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Maus d’Amer, Canadensis

Kathleen Broer
University of Toronto, School of Music/Modern Languages

Keywords: ​encryption, code, materia, language signs


Waleran de Meulan [1104-1166] had serviced the chaplaincy of

Stephen de Blois [1092-1154] through Pauline interpretative data as an
offset for losses ascribed to his emissary, William Fitzherbert
[1098-1154] aside, owing differences, due to a Pontefract devolution,
recorded in the Charts at St. Martin, Pontoise. 1 This article
outlines in brief the underlay that proved a difference in tone
between the two continental notions of statehood.


Hincmar [806-882], a West Franc who participated in cohort

activity on the continent, had been deposed in favour of Pardulus of
Laon [fl.​ 847 to 857] ​after a similar deposition of Archbishop of Ebbo
[​775-851] which signalled an end to varietals of ​eklesia​ court

Pontefract Priory sur l’ Ouse, established in 1090 AD under

Norman governance had reset parallels to a Cluniac Augustinian manor
favour with continental designs after the domesday roll was taken in
1086 AD--this in abrogation of traditions established at Glos sur
Risle at Utrecht’s Pieterskerk 1039 and its trade pacts via Glossop
since franc enclave had been established via a rite system, ca. 800

In a parallel system, the Germaine order at L’Abbaye de St.

Martin at Pontoise sur L’Oise had re-situated its aims by 1099 AD--as
following a well-established path through capella Martinus at Laon in
580 AD and Utrecht, 634 AD under Mero-Metz Augustinian patronage.

​ ​Hincmar de Reim’s cohort included ​Artiolo​ or ​Amolon​ of Lyons

[fl. 841-852], Hedenulf de Compiegne [fl. 843-865],​ Didoni de Laon
[fl. ​882-895]​, Hincmar de Laon [fl. 869-871] and Martin de Laon [850
AD], both a descendant of Neustre court systems and a great scholar of
greek formulations [Paris, BN Lat. 12960 s IX, Corbie].
From this cohort emanated a function of ekklesia ​andr​, inculcated
through ​evrout​ chant, taught at Airvout Abbey and at Rouen, and
encrypted in the documents of the abbey system as it had been
formulated during this period, such as the Paris, Bibliothèque
nationale de France MANNO Latin 13373 Orosius, Quaestiones Graduale
[fragmentaria, f. C-F et 147, 148-151].

Attached to this traditional path were the imprints of hippo

[345-430 AD] and origen [184-253 AD]. Buried at Abbey of St. Peter of
Préaux, Préaux, Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France, Galeran de
Meulan had become friend, confidant, sole adviser for a ruler whose
realm had become endangered privilege -- the enclave of stephen de

The Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Préaux had been established in 833

AD by Ansegisus or Ansfroid, Abbot of Fontanelle, refounded in 1033-34
with a village charter in 1078, possibly of St. Jean du gres at
fontvieille [1078-1096] or the basque ​Donazaharre ​of​ ​St. Jean le
vieux, de Cize, la chapelle d'Urrutia [c. 1186 AD].

The code by which this institutional cult had been founded was
guided via Richard de Preaux’s [c. 1000 AD] ​Quæstiones in Genesim;
Commentary or Glossarium in Ecclesiasten; Interpretatio Homiliarum
duarum Origenis in Canticum, Lambeth MS 62.

The context for the inculabae was set through Corbie, documented
through MS Manno Latin 13373 entitled ‘​Orosius, Quaestiones​,’ a
Graduale in fragmented form, f. C-F et 147, 148-151, justification via
Adhdemar, 880 AD, writ at Corbie, and in use from 817-835, the chants
of which had emphasis upon an alterity, composed via an alternate

Sperent in te domine omnes g a c b c d

Iustus es domine et rectum d a bes a a g f
Gressus meos dirige f g a g e f d f a
Dicit dominus mulieri d e f g g g g g g f g a
At illa dixit d c d f g a f
Ait illi Iesus f e f g a g a g a
Domine deus meus [pas de versert] e d g a c c c a a
Custodi me d d c d f f
Meditabor in mandatis e g a c c g b a a
Intellige clamorem f a b c d c b c

A loose translation for this ‘geste’ was ​all trust in you o lord;
You, lord, and in the just right; in my steps, He, says the woman, but
she said, Jesus saith to him, o my god, guard me, meditated orders,
consider the crowd’s outcry.

