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It’s just fun!

– William Dahlgreen, age 5

After having taught literally hundreds of children to read both as a kindergarten


teacher and as a certified reading specialist, I was quite picky in going about
how I was going to teach my own children to read. I knew I wanted something
phonics-based, open-and-go for me as a parent, and mentally and physically engaging for my young
children. I knew I did NOT want a million pieces or parts and books to juggle, and I did not want
anything I was going to wind up having to supplement with other pieces, parts, and programs. I
found what I really wanted in Logic of English Foundations. Foundations fully integrates handwrit-
ing, phonics, beginning reading, and beginning spelling. There is no need to supplement with other
programs. The teacher’s manual is well-designed. I didn’t need to read through a ton of script to
figure out what I was doing that particular day. It has a nice layout. Those parents who really want
their hands held in HOW to teach reading, will find comfort in this program because everything is
there. The activities for the children are fully engaging and can be used as easily with Little Miss Sits
Still as well as Mr. Rolls-Around-on-the-Floor. I wish I had Logic of English Foundations when I had
a classroom of children! But I will settle on using it with my own, knowing that I have seen and tried
many programs with many children, and I feel this is absolutely the best program available.
– Lori Archer, M.Ed., Reading Specialist, Homeschool Teacher

The progress in my son’s reading and writing abilities in the few months since we began using Foun-
dations is truly unbelievable. My son has gone from a very reluctant, struggling reader, to a confident
and happy learner. The lessons are well-paced, engaging, and so full of activities and fun that he
doesn’t notice how much he is learning ‒ but I do. 
– Elisa St. Clair, Homeschool Teacher

I have been able to teach my 6th grade dyslexic child, my 4th grade strong reader and my 2nd grade
emerging reader all at the same time, and actually enjoy it!
– Kyle Snead Thomas, Homeschool Teacher

Today while playing a reading game my son was giggling and said, “This is awesome!”  LOE Foun-
dations has made teaching easy and fun. I wish I’d had this program when teaching my other kids!
– Jonie Arends, Homeschool Teacher

This program not only taught my active child to read and write; Foundations taught me to work with
my active child’s natural energy level and interests. Learning together is fun again!
– Heather Aliano, Homeschool Teacher
Today my 5 year old daughter said, “Mom, I love English, you make everything fun!” I cannot put in
words how grateful I am for Logic of English. English is not my native tongue and we’ve struggled
with English until we switched to LOE. Now my 5 and 6 year old daughters plead for LOE. Why not?
It is fun (even for me)! Not only is it a program with well laid out instructions for the teacher, it uses
all styles of learning so no matter the abilities of the student they will learn.
– Adriana B., Homeschool Mom

I am so thankful to have discovered Logic of English. Teaching my oldest reading was becoming more
and more challenging each day. Starting Foundations has really changed that for us, and as a bonus
my younger daughter was interested, so she has joined in on our teaching time. The program is well
laid out and enjoyable to use. Thank you for making me excited to teach English instead of dreading
it each day.
– Rachel Walters, Homeschooler 

 
Being new to homeschooling and having struggled with English as a student, I was apprehensive
about teaching our children to read. When I came across LOE I knew why I had struggled so much; the
phonograms and rules had never been taught to me. As I began to teach my son, not only did he soak
up everything, but I found myself learning something new with every lesson. The Logic of English
Foundations equips parents/teachers with the tools to teach their child how to decode words while
making reading fun. Brilliant!
– Erin Stewart, Homeschooling Mom of 3

LOE is a great part of our homeschooling curriculum! It makes learning fun, even for myself as I
finally learn why English is the way it is! It should be in every school!
– Trisha Koski

I love learning to write cursive and I love that you get to play games. I love to do school in the morn-
ing at our house.
– Bella, age 4

 
I like the handwriting a lot, because then we can learn cursive. I don’t think
many 4 year olds (sister Bella, age 4) and 6 year olds know cursive. Learning
phonograms is fun and you get to do games in it.
– Kaylin, age 6
Teacher’s

Foundations
Manual

Denise Eide
Kimber Iverson
Foundations Level C Teacher’s Manual
by Logic of English®

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All rights reserved.

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Minneapolis, MN 55420

Cover Design & Illustration: Ingrid Hess

ISBN 978-1-936706-46-4

First Edition

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

www.LogicOfEnglish.com
SCOPE & SEQUENCE
Phonemic Phonograms Spelling Comprehension
Vocab. Writing
Awareness Spelling Rules Words & Fluency

Compare and
Review compound Compound girl, bird, slow, Pre-reading
81 words. Learn ir .
Words long, though Following directions
contrast trains
and cars.

hurt, rainbow,
Compound Reader 1 - Trains: A
82 Learn ur .
Words
airplane, near,
Blast of Fast
while

Re-reading
learn, through,
Compound Explore strategies
83 Learn ear .
Words
small, bread,
for understanding
Copywork
outside
unknown words.

When a word ends with


Practice “say to spell” birthday,
the phonogram A, it says Compound
84 words that end with
/ä/. A may also say /ä/ after Words
grandma, type, Reading riddles Dictation
an unaccented /ä/. leave, warm
a W or before an L.

speak, world,
Review the schwa Compound High Frequency Compare trains
85 sound. Learn wor .
Words
work, first,
Words and airplanes.
grandpa

Review A

Learn that suffixes O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed from, love, Make a chart
Following directions
86 can be added to syllable next to W, TH, M, -ing Words turning, years,
Pre-reading
to brainstorm
words. N, or V. well ideas.

write, into,
-ing Words
Practice adding young, Reader 2 - Firefly:
87 suffixes to words.
Learn wr . Write &
growing, Nightlight with Wings
Right
rowing

running,
Double the
88 consonant.
-ing Words sitting, earth, Re-reading Copywork
count, these

biggest,
Distinguish long and Double the hottest, home, Order a sequence of
89 short vowel sounds. consonant.
-est Words
pointing, events
Dictation
hearing

soon, book, Identify keywords in a


Read words with the Write keywords
90 three sounds of oo .
Learn oo . teeth, tooth, text. High Frequency
about fireflies.
without Words

Review B

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. I


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Phonemic Phonograms Spelling Comprehension
Vocab. Writing
Awareness Spelling Rules Words & Fluency
Model how to
Form new words I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ old, cold, cook, Pre-reading
91 with -OLD. before two consonants. here, need Following directions
write a chart to
brainstorm ideas.
Form new words I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ find, late kind, Reader 3 - Kids Can
92 with -IND. before two consonants.
-er Words
teacher, farmer Do Great Things!

To make a noun plural, add


move, both, Re-reading
Listen for the /s/ and the ending -S, unless the
93 /z/ in plurals. word hisses or changes;
Plurals today, gold, Learn about credits Copywork
now on pictures.
then add -ES.

Learn kn .
To make a noun plural, add myself, dresses, Follow directions to
Listen for the /ĕ/ in Plurals
94 some plurals. the ending -S, unless the
No & Know
know, floor, complete a picture Dictation
word hisses or changes; door search activity.
then add -ES.

Learn gn is used
Write a list.
both at the sign, those
High Frequency Write a
95 beginning and the Learn gn . school, moon,
Words patterned
end of the word. starting
sentence.
Review syllables.

Review C

Learn the importance


A, E, O, U usually say their over, beside, of keywords. Read a
Learn about open
96 and closed syllables. long sounds at the end of between, description of a bird
the syllable. feather, going and match it to the
correct picture.

Learn bu .
open, buy,
Review open and Practice A, E, O, U usually
97 closed syllables. say their long sounds at the
robot, other, Reader 4 - Ostriches
front
end of the syllable.

Practice reading Learn gu .


about, guide,
words that begin Review A, E, O, U usually
98 with the schwa say their long sounds at the
Comparison above, before, Re-reading Copywork
afraid
sound. end of the syllable.

bridge,
Create new words Read and follow
99 that end in dge . Learn dge . pretend, real,
directions.
Dictation
more, around

again, phone,
High Frequency Write keywords
100 Learn ph . below, spell,
Words about ostriches.
our

Review D

II Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Phonemic Phonograms Spelling Comprehension
Vocab. Writing
Awareness Spelling Rules Words & Fluency

center, look,
C softens to /s/ before an Review: circus, Read and follow
101 Review syllables. E, I, or Y. -ing words computer, directions.
camera

Learn ei . water, their,


102 The C says /s/ because of Morphemes race, eat, Reader 5 - Robots
the E. bounce

face, they,
Learn ey . Practice reading The prefix
103 silent final E words. re-
reuse, group, Re-reading Copywork
return

Dictation.
Learn eigh. eight, replace, Learn how to
104 G may soften to /j/ before gem, sound, Keywords write a list and
an E, I, or Y. gym use commas in a
series.

Learn how to count Learn cei . even, large, Write a list and
High Frequency
105 the syllables by The G says /j/ because of ceiling, page,
Words
use commas in a
counting the vowels. the E. often series.

Review E

apple, orange, Learn to identify


Create new words Every syllable must have a
106 that end in -LE. written vowel.
little, together, the main idea in a
food paragraph.

new, table,
Further explore open Learn ew .
107 and closed syllables. Practice silent E rules.
purple, letter, Reader 6 - Dolphins
brown

Learn ui . Identify the main idea


The prefix are, were, fruit
108 Add a silent E to make the
un- shape, huge
in a paragraph. Use Copywork
word look bigger. keywords.

horse,
Add an E to keep singular
Review the meaning swimsuit,
109 of the -S in plurals.
words that end in -S from
house, change,
Find the main idea. Dictation
looking plural.
fisherman

Learn oe . come, some,


High Frequency Write a sentence
110 Unseen reason for a silent toes, mouse,
Words from keywords.
E. Review silent final E’s. uncle

Review F

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. III


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Phonemic Phonograms Spelling Comprehension
Vocab. Writing
Awareness Spelling Rules Words & Fluency

Listen for the sounds done, planted, Practice reading Write


111 of ed in past tense Learn ed . Past tense pushed, called, three-syllable words. descriptive
words. tunnels Pre-reading. words.

Match the
past and missed, saw,
Reader 7 - Ha Long
112 Learn aw . present draw, person,
Bay
Copywork
tense forms followed
of a word.

city, invented,
Y says /ē/ only at the end Past tense
113 of a multi-syllable word. Antonyms
happy, area, Re-reading Dictation
instead

Learn au . Practice Y says baby, twelve, Write using


114 /ē/ only at the end of a copy, because, Read a myth descriptive
multi-syllable word. story words.

Write descrip-
laugh, many,
High Frequency tive words to
115 Learn augh. taught, here,
Words create a travel
there
brochure.

Review Lesson G

fields, walking,
Learn about words The prefix
116 with a silent L. Learn ie .
un-
talked, early, Pre-reading Keywords
fullest

Reader 8 - Rickshaws
would, could, Draw a picture of a
Read words with a The prefix
117 silent L. un-
should, each, rickshaw based upon Copywork
hold the descriptions in
the book.

better, action,
118 Learn ti . station, away, Re-reading Dictation
across

most, Read a non-fiction


Practice
confusion, article about the
119 Learn si .
party, might, history of bikes and
describing an
object.
window answer questions.

special,
Read and follow
chicken, Writing a
120 Learn ci .
caution, never,
directions. High
description
Frequency Words
country

Review Lesson H

IV Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Foundations
Equipping teachers to combine the art of teaching
with the science of reading!

Supplies Needed
Teacher Tip
Foundations C Teacher’s Manual
Foundations C Student Workbook - one per student At the beginning of each lesson,
Foundations C Readers Foundations includes a list of needed and
optional materials. The materials needed
Basic Phonogram Flash Cards
for each activity are listed in a box near
Phonogram & Spelling Rule Quick Reference the page margin, with optional items in
Spelling Analysis Card italics. Many lessons include items
Phonogram Game Cards - two sets per four students commonly found in a classroom or home
such as blocks, a mirror, toy cars, stuffed
Phonogram Game Tiles
animals, and chalk.
LOE Student Whiteboard - one per student
Dry erase markers and eraser
Crayons, glue, scissors

Optional Supplies
Rhythm of Handwriting Quick Reference - in manuscript or cursive
Phonics with Phonograms App by Logic of English - available at iTunes
Bob Books Set 2 Advancing Beginners by Bobby Lynn Maslen. Scholastic 2006.
Bob Books Set 3 Word Families by Bobby Lynn Maslen. Scholastic 1996.
Bob Books Set 4 Complex Words by Bobby Lynn Maslen. Scholastic 1987.

Review Lessons
Every fifth lesson in Foundations is followed by a review and assessment lesson. These lessons
provide opportunities to assess the progress of each student and select custom practice activ-
ities. At this stage, all students should be taught to the point of mastery. Assessments should
not be used to grade students, but rather to determine which skills need further practice.
Each review lesson includes a chart with the skills which have been recently taught. Skills
marked with a 1 should be mastered before the student progresses to the next lesson. Skills
marked with a 2 should be familiar to the child, however the child can still be working
towards mastery. Level 2 skills will be practiced extensively in the upcoming lessons. Level
3 skills do not need to be mastered in order for students to progress. Some activities labeled
with a 3 are beneficial to some students, but not necessary for all students. Other Level 3 skills
will be covered extensively in later lessons. Level 3 skills are listed in the chart; however, they
are not included in the assessment activities.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. V


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Spelling Analysis Teacher Tip
The process of spelling analysis teaches students to think If students are ready for the challenge,
critically about words rather than memorizing spelling teachers who desire to assign a spelling
words by rote. With support and guidance from the test can select five to ten words from the
teacher, students apply the phonograms and rules in week's lessons for students to practice
through activities and games. Then give a
new words and analyze why they are spelled the way spelling test at the end of the week.
they are, strengthening both reading and spelling skills.
However, if students are still develop-
The steps for spelling analysis are printed on the ing fluency with the phonograms they
Spelling Analysis Card and are modeled occasionally have learned, do not test spelling. Spell-
throughout the lessons in this Teacher’s Manual. ing is taught in Foundations as a way to
strengthen reading fluency. It does not
Spelling hints and markings for analyzing the words
need to be mastered at this stage and is
are provided in each spelling list. To learn more, much less important than developing
see the free video tutorial “Spelling Dictation: A fluency in reading.
Multi-Sensory Approach to Reading and Spelling” at
www.LogicOfEnglish.com/Video.
Finger Spelling – As the student sounds out each spelling word, hold up one finger for each
single-letter phonogram, and if a sound is spelled with a multi-letter phonogram, hold up the
same number of fingers as there are letters to spell that phonogram (e.g. 2 fingers for ir ).
Spelling Hints – During Spelling Analysis, if a student is segmenting a word with a sound
that can be spelled in multiple ways (such as /k/ - spelled C, K, CK, or CH), cue the student by
saying the phonogram sound(s) and hints for the correct phonogram. Do not expect students
to automatically know which spelling of the sound is correct, unless they have learned a rule
that makes it clear. For example, tell students whether to use “tall /k/,” “/k-s/,” “two-letter
/k/ used only after a single, short vowel,” etc.

Terms
Phonogram – A visual representation of a sound. A phonogram may have one, two, three,
or four letters (pen, rain, night, daughter). Foundations C teaches students 27 multi-letter
phonograms and their sounds. The twenty-six single-letter phonograms are taught in Level A,
and the other twenty-one multi-letter basic phonograms are taught in Level B.
Pronunciation – Letters that are between two slashes should be referred to by the sound(s).
For example, /k/ indicates that you should say the sound /k/, not the letter name “kay.”
High Frequency Words – The 300 most frequently used words make up 65% of all that we
read and write. Foundations teaches students how to sound out high frequency words and
analyze the spelling, rather than memorizing words by rote. A chart of the high frequency
words that are explicitly taught in Foundations C can be found on page VII.

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HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS
girl bear broom going cost stage mane walked should
bird each old gray cotton strange talk baby touch
camp group cold neck cent village some lady would
baseball hear cook behind ice ceiling come funny who
hurt point find after mice often cattle easy walk
near mine hold secret race place single story distance
cross reading gold basic voice flower done happy invented
still from wild happen face garden uncle yet powered
lot love sold hero their river please city motor
rail years told buy heard morning shoe party only
yard write kind other job rabbit few study side
fell seen both front itself ticket knew hurry almost
railroad quick teacher cannot useful away guess empty every
speed end farmer plants build little teach forty continent
search grownup wire begin object settle there fifty travel
board insect shape child whole bottle several twelve space
earth insects care guide test middle office copy better
yard seem fill above person together summer because heavy
shell running onto before blood apple winter ago since
sea swimming beat afraid also orange many enemy common
learn smell knife edge fact surface color fear collect
outside rub know ledge sent sometimes mean safe energy
type too move bridge ahead table leaves turned driven
leave good sign real twice title called protect action
sharp book design around chance peace asked remember station
teeth floor than horse price simple threw laugh across
steel door ground again they new ran something window
work school hard phone return purple served kitty metal
world food most below gather letter saw number however
worth wood such spell eight weigh draw sister struck
birthday took block upon sound thousand area seven flew
speak stood paper enough soft breath interesting early led
first soon began even dust receive instead aunt rubber
without moon open follow are hunt living opened connected
turn look music until desert were stay field chain
into room over zero large fruit neighbor broken special
myself foot beside yellow age huge visit potatoes never
inside zoo between center charge house ever hungry country
today tooth feather under page change forget could carry
Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. VII
Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
PHONOGRAMS
a /ă-ā-ä/
ai /ā/ laid
ar /är/ car
au /ä/ author
augh /ä-ăf/ taught laugh
aw /ä/ saw
ay /ā/ play
b /b/ bat
bu /b/ buy
c /k-s/ cat cent
cei /sē/ receive
ch /ch-k-sh/ child school chef
ci /sh/ spacious
ck /k/ back
d /d/ dad
dge /j/ edge
e /ĕ-ē/ tent be
ea /ē-ĕ-ā/ eat bread steak
ear /er/ early
ed /ĕd-d-t/ traded pulled picked
ee /ē/ tree
ei /ā-ē-ī/ their protein feisty
eigh /ā-ī/ eight height
er /er/ her
ew /ö-ū/ flew few
ey /ā-ē/ they key
f /f/ foot
g /g-j/ big gym
gn /n/ sign
gu /g-gw/ guide language
h /h/ hat
i /ĭ-ī-ē-y/ it ivy stadium onion
ie /ē/ field
igh /ī/ night
ir /er/ bird

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j /j/ job
k /k/ kit
kn /n/ know
l /l/ lap
m /m/ me
n /n/ nut
ng /ng/ sing
o /ŏ-ō-ö/ on go do
oa /ō/ coat
oe /ō-ö/ toe shoe
oi /oi/ boil
oo /ö-ü-ō/ food took floor
or /or/ lord
ou /ow-ō-ö-ŭ-ü/ house soul group country could
ough /ŏ-ō-ö-ow-ŭf-ŏf/ thought though through bough rough trough
ow /ow-ō/ plow snow
oy /oi/ boy
p /p/ pan
ph /f/ phone
qu /kw/ queen
r /r/ ran
s /s-z/ sent as
sh /sh/ she
si /sh-ZH/ session division
t /t/ tip
tch /ch/ butcher
th /th-TH/ thin this
ti /sh/ partial
u /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/ up pupil flute put
ui /ö/ fruit
ur /er/ hurts
v /v/ van
w /w/ wall
wh /wh/ whisper
wor /wer/ worm
wr /r/ write
x /ks-z/ fox xylophone
y /y-ĭ-ī-ē/ yard gym by baby
z /z/ zip

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MATERIALS NEEDED
Needed Optional

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards ir , er , Bingo game pieces, Phonogram Game Tiles, paper and markers, materials to
81 red and blue dry erase markers, scissors, glue, a toy train set with create a train set
track, bridge, and cave

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards ur , ir , er , toy train, 10-20


82 Phonogram Game Cards, red and blue dry erase markers, yellow Phonogram Game Tiles, picture of a bow and arrow
and green highlighters, Reader 1
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards er , ir , ur , ear , poster
83 board, red marker, scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Reader Paper and markers or crayons, Phonogram Game Tiles
1
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including a , scissors, yellow Phonogram Game Tiles, books about trains, a video
84 and green highlighters, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel about trains
Chart, scissors
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card wor , highlighter, game pieces,
85 Phonogram Cards learned so far, stopwatch or timer, Lazy Vowel Phonogram Game Tiles, toy train
Chart, /er/ Poster, high frequency words from Foundations B to
practice, scissors
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including o , poster board,
86 markers, baskets, slips of paper, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, red Phonogram Game Tiles, flashlight
and blue dry erase markers, scissors

LOE Whiteboard, 20 Phonogram Cards including wr , highlighter, Wrench, wet washcloth, scissors, Phonogram Game
87 Reader 2 Tiles

LOE Whiteboard, flashlight, Phonogram Cards, red and blue dry


88 erase markers, scissors, /er/ Poster, Reader 2
Phonogram Game Tiles

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards, red and blue dry erase mark- Phonogram Game Tiles, fly swatter, books about fireflies
89 ers, animal cards from Lesson 86 or other insects

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card oo , game board pieces, die,


90 Phonogram Game Cards, scissors, highlighter
Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Book: The Vet

LOE Whiteboard, red and black dry erase markers, Phonogram


91 Game Tiles, 2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards, scissors, hat, coat,
chair, ball, book

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Game Tiles, game board pieces, die,


92 several colored dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, Reader 3
Index cards, Phonogram Cards

LOE Whiteboard, 3 or more toy cars, blocks, markers, 2-3 decks of Phonogram Game Tiles, index cards and singular and
93 Phonogram Game Cards, red and blue dry erase markers, world plural items, recycled boxes, cans, and jars, quail picture,
map poster, Reader 3 eggs to cook

X Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Needed Optional

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including kn , highlighter,


94 Bingo game pieces, red and blue dry erase marker
Phonogram Game Tiles, books from book list

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards gn and kn , red and blue dry Phonogram Game Tiles, colored plastic plate, whipped
95 erase markers, sensory box, scissors, high frequency word cards cream, paper and markers
from previous lessons

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards, stopwatch, highlighter, red


96 and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster
Phonogram Game Tiles, a book about birds

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card bu , 2 decks of Phonogram


97 Game Cards, scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Phonogram Game Tiles, small prize, toy car
Chart, /er/ Poster, Reader 4
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card gu , 2 sets of Phonogram
98 Game Cards, index cards, scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Phonogram Game Tiles, timer
Lazy Vowel Chart, tape measure, Reader 4
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including dge , ball, Phono-
99 gram Game Tiles, game board tokens, die, Lazy Vowel Chart, red Books about ostriches, pictures of animals
and blue dry erase markers, scissors

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ph , Phonogram Game Cards,


100 red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, scissors
Phonogram Game Tiles

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including c , sidewalk chalk Phonogram Game Tiles, trampoline, objects for
101 or 10-15 sheets of paper and markers, beanbag, red and blue dry workbook page 101.3
erase markers, /er/ Poster, highlighter, scissors

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including c and ei , scis-


102 sors, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, Reader 5
Phonogram Game Tiles

