column.

As seen in figure 1 the magnitudes of deflections tends to decrease as one approaches the column face,

this is atypical cantilevered beam behavior.

Figure 2: Maximum shearing stresses (KN/m2) due the loading acting on the corbel

3

It can be depicted from figure 4.2 that, punching shear is typical at the loaded area and as expected for

the cantilevered beam the shear at the support is of high magnitude.

Conclusively, it can be shown that the loading pattern given on this problem is causing compressive

stresses on the larger part of the structure by looking at the stress trajectories developed using the FEA

software LISA. The findings coincide with the theory of analysis of the corbel.

The Corbel structure is among the oldest technologies that have been applied for ages and famously in

architectural works for holding canopies and porticos however in heavy duty loading system they have

been extensively used in

• Industrial building for supporting crane rails that move heavy loads longitudinally (along the

building length) or transversally (along the building width).

• In bridges they are used as brackets for supporting the approach slab that reduce the settlement

of the embankment fill in order to eliminate the kink at the bridge-embankment joint.

4

Recommendation/Remarks Date

Designed by: Madirisha, Musa (2017-06-02071)

Checked by: Madirisha, Musa (2017-06-02071)

Approved by:

Reference Descriptions/Calculations Output

2. DESIGN NOTATION

column for a corbel

As Area of steel reinforcement in tension to resist bending

Ash Area of horizontal steel reinforcement to resist shear in

corbel

b Width of corbel

d Effective depth from centre of tensile reinforcement to the

bottom of the corbel

fy Characteristic yield strength of steel

fcu Characteristic cube strength of concrete at 28 days

Ft Steel tensile force

Fbt Tensile force in reinforcement at start of a bend

h Overall depth of corbel

p Percentage of tensile reinforcement

r Internal radius of a bend in a bar

Sh Spacing of horizontal links in a corbel

T Tension force applied to corbel along with vertical load

v Shear stress in concrete (N/mm2) )

2

Ve Design shear stress in concrete (N/mm )

V Vertical load on corbel

x Distance of neutral axis from bottom of corbel

z Depth of lever arm

β Angle of inclination to horizontal of concrete strut in a

corbel

ɛs Strain in steel reinforcement

ɛc Strain in concrete

Φ Diameter of reinforcing bar or equivalent diameter of a

group of bars

5

3. TASK GIVEN:

Design the Corbel bellow with the following given data, the

concrete cover is 30mm, width of the corbel is 400mm, Length of

bearing plateis 200mm, fcu = 40, characteristics strength of steel fy

=460N/mm2 ,T=75KN and V=750KN. Asuume 25mm diameter

bars for main reinforcement and horizontal links of 12mm

diameter .

V

av=400

Lecture T

Notes

380

h=750

600 600

Width of Corbel 400

Colunm :

600 x 400

• Horizontal Load T=75KN

(Ignore small eccentricity of horizontal Load from Tension steel)

• Size of the column =600mm x 400mm

• Corbel about the major axis of the column

• Width of Corbel =400mm

• fcu=40N/mm2

6

• fy=460N/mm2

• Minimum cover to Reinforcement =30mm

• Assumed diameter of main reinforcement=25mm

• Assumed diameter of horizontal links=12mm

= 750mm-30mm-25mm/2

= 707.5mm

d = 707.5mm

Check for the minimum effective depth (d)

0.8√ fcu (5.05 N/mm2 ) or 5N/mm2 which ever is less.

v = V/(b*d)

d =V/ vb

d =750000/(5*400)

d = 375mm<707.5mm, the provided effective depth is greater

than the required, hence OK

BS 8110, The actual shear stress at the column face

Part 1, 1997:

Clause v = V/(b*d)

3.4.5.2 = (750 x 103 )/ (400 * 707.5mm) v =

= 2.65N/mm2<5N/mm2 2.65N/mm2

reinforcement bar

V

av=400

380

d h=750

600 600

Colunm : 600 x 400

Figure No.4 Position of effective diameter

7

Step 3.3 Determination of Ft and As

av neutral axis

Lecture

Notes Z

( a) T

β

V Fc

(b)

Figure No. 5 (a) Strut and tie diagram for the reinforced corbel force,

strain and stress diagrams and (b) Resolution of forces acting on the

Corbel

T = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………….……………..…….(1)

V = Fc*Sin β …………..……………………………………..…………..……...….(2)

But

Fc = 0.45*0.9x*Cos β *fcu*b

= 0.405x*fcu*b*Cos β …………..…………………………..…………….....(3)

T = 0.87fy*As …………………………………………………………….…..….….(4)

8

0.87fy*As = Fc*Cosβ …………………………………………………………….(5)

Also substituting equation (2) to equation (5), we get

sin β

Lecture

Notes Making As the subject from equation (6) we get

As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av

0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z

Z = d - 0.45x ……………………………………………….………………..(7)

X= Fc ………………………………..………..…..(8)

0.405* fcu*b *Cos β

and,m the calculating other values from the equation given above (i.e

tanβ, sin β, cosβ and Fc) and then recalculate the actual value of ”X”

based on equation (8). Repeat until the assumed value equals to the

actul valu. (See table bellow for the five trials)