The franc-lorraine notations were in drypoint, the clefs D,G, h,

b, similar to Le Cantatorium [922-926 AD] de Saint-Gall, Stifts
biblioteca 359, éd. P.M, 2e s., t. II in which was not found ‘La messe
Sperent in te,’ neither had this chant appeared at Chartres, Bibl.
mun. 47 [c. 775 AD] but was outlined in vague format in the graduels
de Laon [F-LA 239, f. 27, 880 AD], de Corbie [F-Pn lat. 18010, f. 12v,
ca. 853] and at Saint-Denis [F-Pm 384, ca. 800 AD, Gallican,
Merovingian model].

Waleran’s ‘twinning’ brother, Robert de Meulan, born ca. 1040,

connected via pact with the house of Vermandois [Isabel], had likewise
advised three potentates, one of them Henry I beauclerc and had sat as
a peer at Poissy. William Fitzherbert de York [1100-54] was at the
time emissary with Thurston, archbishop of York, following upon the
rule established by Norman Guichard, and was thus owed a position,
through Rochester Cathedra systems.

Instead, both Gundulf [fl. 1075], a monastic at Bec Abbey,

Normandy and Lanfranc [fl. 1070] began to posit a transition in his
absence. Under Lanfranc, a major transition was noted in the chant
repertory, positioning himself, and leaving the formerly well
established Anglo Dutch along the fenland fort system derelict,
reflected in the chanson lyric:

Heb ban ol la uo gala

nes tas hagun nan hina
se hic enda thu uuat
unbidan uue nu

This exult ‘se moquer’ means,

Have half ‘oel’ [langue d’oil]

given up social
Because that’s left
within herein oneself
this ended you
you are at
Uncared for you now.

This short stanza is almost directly translated in the Portare

chanson, compiled in the Montpellier Codex:
Ne sai ou confort trover
Doce dame des maus d’amer
Que mes fins cuers sent
fors qu’en voz

This, meaning,

Not known or comfort

found Sweet lady
from we us from on
there That my end
sought felt
Forces that in word.

At issue was “techne,” or the hidden or ‘unbidan’ resolves of a

ruler to protract statehood, and to manage an embankment, channel and
currency with flair, hiding from the main the ‘wont’ that would become
an unsettling force for an ordinance culture that was to provide a
texture of support from the masses.

Psalm singing cults had propitiated a royal tone and supports had
been lent from haute pays, pays bas to England, via a corridor of
means, figeac, a “ferenc” or royal moral concern. The cult of Saint
Sauveur provided a mission and means for this state project.

L'abbaye Saint-Sauveur was founded in 838 by the ruler Pepin I of

Aquitaine upon which demands from the Abbey St. Roy de Conques or
Gonqia 1 for relief for its isolation to replace the destroyed a
horologion Jonant or ‘Jon Thanne’ monastery called “Lunan” related to
Vieux-pong pointe [B1Ex-1], Pointe du Buisson ca. 920-940 AD [BhFl-1a,
BhFl-1c, BhFl-1d, BhFl-1e, BhFl-1f, BhFl-1g, BhFl-1h, BhFl-1i,
BhFl-1j, BhFl-1k, BhFl-1l, BhFl-1m, BhFl-1n, BhFl-1] from Beauharnois,
Salaberry, Emond.

Jemseg Pointe [BkDm-14]; and Jonathan-a-Pointe [BhFl-1n] under

Wichmand of Hamaland [920-974] “Gand” or “Gonqia” or “Gonquian” rule
and Thierry of West Fries [928-abt. Ca. 958] “Gand” or “Gondia” or
“Gaion” rule, was arranged and later continued via an alliance
agreement related to the rule of Luitgard of Luxembourgh and Arneut of
Holland-Frisia, ca. 975.

This district pertained to the supervision of ‘gond’ city states

in tidal bore outposts in a variety of locations, such as at
Sainte-Foy-Sillery or in older franc settlement terms, ​Stadacona,
Hochelaga, Norumbega, Teiaiagon, Cataraqui, Baby, Daonasedao,
Tinawatawa, Missinnihe​--​thus, the encryptions of ‘Gond,’ Pieterskerk,
Utrecht meusan artefacts which mention ​Vlierum, Tos, Tor, Ruos, Osi
and other similar trade groups within the enclave that would need a
distribution protocol.