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including ey and ei , Phonogram Game Tiles, short balance beam, tape line
103 highlighter, die, game pieces, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ on the floor, robot vacuum cleaner, picture of the solar
Poster, paper and markers, Reader 5 system

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards eigh , c and g , Bingo


104 game pieces, toy cars, C words from Lesson 102, highlighter, Phonogram Game Tiles
scissors, glue, red and blue dry erase markers, robot kits/books/
movies, blindfold
3 LOE Whiteboards, Phonogram Cards cei and g , 6 blocks per Phonogram Game Tiles, 3 clipboards with paper,
105 student, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, 4 dice, squirt guns
high frequency words from previous lessons, bag, timer

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Game Cards, piece of paper, red and


106 blue dry erase markers, Phonogram Game Tiles, /er/ Poster
Timer

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ew , highlighter, chalk, red and


107 blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, Reader 6
Phonogram Game Tiles, paper

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ui , Phonogram Game Cards,


108 6 index cards, zipper, pipe cleaner, shirt with buttons, towel, jacket Phonogram Game Tiles
with snaps, lock, /er/ Poster, highlighter, Reader 6

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. XI


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Needed Optional

LOE Whiteboard, 2 papers, 2 pencils, red and blue dry erase mark- Phonogram Game Tiles, stamp and ink, books and
109 ers, /er/ Poster videos about dolphins

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards oe and e , Phonogram


110 Game Cards, die, game piece, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Phonogram Game Tiles, slips of paper
Vowel Chart, scissors, basket, highlighter
2-4 LOE Whiteboards, Phonogram Cards including ed , 3 sheets Phonogram Game Tiles, finger paint, laser pointer, Bob
111 of paper, scissors, index cards, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Books from Sets 2 and 3
Vowel Chart, world map

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including aw , sidewalk chalk,


beanbag, paper plates, crayons or makers, words from worksheet
112 111.2, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/
Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Set 2
Poster, Reader 7, map

Phonogram Game Tiles, timer, limestone, 2-3 other


LOE Whiteboard, playdough, popsicle sticks, Phonogram Card y rocks, dragon fruit, papaya, persimmons, jack fruit, pine-
, scissors, red, blue, and green dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart,
113 map, highlighter, big and tiny stuffed animals, something soft and
apple, or mangoes, table, blanket, video about Vietnam,
books about caves or Vietnam, Bob Books from Sets 2,
something hard, Reader 7 3, and 4
LOE Whiteboard, words from Lesson 113, scissors, towels or small
blankets, small ropes or strings, Phonogram Cards including au
114 and aw , stick with string and magnet, paper clips, red and blue
Phonogram Game Tiles, timer, paper and markers
dry erase markers
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards augh and au , scissors, red
and blue dry erase markers, game pieces, die, high frequency Phonogram Game Tiles, ziplock bag filled with tempera
115 paint, timer, travel brochures
words from previous lessons, 111.4 Pre-Reading worksheet, a half
sheet of paper
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ie , Bingo game pieces, 3
116 colors of highlighters, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Sets 3 and 4
heavy box, wagon or cart, rug, rope

LOE Whiteboard, 2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards, Reader 8,


117 paper and markers
Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Set 4

LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ti , large whiteboard, ball or


Nerf® gun, index cards, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Phonogram Game Tiles, squirt gun
118 Chart, /er/ Poster, world map, highlighter, paper and pencil, Reader
8
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards si and ti , box, Phono-
gram Game Cards, bags for half of the students, timer, Lazy Vowel Phonogram Game Tiles, wheels of various sizes, small
119 Chart, Rickshaw Girl by Mitali Perkins, Legos®, scissors, 4 colors of rocks
dry erase markers
LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including ci , obstacles for
obstacle course, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, Phonogram Game Tiles, paper and clipboard
120 /er/ Poster, highlighter, scissors, 4 dice, high frequency words from
previous lessons, bag, timer

XII Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
COMMON CORE STANDARDS
Lesson C (81-120)
Standard
& Lesson D (121-160)

First Grade
Reading Foundational Skills
Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g. first word,
RF.1.1 121-155
capitalization, ending punctuation).
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
RF.1.2 81-160
(phonemes).
Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable
RF.1.2a 81-160
words.
Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes),
RF.1.2b 81-160
including consonant blends.
Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (pho-
RF.1.2c 81-160
nemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of
RF.1.2d 81-160
individual sounds (phonemes).
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decod-
RF.1.3 81-160
ing words.
Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant
RF.1.3a 81-160
digraphs.
RF.1.3b Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. 81-160
Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing
RF.1.3c 81-160
long vowel sounds.
Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to deter-
RF.1.3d 105, 106, 122
mine the number of syllables in a printed word.
Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the
RF.1.3e 81-160
words into syllables.
RF.1.3f Read words with inflectional endings. 86-89, 92-94, 101-102,111-113, 125, 132, 157
RF.1.3g Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. 100, 117, 122, 127, 128, 130
RF.1.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 81-160
RF.1.4a Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. 81-160
Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expres-
RF.1.4b 81-160
sion on successive readings.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and under-
RF.1.4c 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 121-160
standing, rereading as necessary.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. XIII


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson C (81-120)
Standard
& Lesson D (121-160)

Second Grade
Reading Foundational Skills
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decod-
RF.2.3 81-160
ing words.
Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled
RF.2.3a 81-160
one-syllable words.
Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel
RF.2.3b 81-160
teams.
RF.2.3c Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. 81-160
86-89, 92-94, 101-103, 108, 111-113, 116-117, 125,
RF.2.3d Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
132, 136, 157
Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound corre-
RF.2.3e 122, 127, 132, 133, 141, 145
spondences.
RF.2.3f Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. 100, 117, 122, 127, 128, 130
RF.2.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 81-160
RF.2.4a Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. 81-160
Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expres-
RF.2.4b 81-160
sion on successive readings.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and under-
RF.2.4c 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 121-160
standing, rereading as necessary.

First Grade
Language
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English gram-
L.1.1 81-160
mar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.1.1.a Print all upper- and lowercase letters. Foundations A-B, Rhythm of Handwriting
L.1.1.b Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. 126-135 (and as observed by the teacher)
Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g. I, me, my; they,
L.1.1c 151-155 (and as observed by the teacher)
them, their, anyone, everything).
Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g. to, from, in, out,
L.1.1d As observed during classroom discussion.
on, off, for, of, by, with).
Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g. Yesterday I
L.1.1e As observed during classroom discussion.
walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
156-160 As observed during classroom discus-
L.1.1f Use frequently occurring adjectives.
sion.
L.1.1g Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g. and, but, or, so, because). As observed during classroom discussion.
L.1.1h Use determiners (e.g. articles, demonstratives). As observed during classroom discussion.
L.1.1i Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g. during, beyond, toward). As observed during classroom discussion.
Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative,
L.1.1j interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to As observed during classroom discussion.
prompts.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capital-
L1.2 81-160
ization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

XIV Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson C (81-120)
Standard
& Lesson D (121-160)
L.1.2a Capitalize dates and names of people. 131-160 (not dates)
L1.2b Use end punctuation for sentences. 121-125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150, 155, 160
L.1.2c Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series. 104-105, 154 (not dates)
Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns
L.1.2d 81-160
and for frequently occurring irregular words.
Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness
L.1.2e 81-160
and spelling conventions.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning
L.1.4 words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing 117, 121-160
flexibly from an array of strategies.
Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or
L.1.4a 133, 145, 151, 156
phrase.
86-89, 92-94, 101-103, 108, 111-113, 116-117, 125,
L.1.4b Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
132, 136, 157
Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g. look) and their inflec-
L.1.4c 121-160
tional forms (e.g. looks, looked, looking).
With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of
L.1.5 81-160
word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
Sort words into categories (e.g. colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the
L.1.5a 126-128
concepts the categories represent.
Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g. a
L.1.5b 145, 156
duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g. note
L.1.5c 124
places at home that are cozy).
Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g.
look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in inten-
L.1.5d 138, 139
sity (e.g. large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out
the meanings.
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and
L.1.6 being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently 81-160
occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g. because).

First Grade
Reading Literature
121, 123, 125, 126-129, 131-132, 134-135, 136, 138-
RL.1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
140, 141-144, 146-150, 152-155, 157-160
Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of 121, 123, 125, 126-129, 131-132, 134-135, 136, 138-
RL.1.2
their central message or lesson. 140, 141-144, 146-150, 152-155, 157-160
Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key 121, 123, 125, 126-129, 131-132, 134-135, 136, 138-
RL.1.3
details. 140, 141-144, 146-150, 152-155, 157-160
Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or
RL.1.4 149-150, 152-153
appeal to the senses.
Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books
RL.1.5 that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text 122, 125
types.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. XV


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson C (81-120)
Standard
& Lesson D (121-160)
RL.1.6 Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. 135, 146
Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, 121, 123, 125, 126-129, 131-132, 134-135, 136, 138-
RL.1.7
or events. 140, 141-144, 146-150, 152-155, 157-160
Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in
RL.1.9 138-140, 144
stories.
With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate 121, 123, 125, 126-129, 131-132, 134-135, 136, 138-
RL.1.10
complexity for grade 1. 140, 141-144, 146-150, 152-155, 157-160

First Grade
Reading Informational Texts
82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
137, 145, 151, 156
82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.2 Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
137, 145, 151, 156
Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or
RI.1.3 122, 129, 137, 145
pieces of information in a text.
Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.4
words and phrases in a text. 137, 145, 151, 156
Know and use various text features (e.g. headings, tables of contents,
82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.5 glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in
137, 145, 151, 156
a text.
Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustra- 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.6
tions and information provided by the words in a text. 137, 145, 151, 156
82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.7 Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
137, 145, 151, 156
RI.1.8 Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. 122, 133, 137, 145
Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the
RI.1.9 121 -122, 133-135
same topic (e.g. in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 107, 112, 117, 122, 125, 130, 133,
RI.1.10
complex for grade 1. 137, 145, 151, 156

XVI Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
COMMON CORE STANDARDS
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
81
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
82
RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4.b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
83
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
84
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4.b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
85
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
86
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
87
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
88
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
89
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4.b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
90
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
91
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
92
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
93
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
94
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
95
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
96
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
97
RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
98
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
99
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. XVII


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3g, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
100
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3f, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L1.1, L1.2, L1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
101
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L1.1, L1.2, L1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
102
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L1.1, L1.2, L1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
103
RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L1.1, L1.2, L1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
104
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2c, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3d, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
105
RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2c, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2.c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3d, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a,
106
RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.2
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
107
RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
108
RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
109
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
110
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
111
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
112
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4, RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3f, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
113
RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
114
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
115
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3.c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
116
RF.2.3d, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.3g, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.1.4c, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a,
117 RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c, RF.2.3d, RF.2.3f, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, RF.2.4c, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.4, L.1.4b, L.1.5, L.1.6, RI.1.1, RI.1.2, RI.1.4,
RI.1.5, RI.1.6, RI.1.7, RI.1.10
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
118
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b, RF.2.3c,
119
RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6
RF.1.2, RF.1.2a, RF.1.2b, RF.1.2c, RF.1.2d, RF.1.3, RF.1.3a, RF.1.3b, RF.1.3c, RF.1.3e, RF.1.4, RF.1.4a, RF.1.4b, RF.2.3, RF.2.3a, RF.2.3b,
120
RF.2.3c, RF.2.4, RF.2.4a, RF.2.4b, L.1.1, L.1.2, L.1.2d, L.1.2e, L.1.5, L.1.6

XVIII Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
LESSON 81
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Review compound words.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn ir .

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.


VOCABULARY: Learn how to read compound words.

SPELLING: girl, bird, slow, long, though

COMPREHENSION: Pre-reading, following directions.

WRITING: Compare and contrast trains and cars.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards ir , er , Bingo game pieces, red and blue
dry erase markers, scissors, glue, a toy train set with track, bridge, and cave

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, paper and markers, materials to create a train set,
Bob Book: The Vet

Phonograms
The Phonogram ir
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card ir . Phonogram Cards ir , er
This says /er/.
What does it say? /er/

Take out your whiteboard.


Teacher Tip
Write /er/ three times on your whiteboard.
What other phonogram do we know that says /er/? ER When letters are written in all uppercase,
Write it on your whiteboard. it refers to the letter names. Slashes indi-
cate to say the sounds. For example ER
means the letter names E and R. /er/ is the
There is more than one way to spell /er/. When you have an sound /er/ as heard in her.
/er/ word on your spelling list, I will tell you which one to use.

81.1 Words with IR – page 1


Read each sentence aloud. Match it to the correct picture.
1
2 Lesson 81

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Bingo
Pennies, raisins, or other small items to
81.2 Phonogram Bingo – page 2 cover the Bingo squares
Using the Bingo game provided, call out sounds while
the students cover them. Play until the board is covered.
Direct the students to read the phonograms back as they uncover each square on the board.

Phonemic Awareness
Compound Words
I will say two words. I want you to blend them together into one word.

rain bow rainbow


finger nail fingernail
rain coat raincoat
foot ball football
book shelf bookshelf

When two words are combined to form a new word, it is called a compound word.

Vocabulary
Compound Words
Red and blue dry erase markers
Today we are going to learn to read and spell compound
Scissors
words. A compound word is a word that is made up of two
Glue
words that have been “glued” together.

The first word is handstand. That was a great handstand!


What are the two words that are stuck together to make the Teacher Tip
word handstand? hand stand
If needed, review how to count syllables.
Students may place their hand under
How many syllables in the word handstand? two their chin to feel how many times their
mouth drops open, or hum the word.
I will write handstand on the board. You will help me to write
it by sounding it out.
Write hand in blue and stand in red as the student sounds it out. handstand
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Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson 81 3

What is the first syllable of handstand? hand


Sound out hand as I write it. /h-ă-n-d/
What is the second syllable? stand
Sound out stand as I write it. /s-t-ă-n-d/

When you see two words stuck together, the syllable breaks between the words.
What does handstand mean? It means to stand on your hands.

Let’s try another one.


The next word is pickup. My uncle has a blue pickup truck.
What two words are in pickup? pick up

How many syllables in the word pickup? two


I will write pickup on the board. Sound it out as I write it.
Write pick in blue and up in red. pickup
What is the first syllable? pick
Sound out pick as I write it. /p-ĭ-k/
What is the second syllable? up
Sound out up as I write it. /ŭ-p/

What is a pickup? It is a type of truck.


What do you do with a pickup truck? You can carry things in the back.
A pickup truck is for picking things up and moving them from place to place.

81.3 Compound Words – page 4


Challenge
Cut out the words in your workbook. I will write a com-
pound word on the board. Read the word and point to the Ask the student to write the compound
word under each picture.
picture in your workbook. Then find the two words that join
together to make the compound. Glue them in place under
the picture.
backpack
campfire
beehive
rowboat
baseball
sandbox

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Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
4 Lesson 81

Spelling
Spelling List Teacher Tip
Teach the words in the list below, using the steps for Spell-
If you are new to Foundations, you can
ing Analysis found on the Spelling Analysis Quick Reference. find samples of spelling dictation at www.
Direct students to write the words on their whiteboards or LogicOfEnglish.com, in Foundations B,
with Phonogram Game Tiles. and in later spelling lists in Foundations C.
See Lesson 82. Keep the Spelling Analysis
Spelling Analysis is the process of dictating a word, guiding Quick Reference close at hand by using it
as a bookmark in your Teacher's Manual!
students in hearing and segmenting its sounds, applying the
phonograms and spelling rules to write it, and analyzing the
spelling together.

Say to
Word Sentence Markings Spelling Hints
Spell
1. girl The girl went down the slide. gerl girl Underline the /er/.

2. bird The bird flew up into the tree. berd bird Underline /er/.

2 Underline /ō/ and put a 2


3. slow A slow train rumbled by. slō slow over it. /ow-ō/ said its second
sound.

4. long I watched for a long time. lŏng long Underline /ng/.

Underline /TH/. Put a 2 over


2 2 it. /th-TH/ said its second
Though I went to bed early last
5. though night, I still feel tired.
THō th ough sound. Underline /ō/. Put a 2
over it. /ŏ-ō-ö-ow-uff-off/ said
its second sound.

Pre-Reading and Writing


Trains
Paper and markers
For the next few lessons we will be learning about trains. In
the next lesson, you will read a book that is all about trains.
However, before we read, it is good to think about what we Teacher Tip
already know about the subject. So today, I want us to think
about trains. Each week students will read a nonfiction
reader. Throughout the week, activities
Pretend that I have never seen a train. How would you de- will prepare them to read, reinforce what
they are learning, provide opportunities
scribe it to me? answers vary to dig deeper, and help them to write
about the topic.
How is a train different from a car?
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Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson 81 5

Write train on one side of the board and car on the other.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Write one- to two-word summaries of their statements on
the board. It is okay to use phonograms they do not know Ask the students to draw a picture of a
yet. Model sounding out each word as you write it. If it train.
includes a phonogram they have not been taught, briefly
comment on the sounds and state that they will learn that
phonogram in the future. Teacher Tip
Reading research has consistently dem-
Train Car onstrated the value of pre-reading activi-
ties for helping students to better com-
tracks road prehend texts. Before a student reads the
assigned Reader, activities will prepare
big load small load them for success by helping them to ex-
plore or develop prior knowledge about
steel wheels rubber wheels the topic and practice vocabulary words
found within the text.
lots of cars 1 car

Comprehension
Reading Comprehension
Toy train set, including track, bridge,
81.4 Trains – page 7 and cave
Read the instructions on the page, then act them out using Materials to create a train set
the train and tracks.

Teacher Tip
If a train set is not available, have the child
create tracks with construction paper,
make a cave out of a cereal box, etc.

Challenge
For an additional challenge, write these
sentences on the board. If needed, help
the student sound out the multi-syllable
words.
Drive the train through the tunnel.
The train drives under the bridge.
The train drives on top of the tunnel.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
LESSON 82
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ur .

VOCABULARY: Practice reading compound words.


Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.

SPELLING: hurt, rainbow, airplane, near, while

COMPREHENSION: Reader 1 - Trains: A Blast of Fast

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards ur , ir , er , toy train, 10-20 Phono-
gram Game Cards, red and blue dry erase markers, yellow and green highlighters, Reader
1

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, picture of a bow and arrow, train activities

Phonograms
The Phonogram ur
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card ur . Phonogram Cards ur , ir , er
This says /er/. What does it say? /er/
Take out your whiteboard. Write ur three times.
What other phonograms do we know that say /er/? ER and IR
Write them on your whiteboard.

Hmm. I see a problem developing. Do you see it? There is more than one way to spell /er/.

In the next lesson we will talk more about the /er/ sound. For now you simply need to know that we have
three ways to spell it. When we have a word on our spelling list, I will cue you as to which /er/ to use so
you do not need to guess.

6
Lesson 82 7

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Train
Toy train
Choose 10-20 Phonogram Game Cards that need review.
10-20 Phonogram Game Cards
Lay the cards out so that each one can be clearly seen.

Today you will use the game cards to make a track for your
train.
Teacher Tip
I will read a phonogram's sound(s). Find the card, then lay it
Be sure that the cards are all facing the
down to begin to form a track. right direction so that the child can read
them easily without visual confusion.
I will then read the next phonogram. Choose the card and set
it above the card to form the next part of the track. In a classroom, ask groups of 2-4 students
to work together. Students should all sit
When all the cards have been placed, ask the student to on the same side of the table so they are
drive the train over the cards, reading each phonogram as seeing the words in the right direction.
he passes.

Vocabulary
Compound Words
Red and blue dry erase markers
I will say a compound word. Tell me the two words that are
Yellow and green highlighters
used to form the compound.
As the students say the two words, write each word in a
separate color.

snowplow snow plow


Write snowplow.

sunlight sun light


Write sunlight.

raindrop rain drop


Write raindrop.

82.1 Compound Words – page 8


Read each compound word. Highlight the first word in yellow. Highlight the second word in green. Match
the compound words to the pictures.

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Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
8 Lesson 82

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Picture of a bow and arrow
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
Underline the /er/. Use our
1. hurt Are you hurt? hert hurt newest /er/ phonogram.

Underline two-letter /ā/ that


2 you may not use at the end of
2. rainbow The rainbow is beautiful. rān bō rain bow the word. Underline /ō/ and
put a 2 over it. /ow-ō/ said its
second sound.

Underline two-letter /ā/ that


you may not use at the end of
English words. Put a line over
3. airplane The airplane landed on the runway. ār plān air plāne the /ā/. Double underline
the silent final E. The vowel
said its long sound because
of the E.

4. near My house is near the park. nēr near Underline /ē/.

Underline /wh/. Put a line


over the /ī/. Double underline
5. while While we wait, let's play a game. whīl whīle the silent final E. The vowel
said its long sound because
of the E.

rainbow
The next word is rainbow. The rainbow is beautiful. rainbow
How many syllables in rainbow? two
What two words combine to make rainbow? rain and bow
Let's sound out the first syllable rain. /r-ā-n/
Use a two-letter /ā/ that you may not use at the end of English words.

Sound out the second syllable bow. /b-ō/


Use /ow-o/.

I will now write rainbow on the board. Sound it out as I write it. Notice I will write each of the syllables in a
different color. This will help us to clearly see the syllables.
As the students sound it out, write rainbow on the whiteboard.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Lesson 82 9

What is the first syllable? rain /r-ā-n/ Use two-letter /ā/ that you may not use at the end of English
words.
What is the second syllable? bow /b-ō/ Use /ow-ō/.
Now it is your turn to write rainbow on your whiteboard. Sound it out as you write it.
The student writes rainbow on his whiteboard.
How will we mark the word rainbow? Underline two-letter /ā/; underline /ō/ and put a 2 over it. /ow-ō/
said its second sound.

What is a rainbow? A colorful curve in the sky


Multi-Sensory Fun
Why do you think someone decided to combine the words
rain and bow to name it? Rainbows come after it rains. A Show the students a picture of a bow and
bow is a curve. arrow. Discuss how the bow is a similar
shape to a rainbow.

airplane
The next word is airplane. The airplane landed on the runway. airplane
How many syllables in airplane? two
What two words combine to make airplane? air and plane
Let's sound out the first syllable air. /ā-r/
Use a two-letter /ā/ that you may not use at the end of English words.

Sound out the second syllable plane. /p-l-ā-n/


Silent final E

Now write airplane on your whiteboard. As you write it, write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes airplane on his whiteboard.
Let's sound it out together.
As the students sound it out, write airplane on the whiteboard.
What is the first syllable? air /ā-r/ Use two-letter /ā/ that you may not use at the end of English words.

What is the second syllable? plane /p-l-ā-n/ silent final E

How will we mark the word airplane? Underline two-letter /ā/; Put a line over the /ā/; Double underline
the silent final E. A said its long sound because of the E.

What is an airplane?
Why do you think it is called an airplane? It flies in the air.

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10 Lesson 82

Comprehension
About Reader 1 - Trains
The invention of trains had a revolutionary impact on culture, history, and daily life. Before
trains, it could take days and days to travel over land, whereas trains made the world sud-
denly seem smaller because distances could be covered so much more quickly.

Even after the invention of cars and airplanes, trains have retained their popularity because
they are a cost-effective means of transporting large loads and large numbers of people. In
most nations it is cheaper to go by train than to go by air.

