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Getting Started

with APA Citation Style

What is APA Style?
American Psychological Association (APA) style is one of several styles for academic writing. This guide covers
frequently used citation forms. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
(BF 76.7 .P83 2010) is a comprehensive resource, available at most UBC Libraries.

General Rules
• Formatting: The preferred APA font is a serif typeface such as Times New Roman with 12-point size. Double-
space between all lines of text, including the reference list. Have uniform margins of at least 1 in. (2.54 cm)
on all sides.
• Hanging indents should be used for the reference list entries. This means that all lines after the first line of each
entry should be indented one half inch from the left margin (in Word 2007 use Paragraph>Special>Hanging).
• Arrange reference list entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author or by title if there is no
author. Use only the initial(s) of the author's given name, not the full name, with a space between the initials.
• If the reference list includes two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order (oldest
first). Add a lower case letter (a, b, etc.) after the year, within the parentheses.
• Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in the article or book title. Proper nouns are also capitalized
as well as the word following a colon (subtitle). Journal titles should have every major word capitalized.
• Italicize journal titles, volume numbers and even the comma following the journal title. Do not italicize issue
numbers (i.e., the number which appears in parentheses after the volume number).
• References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule
are personal communications and secondary sources, which are cited in the text only and are not included
in the reference list.

Citations in Text
1. When using a direct quotation, include the page number of the quote.
• Stereotypes have been defined as “generalized and usually value-laden impressions that one’s social group
uses in characterizing members of another group” (Lindgren, 2001, p. 1617).

2. When paraphrasing an idea, the citation will include author(s) and date.
• Author’s name given in the body of your paper:
• Lindgren (2001) reported…
• Author’s name not given in the body of your paper:
• A study of the comparison process (Lindgren, 2001)

3. For electronic sources without page numbers, use the abbreviation para. If the paragraph number is not
apparent, cite the section heading and the paragraph number following it.
• (Myers, 2000, para. 5)
• (Butler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)

4. Order two or more works within the same parentheses as they would appear in the reference list.
• Past research (Heschl, 2001, 2005; Noonan & Johnson, 2002a, 2002b; Wolchuk et al., 2000) has shown…

more . . .

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). J. 7. . BC: Kelowna Home Support Society. 203 sec.. & Schalling. (2009. Washington. Maclean’s. 203 2nd bullet & p. Psychopathic behaviour: Approaches to research. NY: Wiley) Citation in text: (Piaget. Gellerier & J. Citation in text: (Porter. Stereotyping. August 11). (p.02 & p. 4. NY: Wiley.macleans. 200 #11) Citations in text: (Cernetig. 115-134). 2009) Online newspaper article: Cernetig. (1988). D. Opinion: Crafty Campbell knew the dangers of HST. (1997). 2010) Subsequent: (APA. Hillsdale. NY: Wiley.. (p. Offenders’ memories of violent crimes (pp. DC: Author. (Eds.. 7. D. (Reprinted from Manual of child psychology. (2010). 205 #29) science (Vol. by P.ca/ Citation in text: (Wells. .. 2001) Book: 3-5 authors Murphy. H.1) Citations in text: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA]. 703-732. & Sookraj.vancouversun. Citation in text: (Lindgren. In S. . (p. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral (p. New York. 202 sec. (2007). (1978). & Sookraj. 1970/1988) Encyclopedia article Lindgren.). R. 2007) Chapter in an edited book: Piaget. 1997) Book: Group author: American Psychological Association. M. Evaluation of the neighborhood (congregate) (p. New York. MA: Merriam-Webster. Citation in text: (Hare & Schalling. 200 #8) http://www2. AB: Detselig Enterprises. Woodworth. (2009. 1970.). Our universities can be smarter.). Christianson (Ed.. Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G. N. H. Springfield. (1993). 203 #18) meal program: Final report. Give URL (even if retrieved The Vancouver Sun.. Calgary.. Richardson English translation: & S. Sheldon (Eds. 201). New York. A. 203 #18) Citation in text: (Mitchell. M. 205 #30) Citation in text: (Merriam-Webster’s. Cognitive development to adolescence: A reader (pp. Publication manual of the American Psychological Author as publisher: 6th edition Association (6th ed. Trans. (p. Lai.com/ (p. (2001). NY: Wiley. Memory for murder: The qualities and book (p. 1993) continued . C. M.02) Chichester. D. (2001). Reprinted from another source NJ: Erlbaum. The mental and emotional life of teenagers. pp. BOOKS & BOOK SECTIONS Book: 1-2 authors Mitchell.). & Doucette. July 28). Kelowna. Citations in text: First Citation: (Murphy.). In K. 1617-1618). 177 table 6. 2009) v “Give the URL of the home page when the online version of the article is available by search to avoid non working URLs” (p. pp. 3-18). Retrieved from http://www. 1978) Chapter in an edited book Porter. J. 204 #26) Ed. D. S. (p. 1997) Subsequent: (Murphy et al. 204 #25) credibility of homicide narratives by perpetrators. & Doucette. 2010) Edited book Hare. Langer. P. Woodworth. J. 2001) Book with no author or editor Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.JOURNAL ARTICLES (continued) Online magazine article Wells. Lai. Retrieved from (p. Mussen.