Teiaiagon, occupied by both Seneca and Mohawk, was located at a

“carrying place” or “portare” near the Humber River. Journals attest
to the passage of Emile Brule through this villa in 1615. 2 It had
become an important viaduct for trade which included eel trade, fur
trade, and, surrounded by horticultural fields, had represented an
important node for interior trade and barter travel where currency
fluctuations were frequent and the subsequent irruptions barbarous.

Other settlements along this trade route were Ganneious, meaning

sugar cane, Kente and Kentsio, meaning the city, Gandatsitigaon,
meaning “out there,” Ganaraske meaning “win,” Tinawatawa, meaning
clearing and Bas ‘Bei’ Pointe, meaning low near. 3

Terms such as xocy and dok or dokia appear as a greek encryption

in both Pauline manuscripts, F and G, written ca. 180 AD, as well as
miniscule 1739, a compilation of texts collated from [202-379 AD]. In
verse 9 of F/010, the words, “multo magis justificati nunc in
sanguine” meaning many magnify justice now in blood which, with the
insertion of a small recension code “roV XOcY vu” which signalled to
the listener that an altered voice had made a point, possibly as as
response to tribunal indictment or a script for displacement with
urgency, as indicated by the rich textual repositories held at Erfurt
Abbey [est. 1266].

Xocy appears as a greek encryption in both Pauline manuscripts

1739 or 0243, F/010 and G/012 or D/06, written ca. 180 AD, later
compiled in the Bezae Codex, MS Nn. 2.41 ca. 480 AD although earlier
dating had been cited and textual elements from ix 1174, “Ichneutae,”
in Sophoclean formatting, written, ca. 190 AD, as an interpolation or
roman a clef key text.

The term ichneutae, is code to the phrase “ic hneut

ae”--literally as an assent to identity as in I, Cnute, ae, as one who
answers for charge.4

The 480 AD dating would connect the tribunal zeal of the text to
Salic Lex, written in 500 AD. Here, the salic lex lingua franca
script, “Ma lto thi af ri oli to,” meaning we lito or leda thee from
rule constitute you as a reminder of corpus, a favoured cast in a
legally binding contract class and in regions where insurgency had
become an issue for ancient Gallo-Rome, as a debenture sought against
fortune hunting or piracy. The site is at the confluence of the Ems
and Leda Rivers in Saxony.

On the opposite bank to Ort Leer, or Hleri, [Ludger, 753 AD] and
Feste Leerort [est. 1453], a gallimarkt patronized by Greco-Saxon and
Hansa 1 William of Fitzherbert’s Divine Office, Lingua, 2014. trade
groups, lies the settlement Kloster Muhde, or muthe nestor zaitlan
[est. ca. 618 AD], part of a much older ancient ring fort 5 system
connecting this site to riverine systems; muhde, from the Old Frisian
mutha meaning "river mouth" which was connected via Esklum or Esculum,
patronized via an ancient Picenum system through Picenti, a city built
in Salerno.

Piceni or Picentes or Hirpini, a now extant language, an Italic

emanating from Ancona [f. 387 BC] and Vindolanda [f. 85-370 AD], most
likely preserved the most ancient merchant code system on record,
mentioned by Strabo as being centered on the Truentinus River, also
connected to Salerno through agreement ties. The inscription at
Teramo, TE1, “ap aes pu punis nir” asserts polity, indicating local
rule in the statement “from one power penalty near.6

Piceni language use was privileged and was scribed in Old Italic,
a reformulated greco-greek, AC DEVZ HΘILM N PŚRS TU Φ Ψ F meaning to
god enclave born perseus you fi psi xi which may have encrypted a
value system through tones, or literally pitch class sets--ac as la,
de as ti, ho as do, ne as re, pis ris [osiris] as me and mi, tu as fa,
Φ as Fis, Ψ as gis and F as gamma or lambda.

The Haystack rune paraphrases psalm one, “bij hoga it at ieb ic y

feci[et]” by high one forward brought I here have done. By 900 AD a
compilation of oaths and wise sayings supplemented this communal
directive, “Visc flot aftar themo uuatare” and “Gelobistu in got
alamehtigan fadaer."

The pitch classes referenced incipits that were well known to its
republic, from the Liege clark psalmen and the frisian missals that
had accompanied them to ‘gand’ franconia in 885 AD after a seizure of
their lands along the coastlands, post flood, war and famine.