Many children are already fascinated by trains. This week, help the students to think about
what life was like before trains. Read other books about trains, play with trains, find a safe
place to watch trains, learn the names of various types
of train cars, watch a video about trains, and/or plan a Reader 1
visit to a train museum.

Reader
Teacher Tip
Take out Reader 1.
Can you find the title of the book? Trains: A Blast of Fast If the student misreads a word, stop and
repeat the sentence to him aloud. Ask,
What does the title tells us? What the book is about. does that make sense? Direct him to re-
read the sentence.
Do you think this book will be about dogs? no
Will it be about apples? no
What will we learn about as we read this book? trains (or Teacher Tip
how fast trains go)
There is a set of 8 Reader booklets for
The author of this book is the person who wrote it. Her name Foundations C. Each reader will be used
repeatedly within a unit. If you are teach-
is listed on the bottom. Her name is Kimber Iverson. Point to ing in a classroom, you can send Reader 1
the author’s name. home after Lesson 85.

Read the book aloud to me.

What is something you learned that you did not know about Teacher Tip
trains? Some students will still struggle to direct
their attention to the words on the page
rather than the pictures. Allow the stu-
dent to look at the picture on the page,
then cover it with a blank piece of paper.

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LESSON 83
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ear .

VOCABULARY: Practice reading compound words.

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SPELLING: learn, through, small, bread, outside

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading, explore strategies for understanding unknown words.

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards er , ir , ur , ear , poster board, red
marker, scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Reader 1

OPTIONAL: Paper and markers or crayons, Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram ear
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card ear . Phonogram Cards er , ir , ur ,
ear
This says /er/. What does it say? /er/
Paper and markers
How many letters are in this spelling of /er/? three
Write three-letter /er/ two times on your whiteboard.
Write the other ways we have learned to spell /er/. ER, IR, UR
Write er, ir, ur, ear on the board.
What is the same about each of these? They all say /er/. They all have an R.
With these phonograms can you hear the vowel clearly? no
Some people call these the Bossy R phonograms. The R is taking over and we cannot hear the vowel.
On the board write, Her bird hurt the search.
Multi-Sensory Fun
To help us remember the sounds of /er/ we will use this sen-
tence. Let’s read it together. Her bird hurt the search. Write the /er/ sentence on a piece of
Discuss the possible meanings of the sentence together. paper and ask the students to illustrate it.

11
12 Lesson 83

Notice that this sentence uses each of the spellings of /er/. We will call ER the /er/ of her, IR the /er/ of bird,
UR the /er/ of hurt, and EAR the /er/ of search.

Show the Phonogram Card er .


What did we decide to call this phonogram? the /er/ of her

Show the Phonogram Card ur .


What did we decide to call this phonogram? the /er/ of hurt

Show the Phonogram Card ir .


What did we decide to call this phonogram? the /er/ of bird

Show the Phonogram Card ear .


What did we decide to call this phonogram? the /er/ of search
I will say a phonogram. Write it on your whiteboard.

/er/ the /er/ of bird


/er/ the /er/ of hurt
/er/ the /er/ of search
/er/ the /er/ of her

/er/ Poster
Poster board
Write Her bird hurt the search on the top of a poster.
Red marker
We will begin to collect words that use each of these spell-
ings of /er/.
Teacher Tip
As we find words that have a spelling of /er/, we will add
them to this chart. We will then discover which spelling of Save the /er/ Poster for use in future les-
/er/ is the most common. sons. Each time the students encounter
an /er/ word in their spelling words or
reading, add it to the poster.

Her bird hurt search


girl

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Lesson 83 13

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe
83.1 Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe – page 10
Two students should work together, or the teacher may work with the student. Decide who will play
X’s and who will play O’s.
Choose a phonogram and read the sound(s) aloud. If you
read it correctly, you may place an X or an O on the square. Challenge
Proceed as if playing Tic-Tac-Toe until someone places three Ask the students to create their own
in a row or a tie is declared. phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe game.

Vocabulary
Compound Words
Scissors
83.2 Compound Words – page 13
Cut out the cards. Mix them up. Find the words that work
together to form the compound word. Connect them to form two-car trains.

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14 Lesson 83

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
Underline three-letter /er/.
1. learn I like to learn about history. lern learn Use the /er/ of search. Add
learn to the /er/ Poster.

Underline /th/. Underline


3 /ö/ and put a 3 over it. /ŏ-ō-
2. through We can go through the tunnel. thrö through ö-ow-ŭff-ŏff/ said its third
sound.

Put two dots over the /ä/.


/ă-ā-ä/ said its third sound /ä/.
We often double F, L, and S
3. small I see a small fish. smäl smäll after a single vowel at the end
of a base word. A often says
/ä/ before an L.

2 Underline /ĕ/ and put a 2


4. bread The fresh bread smells delicious. brĕd bread over it. /ē-ĕ-ā/ said its second
sound.

Underline /ow/. Put a line


over the /ī/. Double underline
5. outside The dog is outside. owt sīd out sīde the silent final E. The vowel
said its long sound because
of the E.

outside
The next word is outside. The dog is outside. outside
How many syllables in outside? two
What two words combine to make outside? out and side
Let's sound out the first syllable out. /ow-t/
Use /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/.
Sound out the second syllable side. /s-ī-d/
Silent final E.

Now write outside on your whiteboard. Write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes outside on his whiteboard.

Let's sound it out together.


As the students sound it out, write outside on the whiteboard.
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Lesson 83 15

What is the first syllable? out /ow-t/


What is the second syllable? side /s-ī-d/ silent final E
How will we mark the word outside? Underline /ow/; Put a line over the /ī/; Double underline the silent
final E. I said its long sound because of the E.

Fluency & Comprehension


Re-Reading
Reader 1
Take out your train book. Show me the front cover.
Show me the back cover.

Read the first page of Trains. Teacher Tip

In the past, why do you think it was slow to cross the Reading research has clearly demonstrat-
ed the value of re-reading for developing
land? People traveled by wagon or had to walk. fluency. Today you will ask the student to
Where on the page did you find that people traveled by re-read the book to practice fluency, dig
wagon? in the picture deeper into the meaning, explore vocab-
ulary, and enjoy the pictures. Guided
Do the words say anything about wagons? no questions will help students to dig deeper
in their comprehension of the text.
The words simply tell us that people traveled slowly. The
words provide us information about what we are reading.
The pictures will often provide us with additional informa-
tion. We should not use pictures to guess the words. But we should look at the pictures and see why the
author chose each picture. Often we can learn more about the topic by studying the pictures.

Read page two.


How did people feel about trains when they were invented? shocked
What does shocked mean? People were surprised they could go so fast.
Imagine living in a time when the only way to travel was by foot or by horse. People and horses get tired
and they cannot go very fast. Do trains get tired? no

Read page three.


How else do people travel today? cars and airplanes
Can you think of other ways that people travel today? boat, bicycle, motorcycle

Read pages four and five.


What do trains travel on? tracks

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16 Lesson 83

Read pages six and seven.


Where can trains travel? way up high, up a hill, in the mountains, on flat land…
On page six find the word landscape. What do you think landscape means? different places where trains
can travel
Do you see the word land in landscape? yes
Underline the word land. A landscape refers to different types of land.
When you find a word that you are unsure what it means what can you do to help you? Think about
the meaning of the rest of the sentence. Look for other words within the word that I know. Look at the
pictures.

You could also look it up in a dictionary. Let's look up the word landscape and see what it means.
Look up the landscape and read the definition.

Read pages eight through ten. Challenge


What types of trains did you learn about on these pag-
es? trains with snowplows, trains with beds, and high-speed Give students a lesson in how to use a
dictionary. Practice looking up one word
trains per day for the next week.
Look at the pictures on these pages. What can you learn from
the pictures about snowplows, trains with beds, and high-
speed trains? answers vary

Writing
Copywork Teacher Tip
83.3 Handwriting – page 17
In Foundations C some students will still
Read the sentence aloud. need a handwriting model to follow to be
successful at copywork. Supplemental
Today you will copy the sentence on the lines below. When copywork pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
you write it, you will begin on the edge next to the paper. www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store/founda-
Point to where you will start your pencil. tions.

The sentence is written in a font like a computer types.


However you will write using your best cursive (manuscript).
Remember sometimes the letters look a little bit different. Teacher Tip
Choose the line size you are most comfortable writing on. If a student struggles with handwriting,
Copy it on the lines using your best handwriting. Be sure to have him try a different line size. Some
start the sentence on the left edge of the page. students write more neatly on small lines;
others find large lines easier.

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LESSON 84
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Practice "say-to-spell" words with an unstressed /ä/.

SPELLING RULE: When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/. A may also say

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/ä/ after a W or before an L.

VOCABULARY: Practice reading compound words.

SPELLING: birthday, grandma, type, leave, warm

COMPREHENSION: Reading riddles.

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including a , scissors, yellow and green
highlighters, red and blue dry erase markers, scissors

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, books about trains, a video about trains

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Choo-Choo
Phonogram Cards
Ask the student to stand on one side of the room. Desig-
nate an ending spot. Show the student a phonogram. Ask
him to read the sounds. If he reads it correctly, he may
take one step forward while pretending to be a train.

Spelling Rule
A says /ä/
Phonogram Card a
84.1 Spelling Mystery – page 19
Scissors
Cut out the words listed in 84.1 and hide them throughout

17
18 Lesson 84

the room.

Show the Phonogram Card a .


What does this say? /ă-ā-ä/

What is the first sound /ă/ called? the short sound


What is the second sound /ā/ called? the long sound
What is the third sound /ä/ called? the broad sound

There are three places where A will say its broad sound. Today you will be a sound detective and discover
the three reasons. I have hidden clue cards around the room. Find the cards. Read the words. Mark the A
with two dots. Then see if you can find why the A is saying /ä/.
wash ball ma
want fall pa
wall mall grandma
wasp tall grandpa

The spelling rule says, “When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/. A may also say /ä/ after a W
or before an L.”

Phonemic Awareness
Unstressed /ä/
In some words ending in /ä/, the vowel is being lazy. What Phonogram Card a
does it mean when a vowel is lazy? We do not pronounce it Scissors
clearly. It will say /ә/.

What is another name for a lazy vowel? schwa


Teacher Tip
What makes schwa a lazy vowel? We do not need to open If the student needs to re-learn the schwa
our mouths very much to say it. sound, review the Phonemic Awareness
section of Lesson 45 on p. 31 of the Foun-
Let's do an experiment. I will say two sounds. Repeat them af- dations B Teacher's Manual.
ter me and feel how your mouth opens. Tell me which sound
your mouth opens more to say.

Compare /ā/ and /ә/. /ā/ opens more.


/ә/ is a lazy sound.

Compare /ē/ and /ә/. /ē/ opens more.


/ә/ is a lazy sound.

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Lesson 84 19

Compare /ă/ and /ә/. /ă/ opens more.


/ә/ is a lazy sound.
Write ә on the board.
Teacher Tip
Dictionaries write this sound like an upside down e. Schwa is
so lazy it doesn't even stand up. Technically, schwa is an unstressed vowel
sound. In English, syllables and words
Today, I will say a word that ends in a lazy /ä/. I want you to have varying amounts of stress. When a
syllable is unstressed, the vowel is some-
repeat the word and say the /ä/ sound clearly. times not clearly articulated. When we
add affixes to a word, the stress may shift
sofә sofä and the vowel may then be clearly pro-
grandmә grandmä nounced. For more information, see Un-
grandpә grandpä covering the Logic of English, pages 124-
127.
pastә pastä
sodә sodä

When we read and write schwa words, we will exaggerate the vowel.

Vocabulary
Compound Words
Yellow and green highlighters
84.2 Compound Words – page 21
Read each compound word. Highlight the first word in
yellow. Highlight the second word in green. Match the compound words to the pictures.

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20 Lesson 84

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
Underline /er/. Use the
/er/ of bird. Underline /th/.
1. birthday When is your birthday? berth dā bir th day Underline two-letter /ā/. AY
usually spells the sound /ā/ at
the end of a base word.

Put two dots over the /ä/.


2. grandma My grandma is a teacher. grănd mä grand mä /ă-ā-ä/ said its third sound /ä/.
Notice the lazy vowel.

Put a line over the /y/. Y is


saying its long vowel sound
/ī/. Double underline the
3. type What type of markers do you need? tīp type silent final E. The vowel says
its long sound because of
the E.

Underline /ē/. Underline the


V and double underline the
4. leave Leave the book on my desk. lēv lea v e silent E. English words do not
end in V, add a silent final E.

5. warm It is warm outside. warm warm Underline /ar/.

Comprehension
Riddles
Scissors
84.3 What Am I? – page 23
Cut along the dotted lines. Fold the paper in half. Read the
riddle on the front. Guess what is being described. Open the
flap and write the answer. Challenge

I have four legs. I have fur. I have sharp teeth. I am a pet. I Ask the students to create a riddle and
say it aloud or write it.
bark. What am I? dog

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Lesson 84 21

I swim. I live by the lake. I have wings. I can fly. I lay eggs. I quack. What am I? duck

I am long. I have flat cars. I have tank cars. I have boxcars. I have steel wheels. I drive on rails. What am
I? train

More about Trains


Read books about trains aloud. Discuss various types of trains, watch a movie about trains,
look up videos online about different types of trains, learn the names of train cars, find a safe
place to watch trains, visit a train museum.

Writing
Dictation Teacher Tip
84.4 Dictation – page 25
Dictation is an important stepping stone
Dictate the sentence for students to write on the worksheet. to writing independently. With dictation
the student must transfer a thought that
Choose which line size is most comfortable for you. has no visual representation onto paper.
By regularly practicing dictation students
I will read the sentence two times. Repeat it back to me, then develop more confidence in vital skills
write it on the paper. needed for their own writing success.

The train drives on the tracks. The train drives on the


tracks. The train drives on the tracks.
(The students write.)
Read the sentence back as I write it on the board. Give me hints about how to write the sentence correct-
ly. (Start the sentence with a capital letter.) TH-ē t-r-ā-n (use two-letter /ā/ that may not be used at the
end of English words) d-r-ī-v (English words do not end in V; add an E) -z (use /s-z/) ŏ-n TH-ē t-r-ă-k-s
(two-letter /k/ is used after a single, short vowel) (end the sentence with a period).
Supplement the students’ suggestions by modeling correctly anything that the students leave out as
you write the sentence on the board. Ask the students to correct their own sentence.

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LESSON 85
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Review the schwa sound.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn wor .


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VOCABULARY: Practice reading compound words.

SPELLING: speak, world, work, first, grandpa

FLUENCY: Practice high frequency words.

WRITING: Compare trains and airplanes.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card wor , highlighter, game pieces, Phonogram
Cards learned so far, stopwatch or timer, /er/ Poster, high frequency words from Founda-
tions B to practice, scissors

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, toy train

Phonemic Awareness
The Schwa Sound Teacher Tip
How do vowels sound when they are lazy? /ә/
What is another name for a lazy vowel? schwa The schwa most commonly sounds like a
short /ŭ/. Schwa appears in unstressed
The symbol for schwa is even lazy. It looks like an E that is lay- syllables and therefore the vowel is not
ing on its head. clearly articulated.

Write the symbol on the whiteboard: ә


Show me some ways you might look when you are lazy.

I will say a word. Act like you are being lazy if you hear a lazy vowel sound. If you hear a clear vowel sound,
stand up and repeat the vowel sound you hear in the word.

seen /ē/ was lazy vowel what lazy vowel


right /ī/ from lazy vowel done lazy vowel
the lazy vowel a lazy vowel cone /ō/
rain /ā/ sand /ă/
22
Lesson 85 23

Phonograms
The Phonogram wor
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card wor . Phonogram Card wor
This says /wer/. What does it say? /wer/
Write /wer/ three times on your whiteboard.

Reading WOR Words


Highlighter
85.1 WOR Words – page 26 Pennies, chocolate chips, or small
Highlight the wor in each word. crackers to cover the game board

I will read a word. Find it on your page and cover it. When we
have found all the words, then uncover the words and read Multi-Sensory Fun
each one to me.
Use chocolate chips or small crackers to
cover the words. When the student has
read the words, he may eat the snack.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Race - Individual
Phonogram Cards learned so far
Today you will race yourself to see how fast you can read
Stopwatch
all the phonograms you have learned so far. I will show you
a phonogram. Read the sounds. When you have read all of
these phonograms, I will stop the stopwatch. Then we will try again and see if you can beat your time.

Phonogram Race - Classroom


Phonogram Cards learned so far
Divide the class into two teams. Time each team.
Timer

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24 Lesson 85

Vocabulary
Compound Words
scissors
85.2 For My Birthday… – page 27

Cut out the compound words. Place them face up on the


table. Place the sentence piece, “For my birthday I want
a …” where everyone can read it. Teacher Tip
The first person chooses a compound word, places it after Be sure that the cards are all facing the
the statement, then reads the entire statement, “For my right direction and the kids are sitting on
birthday I want a (bluebird)." The second person then the same side so that everyone can read
them easily without visual confusion.
chooses a new compound word, places it after the first
one, and reads the new list, “For my birthday I want a
(bluebird and a cupcake). Continue in this manner until
all the words have been added.

Spelling
Spelling List
/er/ Poster
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
1. speak Please speak loudly and clearly. spēk speak Underline /ē/.

Will he travel to the other


2. world side of the world?
werld world Underline /wer/.

3. work We will work on it tomorrow. werk work Underline /wer/.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/ of


4. first First, we need to clean up this mess. ferst first bird. Add to the /er/ Poster.

Put two dots over the /ä/.


5. grandpa My grandpa fixes cars and trucks. grănd pä grand pä /ă-ā-ä/ said its third sound
/ä/. Notice the lazy vowel.

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Lesson 85 25

Writing
Compare and Contrast
Write train on one side of the board and airplane on the other. Ask students to compare and
contrast them. Write one- or two-word summaries of their answers. As you write each word,
model sounding it out. If a new phonogram is used, point it out to the students.

Train Airplane
drive fly
fast fast
no wings wings
steel wheels tires

85.3 Trains and Airplanes – page 29


In your workbook you have a table to compare and contrast trains and airplanes. Write three words to
describe trains and three words to describe airplanes. You can use ideas from the board, or make up your
own.

Fluency
Reading Train - Individual
High Frequency Words from
85.4 Reading Train – page 31 Foundations B which need practice
Cut out the words. Place the high frequency words in Scissors
a pile. Challenge the student to read each word, then Toy train
place it in line to form a train. How long can he make
the train? Encourage the student to make an interesting
route under chairs, around corners, over pillows… Multi-Sensory Fun

Reading Train - Classroom Drive a toy train over the route. Ask the
student to read each word as he passes it.
Cut out the words. Divide the class into pairs of stu-
dents. Ask the pairs to take turns forming word trains
while reading the words aloud to one another.
Teacher Tip
Save the high frequency word cards for
use with later lessons.

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REVIEW A
Area Skill Mastery

Phonemic Blend compound words auditorily. 1


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Awareness
Identify the schwa sound. 3

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1
punctuation.

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Phonograms Read ea, oa. 1

Read ir, ur, ear, wor. 2

Reading Read compound words. 2

Read words ending in /ä/. 2/3

Read 90% of the high frequency words. 1

Read sentences and follow simple directions. 2

26
Review A 27

Phonemic Awareness Assessment


Blend Compound Words
I will say two words. Blend them together into one word.

cross walk crosswalk


grass hopper grasshopper
gold fish goldfish
tooth paste toothpaste

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards ea , oa , ir ,
(ea, oa, ir, ur, ear, wor) ur , ear , wor

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
A.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 33
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with Challenge
your highlighter.
Dictate the phonograms and ask the stu-
1. /er/ the /er/ of bird dent to write them on a whiteboard
without a visual reference.
2. /er/ the /er/ of search
3. /er/ the /er/ of hurt
4. /wer/
5. /ō/ two-letter /ō/
6. /ē-ĕ-ā/

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
A.2 Handwriting – page 34
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

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28 Review A

Spelling Assessment
Spelling Scissors

A.3 Spelling – page 35


Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in Teacher Tip
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly. If students struggle to choose the correct
I will say a word. Using the phonogram tiles, drag them into phonograms from so many options, limit
place to spell the word. the phonogram choices to those needed
for each word.
play

first Challenge

mine Ask the student to write the words on a


whiteboard. Do not, however, hold back
a student from continuing to learn the
phonograms and rules if they are unable
to complete this challenge. Spelling with
the tiles is appropriate at this stage.

Reading Assessment
Compound Words Teacher Tip
A.4 Matching – page 37 Reading the high frequency words in iso-
Read the words. Match them to the correct picture. lation is more difficult than reading them
in context.

High Frequency Words


Index cards
A.5 High Frequency Words – page 39
Read each word aloud. Multi-Sensory Fun
Write the high frequency words on index
cards. Hide them throughout the room
for the child to find. When he finds one
Comprehension he must read it aloud.

A.6 Car and Train – page 40


Read the directions and act them out using a train and a car Toy car
on the road and tracks provided in your workbook. Toy train

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Review A 29

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 2
"Phonogram Train" on page 7
"Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe" on page 13
"Phonogram Choo-Choo" on page 17
"Phonogram Race - Individual" on page 23

Compound Words
"Compound Words" on page 2
"Compound Words" on page 13
"Compound Words" on page 24

Spelling
Teacher Tip
If the student struggles to spell words using the
phonogram tiles, practice this skill by placing only At this stage many students will misspell
the phonograms needed to spell a particular word in words that include sounds that have
multiple options for spelling. For example,
front of the student. Use lists from previous lessons, students may misspell first as furst or
beginning with Foundations A, in order to build the ferst. This is developmentally appropriate.
student's confidence. These words require students to
memorize which spelling of the sound
/er/ is needed. The goal with Foundations
A-C is to introduce students to the
phonograms for purposes of reading. For
students with strong visual skills, they will
also often master the spelling of these
words at the same time. Some students,
though, will misspell words such as these
for a long time. However, their spelling
should represent that they are attempting
to identify each sound and represent it
with a phonogram that says that sound.
Foundations D will provide students with
additional practice to develop spelling
mastery. As part of the transition, in
Foundations C we will assess the students'
ability to spell words when presented
with a limited choice of phonograms. In
this way you will be able to observe the
process the student is using to spell.

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LESSON 86
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Learn that suffixes can be added to words.

SPELLING RULES: O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.


Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.

VOCABULARY: Learn about words ending in -ing.

SPELLING: from, love, turning, years, well

COMPREHENSION: Following directions, pre-reading.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including o , poster board, markers, bas-
kets, slips of paper, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, red and blue dry erase markers, scissors

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, flashlight

Spelling Rules
The Phonogram O
Show the Phonogram Card o . Phonogram Card o
What does this say? /ŏ-ō-ö/
How will this sound when it says its lazy sound? ә
Today we will learn a new way for the O to be lazy.

There is an interesting story behind when O may say the ә sound. Long before there were computers and
typewriters, all books were copied by hand. Monks would spend months copying the books word by
word. Very few people knew how to read and even fewer could afford to buy a book. Books were very
expensive. In some libraries, books were even chained to a table to keep people from stealing them when
they read them.