1 2 3 4 5

z 548.313 598.105 594.775 595.014 595.011

tanβ 1.371 1.495 1.487 1.488 1.488

Sinβ 0.808 0.831 0.830 0.830 0.830

cosβ 0.589 0.556 0.558 0.558 0.558

X(mm) 243.089 250.468 249.938 249.975 249.975

X =

249.975mm

Therefore, from the above table, the value of ’’X’’ is 249.975mm

Z1 =

Z1 = d-0.45x

595.011mm

= 707.5mm-0.45*249.975mm

= 595.011mm

v/fcu = 2.65/40

= 0.066

av/d = 400/707.5

= 0.57

9

From figure 5.1 (see section 4.2 appendix ) for v/fcu =0.066 and

av=0.57, then,

z/d = 0.83, therefore,

z = 0.83d

= 0.83 x 707.5mm(d = 707.5mm from above) Z2 = 594.8mm

= 587.2mm

Z2 = 587.2mm

Therefore from z = d-0.45x X = 258.6mm

X = (d-z)/0.45

= (707.5mm-594.5mm)/0.45

X = 258.6mm

Z = 591.1mm

Hence use Z=591.1mm and X=254.3mm as average values

As = V * Cosβ = V = V * av

0.87fy *sin β 0.87fy *tan β 0.87fy *Z

Lecture

Notes As = 750,000N*400mm

0.87*460N/mm2*591.1mm

As = 1,268.2mm2

Ft=582.27kN

Ft = Vav/Z + T

= (750000 x400 )/(591.1) + 75x103

= 582.27 x 103 N

ɛs = 0.0035 x (707.5-254.3)/254.3

= 0.006238>0.002; therefore the steel will be at yield stess.

= (582.27 x 103)/(0.87 x 460)

=1,455mm2

1,455mm2 ≥ 0.5 x 750,000 + 75x1,000

0.87x460 0.87x460

4Y25(As =

in order to provide resistance to horizontal force by adding more than

1,963mm2 )

50% of As provided for the vertical load (Clauses 5.2.7.2.1 and

5.2.7.2.4 of BS 8110, 1997 Part 1)

10

Step 3.3.5 Check for shear

p = 100AS

bd

= 100x1963

400x707.5

= 0.52

V’c = (2d/av)VC

= (2x707.5) x 0.69

Lecture 400

Notes = 2.45mm2 < 2.65mm2 V’c = 2.45 mm2

center to center.

0.87fy 0.87*460N/mm2

= 49.0mm2

Required: 1-legged 12mm diameter link, which is difficult to provide,

hence provide 2-legged 12mm diameter links.

For two-third of the depth of corbel = (2/3)*707.5mm = 471.7mmm

of which requires 3 sets of links of 12mm diameter at 250mm center to

center.

Therefore, total area = 678.6mm2<0.5*As provide

= 678.6mm2<0.5*1,963mm2

= 678.6mm2<981.5mm2

Therefore use 5 sets of links 12mm diameter at 100mm center to

center (As =1,131mm2) as detailed on the sketch bellow.

4 Φ25

11

Step 3.3.6 Design check for bearing plate dimensions

V = 0.8fcu*(Area for bearing plate)

750,000N = 0.8*40*200mm*wb( wb=width of bearing plate)

wb = 750,000/(0.8*40*200)

wb = 117mm; Provide 150mm by 200mm bearing plate

(0.004*400*750)mm2 < 1,963mm2 < (0.04*400*750)mmm2

1,200mm2 < 1,963mm2 < 12,000mm2 which

satisfies the condition.

center to center (all dimension are in mm)

Fbt = Ft * As required

no. of bars As provided

= 582.27kN *1,455mm2

4 1,963mm2 Fbt =

= 107.90k 107.90kN

12

Also,

Fbu = 0.5*(fcu)1/2

= 0.5*(40)1/2 Fbu =

= 3.16N/mm2 3.16N/mm2

BS 8110,

Part, 1997: Anchorage bond length required for the above Fbu (La)

Clause

3.12.8.4 La = Fbt = 107,900N

equation 49 π* Φ*Fbu 3.14*25mm*3.16N/mm2

= 435mm

Straight length of a bar before start of bend is taken as one third of the

anchorage bond length (1/3*La =1/3*431mm=215.4mm say 150mm).

Tension force in a bar at the start of the bend is two third of Fbt.

= 71.93kN

= 4* Φ = 4*25mm (Φ=25mm)

= 100mm

= 32.5mm + 25mm

= 57.5mm

Check for

(2/3)*Fbt ≤ 2*fcu

r *Φ (1+(2Φ/ab))

BS 8110,

Part, 1997: (2/3)* 107,900 N ≤ 2*40N/mm2

Clause 100mm*25mm (1+(2*25mm/57.5mm))

3.12.8.25.2

equation 50 28.77N/mm2 ≤ 42.79N/mm2, which satisfies the above

Condition

given by 12* Φ = 12*25mm=300mm

= 435mm – 300mm – 150mm+(4* Φ mm), Φ = 25mm

= 85mm

Therefore the standard radius bend will be adequate.

13

Step 3.3.9 Check for crack width

calculation of crack with of corbel.

Service horizontal load=75KN

Servuce Vertical Load =750KN

Moment at the face of column= 750*0.4N=300KN.m

Assume As`=0

Let m = =12.95

As (prov) =1,963mm2

x =243.0mm

z =d - = 707.5- =626.5mm

vertical load

load

fs=fsb+fsh =243.94+38.2=282.14N/mm2

ɛs = = =

ɛh = =

14

ɛ = ɛh -

= -

ɛhm =

acr = 49.4mm

wcr =

= 0.259mm <0.3mm ; ok

=20+5=25mm

Where MSA is maximum size of aggregates

BS 8110, fs

Part, 1997: Where fs = 282.14 N/mm2 from step 3.8 above.

Clause

3.12.11.1 Maximum clear spacing of bars in tension = 47,000 < 300

282.14

= 167 < 300, Hence, Ok.

BS 8110,

Part, 1997: Actual clear spacing = 77.5-( Φ/2)*2 = 77.5-25=52.5<192,Ok

Clause

3.12.11.2.4

15

4.0 APPENDIX – CHARTS AND DRAWINGS

16

17

18

4.2 APPENDIX – CHARTS

19

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