It’s cultic tones were associated with Scipio, consul Africanus

[ca. 204 BC], attested in documentation at Castra Cornelia, with trade
ties to Embro’s conquest in a river system near cantabrico and punta
estaca de bares, possibly connected to an injunction that later
surrounded the Cicero [43 BC] 7 controversy, much of which was
compiled via Wibald of Corvey and Stavelot [c. 1158], 8

This controversy was extended through Pro Sulla Erfurtensis, a

continuation of the work of Archbishop Simeon of Burgos [1075-1082] 9
and Ansius d’Auxerre, Durand of Pontigny [fl. 1096] attached to Burgos
and Silos and that of Durand de Beziers or Puimisson [1230-1296]. 10

This cultic system encrypted via coins minted for Fort Lyonnais,
with a cross insignia shaped into a forchete cross tree L, during the
12th century, with the inscription, P Pi T Tu IAS EDES, transliterated
as Pe Pi Ti Tu IAS Edes, meaning Power high district you here have at

These cultic tones or pitches refer to psalm tones, alamoth,

gittith, higgaion, mahalath, maskil, miktam, muth-labban, selah,
sheminith, shiggaion, in order to allow for the referencing of jurex
text as rule in the absence of ordinance.

Exemplars of this lingual code are found in the stone writings in

the Arles Amphitheatre, Griquet rock, Yarmouth rock, Norumbega rock,
and Haystack rock, among others. The provenance of the Bezae Codex was
that its interlingual production in both Latin and Greek was the work
of a scribe related to the Monastery of St. Irenaeus [202 AD] at Lyons
in one of the oldest Gallo Christian sites in France--a place of
sporting, theatre, and justiciar seat.

“Bezae” was concerned with trade postings--connected to trade in

Béziers, for example, dating from 575 BC, making it older than Agde or
Agathe Tyche, founded in 525 BC and Marseille or Massalia, founded in
600 BC. Beziers, or Beziers as Roman Betarra was on the road that
linked Provence with Iberia and was colonized by merchant trading

It was later founded as a colonia for veterans in 36–35 BC, as

Colonia Julia Baeterrae Septimanorum where koine greek must have been
spoken as a trade language. The ichneutae play, also known to
audiences as “The Trackers” was a script later written in koine greek;
Truptonw, ymr thanw, liin, ic pyr ocy ui ynthio, meaning triton or
fate of the sea, join death, range I fire keen you base.

The much later Montpellier Codex, H 196, ca. 1200-1300 containing

organa, lauda, clausulae and conductus interpolation functioned in
similar ways as a vox populi assent to justiciar ruling, especially in
distant locations.
The incipit chant standard and therefore cultic attitude for the
region was, “omnes viderunt omnes perlustravit in seculum” which was
an altered variant on the Psalm 42 text, “Viderunt omnes fines terræ
salutare Dei nostri. Jubilate Deo, omnis terra. Notum fecit Dominus
salutare suum; ante conspectum gentium revelavit justitiam
suam”--evocations of Psalm 44 text in addition to Psalm 27 are
recalled in the Montpellier script.

Pauline sources are noted throughout--in verse 9 of tract D of

the original papyrus entry, the words, “multo magis justificati nunc
in sanguine” meaning many magnify justice now in blood which, with the
insertion of a small recension code “roV XOcY vu” or r’on xocy nu
possibly referring to the oxyrhynchus papyri and the ichneutae text in
particular contextualized an attitude struck via a prior rule which
had been necessitated by disparity and thus performed a reformulation
of “grace” according to rule calculation.

Additions of “us est multo magis justi” meaning first is many

wise justifications and “ficanti nunc insan” meaning excellent now
visiting reset a cultic attitude from a prior exigency, spoken of in
greek tones, following the question ut quid or why? With an answer
that some had taken to be interpolations, reflective traditional skola
greco-gallo formatting as a genre type to seal a Gallic agreement:
Pollo gallon sikalo/ thented nun ento/ aigati thanen/ pollo sikai
othente/ nunen toanim.


A] Li maus d’amer me plaist miex a sentir

b] K’a maint tamant ne fais li dons de joie
b] Car mes espoires vaut d’autrui le joir
a] Si bien me plaint quanques amours m’en voies
A] Car quant plus suffre et plus me plaist que soies
b] Jolis et chantans aussi lies sui et joians
b] Que se plus avant estoie. [Ballate, ​AbbaA​, Adam de halle, fl 1250]

Read [em]maus from repute please me more to feel

What has extent associate not performed read given from joy
Because my hopes are worth others
Well, I'm sorry about my love
Because more suffer and more pleases me than rustling
Pretty and singers also lie to oneself and yourself
That is more before to be.