In one area of the world, the monks had a problem. People began to complain about their handwriting.
People especially began to complain about words like:
Write muther, luve, wun, and munth.
When they saw all the straight lines going up and down, they
said, "Your handwriting makes it hard for me to read! What letters did you write?" So one day the monks

30
Lesson 86 31

had an idea. They decided that when they heard the sound
/ŭ/ next to a W, TH, M, N or V, they would spell it with an O Teacher Tip
instead. In this lesson students are introduced to
the rule: O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed sylla-
Write wu, uth, um, un, and uv on the board, emphasizing the ble next to W, TH, M, N, or V. This rule will
straight lines. be addressed in more depth in future les-
When they would have written wu, uth, um, un, and uv, they sons.
wrote wo, oth, om, on, and ov. They figured out that this
made it easier for people to tell the letters apart. When they Teacher Tip
changed the U to an O, it wasn't so hard to write it clearly or
for others to read it correctly. Mother, love, won, month – Technically
the O in these words is not a schwa,
Write wo, oth, om, on, and ov on the board, emphasizing the because the syllable is stressed. This is
true for 134 words where /ŭ/ is spelled
straight lines.
with an O. Linguistically it could be more
Today, this means that many words with the sound /ŭ/ after a accurate to add /ŭ/ to the sounds of O.
W or /ŭ/ followed by TH, M, N or V are spelled with a lazy O. However, since any vowel can already
sound like /ŭ/ in an unstressed syllable
Do you think the monks had a good idea? answers will vary and since most Foundations students will
find the concept of stress to be abstract,
LOE teaches /ŭ/ as an alternative, lazy
Lazy Vowel Chart sound of O. When a student misreads a
Write "Lazy Vowels" as the title on the poster board. word that includes a schwa or an O that
Divide the poster into two columns: The Lazy Schwa and is pronounced /ŭ/, offer a clue by saying,
"that vowel is being lazy."
Lazy O after W and before TH, M, N, V.
We will begin to watch for words that have a lazy O after a W
or before a TH, M, N, or V. We will collect these words on a
Poster board
chart.
Markers
Flashlight
What is an example of a word with a lazy vowel that is not an
O? Let's add it to the chart. was, the, a

Lazy Vowels Multi-Sensory Fun

ә o Turn the lights off in the room. Give stu-


dents a flashlight. Ask them to light up
Lazy Schwa After W; Before TH, M, N, V the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart and
read them.
was
a
the

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32 Lesson 86

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Basketball - Individual
Phonogram Cards
Set up a basket. Designate a place for the students to
Basket for each team
stand to shoot baskets. Read a phonogram’s sound(s).
Paper and pencil
Ask the student to write it on a slip of paper. If he writes
it correctly, award him one point. Then he may crumple
up the paper and try to shoot a basket. Award one point
if he makes the basket.

Phonogram Basketball - Classroom Multi-Sensory Fun


Divide the class into teams. Set up a basket for each
team. Have the students stand in a line to take turns. Set up multiple baskets at varying dis-
Read a phonogram and ask the first student in each line tances. Award more points for baskets
that are further away.
to write it. Award one point to his team if he writes the
phonogram correctly. The player may crumple up the
paper and try to shoot a basket. Award one point to his
team if he makes the basket. Read a new phonogram for the next player to write.

Vocabulary
Words with ING
Red dry erase marker
Write rain on the board.
What does this say? rain
What happens if I change it like this?
Write raining on the board.
Now what does it say? raining
How are rain and raining different?
Let the children discuss the meaning.
Let’s try another one.
Continue in the same manner with the following words:
sing - singing feed - feeding
eat - eating drink - drinking

86.1 Words with ING – page 42


Match the sentence to the picture.

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Lesson 86 33

Phonemic Awareness
Suffixes
In this lesson we have been learning about adding -ing to the end of a word to change its meaning.
When we add letters to the end of a word, it is called a suffix.

Say suffix. suffix


Where do we add a suffix? at the end of the word
I will say a word. Then I will say a suffix. I want you to blend them together and tell me the new word.

/săd/ /lē/ sadly /quĭk/ /lē/ quickly


/bĕnd/ /ĭng/ bending /lănd/ /ĕd/ landed
/plā/ /ĭng/ playing

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Lazy Vowel Chart
boards or with phonogram tiles.
/er/ Poster

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
1. from The package is from Grandma. frŏm from See below.

Underline the V and


double underline the silent
2. love I love you! lŏv love E. English words do not
end in V, add a silent final E.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/ of


She kept turning around
3. turning in her chair.
tern ĭng turn ing hurt. Underline /ng/. Add to
the /er/ Poster.

2 Underline /ē/. Put a 2 over /z/.


4. years I have lived here for two years. yērz years /s-z/ said its second sound.

We often double F, L, and S


5. well Well, I guess we are not finished yet. wĕl well after a single vowel at the end
of a base word.

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34 Lesson 86

from
The first word is from. The package is from Grandma. from
Did you hear a lazy vowel sound in from? yes
How do you think it will be spelled? with an O
Why? It is before an M.
We will exaggerate the vowel to say /frŏm/. Let's sound it out. /f-r-ŏ-m/

Now write from on your whiteboard. Remember that it is spelled with an O.


The student writes from on his whiteboard.

Now help me to write it by sounding it out. /f-r-ŏ-m/


The teacher writes from on the board.

How do we usually say this word? /frŭm/


Why is the sound /ŭ/ spelled with an O here? The monks didn't want to write a U before an M because
they would have so many straight up and down lines. So they used an O to spell the sound /ŭ/. O may
say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.

Let's add from to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

love
The second word is love. I love you! love
Place your hand under your chin and say, "love." How many syllables in love? love, one
Do you hear a sound that may be a lazy vowel sound? yes
How do you think it will be spelled? with an O
Why? It is before a V
We will exaggerate the vowel to say /lŏv/. Let's sound it out. /l-ŏ-v/
What will you need at the end? silent final E
Why? English words do not end in V.

Now write love. Sound it out as you write it. /l-ŏ-v/


The student writes love on his whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write love. Sound it out as I write it. /l-ŏ-v/


The teacher writes love on the board.

How do we usually say this word? /lŭv/


Why is the sound /ŭ/ spelled with an O here? The monks didn't want to write a U before a V because
they would have so many straight lines. So they used an O to spell the sound /ŭ/. O may say /ŭ/ in a
stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.
Why do we need a Silent Final E? English words do not end in V.
How do we mark it? Underline the V and double underline the silent E.

Let's add love to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

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Lesson 86 35

turning
The next word is turning. She kept turning around in her chair. turning
How many syllables in turning? two
Let's sound out the first syllable turn. /t-er-n/
Use the /er/ of hurt.

Sound out the second syllable -ing. /ĭ-ng/

Now write turning on your whiteboard. As you write it, write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes turning on his whiteboard.

Now help me to write it by sounding it out. /t-er-n-ĭ-ng/


As the students sound it out, write turning on the whiteboard.

What is the first syllable? turn /t-er-n/


What is the second syllable? ing /ĭ-ng/

How will we mark the word turning? Underline the /er/ of hurt; underline /ng/.

Show me what it means to turn.


What does -ing mean? We are turning now.

Let's add turning to the /er/ Poster under UR.

Comprehension
Pre-Reading
What are some of the types of bugs that you have seen? answers vary
Discuss the various types the children have seen. If possible show a picture and talk about what they
know. For example: Bees are black and yellow. Bees sting. They make honey. They drink nectar from
flowers. Mosquitoes bite. They drink blood…
What is another name for bugs? insects
Write insects on the board.
Insects usually have antennae.
What are antennae? They stick out of the bug's head.
How many antennae does each bug have? two
What other things have antennae? cars, radio towers, cell phone towers
Antennae send and receive information.
What information does the antenna on your car receive? radio, music, news
Antennae on a bug also provide the insect information about the world around it.

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36 Lesson 86

86.2 Insects – page 44


Look at the pictures of insects. Circle the antennae on each one.

Insects also have three parts to their body.


Point out the three parts in the pictures.
Look at the pictures and put a dot on each of the body parts.

All insects also have six legs.


Look at each of the insects and count the legs.

Animal Card Game


Scissors
86.3 Animal Card Games – pages 45-48
Cut out the animal cards.
Read the directions. Place each animal card where the direc- Challenge
tions say. Ask students to write directions about
where to place the cards.
Save the Animal Game Cards for use with 89.2 The Farm.

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LESSON 87
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Practice auditorily adding suffixes to words.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn wr .

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VOCABULARY: Practice reading ING words. Learn the homophones right and write.

SPELLING: write, into, young, growing, rowing

COMPREHENSION: Reader 2 - Firefly: Nightlight with Wings

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, 20 Phonogram Cards including wr , highlighter, Reader 2

OPTIONAL: Wrench, wet washcloth, scissors, Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram wr
Phonogram Card wr
Show the Phonogram Card wr . Highlighter
This says /r/. /r/ Wrench
Wet washcloth
How many letters are in /r/? two
We will call this two-letter /r/.

Write two-letter /r/ three times on your whiteboard.


Which one is the neatest?
Put a smiley face next to it.
Show the Phonogram Card wr .
There is something interesting about this phonogram.

87.1 WR – page 49
In your workbook you have a list of four words that use WR. Highlight the WR. Then read the word aloud.

All of these words have something to do with twisting.

37
38 Lesson 87

What does it mean to twist?


Show me how to twist.

Let's read the words again and think about how they relate to twisting.
wrist Demonstrate how you can twist your wrist.
wrench Demonstrate how a wrench is used to twist.
wring Demonstrate how to wring out a washcloth.
write Demonstrate how we twist our wrist and fingers while writing.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Sprint
20 Phonogram Cards
Lay 20 Phonogram Cards on the floor. Ask the student
to hop on one foot and then the next as quickly as possi-
ble from one phonogram to the next while reading each
of the sound(s). If the student misses a sound he should Teacher Tip
go back to the beginning and try again.
Daily phonogram practice is a key to long
term mastery. Even if the student knows
the phonograms, without daily repetition
the memory of some of them will begin
to fade, making decoding more difficult.

Vocabulary
ING Words
Scissors
87.2 Matching Words with ING – page 50
Match the sentence to the picture.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Cut out the pictures and the sentences.
Place them on opposite sides of the
room. Ask the student to choose a pic-
ture, then run to the other side of the
room and find a sentence that matches it.

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Lesson 87 39

Phonemic Awareness
Suffixes
What is a suffix? letters (sounds) added to the end of words

I will say a word. Then I will say a suffix. I want you to blend them together and tell me the new word.

/cār/ /fül/ careful /fēr/ /lĕs/ fearless


/kīnd/ /nĕs/ kindness /bĭg/ /er/ bigger
/plā/ /fül/ playful /sĭng/ /ĭng/ singing

Spelling
Spelling List
Dictate the words for the students to write on their whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
Underline two-letter /r/. Put
a line over the /ī/. Double
Write your name on the top
1. write of the paper.
rīt wrīte underline the silent final E.
The vowel says its long sound
because of the E.

Put two dots over the /ö/.


2. into Put the toys into the box. ĭn tö in tö /ŏ-ō-ö/ said its broad sound.

4 Underline /ŭ/. Put a 4 over


There were young sparrows in the
3. young nest.
yŭng you ng it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said its fourth
sound. Underline /ng/.

2 Underline the /ō/ and put a 2


Tomatoes are growing in my
4. growing garden.
grō ĭng grow ing over it. /ow-ō/ said its second
sound /ō/. Underline /ng/.

The oldest boy was rowing the 2 Underline the /ō/ and put a 2
5. rowing boat.
rō ĭng row ing over it. /ow-ō/ said its second
sound /ō/. Underline /ng/.

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40 Lesson 87

Vocabulary Development
write
Write write and right on the board. Teacher Tip
What do these say? /rīt/
How are they the same? They both say /rīt/. The goal of this exercise is not to master
the homophones but to become familiar
How are they different? They are spelled with different with the concept and to help students
phonograms. They mean different things. understand one reason that words may
sound the same but look different.
Point to write.
I will use this in a sentence.
I used a red marker to write my name.
Now it is your turn to make a sentence using this write. Answers will vary.
Point to right.
Here is an example using this word.
I know the right answer.
Now you make a sentence with right. Answers will vary.

When two words sound the same but look different, they are called homophones. Homo- means the same
and phone means sound. So homophones are words that have the same sound. Say homophone with
me. homophone

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Lesson 87 41

Comprehension
About Reader 2 - Firefly
Fireflies easily capture the imagination of many children. Encourage children to explore the
insects found in the environments around them. If fireflies are natural to your area and in sea-
son, take time to observe them flying. Fireflies are easy for young children to catch as they fly
very slowly. Teach children not to harm them. If desired, trap a few in a jar and observe them.
Then be sure to let them go. Otherwise, find other insects in your area. Count the number of
legs. If the children find a spider, note that it has eight legs; therefore, it is not an insect.

Reader
Reader 2
Take out Reader 2.
What is the title of this book? Firefly: Nightlight with Wings
Teacher Tip
What will we learn about as we read this book? fireflies
Develop the practice if a student mis-
Have you ever seen a firefly? answers will vary reads a word to ask him if that word
makes sense in the paragraph. If a word
The author of this book is the person who wrote it. Her name does not make sense he should re-read,
is listed on the bottom. Her name is Kimber Iverson. paying careful attention to the phono-
Point to the author’s name. grams.

Read the book aloud to me.


Teacher Tip
What is something you learned that you did not know about
fireflies? answers will vary Some students will still struggle to direct
their attention to the words on the page
rather than the pictures. Allow the stu-
dent to look at the picture on the page,
then cover it with a blank piece of paper.

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LESSON 88
Objectives
SPELLING RULES: Double the last consonant when adding a vowel suffix to words end-
ing in one vowel followed by one consonant.
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VOCABULARY: Practice reading words ending in -ing.

SPELLING: running, sitting, earth, count, these

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, flashlight, Phonogram Cards, red and blue dry erase markers,
scissors, /er/ Poster, Reader 2

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Light Up
Flashlight
Place the phonograms around the room. Provide chil-
Phonogram Cards
dren with flashlights. Ask them to find a phonogram,
shine the light on it and read the sounds.

Phonogram Light Up 2
Write the phonograms on a whiteboard, or tape them to the wall or ceiling. Provide student(s)
with flashlights. Ask the student to use his flashlight to light up each phonogram and read the
sounds.

42
Lesson 88 43

Spelling Rule
Double the Consonant
Red and blue dry erase markers
Today we will learn a new spelling rule. You will need to be
detectives and figure out the rule.
I will write a word on the board. I want you to read it.
Teacher Tip
Write run.
The goal in this lesson is to introduce stu-
How do I change the word to mean I am doing it now? dents to reading words with double con-
running sonants. The suffixing rule will be taught
So I add the suffix -ing. in greater detail in later levels of Founda-
tions. The basic concept of doubling the
Write running. consonant before a vowel suffix is intro-
duced so that students understand there
Hmm. What else did I add? You added an extra N. is a reason.
Let's try another.
Write sit.
How do I change it to mean I am doing it now? sitting
Again I need to add -ing.
Write sitting.
What else did I add? You added an extra T.
Write swim + ing =
What do you think I need before I put the -ing on swim? Add an extra M.
Write swim + ing = swimming.
Let's look at one more.
Write trip + ing =
Teacher Tip
The rule is: When a word ends in one vowel Double the last consonant when adding
Point to the i. a vowel suffix to words ending in one
vowel followed by one consonant.
followed by one consonant,
Point to the p.

then double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix. A vowel suffix is a suffix that begins with a
vowel.
Write trip + ing = tripping.
We will learn more about this to help us with spelling in later lessons. What we need to know now is that
sometimes when we read words, they will have two of the same consonant in a row.

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44 Lesson 88

I will write a word. I want you to read it.


hitting flapping sipping

Vocabulary
What Are You Doing? - Individual
Scissors
88.1 ING Words – page 51
Cut out the words. Place them face down. Ask the child
to draw a word, read it silently, and then act it out. The child then asks, “What am I doing?”
The teacher and/or other students guess. If playing with more than one student, the student
who guesses correctly then takes a turn reading a word and acting it out.

ING Game - Classroom


Scissors
88.1 ING Words – page 51
Cut out two sets of -ing words. Divide the class into two
groups. Give one word to each student in the first group to read and act out. Designate an
area of the room for them to perform their action. The students must continually perform the
action. Ask the second group one student at a time to choose a word, read it, then point to
the student who is performing the action. If they are correct, both students sit down. The next
student then draws a word and tries to match it to the student who is performing that action.

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Lesson 88 45

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
Underline the /ng/. When
a word ends in one vowel
1. running The girl is running down the street. rŭn nĭng run ning followed by one consonant,
double the last consonant
before adding a vowel suffix.

Underline the /ng/. When


a word ends in one vowel
2. sitting Dad is sitting on the porch. sĭt tĭng sit ting followed by one consonant,
double the last consonant
before adding a vowel suffix.

Underline three-letter /er/.


The earth is about 240,000 miles
3. earth from the moon.
erth ear th Underline /th/. Add to the
/er/ Poster.

Use /k-s/. C says /k/ before an


4. count Count how many kids there are. kownt count O. Underline /ow/.

Underline /TH/ and put a


2 over it. /th-TH/ said its
second sound. Put a line over
2 2 the E. Double underline the
5. these These are warm mittens. THēz thēse silent final E. The vowel said
its long sound because of the
E. Put a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/
said its second sound.

running
The first word is running. The girl is running down the Teacher Tip
street. running
Say to spell /run/ /ning/ Clearly articulate both /n/ sounds as part
of the spelling dictation. At this time the
How many syllables in /run/ /ning/? two focus should be on mastering how to
read words with double consonants
Let's sound out the first syllable run. /r-ŭ-n/ rather than how to spell them. Doubling
Sound out the second syllable ning. /n-ĭ-ng/ consonants correctly is one of the most
difficult rules in LOE as it requires stu-
Now write running on your whiteboard. As you write it, dents to understand stressed syllables.
sound it out. Write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes running on his whiteboard.

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46 Lesson 88

Let's sound it out together.


As the students sound it out, write running on the whiteboard.

What is the first syllable? run /r-ŭ-n/


What is the second syllable? ning /n-ĭ-ng/
How will we mark the word running? Underline /ng/.

Show me what it means to run.


What does -ing mean? We are running now.
Point to the two N's.
Why did we double the N? Because the rule says, "When a word ends in one vowel followed by one con-
sonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix."

sitting Teacher Tip


The second word is sitting. Dad is sitting on the porch. sitting
Say to spell, /sit/ /ting/ Clearly articulate both /t/ sounds as part
of the spelling dictation. The average stu-
How many syllables in /sit/ /ting/? two dent should focus on mastering how to
read these words.
Let's sound out the first syllable sit. /s-ĭ-t/
Sound out the second syllable ting. /t-ĭ-ng/

Now write sitting on your whiteboard. As you write it, sound it out. Write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes sitting on his whiteboard.

Let's sound it out together.


As the student sounds it out, write sitting on the whiteboard.

What is the first syllable? sit /s-ĭ-t/


What is the second syllable? ting /t-ĭ-ng/
How will we mark the word sitting? Underline /ng/.

Show me what it means to sit.


What does -ing mean? We are sitting now.
Point to the two T's.
Why did we double the T? Because the rule says, "When a word ends in one vowel followed by one con-
sonant, double the last consonant before adding a vowel suffix."

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Lesson 88 47

Comprehension
Re-Reading
Reader 2
Take out your firefly book. Show me the front cover.
Show me the back cover.

Read page 1.
Have you seen small lights fly through the air at night? Answers will vary.

Read pages 2-4.


Why do fireflies give off light? They give off light to talk to each other.

Read pages 5-6.


What is a young firefly called? It is called a glowworm.
Have you ever seen a glowworm?

Read page 7.
Look at the pictures on page 7.
Teacher Tip
What type of insect do you see in all these pictures? fireflies
What do you notice about the different types of fireflies? An- Knowing that all the insects on page 7 are
swers will vary. fireflies requires the student to make an
inference from the text. If the child does
not know what is shown in the picture,
What is an insect? An insect has six legs, two antennae, and have him reread the first sentence. Then
three body parts. ask him again. If he still does not know,
then explain, "Since the book is telling us
Look at the picture of the firefly on page 3. there are many types of fireflies in the
Count the legs. world, the pictures are showing us a few
of these types."
Count the antennae.
Count the body parts.
Read page 8.
When is it best to see fireflies? at night

Read pages 9-10.


What is one way the author suggests you could look at fireflies more closely? Catch them in a jar.
When you are done looking at them, what should you do? Let them go.
Why do you think you should let them go? so they do not die
If we take care of the fireflies, then other people can enjoy them.

What is the title of this book? Firefly: Nightlight with Wings


Why do you think the author chose the words nightlight with wings? Answers will vary.

Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this book while showing me the pictures.

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48 Lesson 88

Writing
Copywork Teacher Tip
88.2 Handwriting – page 53
In Foundations C some students will still
Read the sentence aloud. need a handwriting model to follow to be
successful at copywork. Supplemental
Today you will copy the sentence on the lines below. When copywork pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
you write it, you will begin on the edge next to the paper. www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store/founda-
Point to where you will start your pencil. tions.

The sentence is written in a font like a computer types.


However you will write using your best cursive (manuscript).
Remember sometimes the letters look a little bit different. Teacher Tip
Choose the line size you are most comfortable writing on. If a student struggles with handwriting,
Copy it on the lines using your best handwriting. Be sure to have him try a different line size. Some
start the sentence on the left edge of the page. students write more neatly on small lines;
others find large lines easier.

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LESSON 89
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Distinguish long and short vowel sounds.

VOCABULARY: Practice reading words ending in -est.

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SPELLING: biggest, hottest, home, pointing, hearing

COMPREHENSION: Order a sequence of events.

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards, red and blue dry erase markers, animal
cards from Lesson 86.2

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, fly swatter, books about fireflies or other insects

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Slap
Phonogram Cards
Place 4-10 phonograms face up on a table. Read the
Fly swatter
sound(s) of a phonogram. Ask the student to slap it with
his hand or with a fly swatter.

Phonemic Awareness
Short and Long Vowels
I will say a vowel sound. Write it on your whiteboard with the marking. If it is a short vowel, sit down be-
fore you show me the answer. If it is a long sound, stand up before you show me the answer.

/ō/ /ĕ/ /ŭ/


/ă/ /ī/
/ā/ /ă/

What are two reasons we know for a vowel to say its long sound? a silent final E; A E O U usually say
their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
49
50 Lesson 89

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
When a word ends in one
vowel followed by one
1. biggest The biggest bike is my brother's. bĭg gĕst big gest consonant, double the last
consonant before adding a
vowel suffix.

When a word ends in one


vowel followed by one
We went swimming on the
2. hottest hottest day.
hŏt tĕst hot test consonant, double the last
consonant before adding a
vowel suffix.

Put a line over the /ō/. Double


underline the silent final E.
3. home It is time to go home. hōm hōme The vowel says its long sound
because of the E.