M. (2001). Golombok]. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. Transforming the daily life of the classroom: The District Six laptop project. by J. [Review of the test Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. S. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and ((p. 208 #40) Theses database. (1959-1963). (2005). 12(1). Retrieved online Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED437028) (p.).).BOOKS AND BOOK SECTIONS (continued) Published conference Deci. 237-288). . (p. New York.google. Perspectives on (p. 1986) v “Database names . 205 #29 & #30 Citation in text: (“Globalization”. Retrieved from a database Rust & S. Psychology: A study of science (Vols. (AAT NQ67931) Citation in text: (Aguiar. 204 #22) Citation in text: (Johnson. doi:10. 1-6).). Retrieved from PsycBOOKS database. The abusive personality: Violence and control in intimate relationships of a print book (2nd ed. E. 1999) Dissertation: Aguiar. S. The ‘dirt’ on the contract cleaning industry in Toronto: Cleanliness and work Retrieved from a database reorganization (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from online reference work: http://www. In J. Citation in text: (Deci & Ryan.oxfordreference. (2008). proceedings: No DOI In R. 187) Multi-volume work Koch. 2005) & p.ubc.).ca/ institutional database (p. S. L. . R. Retrieved from http://books. Citation in text: (Rasmussen. 208 #41) Citation in text: (Gibson. . (2006). (2005). 207 #39) motivation (pp. Considering critical thinking and History 12: One teacher’s story (Master’s Retrieved from an thesis). Retrieved from a database (p. 2008) Book review: Rasmussen. NY: McGraw-Hill. 209 #45) Psychoanalytic Social Work. 2006) Test review: O’Grady. . Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. (p. (1999). 1959-1963) Entry in an Globalization. 176 sec.ca/books (p. 203 #19 & 21) Citation in text: (Dutton. Dienstbier (Ed. may be given for material of limited circulation” (p. A dictionary of sociology. by P. Casement]. do not repeat the name in the publisher location” (p. . K. (1986). (1991). 2007) continued . A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality.com No author: (p. 212 #62) Citation in text: (Peterson. Have we learned from our mistakes? [Review of the book Learning from Retrieved from a journal online our mistakes: Beyond dogma in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. L. Mental measurements yearbook (10th ed. Medically unexplained illness: Gender and biopsychosocial implications or monograph: [Monograph]. 1991) v “If the publisher is a university and the name of the state or province is included in the name of the university. 204 #23) Citation in text: (Koch. E. (2007). 38.). Marshall (Eds. L. 2006) Limited-circulation book Johnson.15) Electronic version Dutton. D. 73-79. Scott & G.1300/J032v12n01_06. & Ryan. 202 ERIC document: Peterson. L. 209 #45) Measurements Yearbook database Citation in text: (O’Grady. B.. 2001) Master’s thesis: Gibson. Retrieved from Mental (p. 6. (Ed. Retrieved from https://circle.

S. (2007. Access to health care services in Canada (Report No. . Retrieved from http://laws.forces. S.ca/site/news-nouvelles/view-news- (p 205 #31) afficher-nouvelles-eng.ca/en/2001/ Supreme Court of Canada 2001scc1/2001scc1. Retrieved from the internet Retrieved from http://www. 220 #10) Case law: R. K.ca/cihiweb/products /NHSRep06_ENG. R. Latimer. G.C. Latimer. & Wilkins. WEB DOCUMENTS Webpage Mulhauser. c. 215 #77) Citation in text: (Norton. Author same as publisher Retrieved from http://www. 2006) continued .gc. v. (2009).umontreal.statcan. An introduction to cognitive therapy & cognitive behavioural approaches. 2007) LEGAL DOCUMENTS Legislation: Criminal Code. R. 1 S. 2006) (p. 2009) “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e. 468 (1996). Retrieved from http://scc.html Reports: Retrieved from the internet Citation in text: (R..C.g. .com/blog/archives/2007/08/17/loneliness-isnt-good/ Citation in text: (Kiume. YouTube: Norton.lexum. Retrieved from Canadian Institute for Health publisher (p.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs (p. Backgrounder: Post traumatic stress disorder Corporate author (PTSD). Findings from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Author different from the Health of Nurses (Report No.03) Information website: http://secure.com/types/cognitive-therapy/ Citation in text: (Mulhauser. 2001) (p. . 2004) Web report: Shields. Revised Statutes of British Columbia: Citation in text: (University Act. C-34 (1985).R. 192). 205 #31) XIE2006002. M. (2006. 1985) (p. (2006).asp?id=1514 Citation in text: (National Defense and the Canadian Forces...gc.youtube. 220 #11) Legislation: University Act. Webpage: National Defense and the Canadian Forces. (2004). 7.html Revised Statutes of Canada: Retrieved from the internet Citation in text: (Criminal Code. (p. Wikis)” (p. Loneliness isn’t good [Web log message].htm Citation in text: (Statistics Canada. 215 #76) http://psychcentral. 217 #1) MEDIA Video clip.ca/english/freepub/82-575-XIE /82-575- (p. 3 (2001). Retrieved from QP LegalEze database. 2005) Blog posting Kiume. c. November 4).ca/en/C-46/index. R.justice. e. How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file].g.B.cihi. 206 #33) Web report: Statistics Canada. 83-003-XPE).pdf so identify publisher as part of retrieval statement Citation in text: (Shields & Wilkins. 212 #61) Retrieved from http://counsellingresource. Retrieved from (p. 82-575-XIE). 1996) Retrieved from a database (p. August 17). 205 sec. (2005).S. Retrieved from http://www. v.

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REFERENCES 9/09 .