27 AD John the Baptist at Jordan River

47 AD Traiectum on the Rijn
87 AD Decebalus, Dacia
97 AD Tacitus, consul
107 AD yongchu era, Trajan divides Pannonia
207 AD Tadun memoria
307 AD Constantine, preelector
407 AD Gratian, Paulus Orosius
507 AD Anastasius I at Dara
607 AD rule of Theuderic of Burgundy II ends after alliance is formed
707 AD sede vacante
807 AD Abbasid raid of Myra, Rhodes, Peloponnese
907 AD Varangian-Rus raid of Constantinople


1 Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Martin de Pontoise. Depoin, J.

Publication date 1895.

2 Douglas, Gail [2003]. Étienne Brûlé: The Mysterious Life and Times
of An Early Canadian Legend, Canmore, Alberta: Altitude Publishing
Canada, 141 p.

3 Ronald F. Williamson, ed. [2008]. Toronto: A Short Illustrated

History of its first 12,000 Years. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company
Ltd. and Lizars, Kathleen Macfarlane [1913]. The Valley of the Humber.
Global Heritage Press [2010], William Briggs [1913].

4 Gottfried Hermann, recension des buches "Aeschylos Eumeniden,”

[Eleusis 525 B.C] griechisch und deutsch; “Wie später öfters
igoψnδia, eintrat, so muß auch bei dem processe des Orestes streng
igoψnδia Statt gefunden haben; der Stein der Athene zerstört nicht
etwa die ‘igoψnδia,’ sondern er vertritt sie,” p. 69.

5 William of Fitzherbert’s Divine Office, Lingua, 2014.

6 Stele, Hsingan-fu, manuscript, Syriac Olopun “aloho punoya”, Xùtīng

Míshīsuǒ Jīng, 635 AD.

7 Marinetti, 1985; Rix, 1991; Vetter, 1953; Lejeune, 1974.

8 Simeon de Burgos, Sancti Salvatoris, ca. 1080, Ormazam

9 Ansius d’ Auxerre, deed to “seraing” allodial lands, Yonne.

10 Durand de Pontigny, charter [Guillaume Briwere, ca. 1060] BL, MS

Cotton Vespasian B xxiv, [ca. 820]

11 Durand de Beziers, Lettre de Durand Bartonis [ca. 1262], vicaire

général de l'évêque de Béziers [9 mai 1368]; « ex archivo episcopi
Biterrensis ». Concilium Tarraconense, a. 1369.


Léopold Delisle, Le Cabinet des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque

nationale, II, p. 434 ; vol. III, p. 255.

Wallace M. Lindsay, Notae latinae, an account of abbreviation in Latin

mss. of the early minuscule period [c. 700- 850], Cambridge, 1915, p.
476. Gianni Mombello, « A propos d’un ‘traité’ sur les commandements
de Dieu attribué à Alcuin », dans Romania 89 [1968] p. 54-95, [p.

Denis Escudier, « Des notations musicales dans les manuscrits non

liturgiques antérieurs au XIIe siècle », BECh, 129 [1971], p. 27-48,
[p. 32 n. 2].

Terence Alan Martyn Bishop, « The Script of Corbie : a Criterion »,

dans Varia codicologica. Essays presented to G. I. Lieftinck, 1,
Amsterdam, 1972, p. 9-16, [p. 10 n. 4].

David Ganz, Corbie in the Carolingian Renaissance, Sigmaringen, 1990

[Beihefte Francia, 20], p. 45, 46, 137, pl. 8 [= f. 34v].

Bernhard Bischoff, Katalog der festländischen Handschriften des

neunten Jahrhunderts, I, Harrassowitz, 1998, p. 258, n° 1217.

Pascale Bourgain, « Les manuscrits de poésie rythmique de Paris »,

Poesia dell'arlo medioevo Europeo, Manoscritti, lingua e musica dei
ritmi latini, Firenze, 2000, p. 263-273 [p. 269-270].

Trésors carolingiens. Livres manuscrits de Charlemagne à Charles le

Chauve, Paris, 2007, p. 127-128, n° 21 [= f. 33v-34].