Underline /oi/. Underline


/ng/. The base word ends in
two consonants and has two
She was pointing at a bird in the
4. pointing tree.
point ĭng point ing letters working together to
form the vowel. Therefore
we do not double the last
consonant.

Underline /ē/. Underline /ng/.


The vowel is spelled with two
letters, therefore we do not
5. hearing I am hearing whispers. hēr ĭng hear ing double the last consonant
before adding the vowel
suffix.

Vocabulary
The Suffix -est
89.1 The Suffix -est – page 54
Look at the picture in your book. Read each word. Circle the picture above that matches.

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Lesson 89 51

What did you notice about each of the words? They all end in -est.
What does -est mean? the most
Read each of them again. Underline the -est.

Comprehension
The Farm
Animal cards from Lesson 86.3
89.2 The Farm – page 55
Ask the student to read the story aloud. Help him to
sound out any unknown words.
Teacher Tip
Ask the student to read the story to himself a second
Reading text multiple times aids students
time. As he reads, he should arrange the animal cards in developing fluency. However, it is im-
from Lesson 86.3 in the order of the story by placing portant to have a purpose for reading the
them on the grid. text again.

Direct the student to read the story aloud a third time


while you point to each animal card as it gets mentioned. Challenge
Ask students to retell the story. Either
Digging Deeper about Fireflies write it down as a narration or ask the
Read books about fireflies or other insects aloud. Read student to write the events in the order
they occurred.
about fireflies at www.firefly.org. Collect fireflies or
other insects and observe them.

Writing
Dictation
89.3 Dictation – page 58
Dictate the sentence for students to write on the worksheet.
Choose which line size is most comfortable for you.

I will read the sentence two times. Repeat it back to me, then write it on the paper.
A firefly can give off light. A firefly can give off light. A firefly can give off light.

Read the sentence back as I write it on the board. Give me hints about how to write the sentence cor-
rectly. (Start the sentence with a capital letter) Ā f-ī-r (add an E to make the vowel say its long sound)
-f-l-ī (use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/) k-ă-n (use /k-s/) g-ĭ-v (English words do not end in V; add a silent final E) ŏ-f-f l-ī-t (use
three-letter /ī/) (end the sentence with a period).
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LESSON 90
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Read words with the three sounds of oo .

PHONOGRAMS: Learn oo .
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SPELLING: soon, book, teeth, tooth, without

COMPREHENSION: Learn to identify keywords.

WRITING: Write keywords about fireflies.

FLUENCY: Practice high frequency words.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card oo , game board pieces, die, Phonogram
Game Cards, scissors, highlighter

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram oo
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card oo . Phonogram Card oo
This says /ö-ü-ō/. How many sounds is that? three
Let’s say them together. /ö-ü-ō/
Write /ö-ü-ō/ three times on your whiteboard.

52
Lesson 90 53

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Board Game
Game board pieces
90.1 Phonogram Rock – page 59 Die
Roll the die. Read the number shown on the die. Draw 1 Set of Phonogram Game Cards
that number of phonograms. Read each phonogram.
Move forward 1 space for each phonogram read cor-
rectly. Challenge
If the player rolls a 1, someone else draws
the phonogram card and reads it aloud.
The player then writes the phonogram
on his whiteboard. If he writes it correctly,
he may move ahead 3 spaces.

Phonemic Awareness
The Phonogram oo
Scissors
90.2 High Frequency OO Words – page 61 Whiteboard
Cut out the words. Phonogram Card oo
Today we will sort words based on which sound of /ö-ü-ō/
you hear in the word. To read each word you will need to try
the three sounds of /ö-ü-ō/. Always begin by trying /ö/. If /ö/ makes sense, put the word in the /ö/ pile. If
/ö/ does not make sense, try /ü/, then /ō/.

Teacher Tip
Save the high frequency word cards to
use with later lessons.

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54 Lesson 90

Spelling
Spelling List
Dictate the words for the students to write on their whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Word Sentence Say Markings Spelling


to Spell Hints
1. soon We will be there soon. sön soon Underline the /ö/.

Underline the /ü/ and put a 2


over it. /ö-ü-ō/ said its second
2 sound /ü/. We cannot use
2. book What book are you reading? bük book CK because two-letter /k/ is
used only after a single, short
vowel.

3. teeth Go brush your teeth. tēth tee th Underline /ē/. Underline /th/.

Underline /ö/. Underline


4. tooth John’s front tooth fell out. töth too th /th/.

Underline /th/. Underline


5. without She will go without a coat. wĭth owt with out /ow/.

Comprehension
What Am I?
Scissors
90.3 What Am I? – page 63 Highlighter
Fold the page in half. Cut along the flaps. Tell the child
to lift each flap and read the sentence. Can he guess
what it is? Readers
It is a bear. These are optional readers the student
may read independently. Due to a differ-
What words helped you to know it was a bear? ence in the order that some concepts are
Highlight those words. introduced, most of the reader sugges-
tions are found in the last 15 lessons of
These words are called keywords. They are the most impor- Foundations C.
Bob Books Set 1
tant words in a book or story. The Vet

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Lesson 90 55

Writing
Keywords Challenge
We have been learning about fireflies. What are some words
you would use to describe a firefly? Ask the student to write one or more
sentences describing fireflies. Remind the
Write the answers on the board as the students call them student to begin with an uppercase letter
and end with and end mark. However, do
out. If the student says a word that includes phonograms not require that the student write a com-
they have not learned, sound it out as you write it and plete sentence or use proper grammar.
briefly explain the phonograms that are used. Some students intuitively understand
light small how to write a correct sentence, others
need to be explicitly taught that a sen-
bug fly tence must have a subject, a verb, and
insect dark make complete sense. These concepts
will be developed in Foundations D.
90.4 Firefly – page 65
Choose four of these keywords about fireflies to write in your
workbook, or you can choose your own words. Teacher Tip
The goal of this activity is for children to
explore descriptive language. At this
stage, some children will be able to write
a complete sentence to describe the pic-
ture, others will only write phrases or in-
dividual words. Affirm all attempts at ex-
pression. Do not overly emphasize correct
spelling or usage. Writing correct sen-
tences is a complex activity requiring stu-
dents to understand subjects, verbs, and
complete thoughts. This will develop
with time and further instruction.

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REVIEW B
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1
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punctuation.

Phonograms Read ir, ur, ear, wor. 1

Read wr, oo. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read compound words. 2

Read words with a Lazy O. 3

Read words with the suffixes -ing and -est. 2

Read 90% of the high frequency words. 1

56
Lesson 90 57

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards ir , ur , ear ,
(ir, ur, ear, wor, wr, oo) wor , wr , oo

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
B.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 66
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with your highlighter.

1. /r/ two letter /r/


Challenge
2. /er/ the /er/ of hurt
3. /er/ the /er/ of search Dictate the phonogram and ask the stu-
4. /ö-ü-ō/ dent to write it on a whiteboard without
visual reference.
5. /er/ the /er/ of bird
6. /wer/

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
B.2 Handwriting – page 67
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

Reading Assessment
Matching Teacher Tip
B.3 Matching – page 68
Many students may still be struggling
Read the words. Match them to the correct picture. with fluency but be able to match the
pictures independently. If possible, listen
to students read each sentence aloud.
Note how the student reads the various
types of words.

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58 Lesson 90

High Frequency Words Multi-Sensory Fun


B.4 High Frequency Words – page 70
Write each of the words on the board.
Read each word aloud. Ask the student to read them as quickly
as possible. Each time he reads a word
correctly, erase it. See if you can write
faster than he can read.

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
B.5 Spelling – page 71 Teacher Tip
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in If students struggle to choose the correct
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly. phonograms from so many options, limit
the phonogram choices to those needed
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place for each word.
to spell the word.

girl Challenge
boy Ask the student to write the words on a
whiteboard. Do not, however, hold back
out a student from continuing to learn the
phonograms and rules if they are unable
to complete this challenge. Spelling with
the tiles is appropriate at this stage.

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Lesson 90 59

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Train" on page 7
"Phonogram Choo-Choo" on page 17
"Phonogram Race - Individual" on page 23
"Phonogram Basketball - Individual" on page 32
"Phonogram Sprint" on page 38
"Phonogram Light Up" on page 42
"Phonogram Slap" on page 49
"Phonogram Board Game" on page 53

Two-Syllable Words
"Compound Words" on page 2
"Compound Words" on page 13
"Compound Words" on page 24
"Words with ING" on page 32

Words Where O Says the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Retell the story of the Lazy O. Practice reading the words
on the Lazy Vowel Chart each day for a month. Provide the student with a flashlight to
"The Phonogram O" on page 30 highlight each word as he reads it.

Reading Comprehension
"Animal Card Game" on page 36
"What Are You Doing? - Individual" on page 44
"The Farm" on page 51

Spelling
If the student struggles to spell words using the phonogram tiles, practice this skill by placing
only the phonograms needed to spell a particular word in front of the student. Use lists from
previous lessons, beginning with Foundations A, in order to build the student's confidence.

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LESSON 91
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Form new words with -OLD.

SPELLING RULE: I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.
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SPELLING: old, cold, cook, line, need

COMPREHENSION: Read and follow directions. Pre-reading

WRITING: Make a chart to brainstorm ideas.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, red and black dry erase markers, Phonogram Game Tiles,
2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards, scissors, hat, coat, chair, ball, book

Spelling Rule
I and O May Say /Ī/ and /Ō/ Whiteboard
Today we have a new spelling rule to learn. You will be a word Black and red dry erase markers
detective. I will write a word on the board and read it. Listen
to the vowel. I want you to raise your hand when you find a
pattern.
Teacher Tip
Write the words on the board. Write the final two conso-
Allowing students to discover the rule on
nants in red. Read each word aloud as you write it. their own helps students to develop criti-
kind wild cal thinking skills. Due to the complexity
find child of the English code, most students do not
discover the patterns naturally. Carefully
The I is saying its long sound /ī/. designed learning activities help students
to discover the rules while learning the
Do you see why it is saying its long sound? skills needed to analyze language.
Is there a silent E? no
Is the vowel at the end of the syllable? no
Do you have an idea why the vowel might be saying its long sound?
There is one more vowel that does the same thing. See if you can figure it out.
Write the words on the board. Write the final two consonants in red. Read each word aloud as you
write it.

60
Lesson 91 61

bold colt
cold roll

I and O may say their long sounds before two consonants.


Do I and O ALWAYS say their long sounds before two consonants?
Write the words on the board. Write the final two consonants in red. Read each word aloud as you
write it.
print doll
milk golf

No, I and O do not always say their long sounds before two consonants.
Our rule is “I and O MAY say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.” Do they always? no
Let’s say the rule together in a silly voice. I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.
Let’s say it in a loud voice. I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.

Phonemic Awareness
Forming Words with -OLD
Phonogram Game Tiles
Today we will make new words that follow the rule: I and O
may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.

What does this say?


o l d

ōld
What could I add to the beginning to change it to a new word? bold, cold, fold, gold, hold, mold, sold, told

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62 Lesson 91

Phonogram Practice
Go Fish
2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards for
Deal five cards per player. Place the remaining cards in
each pair of students. Choose 20-30
the middle of the table face down and spread them out
matching phonogram pairs.
into a “fishing pond.” The first player chooses another
player to ask, “Do you have a ___?” Students should ask
for a phonogram that matches one in their hand by say-
ing the sound(s). If the answer is “yes,” the asking player receives the card and lays down
the matched pair. The asking player then repeats her turn. If the answer is “no,” the player
who was asked should say, “Go fish.” The asking player then draws a card from the pond. If
a match is found, it is laid down and the asking player repeats her turn. If no match is found,
play moves to the next player on the left. Continue to play until all the cards have been
matched. The player with the most matches wins.

Spelling
Spelling List
Whiteboard and marker
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Phonogram Game Tiles
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence Markings Hints
to Spell
Draw a line over the /ō/. I and
1. old Cole and I are old friends. ōld ōld O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

Draw a line over the /ō/. I and


2. cold I am cold. kōld cōld O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

2 Underline the /ü/ and put a 2


3. cook We can cook noodles. kük cook over it. /ö-ü-ō/ said its second
sound.

Put a line over the /ī/. Double


underline the silent final E.
4. line Draw a line at the top of the page. līn līne The vowel said its long sound
because of the E.

Underline /ē/ double /ē/


5. need You need to tie your shoes. nēd need which always says /ē/.

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Lesson 91 63

Comprehension
Read and Do
Scissors
91.1 Read and Do – page 73 Hat
Cut out the sentences. Place them in a pile facedown. Coat
Ask the student to draw one, read it aloud, then act it Chair
out. Ball
Book

Pre-Reading
Everyone has skills. Some people can play tennis. Some people can bake cakes. Some can write books.
Others can teach you how to play a piano.

What is a skill? A skill is something that someone knows how to do well.


Name someone you know who has a skill.
Notice that when we write a person's name we always capitalize it.
As the children name people who have skills, write the person's name and their skill on the board.

Name Skill
Sue play the flute
John fix bikes
Tom swim

Let's use our chart to make sentences. For example: Sue can play the flute.
Now it is your turn to choose a person on the chart and tell us what they can do.

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LESSON 92
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Form new words with -IND.

SPELLING RULE: I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.
Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.

VOCABULARY: Read words that end in -ER.

SPELLING: find, late, kind, teacher, farmer

COMPREHENSION: Reader 3 - Kids Can Do Great Things

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Game Tiles, game board pieces, die, several col-
ored dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, Reader 3

OPTIONAL: Index cards, Phonogram Cards

Phonemic Awareness
Forming Words with -IND
Phonogram Game Tiles
Today we will make new words that follow the rule: I and O
may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.

What does this say?


i n d

īnd
What could I add to the beginning to turn this into a word? bind, blind, find, kind, mind, rind, wind

64
Lesson 92 65

Spelling Rule Practice


Long Vowel Game
Game board pieces
92.1 Vowel Snake – page 77 Die
Roll the die. Then read the number shown on the die. I will Index cards
write that many words on the board for you to read. Move
forward one space for each word you read correctly, and one
Challenge
space for each time you correctly explain why the vowel says
its long sound. If you roll a 1, you must write the word on
In the classroom divide the students into two to three teams. your whiteboard. If you write it correctly,
Each team should take turns reading the words. you may move ahead 2 spaces.
gold he cold
save cone time
go kind same
Multi-Sensory Fun
wild mine line Write the words on index cards. Use the
name she hold index cards to play the game.
hope roll so
sold old no
came rate like
told both bike
bone find told
me cute
late plane

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Collage
Whiteboard
Pick a colored marker. I will read a phonogram. Write it some-
Dry erase markers with a variety of
place on your whiteboard. You may write it large or small.
colors
Then choose a new color and I will read another phonogram.
Phonogram Cards
The goal is to fill your whiteboard. However, none of the pho-
nograms can touch one another. If you write some big, you
will need to write others small.
Read 15-25 phonograms for the student to write. If you are unable to check the student as she
writes, show her the phonogram cards and ask her to self-correct any errors.

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66 Lesson 92

Vocabulary
Words with -ER
92.2 Matching – page 78
Read the words. Match the word to the correct picture.

What did you notice about each of the words? They all end in /er/.
Underline the /er/.

What do you think /er/ means in these words? It means someone who does something. A swimmer is
someone who swims. A runner is someone who runs…

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ī/. I and
1. find Did you find your keys? fīnd fīnd O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

Put a line over the /ā/. Double


underline the silent final E.
2. late My friend came late. lāt lāte The vowel said its long sound
because of the E.

Put a line over the /ī/. I and


3. kind My grandfather is very kind. kīnd kīnd O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

Underline the /ē/. Underline


4. teacher Ask the teacher for help. tē cher tea ch er /ch/. Underline /er/. Add to
the /er/ Poster.

Underline /ar/. Underline /er/.


5. farmer The farmer sells fresh eggs. far mer far mer Add to the /er/ Poster.

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Lesson 92 67

Comprehension & Fluency


About Reader 3 - Kids Can Do Great Things!
Children from all around the world have incredible skills. They may not be the skills we're
used to seeing, but when we stop to notice them, even young children have great potential.

The boy on page 2 has made something that in many places in Africa is called a “Galimoto."
It is a perfect example of the incredible resourcefulness some kids have, to be able to reuse
old things like wires and create a toy out of them.

On pages 3, 4, and 6, children are obviously playing a significant role in helping their families
through their work. Some families who live in poverty must maximize their skills and creativ-
ity out of necessity. These children contribute to the family's income through their work.

In some cases the family depends so heavily on children's labor that they are not able to go to
school. 61 million primary-aged children do not have access to education. 796 million people
cannot read or write. Remind the children whom you are teaching how special it is to be able
to learn to read, write, and learn about the world.

Reader
Reader 3
Take out Reader 3.
What is the title of this book? Kids Can Do Great Things!
What will we learn about as we read this book? what kids can do
What are some of the things you know how to do?
Brainstorm ideas of skills the kids have. Include sports, chores, and artistic skills. Write them on the
board in a list.

The author of this book is the person who wrote it. Her name is listed on the bottom. Her name is Kimber
Iverson. Point to the author’s name.
Read the book aloud to me.

In your own words what is this book about? Teacher Tip


Which page is your favorite one and why? Answers will vary.
Some students will still struggle to direct
their attention to the words on the page
rather than the pictures. Allow the stu-
dent to look at the picture on the page,
then cover it with a blank piece of paper.

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LESSON 93
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Listen for the /s/ or /z/ in plurals.

SPELLING RULE: To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or
Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.

changes; then add -ES.

WORDS: move, both, today, gold, now

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, 3 or more toy cars, blocks, markers, 2-3 decks of Phonogram
Game Cards, red and blue dry erase markers, poster size world map, Reader 3

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, index cards and singular and plural items, recycled
boxes, cans, and jars, quail picture, eggs to cook

Phonemic Awareness
Plurals
3 or more toy cars
Arrange the items on a table so that there is one car by itself
Blocks
and then a group of cars in another place, one block and a
Markers
group of blocks, one marker and a group of markers.
I will say a word. Point to what I am talking about.

cars
The student should point to the group of cars. If she does not, repeat the word and emphasize the /z/.

block marker markers


blocks car

How can you tell if I mean one car or many cars? There is a /s/ or /z/ sound at the end when it means
more than one.

68
Lesson 93 69

Write -s on the board.


When a word means more than one, it is called a plural.
I will say a word. If it means only one, then stand up and hold up one finger high over your head.
If it means more than one, sit down and shout, "plural."

table bell schools


balls streets nests
bears squirrel game

Our rule says, "To make a noun plural, add the ending -S."
Teacher Tip
Let's say this rule together. To make a noun plural, add the
ending -S. We will discuss the second part of this
spelling rule in the next lesson.

Spelling Rule
Plurals Index cards
Singular and plural items
93.1 Plurals – page 79
Read the word. Look at the picture. Add an -S to make the
word plural if it is needed. Multi-Sensory Fun
Gather three or more of each of the fol-
93.2 Matching Plurals – page 80 lowing objects: forks, cups, spoons, plates,
Read the words. Match them to the pictures. bowls, hats, shirts, gloves, toys, rings…
and place them in a pile. Write each sin-
gular and each plural word on separate
index cards. Stack the cards face down.
Tell the students to draw a card, find the
item or items in the pile, and line them up
with their cards in a designated place.

Phonogram Practice
Last One!
2-3 decks of Phonogram Game Cards
Choose 10-15 matching phonograms from each deck of
10-15 phonograms pairs
cards. Add the game cards listed here, and shuffle the
2 Wild cards
cards together. Deal seven cards to each player. Place
the remaining cards face down in the middle of the table 2 Draw Two cards
as the draw pile. Turn one card face up to form the dis- 2 Reverse cards
card pile.

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70 Lesson 93

The first player should discard a card that matches the one on the discard pile either in color
or in phonogram. The student must read the phonogram sound(s) as she discards. If the player
misreads the sound(s), she must hold onto her card, and play moves to the next player.

If a player does not have a matching card, she must draw one card from the draw pile. Play
moves to the next player.

Players may play a Draw Two or Reverse card only if it matches in color. If a Draw Two is
played, the next person must draw two cards from the draw pile. He may not lay down a card.
If a Reverse card is played, the play switches directions. If a Wild card is played, the player
may select a new color. A player wins when she has discarded all her cards.

Variation 1: For simpler play, remove the Reverse and/or Draw Two cards.

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put two dots over /ö/. /ŏ-ō-ö/
said its broad sound. Under-
Please move your books
1. move off the chair.
möv möve line the V and double under-
line the silent final E. English
words do not end in V.

Put a line over the /ō/. I and


O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
2. both We both like to paint. bōth bōth two consonants. Underline
/th/.

Put two dots over the /ö/.


/ŏ-ō-ö/ said its broad sound.
3. today They leave for the trip today. tö dā tö day Underline the /ā/. AY usually
spells the sound /ā/ at the
end of a base word.

Put a line over the /ō/. I and


4. gold Grandpa gave her a gold coin. gōld gōld O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

5. now Now you may play outside. now now Underline /ow/.

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Lesson 93 71

Comprehension & Fluency


Re-Reading
Reader 3
Take out Reader 3, Kids Can Do Great Things.
World map poster
The kids in this book are from around the world.
Recycled items to build a toy
Show the kids the world map. Preferably use a large wall Picture of a quail
map. Eggs to cook
What is this? It is a map of the world.
What city do we live in?
What country do we live in?
Where do we live on this map?
Mark the spot where you live with a dot.
The kids in our book, Kids Can Do Great Things, live in different countries. We will read a page, then mark
where that child lives on our map.

Read page 1.
What is this girl good at doing? She is rowing a boat.
Have you ever rowed a boat?
Look at the picture.
When we use boats, what should we wear to keep us safe? a life jacket
Does this girl have on a life jacket? no
Probably people do not wear life jackets where she lives.
Look under the picture. Do you see some tiny words? It says that this picture was taken in Cambodia.
Show the students where Cambodia is on the map.
Mark Cambodia on the map.

Read page 2.
Multi-Sensory Fun
What did this boy do? He made a toy out of cans and wires.
Have you ever made a toy out of recycled things? Gather recycled boxes, cans, and jars and
In some countries this is called a Galimoto. provide a time for the children to invent a
new toy.
Point to the word that shows where this picture was taken.
The picture was taken in Botswana.
Point to Botswana.
Mark Botswana on the map.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Read page 3.
What does this girl do? She cooks quail eggs. Look up a picture of a quail. Teach the
Look at the picture. Have you ever seen a pan like that? student one way to prepare eggs and al-
low her to help with appropriate adult
What is a quail? A quail is a type of bird. supervision.
How do you know that? It has eggs.
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72 Lesson 93

Point to the word that shows where she lives.


She lives in Thailand.
Point to Thailand.
Mark Thailand on the map.

Read page 4.
Teacher Tip
What do these boys do? They take care of the sheep.
Point to the word that shows where this picture was taken. Thailand: /t/ is an Advanced Phonogram
These boys are from China. sound of th . It is also heard in Thomas.

Point to China.
Mark China on the map.
Read page 5.
What is this girl good at? She is good at making her mom and grandma smile.
How do you make people smile?
Point to the word that shows where they live.
They live in Thailand.
Point to Thailand.
Mark Thailand on the map.
Which other picture was from Thailand? the girl cooking quail eggs

Read page 6.
What can this girl do? She can carry a pail on her head.
Can you carry things on your head?
What do you think she is carrying in her pail?
She is probably carrying water.
Where do we get water? We get water from a faucet.
What do we use water for? We use water to drink, to cook, and to wash clothes and dishes.
In some places people do not have running water in their homes. Every day they need to go to a well to
pump water and carry it back to their home. It is probably this girl's chore each day to carry water. Do you
have chores at your house?
Point to the word that shows where this picture was taken.
This girl is from Tanzania.
Point to Tanzania.
Mark Tanzania on the map.

Read page 7.
What is this boy doing? He is blowing on pipes while standing upside down!
This is probably a concert and he is playing an instrument. Have you been in a concert?
Point to the words that show where this picture was taken.
This boy is from China.
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Lesson 93 73

Point to China.
Mark China on the map.
Which other boys were from China? The ones who were tending the sheep.

Read page 8.
What are these girls doing? They are riding on a skateboard.
Point to the word that shows where this picture was taken.
These girls are from Ecuador.
Point to Ecuador.
Mark Ecuador on the map.

Read page 9.
What is this boy doing? He is dancing.
Point to the words that show where this picture was taken.
This boy is from the United States.
Point to the United States.
Mark the United States on the map.

Read page 10.


What is this boy doing? He is jumping into the water.
Point to the words that show where this picture was taken.
This boy is from Germany.
Point to Germany.
Mark Germany on the map.

Writing
Copywork
93.3 Handwriting – page 81
Teacher Tip
Read the sentence in your workbook aloud. Copy it using
your best handwriting on the lines below. In Foundations C students should be able
to copy a sentence that is written in a
bookface font into either manuscript or
cursive. Some students will still need a
handwriting model to follow. Additional
handwriting pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store.

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LESSON 94
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Listen for the /ĕ/ in some plurals.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn kn .
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SPELLING RULE: To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or
changes; then add -ES.

SPELLING: myself, dresses, know, floor, door

VOCABULARY: Explore the difference between no and know.

COMPREHENSION: Follow directions to complete a picture search activity.

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including kn , highlighter, Bingo game
pieces, red and blue dry erase marker

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, books from book list

Phonograms
The Phonogram kn
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card kn . Phonogram Card kn
This says /n/. What does it say? /n/
How many letters are used to spell this form of /n/? two
We will call it two-letter /n/.
Write two-letter /n/ three times on your whiteboard.

74
Lesson 94 75

Phonemic Awareness
When to Use the Phonogram kn
Phonogram Card kn
94.1 KN – page 82
It is time to be a spelling detective again! You have a list of
words in your workbook. Read each word. Underline the two-letter /n/.

Where do we use two-letter /n/? It is used only at the beginning of the word.
Show the Phonogram Card kn .
This is two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word.
Whisper that with me. two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word
Let’s shout it. two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word
Let’s sing it. two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word

Listen for the /ĕ/ in Plurals


What does plural mean? It means more than one.
What do we add to make a word plural? Add an -s.
Write the word bus on the board.
What if we have more than one? What do we say when we make bus plural? buses
Did you add just a /s/ sound? Try to say /bus-s/. /bus-s/
This is difficult to say without adding another sound. What other sound did we add to make buses? /ĕ/
How do you write the sound /ĕ/? with an E
Add -ES in red to form buses on the whiteboard.
The whole rule says: "To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then
add -ES." When a word hisses, we need to add -ES to make it easier to say.
Say hiss with me. hiss
These phonogram sounds hiss:
/s/ Say /s/ with me. /s/
/ch/ /ch/
/ks/ /ks/
/sh/ /sh/
/z/ /z/
To make a word that hisses plural, we need to add -ES.

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76 Lesson 94

Spelling Rule
Plurals
Highlighter
94.2 Plurals – page 83
Read the words. Look at the pictures. If the word needs to be
plural, add -ES. Highlight the phonograms that hiss.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Bingo
Pennies, raisins, or other small items to
94.3 Phonogram Bingo – page 84 cover the Bingo squares
Using the Bingo Game provided, call out sounds while
the students cover them. Play until the board is covered.
Direct the students to read the phonograms back as they Challenge
uncover each square on the board.
Choose 16 phonograms to practice. Read
the sounds aloud while the students
write them on the blank Bingo card. Then
use these Bingo cards to play Phonogram
Bingo.

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Lesson 94 77

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
What two words combine
together to make myself? my
and self. Why did the Y say
1. myself I gave myself a treat. mī sĕlf my self /ī/? When a one-syllable
word ends in a single vowel Y,
it says /ī/. Put a line over the
long /y/.

Put a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/ said


2 its second sound. To make a
2. dresses The girls wore blue dresses. drĕs sĕz dres ses noun plural, add the ending
-s, unless the word hisses or
changes; then add -es.

Underline the /n/. Two-letter


2 /n/ used only at the begin-
3. know Do you know his name? nō kn ow ning of the word. Underline
/ō/ and put a 2 over it. /ow-ō/
said its second sound.

3 Underline /ō/ and put a 3


4. floor Pick your jacket up off the floor. flōr floor over it. /ö-ü-ō/ said its third
sound.

3 Underline /ō/ and put a 3


5. door Please close the door. dōr door over it. /ö-ü-ō/ said its third
sound.

Vocabulary Development
know
Write know and no on the board. Teacher Tip
What do these say? /nō/
How are they the same? They both say /nō/. The goal of this exercise is not to master
the homophones but to become familiar
How are they different? They are spelled with different with the concept and to help students
phonograms. They mean different things. understand a reason that words may
sound the same but look different.

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78 Lesson 94

Point to no.
I will use this in a sentence. “No, I do not want to go to that movie.”
Now it is your turn to make a sentence using this no. Answers will vary.
Point to know.
Here is an example using this word: “I know the answer.”
Now you make a sentence with know. Answers will vary.

When two words sound the same but look different, they are called homophones. Homo- means the
same and phone means sound. So homophones are words that have the same sound. Say homophone
with me. homophone

Comprehension
Reading Comprehension Read Aloud
94.4 Find It! – page 86
A Life Like Mine: How Children Live
Read the sentences. Find the objects in the picture. Around the World by DK Publishing
Children Just Like Me: A Unique
Digging Deeper: Children Around the Celebration of Children Around the
World by Anabel Kindersley and
World Barnabas Kindersley
There are many great books about children in various The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Young
cultures. Read a few of these aloud and discuss them. Readers Edition by Kamkwamba
Or try a few of the following activities: Mealer and Zunon

• Go on a boat ride.
• Visit a sheep farm and learn more about what is required to tend sheep.
• Try carrying things on your head.
• Visit a museum that displays cultural clothing.
• Watch videos that show traditional dances or listen to music from other cultures.

Writing
Dictation
94.5 Dictation – page 87
Dictate the sentence for students to write on their worksheets. Read the sentence aloud two times
and have the students repeat it back and write it. Then have the students read the sentence back with
spelling hints as you write it on the board.
The girl is good at finding birds. The girl is good at finding birds. The girl is good at finding birds.
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LESSON 95
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Learn that gn is used both at the beginning and at the end
of a base word. Practice syllables.

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PHONOGRAMS: Learn gn .

SPELLING: sign, those, school, moon, starting

FLUENCY: Practice reading high frequency words.

WRITING: Write a list. Write a patterned sentence.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards gn and kn , red and blue dry erase
markers, sensory box, scissors, High Frequency Word cards from previous lessons

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, colored plastic plate, whipped cream, paper and
markers

Phonograms
The Phonogram gn
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card gn . Phonogram Card gn
This says /n/. What does it say? /n/
How many letters are used to spell this form of /n/? two
This says /n/. /n/
Is anything blocking the sound? yes, my tongue
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant

We will call it two-letter /n/.


Write two-letter /n/ three times on your whiteboard.

79
80 Lesson 95

Phonemic Awareness
When to Use the Phonogram gn
Phonogram Cards gn and kn
95.1 GN – page 88
It is time to be a spelling detective again! You have a list of
words in your workbook. Read each word. Underline the two-letter /n/.
Where do we use two-letter /n/? It is used both at the beginning and at the end of words.
Show the Phonogram Card gn .
Vocabulary
This is two-letter /n/ used both at the beginning and at the
end of the word. Discuss the meaning of the words gnat,
Whisper that with me. two-letter /n/ used both at the begin- gnaw, and gnash.
ning and at the end of the word
Let’s shout it. two-letter /n/ used both at the beginning and
at the end of the word
Let’s sing it. two-letter /n/ used both at the beginning and at the end of the word
Show the Phonogram Card kn .
This is two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word.
Whisper that with me. two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word
I will show you a phonogram. Tell me if it is used only at the beginning or at the beginning and at the end.
Show the Phonogram Card kn .
only at the beginning
Show the Phonogram Card gn .
both at the beginning and at the end

Syllables
95.2 Syllables – page 89
Read the word. Circle the correct number of syllables.

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Lesson 95 81

Phonogram Practice
Sensory Box
Sensory box
Call out phonogram sounds as students write the phono-
gram in a sensory box filled with sand or cornmeal.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Provide each child with a colored plastic
plate with whipped cream sprayed on it.
Write the phonograms in whipped
cream.

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ī/. I and
O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
1. sign The sign is yellow. sīn sīgn two consonants. Underline
two-letter /n/.

Underline TH and put a 2


over it. /th-TH/ said its second
sound. Put a line over the /ō/.
2 2 Double underline the silent
2. those Those are good drawings! THōz thōse final E. The vowel said its long
sound because of the E. Put
a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/ said its
second sound.

2 Underline /k/ and put a 2


3. school We read a great book at school. sköl sch ool over it. /ch-k-sh/ said its sec-
ond sound. Underline /ö/.

4. moon The moon is bright tonight. mön moon Underline /ö/.

Underline /ar/. Underline


5. starting They are starting the race! stär tĭng star ting /ng/.

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82 Lesson 95

Writing
Writing Teacher Tip
95.3 Skills – page 90
In a classroom, ask the students to copy
The past few lessons we have talked about skills that different their sentence onto a piece of paper and
kids can do. Name someone you know who has a skill. draw a picture of the activity at the top.
Group all the pages together and bind
As the children name people who have skills, write the per- them into a "We Can Do Great Things"
class book.
son's name and their skill on the board.

Name Skill
Josh write books
Hannah run fast
I ___________

On the chart in your workbook, write your name, then write a skill that you have.
Let's use our chart to make sentences. For example: Josh can write books.
Write the sentence on the whiteboard: Josh can write books.
Notice I used an uppercase letter at the beginning of the sentence. I also put a period at the end.
Now it is your turn to write a sentence about what you can do. It should begin: I can…

Fluency
Reading Sort
Scissors
95.4 Reading Sort – page 91 High Frequency Word Cards from
Put the words face down in a pile in the middle of the previous lessons
room. Designate two places in the room for new word
piles. One will be Easy/Mastered, the second will be
More Practice. Each place should require movement to Teacher Tip
get there. Tell the student to choose a word, run to you, Save the high frequency word cards for
and read the word. Explain that you will point to the use with later lessons.
pile she must add it to. She is to run there, then run to
get another word. To send it to the Easy/Mastered pile
you are looking for instant recognition. You may also tell the student at various moments to
switch piles and read from the More Practice pile.

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REVIEW C
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1

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punctuation.

Phonograms Read wr, oo. 1

Read kn, gn. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read compound words. 2

Read words with the suffixes -ing, -est, -er, -es. 2

Read words that follow the rule: I and O may say /ī/ and
2
/ō/ before two consonants.

Read sentences and follow simple directions. 2

83
84 Review C

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards wr , oo , kn ,
(wr, oo, kn, gn) gn

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
C.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 93
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with Challenge
your highlighter.
Dictate the phonogram and ask the stu-
1. /r/ two letter /r/ dent to write it on a whiteboard without
a visual reference.
2. /n/ two-letter /n/ used both at the beginning and the end
of the word.
3. /ö-ü-ō/
4. /n/ two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word.

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
C.2 Handwriting – page 94
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

Spelling Assessment
Spelling Scissors
C.3 Spelling – page 95
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in Teacher Tip
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly.
Some students may misspell will with
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place only one L. If that happens, gently remind
to spell the word. the student, "We often double F, L and S
after a single, short vowel." However, do
know will not count this as an error.
book
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Review C 85

Reading Assessment
Comprehension
Teacher Tip
C.4 Matching – page 97
Many students may still be struggling
Read the words. Match them to the correct picture. with fluency but be able to match the
pictures independently. If possible, listen
to students read each sentence aloud.
Note how the student reads the various
types of words.

High Frequency Words


Slips of paper
C.5 High Frequency Words – page 99 Basket
Read each word aloud.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Write the words on slips of paper. Ask the
student to read each one, then crumple it
up and shoot it at a basket.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Sprint" on page 38
"Phonogram Light Up" on page 42
"Phonogram Slap" on page 49
"Phonogram Board Game" on page 53
"Go Fish" on page 62
"Phonogram Collage" on page 65
"Last One!" on page 69
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 76
"Sensory Box" on page 81

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86 Review C

I and O may Say /ī/ and /ō/


"I and O May Say /Ī/ and /Ō/" on page 60
"Forming Words with -OLD" on page 61
"Forming Words with -IND" on page 64
"Long Vowel Game" on page 65

Words with the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month. Provide the student with a pointer to
point to each word as he reads it.
Reading Comprehension
"Reading Sort" on page 82
"What Are You Doing?" on page 44
"The Farm" on page 51
"Read and Do" on page 63

High Frequency Words


"Reading Sort" on page 82

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LESSON 96
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Learn about open and closed syllables.

SPELLING RULES: A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc. Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.


SPELLING: over, beside, between, feather, going

COMPREHENSION: Learn the importance of keywords. Read a description of a bird and


match it to the correct picture.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards, stopwatch, highlighter, red and blue dry
erase markers, /er/ Poster from Lesson 83

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, a book about birds

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Race - Individual
Phonogram Cards learned so far
Today you will race yourself. I will show you some phono-
Stopwatch
grams. You need to read the sounds. When you have read all
of them, I will stop the stopwatch. Then we will try again and
see if you can beat your time.

Phonogram Race - Classroom


Phonogram Cards learned so far
Divide the class into two teams. Time each team reading
Stopwatch
the phonograms.

87
88 Lesson 96

Phonemic Awareness
Short and Long Vowels
Whiteboard
I will say a vowel sound. Write it on your whiteboard with the
marking. If it is a short sound, crouch down and then show it
to me; if it is a long sound, stand up tall and then show it to me.

/ō/ /ĕ/ /ă/


/ū/ /ī/ /ŭ/
/ŏ/

Long Vowels at the End of Syllables Teacher Tip


I will write a word on the board. Read it to me. Then tell me if
the vowel is long or short and why. If you listen closely, the long vowels are
comprised of two vowel sounds. The sec-
no ond sound is produced as the mouth
glides to a close to finish the syllable. Long
long - A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the vowels are sometimes called diphthongs
syllable. or gliding vowels. However, you can also
Say, "no" and feel your mouth. Notice that at the end of the sustain the vowel and feel the mouth re-
maining open. For example: n-ō-ō-ō-ō.
word your mouth is open for the vowel.
This is sometimes called an open syllable.
not
short - the vowel is not at the end of the syllable.
Say, "not" and feel your mouth. Your mouth closes to say the /t/ sound. The /t/ closes the syllable so that
the vowel says its short sound.
This is sometimes called a closed syllable. I sometimes think of the consonant like a door that is closing
the syllable so that the vowel can only say its short sound. Vowels can only say their long sound when the
door is open.
me
long - A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
Is this an open or closed syllable? open
met
short - the vowel is not at the end of the syllable.
Is this an open or a closed syllable? closed
The /t/ is closing the syllable.

How do we know if a vowel will say its short sound or its long sound?
It says its short sound in the middle of the syllable, or when the syllable is closed. It says its long sound at
the end of the syllable, or when the syllable is open.

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Lesson 96 89

Spelling Rule
AEOU
Highlighter
96.1 Discover the Rule – page 100
Today you will be a word detective. In your workbook you
have a list of words. I will read each word to you. After I read a word, I want you to say the word aloud and
count the number of syllables.

paper paper two open open two


began began two music music two

I will read them again. I want you to listen for a long vowel sound. If you hear a vowel say its long sound,
put a line over it.

paper mark /ā/ open mark /ō/


began mark /ē/ music mark /ū/

Now I want you to put your hand under you chin and read each word with me. Read the word, exaggerat-
ing the break between the syllables.

pa per o pen
be gan mu sic

Can you feel where the syllable breaks? It breaks after the long vowel.
Let’s read them again and feel our mouths open for the syllable.
We have a rule about this. Do you remember it? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the
syllable.

These words have an open syllable. There is not a consonant to close it. Therefore the vowel says its long
sound.

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90 Lesson 96

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Draw a line over the /ō/. A
E O U usually say their long
1. over He rode his bike over the bridge. ō ver ō ver sounds at the end of the syl-
lable. Underline /er/. Add to
the /er/ Poster.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the syl-
2. beside May I sit beside you? bē sīd bē sīde lable. Draw a line over the /ī/.
Double underline the silent
final E. The vowel says its long
sound because of the E.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
Please stand between the desk and
3. between the table.
bē twēn bē tween sounds at the end of the
syllable. Underline /ē/ double
/ē/.

Underline /ĕ/ and put a 2


over it. /ē-ĕ-ā/ said its second
2 2 sound. Underline /TH/ and
4. feather I found a black feather. fĕTH er fea th er put a 2 over it. /th-TH/ said its
second sound. Underline /er/.
Add to the /er/ Poster.

Put a line over the /ō/. A E


O U usually say their long
5. going Where are we going? gō ĭng gō ing sounds at the end of the syl-
lable. Underline /ng/.

over
The first word is over. He rode his bike over the bridge. over
Place your hand under your chin and say over. How many syllables in over? two
Now hum over. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
The first syllable is /ō/. The second syllable is /ver/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ō/. /ō/
Second syllable /ver/. /v-er/
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Use the /er/ of her.

Now write /ō-ver/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes over on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write over. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes over on the board.

First syllable /ō/. /ō/


Second syllable /ver/. /v-er/
Why did the O say its long sound /ō/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ō/? Put a line over it.
What do we need to underline? /er/
Let’s read it together. /ō-v-er/ over
Let's add over to the /er/ poster. What column should we write over under? ER

beside
The second word is beside. May I sit beside you? beside
Place your hand under your chin and say beside. How many syllables in beside? two
Now hum beside. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
The first syllable is /bē/. The second syllable is /sīd/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /bē/. /b-ē/
Second syllable /sīd/. /s-ī-d/
Silent final E.

Now write /bē-sīd/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes beside on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write beside. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes beside on the board.

First syllable /bē/. /b-ē/


Second syllable /sīd/. /s-ī-d/
What do I need to add to the end? a silent final E
Why? What does it say without the E? bēsĭd
Why did the E say its long sound /ē/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How do we mark the word? Put a line over the /ē/. Put a line over the /ī/. Double underline the silent
final E.
Let’s read it together. /b-ē-s-ī-d/ beside

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92 Lesson 96

Comprehension
Birds
Book about birds
What is a bird?
As the students describe birds, write keywords on the board:
Multi-Sensory Fun
Birds If possible go outside to observe birds.
Discuss the size, color of the beaks, eyes,
wings wings, heads. Or read a book about local
birds. Look carefully at the pictures.
feathers
lay eggs
fly

Notice, as you described birds, I took notes. I only wrote down keywords. These are the most important
words.
Write has on the board.
Do you think has is a keyword? no
Does has tell us anything about birds? no
Write was on the board.
Is was a keyword? no
Why? It doesn't tell us anything about birds.
Some words are important for making a correct sentence, but they are not the words that are most im-
portant to expressing an idea.

Matching
Teacher Tip
96.2 Birds – page 101
A student might read the T and H in
Read the description of the bird. Look at the picture closely. nuthatch as the /th/ phonogram. If this
Match it to the correct picture. happens, point out that it is two phono-
grams.
Underline the keywords in each sentence that helped you to
match the pictures to the correct bird.

Vocabulary
Point out the two words nut and hatch in
nuthatch. Ask the students why the bird
may possibly be named a nuthatch. Nut-
hatches are known for cracking open
nuts.

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LESSON 97
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Review open and closed syllables.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn bu .

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SPELLING RULE: Practice A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syl-
lable.

SPELLING: open, buy, robot, other, front

COMPREHENSION: Reader 4 - Ostriches

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card bu , 2 decks of Phonogram Game Cards,
scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, Reader 4

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, small prize, toy car

Phonograms
The Phonogram bu
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card bu . Phonogram Card bu
This says /b/. What does it say? /b/
How many letters are in /b/? two
Do we have other ways to spell /b/? Yes, we can spell it with a B.
We will call this two-letter /b/. Can we use two-letter /b/ at the end of the word? No.
Why not? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Write two-letter /b/ three times on your whiteboard.

93
94 Lesson 97

Phonogram Practice
Go Fish
2 decks of Phonogram Game Cards
Deal five cards per player. Place the remaining cards in
Choose 20-30 matching pairs
the middle of the table face down and spread them out
into a “fishing pond.” The first player chooses another
player to ask, “Do you have a ___?” Students should ask
for a phonogram that matches one in their hand by say-
ing the sound(s). If the answer is “yes,” the asking player Challenge
receives the card and lays down the matched pair. The
Include three or four of each phonogram
asking player then repeats her turn. If the answer is “no,” card. Students must then find sets of
the player who was asked should say, “Go fish.” The ask- three or four in order to lay them down.
ing player then draws a card from the pond. If a match is
found, it is laid down and the asking player repeats her
turn. If no match is found, play moves to the next player on the left. Continue to play until all
the cards have been matched. The player with the most matches wins.

Phonemic Awareness
Two-Syllable Words
Small prize
97.1 Two-Syllable Words – page 102
Let’s sound out each word.
Multi-Sensory Fun
hotel robot basket rabbit
Find a small prize. Tell the student that for
Read each word again. Mark each vowel as long or short. each word he reads correctly and each
question he answers correctly he will re-
hōtĕl rōbŏt băskĕt răbbĭt ceive one point. When he has reached 10
points he earns the prize.
Place your hand under your chin. We will read each word
again. Count the syllables.
hotel two
What is the first syllable? ho
Notice it is in red. Why did the O say its long sound? It is at the end of the syllable. The syllable is open.
What is the second syllable? tel
Why did the E say its short sound? It is in the middle of the syllable. The syllable is closed.
Continue by reading and discussing the reason for the long and short vowels in the remaining words.

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Lesson 97 95

Spelling Rule Practice


Long Vowel Hunt Scissors
Toy car
97.2 Long Vowel Hunt – page 103
Cut out the words. Hide them throughout the room. Ask the
students to find a word, bring it to you, and read it. Each Multi-Sensory Fun
time ask the student to explain why the vowel said its long Line the words up along a wall. Provide
(or short) sound in each syllable. the student with a toy car. Ask the stu-
dent to read a word, then zoom the car at
it.

Spelling List
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles. Red and blue dry erase markers
Lazy Vowel Chart
/er/ Poster

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Draw a line over the /ō/. A
E O U usually say their long
1. open Please open the gate. ō pĕn ō pen sounds at the end of the
syllable.

Underline two-letter /b/.


When a one-syllable word
2. buy We need to buy some milk. bī buy ends in a single vowel Y, it says
/ī/. Put a line over the long /y/.

Draw a line over the /ō/. A


E O U usually say their long
3. robot We built a robot. rō bŏt rō bot sounds at the end of the
syllable.

Underline /TH/ and put a 2


2 over it. /th-TH/ said its second
4. other Try the other one. ŏTH er oth er sound. Underline /er/. Add
to the /er/ Poster. Add to the
Lazy Vowel Chart.

O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed


5. front We sat in the front row. frŭnt front syllable next to W, TH, M, N,
or V.

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96 Lesson 97

open
The first word is open. Please open the gate. open
Place your hand under your chin and say open. How many syllables in open? two
The first syllable is /ō/. The second syllable is /pĕn/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ō/. /ō/
Second syllable /pĕn/. /p-ĕ-n/
Now write /ō-pĕn/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes open on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write open.


The teacher writes open on the board.

First syllable /ō/. /ō/


Second syllable /pĕn/. /p-ĕ-n/
Why did the O say /ō/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
Let’s read it together. /ō-p-ĕ-n/ open

robot
The next word is robot. We built a robot. robot
Place your hand under your chin and say robot. How many syllables in robot? two
The first syllable is /rō/. The second syllable is /bŏt/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /rō/. /r-ō/
Second syllable /bŏt/. /b-ŏ-t/
Now write /rō-bŏt/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes robot on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write robot. Help me write it by sounding it out.


The teacher writes robot on the board.

First syllable /rō/. /r-ō/


Second syllable /bŏt/. /b-ŏ-t/
Why did the O say its long sound /ō/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
Let’s read it together. /r-ō-b-ŏ-t/ robot

other
The next word is other. Try the other one. other
Place your hand under your chin and say other. How many syllables in other? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /ә/.
I will say the word carefully so that you can hear the lazy vowel clearly. /ŏTH-er/
The first syllable is /ŏTH/. The second syllable is /er/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ŏTH/. /ŏ-TH/
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Lesson 97 97

Second syllable /er/. /er/


Now write /ŏTH-er/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes other on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write other. Help me write it by sounding it out.


The teacher writes other on the board.

First syllable /ŏTH/. /ŏ-TH/


Second syllable /er/. /er/
Why did the O say its schwa sound? Because it was next to TH. O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next
to W, TH, M, N, or V.
What do we need to underline? /TH/ and put a 2 over it. /th-TH/ said its second sound. Underline /er/.
Let’s add other to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

front
The last word is front. We sat in the front row. front
Did you hear a lazy vowel sound in front? yes
How do you think it will be spelled? with an O
Why? It is before an N.
We will exaggerate the vowel and say /frŏnt/. Let's sound it out. /f-r-ŏ-n-t/
Now write front on your whiteboard, sounding it out as you write. Remember that it is spelled with an O.
The student writes front on his whiteboard.

Now help me to write it by sounding it out. /f-r-ŏ-n-t/


The teacher writes front on the board.

How do we usually say this word? /frŭnt/


Why did the O say its schwa sound? O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.
Let's add front to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Comprehension & Fluency


Reader
Reader 4
Take out Reader 4.
Read the title. Ostriches
What do you think this book will be about? ostriches
What is an ostrich? answers will vary
Ask the student to read the book aloud.
What are two things you learned about ostriches? answers will vary

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LESSON 98
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Practice reading words which begin with the schwa sound.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn gu .
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VOCABULARY: Practice comparison words. Review A E O U usually say their long sounds
at the end of the syllable.

SPELLING: about, guide, above, before, afraid

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card gu , 2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards,
index cards, scissors, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, tape measure,
Reader 4

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, timer

Phonograms
The Phonogram gu
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card gu . Phonogram Card gu
This says /g-gw/. What does it say? /g-gw/

How many letters are in /g-gw/? two Teacher Tip


Do we have other ways to spell /g/? Yes, we can spell it with
a G. In some dialects students may pronounce
GU as /gy/ in words such as guess.
Can we use /g-gw/ at the end of the word? No.
Why not? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Write /g-gw/ three times on your whiteboard.

98
Lesson 98 99

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Memory
2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards
Mix the Phonogram Game Cards. Lay all the cards face
down in rows in the middle of the table. The first player
chooses a card and flips it upright so everyone may see.
She then reads the sounds. She chooses a second card, flips it upright, and reads the sounds.
If the phonograms match, she keeps the pair and goes again. If the phonograms do not match,
she flips them back over and play passes to the next player. Play ends when all the phono-
grams are matched. The player with the most sets wins.

Vocabulary
Comparison
Index cards
98.1 Comparison – page 105
Read the word. Circle the correct picture.
Write these comparison words on index cards: warmest, coolest, longest, shortest, thickest, thin-
nest, brightest, dimmest, tallest, shortest, biggest, smallest, smoothest, roughest, softest, hardest. Be
sure to use only phonograms that have been taught. Ask the student to choose a pair of com-
parison words, find two objects in the room to compare, and label each object.

Spelling Rules
Long Vowel Sort
Scissors
98.2 Long Vowels – page 107 Timer
Cut out the words.
We have learned three reasons for a vowel to say its long
sound. What are they? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable. The vowel says its
long sound because of the E. I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.

Today we will play a game. I have a stack of words that all include long vowels. You will read a word, decide
why the red vowel is long, then run and put the word in the correct pile.
Show the students the green /ĭ/ and /ō/ card.
This will be where we put words that follow the rule: I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before two consonants.
Show the students the blue silent E card.
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100 Lesson 98

This where we will put words that follow the rule: The vowel says its long sound because of the E.
Show the students the orange A E O U card.
This where we will put words that follow the rule: A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the
syllable.
Put the green, blue, and orange cards in three different locations in the room. Place the pile of word
cards at the starting location. For students who like to race against the clock, time them.

Long Vowels - Classroom Variation


Divide the class into relay teams to play the game described above.

Phonemic Awareness
Schwa
Red and black dry erase markers
What is a schwa sound? It is a lazy vowel sound that says
/ә/.
When we have words with two syllables, often one of the syllables will have a lazy vowel sound.

I will write a word on the board. I will write the syllables in different colors so that you can see which
vowel will say its long sound. First, sound out the word with the long vowel sound. Then blend the word
together. Finally, change the long vowel to a schwa sound. When you say the word correctly, run a lap
around the room.
afraid
/ā-f-r-ā-d/ /āfrād/ /әfrād/
about
/ā-b-ow-t/ /ābowt/ /әbowt/
Continue with the following words:

across around away

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Lesson 98 101

Spelling
Spelling List
Lazy Vowel Chart
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Red and blue dry erase markers
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ā/. A E
O U usually say their long
1. about This book is about a hero. ā bowt ā bout sounds at the end of the syl-
lable. Underline the /ow/. Add
it to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline /g/. Use /g-gw/.


Put a line over the /ī/. Double
2. guide The guide led us through the cave. gīd guīde underline the silent final E.
The vowel said its long sound
because the E.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the syl-
3. above The cupboard is above the sink. ā bŏv ā bove lable. Underline the V. Double
underline the silent final E.
English words do not end in V.
Add to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the syl-
Please wash your hands before
4. before dinner.
bē fōr bē fōre lable. Put a line over the /ō/.
Double underline the silent
final E. The vowel said its long
sound because the E.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the
5. afraid I am not afraid. ā frād ā fraid syllable. Underline /ā/ that
may not be used at the end
of English words. Add to the
Lazy Vowel Chart.

about
This word will have two syllables and you will need to write each syllable in a different color.
The first word is about. This book is about a hero. about
Place your hand under your chin and say about. How many syllables in about? two
Now hum about. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
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102 Lesson 98

Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes


Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /ә/.
I will say the word carefully so that you can hear the lazy vowel clearly. /ā-bout/
What is the first syllable? /ā/
What does the second syllable say? /bout/
The first syllable is /ā/. The second syllable is /bout/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ā/. /ā/
Second syllable /bout/. /b-ow-t/

Now write /ā-bout/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes about on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write about.


The teacher writes about on the board.

First syllable /ā/. /ā/


Second syllable /bout/. /b-ow-t/
Why did the A say /ā/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ā/? Put a line over it.
What do we need to underline? /ow/
Let’s read it together. /ā-b-ow-t/ about
How do we usually say this word? әbout
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

above
For this word you will need two dry erase markers. This word will have two syllables and you will need to
write each syllable in a different color.

The word is above. The cupboard is above the sink. above


Place your hand under your chin and say above. How many syllables in above? two
Now hum above. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /ә/ and in the second syllable /bәv/.
I will say the word carefully so that you can hear the lazy vowel clearly. /ā-bŏv/
What is the first syllable? /ā/
What does the second syllable say? /bŏv/
The first syllable is /ā/. The second syllable is /bŏv/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ā/. /ā/
Second syllable /bŏv/. /b-ŏ-v/
What will you need at the end? a silent final E
Why? English words do not end in V.

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Lesson 98 103

Now write /ā-bŏv/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes above on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write above.


The teacher writes above on the board.

First syllable /ā/. /ā/


Second syllable /bŏv/. /b-ŏ-v/
What will you need at the end? a silent final E
Why? English words do not end in V.
Why did the A say its long sound /ā/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ā/? Put a line over it.
Why do we have a silent final E? English words do not end in V.
Underline the V once and the E twice.
Let’s read it together. /ā-b-ŏ-v/ ābŏve
How do we usually say this word? әbәv
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

afraid
This word will have two syllables and you will need to write each syllable in a different color.
The word is afraid. I am not afraid. afraid
Place your hand under your chin and say afraid. How many syllables in afraid? two
Now hum afraid. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /ә/.
I will say the word carefully so that you can hear the lazy vowel clearly. /ā-frād/
What is the first syllable? /ā/
What does the second syllable say? /frād/
The first syllable is /ā/. The second syllable is /frād/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ā/. /ā/
Second syllable /frād/. /f-r-ā-d/

Now write /ā frād/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes afraid on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write afraid.


The teacher writes afraid on the board.

First syllable /ā/. /ā/


Second syllable /frād/. /f-r-ā-d/
Why did the A say its long sound /ā/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ā/? Put a line over it.

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104 Lesson 98

What do we need to underline? /ā/


Let’s read it together. /ā-f-r-ā-d/ afraid
How do we usually say this word? әfraid
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

Comprehension & Fluency


Re-Reading
Reader 4
Take out Reader 4, Ostriches. Read page 1.
Tape measure
What is the largest bird in the world? an ostrich
How tall is an ostrich? nine feet tall
Underline one keyword on the page.
Measure nine feet along the wall.
Can you imagine a bird that is nine feet tall?
Teacher Tip
Read page 2. Some students may want to underline
What is unusual about ostriches? Though they have wings, more than one keyword. That is fine, just
they cannot fly. be sure they are only underlining content
words.
Underline one keyword on the page.

Read page 3 and 4.


How do ostriches travel? They run. Teacher Tip
How big is an ostrich step? 10-16 feet There are many keywords on every page.
Underline one keyword on each page. The goal is to help students begin to
identify what a keyword is and choose
Have the child take a step. Measure how big her step is one that is interesting to them.
using a tape measure. Measure out 10 feet, then 16 feet.
What it would be like to be able to take one step that is 16
feet long! Teacher Tip

Read page 5. 9 feet = approximately 2.7 meters


300 pounds = 136 kilograms
What does an ostrich do if it is mad or afraid? It kicks.
Underline one keyword on the page.

Read page 6.
What do ostriches eat? plants, roots, seeds, and bugs
Underline one keyword on the page.

Read page 7.
How big is one ostrich egg? It is as big as 24 chicken eggs.
Underline one keyword on the page.
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Lesson 98 105

Read page 8.
Who takes care of the ostrich nest? both the mom and the dad
Underline one keyword on the page.

Read page 9.
What is a baby ostrich called? a chick
How much does a one-year-old ostrich weigh? up to 100 pounds
Underline one keyword on the page.
Discuss how much 100 pounds is.

Read page 10.


How long do ostriches live? 30-40 years
Underline one keyword on the page.
Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this book while showing me the pictures.

Writing
Copywork
98.3 Handwriting – page 109
Teacher Tip
Read the sentence aloud. Copy it using your best handwriting
on the lines below. In Foundations C students should be able
to copy a sentence that is written in a
bookface font into either manuscript or
cursive. Some students will still need a
handwriting model to follow. Additional
handwriting pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store.

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LESSON 99
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Create new words that end in dge .

PHONOGRAMS: Learn dge .


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SPELLING: bridge, pretend, real, more, around

COMPREHENSION: Read and follow directions.

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including dge , ball, Phonogram Game
Tiles, game board markers, die, Lazy Vowel Chart, red and blue dry erase markers, scissors

OPTIONAL: Books about ostriches, pictures of animals

Phonograms
The Phonogram dge
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card dge . Phonogram Card dge
This says /j/. What does it say? /j/
How many letters are there in /j/? three
We will call this three-letter /j/.
Write three-letter /j/ three times on your whiteboard.
What other phonograms do we know that say /j/? Write them on your whiteboard. J and G

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Bowling
Phonogram Cards
Lean 4-5 phonogram cards against the wall. Ask the
Ball
student to read the sound(s) of one of the phonograms,

106
Lesson 99 107

then roll a ball to see if she can hit the phonogram. If she reads it correctly and hits it with the
ball, she may keep the phonogram.

Phonemic Awareness
The Phonogram dge
Phonogram Game Tiles
Let's discover some words that use three-letter /j/.

What does this say?


Multi-Sensory Fun
e dge edge If you are using letter tiles other than the
Logic of English ones, use one color for
What happens if I add an /l/? the DGE and a different color for the rest
of the word. This will help train the child's
l e dge ledge eye to see DGE as a unit. Help children
sound out the words. Point to each
What is a ledge? It is like the edge of something but it is up sound as you read the words.
high.
Show the child a ledge in the room if there is one.

What does this say?


b r i dge bridge

Continue with:
fudge badge dodge
budge ridge

Spelling Rule Practice


Long Vowel Board Game
Game board marker
99.1 Long Vowel Game – page 110 Die
Today we will play a game to practice words that have long
vowels.

Place your game board marker before the first word. Roll the die. The number on the die tells you how
many words you need to read for each turn. As you pass by, read each word. If you are able to read the
words AND explain why the vowel says its long sound in each word, you may stay on the square where
you end. If you miss a word, you must stop on the space before the missed word.
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108 Lesson 99

Spelling
Spelling List
Lazy Vowel Chart
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Red and blue dry erase markers
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints

1. bridge The bridge is icy. brĭj bridge Underline three-letter /j/.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
2. pretend Pretend that you are a lion. prē tĕnd prē tend sounds at the end of the syl-
lable. Add to the Lazy Vowel
Chart.

3. real These flowers are not real. rēl real Underline /ē/.

Put a line over the /ō/. Double


underline the silent final E.
4. more Do you want more water? mōr mōre The O said its long sound
because of the E.

Say to spell /ā-round/. Put


a line over the /ā/. A E O U
We will ride our bikes around the usually say their long sounds
5. around block.
ā rownd ā round at the end of the syllable.
Underline /ow/. Add to the
Lazy Vowel Chart.

pretend
The second word is pretend. Pretend that you are a lion. pre- Teacher Tip
tend
Schwa sometimes sounds more like a
Place your hand under your chin and say pretend. How many short i than a short u, as in precise.
syllables in pretend? two
Now hum pretend. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /prә/.
I will say the word carefully so that you can hear the lazy vowel clearly. /prē tĕnd/
What is the first syllable? /prē/
What does the second syllable say? /tĕnd/
The first syllable is /prē/. The second syllable is /tĕnd/. Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /prē/. /p-r-ē/
Second syllable /tĕnd/. /t-ĕ-n-d/
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Lesson 99 109

Now write /prē tĕnd/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes pretend on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write pretend.


The teacher writes pretend on the board.

First syllable /prē/. /p-r-ē/


Second syllable /tĕnd/. /t-ĕ-n-d/
Why did the E say its long sound /ē/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ē/? Put a line over it.
Let’s read it together. /p-r-ē-t-ĕ-n-d/ prētend
How do we usually say this word? prәtend
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

Comprehension
On the Farm
Scissors
99.2 Barn Activity – page 112 Pictures of animals
Cut out the animals. Read the directions. Put the ani-
mals on the picture of the barn.

Ostriches Multi-Sensory Fun


Find other books about ostriches to read, or watch a Print pictures of a variety of animals. Ask
video about ostriches. Visit a zoo and observe ostriches. students to organize them in categories.
Make an ostrich craft; there are many great project ideas Feathers - Scales - Fur; Farm Animals -
Pets - Wild Animals.
online.

Writing
Dictation
99.3 Dictation – page 116
Dictate the sentence for students to write on their worksheets. Read the sentence aloud two times
and have the students repeat it back and write it. Then have the students read the sentence back with
spelling hints as you write it on the board.
The ostrich is the biggest bird in the world. The ostrich is the biggest bird in the world. The ostrich is the
biggest bird in the world.

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LESSON 100
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ph .

SPELLING: again, phone, below, spell, our


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FLUENCY: Practice reading high frequency words.

WRITING: Write keywords about ostriches.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ph , Phonogram Game Cards, red and blue
dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, scissors

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram ph
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card ph . Phonogram Card ph
This says /f/. What does it say? /f/
How many letters are used in this phonogram? two
We will call this two-letter /f/. What is this called? two-letter /f/
Write two-letter /f/ three times on your whiteboard.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Slap - Individual
Phonogram Game Cards
Place the phonograms face up on the table facing the stu-
dents. Call out a phonogram by its sound(s) and direct
the students to race to slap the correct phonogram.

110
Lesson 100 111

Phonogram Slap - Classroom


Phonogram Game Cards
Divide students into groups of 2-4 and provide a set of
cards for each group. Be sure that all the students can
read the phonograms straight on. Call out a phonogram
by its sound(s). Students race to slap the phonogram. The first one to slap it takes it.

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Lazy Vowel Chart
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Say to spell /ā gān/. Put a line
over the /ā/. A E O U usually
say their long sounds at the
end of the syllable. Underline
1. again I would like to try again. ā gān ā gain two-letter /ā/ that you may
not use at the end of English
words. Add to the Lazy Vowel
Chart.

Underline two-letter /f/. Put


a line over the /ō/. Double
2. phone Mom is talking on the phone. fōn phōne underline the silent final E.
The vowel says its long sound
because of the E.

Draw a line over the /ē/. A


E O U usually say their long
My room is below my parents' 2 sounds at the end of the
3. below room.
bē lō bē low syllable. Underline /ō/ and
put a 2 over it. /ow-ō/ said its
second sound.

We often double F, L, and S


4. spell Can you spell your name, please? spĕl spell after a single vowel at the end
of a base word.

5. our Our grandpa is smart and kind. owr our Underline /ow/.

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112 Lesson 100

again
The first word is again. I would like to try again. again
Place your hand under your chin and say again. again
How many syllables in again? two
Now hum again. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
Where do you hear a lazy vowel? The first syllable says /ә/.
For American dialects:
There is actually a second vowel that we do not pronounce clearly. I will say the word carefully, and you
listen for the vowels.
/ā-gān/
What is the first syllable? /ā/
What does the second syllable say? /gān/
People in England and some parts of Canada say /әgān/.

For spelling purposes we need to remember the first syllable is /ā/. The second syllable is /gān/. Let’s sound
it out syllable by syllable.
First syllable /ā/ /ā/
Second syllable /gān/ /g-ā-n/
Use two-letter /ā/ that you may not use at the end of English words.

Now write /ā-gān/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes again on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write again.


The teacher writes again on the board.

First syllable /ā/ /ā/


Second syllable /gān/ /g-ā-n/
Why did the A say its long sound /ā/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
How should we mark the /ā/? Put a line over it.
What do we need to underline? two-letter /ā/
Let’s read it together. /ā-g-ā-n/ again
How do we usually say this word? әgain
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

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Lesson 100 113

Fluency
High Frequency Word Game
Scissors
100.1 High Frequency Words – page 117
Cut out the high frequency words and place in a stack on
one side of the room. Designate a starting spot, a spot for words the student reads correctly,
and a spot for words that the student misreads.
Today you will have a race. Pick a word. Read it. If you read it correctly run it to this spot. If you misread it
or if I need to help you read it, run and place the word in this spot.
When the student has finished, take a short break. Then ask her to read all the words in the
missed pile and run them to the complete pile.

Writing
Ostriches Multi-Sensory Fun
If I had never heard of an ostrich before, how would you
describe it to me? If possible, go outside to observe birds.
Discuss the size, color of the beaks, eyes,
You may look at your reader to help you remember. Look wings, heads. Or read a book about local
birds. Look carefully at the pictures.
at the keywords you underlined. These will also help you to
remember what you have learned.
As the students describe ostriches, write keywords on the board:

Ostriches
nine feet tall
300 pounds
cannot fly
run fast

100.2 Ostriches – page 119


Choose three of your favorite keywords about ostriches and write them on the chart in your workbook.

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REVIEW D
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1
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punctuation.

Phonograms Read kn, gn. 1

Read bu, gu, dge, ph. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read words that follow the rule: I and O may say /ī/ and
2
/ō/ before two consonants.

Read two-syllable words with long and short vowel


2
sounds.

Read two-syllable words with a schwa sound. 2

114
Review D 115

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards kn , gn , bu ,
(kn, gn, bu, gu, dge, ph) gu , dge , ph

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
D.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 120 Whiteboard
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with
your highlighter. Challenge

1. /n/ two-letter /n/ used both at the beginning and the end Dictate the phonogram and ask the stu-
dent to write it on a whiteboard without
of the word. a visual reference.
2. /b/ two-letter /b/
3. /g/ two-letter /g/
4. /n/ two-letter /n/ used only at the beginning of the word.
5. /f/ two-letter /f/
6. /j/ three-letter /j/

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
Scissors
D.2 Spelling – page 121
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly.
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place to spell the word.

farmer buy cold

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
D.3 Handwriting – page 123
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.
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116 Review D

Reading Assessment
Comprehension Teacher Tip
D.4 Matching – page 124
Listen to students read each sentence
Read the sentence. Match it to the correct picture. aloud. Note how the student reads the
various types of words. Many students at
this stage will still struggle with two-sylla-
High Frequency Words ble words.

D.5 High Frequency Words – page 126


Read each word aloud. Index cards

Multi-Sensory Fun
Write each word on an index card. Ask
the student to read it, then run across the
room and put it in a pile.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters using
either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Collage" on page 65
"Last One!" on page 69
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 76
"Sensory Box" on page 81
"Phonogram Race - Individual" on page 87
"Go Fish" on page 94
"Phonogram Memory" on page 99
"Phonogram Bowling" on page 106
"Phonogram Slap - Classroom" on page 111

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Review D 117

Long Vowels
"I and O May Say /Ī/ and /Ō/" on page 60
"Forming Words with -OLD" on page 61
"Forming Words with -IND" on page 64
"Long Vowel Game" on page 65
"A E O U" on page 89
"Long Vowel Hunt" on page 95
"Long Vowel Sort" on page 99
"Long Vowel Board Game" on page 107

Words with the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month. Provide the student with a pointer to
point to each word as he reads it.
Reading Comprehension
"Read and Do" on page 63
"On the Farm" on page 109

High Frequency Words


"Reading Sort" on page 82
"High Frequency Word Game" on page 113

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LESSON 101
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Review syllables.

SPELLING RULE: C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.


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VOCABULARY: Review words ending in -ing.

SPELLING: center, look, circus, computer, camera

COMPREHENSION: Read and follow directions.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including c , sidewalk chalk and beanbag
or 10-15 sheets of paper and markers, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, high-
lighter, scissors

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, trampoline, objects for workbook page 101.3

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual
Phonogram Cards
Draw a hopscotch board without writing anything in
Sidewalk chalk
the squares. Say a phonogram's sound(s). The student
Beanbag
should write it in a square of the hopscotch board. Fill in
all the squares. The student should toss a beanbag onto
a square, hop to the beanbag reading each phonogram
he touches, pick up the beanbag, and hop back reading Multi-Sensory Fun
each phonogram again. Practice reading the phonograms while
the student jumps on a trampoline one
Indoor Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual time for each sound.
Provide the student with 10-15 sheets of paper. Read
a phonogram's sound(s). The student should write the
phonogram on a piece of paper, large enough so that Phonogram Cards
it fills the page. Write only one phonogram per piece 10-15 sheets of paper
of paper. Once all the phonograms have been written, Markers
arrange the papers into a hopscotch board. Use them to
play Phonogram Hopscotch. (In a classroom, have all

118
Lesson 101 119

the students help create the set.)

Phonogram Relay - Classroom


10-15 sheets of paper with one phono-
Divide students into teams of 2-4 students. Each team
gram written per sheet
should arrange a set of phonograms on the floor in a
line. Each team will line up. When the teacher says "go,"
the first student should hop onto each sheet and read
the sound(s). When he reaches the end he turns around, runs back, and tags the next person
in line.

Spelling Rule
C Softens to /s/
Phonogram Card c
Show the Phonogram Card c .
What does this say? /k-s/
Say the sound /k/. Now compare it to /s/. How are these different? /k/ is in the back of the mouth. I can
continue the sound /s/.

Which sound is softer? /s/


We call /s/ the soft sound.
What do you think we call /k/? the hard sound

I will write a word on the board. I want you to read it. See if you can read the words as fast as I write them.

cat clap
cop act
cut picnic

What do you notice about the /k-s/? It is always saying /k/.

Now I will write some new words with /k-s/. If the /k/ sound does not make sense, try the second sound
/s/.
Write each vowel that follows the C in red.
cent circus
center pencil

What letters do you see after the C when it is saying /s/? E and I.
This leads to our new rule: C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
We will learn some words where C softens to /s/ before Y in later lessons.

Let say the rule together. C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
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120 Lesson 101

Let's whisper the rule. C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
Let's sing the rule. C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.

Now I will write some words with a C on the board. I just want you to say the sound the C will make. If it
says /s/, pretend you are a snake and hiss. If it says /k/, say /k/ and clap your hands.

arc cylinder
lace circus
race lettuce
cider cinder

Phonemic Awareness
Syllables
101.1 Syllables – page 127
Read the word. Circle the correct number of syllables.

Vocabulary
-ING
Red dry erase marker
101.2 Matching – page 128 Highlighter
Write jump on the board.
Show me what this word means.
Add -ing in red to form jumping.
How does adding -ING change the meaning? It means jumping right now.
Read each of the sentences. Highlight the -ING. Match it to the correct picture.

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Lesson 101 121

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline /er/. Use the /er/
of her. C always softens to /s/
She is standing in the center of the
1. center circle.
sĕn ter cen ter before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise
C says /k/. Add to the /er/
Poster.

2 Underline /ü/ and put a 2


2. look We will look at the ducks. lük look over it. /ö-ü-ō/ said its second
sound.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/


of bird. C always softens to /s/
3. circus Sandy is a circus clown. ser kŭs cir cus before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise
C says /k/. Add to the /er/
Poster.

Put a line over /ū/. A E O U


usually say their long sounds
4. computer Chris is a computer whiz. kŏm pū ter com pū ter at the end of a syllable.
Underline /er/. Add to the
/er/ Poster.

Underline /er/. Put two dots


over /ä/. When a word ends
5. camera Smile at the camera! kăm er ä cam er ä with the phonogram A, it
says /ä/. Add to the /er/
Poster.

center
The first word is center. She is standing in the center of the circle. center
Place your hand under your chin and say center. How many syllables in center? two
Now hum center. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? no
/sĕn-ter/ What is the first syllable? /sĕn/
What does the second syllable say? /ter/
Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable. First syllable /sĕn/. /s-ĕ-n/
Use a /k-s/.
Second syllable /ter/. /t-er/

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122 Lesson 101

Use the /er/ of her.


Now write /sĕn ter/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes center on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write center. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes center on the board.
First syllable /sĕn/. /s-ĕ-n/
Second syllable /ter/. /t-er/
Why did the C say /s/? It is before an E.
What is the rule? C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
Is there anything else to mark? Underline the /er/.
Let's read it together. /s-ĕ-n-t-er/ center
Let's add center to our /er/ Poster.

Comprehension
Pre-Reading
Scissors
Write robot on the whiteboard.
Model or real bed, dresser, rug
Who has seen a robot?
Pillow, blanket, doll, teddy bear
What did the robot do?
Lamp, toy frog, clock
Robots are designed to do a job.

Can a robot think for itself? no


How does a robot know what to do? People program a computer to tell it what to do, or people drive
robots with remote controls.

Following Directions Multi-Sensory Fun


101.3 Put It There! – page 129
Use real objects instead of the pictures
Today we will imagine that you are a robot that helps you to from the workbook.
clean your room. Cut out the objects from your workbook.
Pretend you are a robot. Read the directions. Then act them
out.
Challenge
Cut out the phrases. Mix them up. Place
them face down. Have the student draw
a phrase, read it, then act it out.

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LESSON 102
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ei .

SPELLING RULE: C says /s/ because of the E.

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VOCABULARY: Learn that words have units of meaning called morphemes.

SPELLING: water, their, race, eat, bounce

COMPREHENSION: Reader 5 - Robots

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including c and ei , scissors, red and
blue dry erase marker, /er/ Poster, Reader 5

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Spelling Rule
Words Ending in -CE
Phonogram Card c
Show the Phonogram Card c .
I have a problem for you to solve. Sound out the word dance
as I write it on the board. /d-ă-n-s/
Write danc on the board.
Does this say /dans/? no
Why not? There is no E, I, or Y after the C to make it say /s/.
I can make the C say /s/ by adding a silent final E.
Add an E to dance.
Now what does it say? dance
The C says /s/ because of the E. This is our third reason for a silent final E. The C says /s/ because of the E.

I will say a word, then write it on the board. Tell me if I need an E or not and why. /ark/
Write arc on the board.
No, the C said /k/.

123
124 Lesson 102

/rās/
Write rac on the board.
Yes, you need an E to make the A say /ā/ and the C say /s/.

/vois/
Write voic on the board.
Yes, you need an E to make the C say /s/.

C Says...
Scissors
102.1 C Softens to /s/ – pages 133-136
Cut out the words. Place the C says /s/ card at one end of
the room. Place the C says /k/ card at the opposite end.
Today we will play a game. Every word we will read has a C in it. If the C says /k/ we will run and put the
word in this stack. If the C says /s/, run and put the word in that stack.

Look at the word. Then see if there is an E, I, or Y after the C. Tell me if the C will say /k/ or /s/. Then read
the word. After you read the word, run and put it in the correct stack.

Look through the words where C says /k/. Do you ever see an E, I, or Y after the C? no
In the pile where C says /s/, which letters are after the C? E and I

We will soon learn some words where C says /s/ after a Y.


This is because C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.
Teacher Tip
Let's say the rule together. C always softens to /s/ before an
Save the words to use in Lesson 104.
E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.
Let's whisper it. C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, C says /k/.
Let's sing it. C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says /k/.

Phonograms
The Phonogram ei
Phonogram Card ei
Show the Phonogram Card ei . Whiteboard
This says /ā-ē-ī/. What does it say? /ā-ē-ī/
How many sounds is /ā-ē-ī/? three
Write /ā-ē-ī/ three times on your whiteboard.

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Lesson 102 125

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Kangaroo
Phonogram Cards
Ask the student to stand on one side of the room. Explain
that you will show him a card. If he reads it correctly,
he can take one kangaroo hop forward. If he does not
read it correctly, he needs to go back to the beginning. When he reaches the other side of the
room, he wins.

Vocabulary
Morphemes
Red dry erase marker
We have been learning that words are built from phono-
grams. Every word has units of sound that combine together
to form the word.
Words also are built from morphemes.
Write morpheme on the board. Write mor- in red.
A morpheme is a unit of meaning.
Let's sound out morpheme together.
Point to the letters as you sound it out.
/m-or-f-ē-m/
Why is there a silent final E in morpheme? to make the E say /ē/
Sometimes we can look at a word and know something about what it means by looking at the mor-
phemes. For example:
Write cats on the board. Write the S in red.
What does this word tell us? It means the animal cat and that there is more than one.
How did you know there was more than one? the /s/ sound on the end
Cat is a morpheme meaning the animal and /s/ is a morpheme meaning more than one.
Write stomping on the board.
How many morphemes are in stomping? two
What are they? stomp and -ing
Show me what stomp means.
What does -ing tell us? Someone is doing it now.

I will write a word on the board. Quietly read the word in your head. Then tell me how many morphemes
are in the word. Then jump as you shout each morpheme.

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126 Lesson 102

phones 2 phone /z/ tallest 2 tall /est/


papers 2 paper /z/ older 2 old /er/
farmer 2 farm /er/ school 1 school

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put two dots over /ä/. /ă-ā-ä/
said its broad sound. A often
1. water Is the water cold? wä ter wä ter says /ä/ after a W. Underline
/er/. Add to the /er/ Poster.

2 Underline /TH/ and put a 2


2. their Their house is next door. THār th eir over it. /th-TH/ said its second
sound. Underline /ā/.

Draw a line over the /ā/.


Underline the C. Double
underline the silent E. The
3. race Race me to the fence! rās rāce vowel says its long sound
and the C says /s/ because of
the E.

4. eat It’s time to eat. ēt eat Underline /ē/.

Underline /ow/. Underline


the C. Double underline
5. bounce Bounce the basketball to Mike. bowns bounce the silent E. The C says /s/
because of the E.

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Lesson 102 127

Comprehension & Fluency


Reader
Reader 5
Take out Reader 5.
What is the title of this book? Robots
What will we learn about as we read this book? We will learn about robots.
Have you ever seen a robot?

Read the book aloud to me.


Which robot did you find the most interesting?
Why?
Teacher Tip
Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this book Visit www.sciencekids.co.nz/robots.html
while pointing to the pictures. to learn more about robots.

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LESSON 103
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ey .

VOCABULARY: Learn the prefix re-.


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SPELLING RULES: Practice reading words with three reasons for a silent final E.

SPELLING: face, they, reuse, group, return

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including ey and ei , highlighter, die,
game pieces, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, paper and markers, Reader 5

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, short balance beam, tape line on the floor, robot
vacuum cleaner, picture of the solar system

Phonograms
The Phonogram ey
Phonogram Cards ey and ei
Show the Phonogram Card ey . Whiteboard
This says /ā-ē/. What does it say? /ā-ē/
How many sounds is /ā-ē/? two
Write /ā-ē/ three times on your whiteboard.
Show the Phonogram Card ei .
This says /ā-ē-ī/. What does it say? /ā-ē-ī/
How many sounds is /ā-ē-ī/? three
Show the Phonogram Cards ey and ei .
How are these the same? They both say /ā-ē/. They both start with an E.
How are they different? EY says only two sounds. EI says three sounds. One ends in I, the other ends in Y.
Which one may I use at the end of the word? ey
Why can't I use EI? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Write /ā-ē/ three times on your whiteboard.
128
Lesson 103 129

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Tight Rope - Individual
Phonogram Cards
Direct the student to stand against the wall. Show him
Short balance beam
a phonogram. Ask him to read the sounds. If he reads it
Tape line on the floor
correctly, he may take one step forward. His heel must
touch his toe for each step. Then he should write the
phonogram in the air. If he writes it correctly, he may
take another step. When he reaches (choose a location) he wins the game. For extra challenge
use a balance beam or a tape a line on the floor. If the students falls off, he begins again.

Phonogram Stop and Go - Classroom


Phonogram Cards
Choose one student to be the "Stop and Go Light." Pro-
vide this student with a set of Phonogram Cards. Line
up the remaining students side by side in a line facing
the "Stop and Go Light." When the student with the Phonogram Cards turns his back to the
students, they must remain still. The "Stop and Go Light" announces how the students will
move forward, (tiptoe, baby steps, giant steps…) then turns around and shows a phonogram.
The students read all the sound(s). For each sound, they can take one step forward. The "Stop
and Go Light" turns back around, chooses the next phonogram, and announces how they will
move forward. When the students reach the "Stop and Go Light," a new student is chosen to
lead.

Vocabulary
The Prefix re-
Today we will learn a new morpheme. I need you to be a word detective and find what is the same about
these words. When you know, raise your hand.
Write the following words on the board.
redo repaint
reread rewrite
recook remix

What do you notice about these words? They all start with /rē/.
What do you think /rē/ means? to do it again
When we add letters to the beginning of the word it is called a prefix.

103.1 The Prefix re- – page 137


Highlighter
Add the prefix re- to each of the words. Read the new words
aloud, then highlight the /rē/.
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130 Lesson 103

Spelling Rule
Silent E Ladders and Slides Die
103.2 Ladders and Slides – page 138 Game piece

Roll the die. Move ahead the number of spaces shown.


Read each word as you pass and tell why the word needs a silent final E. If you end on a space
with a ladder, climb to the word at the top of the ladder. If you end on a space with a slide,
slide down to the word at the bottom.

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over /ā/, underline
the C, and double underline
1. face Is your face clean? fās fāce the silent E. The vowel said its
long sound and the C said /s/
because of the E.

2 Underline TH and put a 2


2. they They are not home yet. THā th ey over it. /th-TH/ said its second
sound. Underline /ā/.

Put a line over /ē/. A E O U


usually say their long sounds
at the end of a syllable. Put a
2 line over /ū/. Double under-
3. reuse We can reuse this bag. rē ūz rē ūse line the silent E. The vowel
said its long sound because of
the E. Underline /z/ and put a
2 over it. /s-z/ said its second
sound.

3 Underline /ö/ and put a 3


4. group There was a group of kids playing. gröp group over it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said its
third sound.

Put a line over /ē/. A E O U


usually say their long sounds
Please return the cookie jar to Aunt at the end of a syllable.
5. return Cindy.
rē tern rē turn Underline the /er/. Use the
/er/ of hurt. Add to the /er/
Poster.

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Lesson 103 131

reuse Teacher Tip


The next word is reuse. We can reuse this bag. reuse
Place your hand under your chin and say reuse. How many Reuse has two vowels in a row.
syllables in reuse? two
Now hum reuse. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
What is the first syllable? /rē/
What does the second syllable say? /ūz/
Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable. First syllable /rē/. /r-ē/
Second syllable /ūz/. /ū-z/
Use a /s-z/. What will we need to add to the end to make the U say its long sound? Add a silent final E.

Now write /rē uz/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes reuse on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write reuse. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes reuse on the board.
First syllable /rē/. /r-ē/
Second syllable /ūz/. /ū-z/ silent final E
Why did the U say /ū/? because of the E
What is the rule? The vowel says its long sound because of the E.
How will we mark it? Put a line over the /ū/ and underline the silent E twice.
Is there anything else to mark? Put a 2 over the /z/. /s-z/ said its second sound.
Let's read it together. /r-ē-ū-z/ reuse
Cover up the re with your hand.
Teacher Tip
What does this say? use
What does use mean? answers vary When dictating words with more than
one morpheme, ask the student to iden-
Uncover the re. tify the meaning of each morpheme and
how the word meaning changes. This will
What does this say? reuse help students to begin to identify that
words are built not only of phonemes
What does re mean? to do it again which encode sounds, but morphemes
How are use and reuse different? Reuse means to use it again. which encode meaning.
To use can mean to use it only one time.
What does it mean to reuse something? It means to use it
more than one time, or to use it again.

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132 Lesson 103

Comprehension & Fluency


Re-Reading
Reader 5
Take out Reader 5, Robots. Read pages 1 and 2. Paper and markers
Why do people make real robots? to do jobs Robot vacuum cleaner
Can robots think by themselves? no Picture of the solar system

Read page 3.
What tells the robot what to do? a computer
Teacher Tip
Read page 4.
What can robots build? cars and trucks Tear out the reader from the back of the
Look at the picture. Do you think these robots are building a student workbook. Fold it in half and
place a staple near the edge.
car or a truck?

Read page 5.
What does this robot do? It cleans the floors.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Have you ever seen a robot like this?
If anyone in the class has a vacuum robot
Read page 6. at home, ask then to bring it to class for a
Find the word harmful on the page. Underline it. demonstration.
What does harmful mean? It can hurt someone.
What does this robot do? It finds harmful objects.
This robot does jobs that would be dangerous for a human to do, such as finding a bomb inside a build-
ing. Look at the picture. What do you notice about this robot?

Read page 7.
What does this robot do? It can test blood.
Did you know that our blood can tell doctors a lot about our health?
Look at the picture. What do you notice about this robot?
Multi-Sensory Fun
Read page 8.
What do these robots do? They compete and play games. Show a picture of the solar system. Dis-
Have you ever seen a robot competition? cuss how people sent a rocket into space
with this robot to explore another planet.
Read page 9.
Where is this robot? on Mars
Where is Mars?
Teacher Tip
Read page 10. Visit http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/ to
If you were to invent a robot, what would it do? What would learn more about the robot on Mars.
it look like? Draw a picture of your idea for a robot.

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Lesson 103 133

Writing
Copywork Teacher Tip
103.3 Handwriting – page 140
In Foundations C students should be able
Read the sentence aloud. Copy it using your best handwriting to copy a sentence that is written in a
on the lines in your workbook. bookface font into either manuscript or
cursive. Some students will still need a
handwriting model to follow. Additional
handwriting pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store.

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LESSON 104
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn eigh.

SPELLING RULE: G may soften to /j/ before an E, I, or Y.


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SPELLING: eight, replace, gem, sound, gym

COMPREHENSION: Practice identifying keywords.

WRITING: Dictation. Write a list. Use commas in a series.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Cards eigh , c and g , items to cover Bingo
squares, toy cars, C words from 102.1, highlighter, scissors, glue, red and blue dry erase
marker, robot kit/books/movies, blindfold

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram eigh
Phonogram Card eigh
Show the Phonogram Card eigh. Whiteboard
This says /ā-ī/. What does it say? /ā-ī/
How many sounds is /ā-ī/? two
Write /ā-ī/ three times on your whiteboard.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Bingo
Crackers or other treats to cover the
104.1 Phonogram Bingo – page 141 Bingo squares
Using the Bingo game provided, call out sounds while
the students cover them. Play until the board is covered.
Direct the students to read the phonograms back as they uncover each square on the board.

134
Lesson 104 135

Spelling Rule
G Softens to /j/
Phonogram Cards c and g
Show the Phonogram Card c .
What does this say? /k-s/
What rule did we learn that tells us when C says /s/? C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.

Show the Phonogram Card g .


What does this say? /g-j/
I will write a word. See if you can read it as fast as I write it.

gate great
gum glad

What did the G say in each of these words? /g/


Teacher Tip
I will write three new words on the board. Try both the G always says /g/ before an A, O, U, or
sounds /g/ and /j/. consonant, or at the end of a word. G can
only soften to /j/ if it is followed by E, I, or
gem gym Y.
ginger

What do you hear? G is saying /j/ before an E, I or Y.


What does this remind you of? C always softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.
Hmm. C ALWAYS softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.
Do you think G ALWAYS softens to /j/ before an E, I, or Y?

I will write two more words. Tell me what you discover.

get gift
No, G does not ALWAYS say /j/ before an E, I, or Y.

So this is our rule. G MAY soften to /j/ before an E, I, or Y. Does it always? No


Let's say the G rule together while we march around the room. G may soften to /j/ before an E, I, or Y.
Let's say the rule while you slither on the ground like snakes. G may soften to /j/ before an E, I, or Y.
Let's shout the rule. G may soften to /j/ before an E, I, or Y.

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136 Lesson 104

C and G
Scissors
104.2 G Softens to /j / – page 143 Toy cars
Cut out the words. Set them up along the edge of a wall C Words from 102.1
or in a crack in a table. Ask the student to choose a Highlighter
word, read it aloud, then zoom a car at it.

Multi-Sensory Fun
If the student struggles to read these
words, ask him to highlight the letter that
comes after each of the G's.

Comprehension
Learning More About Robots
Items or activities about robots
Watch a video about robots. Watch a robot competition.
Blindfold
Build a robot using a kit. There are many great educa-
tional kits for children ages 5+ about robots. Read other
books about robots. Make a list of types of robots the
kids have seen in movies or at home. Look for robots in the news. Play the following game:

You are a Robot - Set up a simple obstacle course. Blindfold one student, who will be the
robot. Ask the other student to direct the robot through the course; he will be the computer.
Ask the students what it was like to walk through the course without seeing. Discuss how sen-
sors are used in robots to help the robot experience the world.

Matching
Highlighter
104.3 What Are They? – page 145 Scissors
Read the description. Highlight the keywords that tell you Glue
what it is. Find the picture. Cut it out and glue it next to the
description.

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Lesson 104 137

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints

1. eight She is eight years old. āt eight Underline /ā/.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of a syl-
lable. Put a line over the /ā/,
2. replace We will replace the flat tire. rē plās rē plāce underline the C and double
underline the E. The vowel
said its long sound and the C
said /s/ because of the E.

G may soften to /j/ before an


3. gem Her charm bracelet has a pink gem. jĕm gem E, I, or Y.

4. sound He made a quacking sound. sownd sound Underline /ow/.

G may soften to /j/ before an


5. gym I like to play basketball in the gym. jĭm gym E, I, or Y.

Writing and Fluency


Writing Lists
Red dry erase marker
The past few lessons we have been learning about robots.
What are some of the jobs that robots can do?
Write the list on the board as the students name the jobs.

Robots
test blood
clean floors
play games

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138 Lesson 104

We have made a list. Now I will write the list as a sentence.


Write the sentence on the board. Put the commas in red.
Robots can test blood, clean floors, and play games.
When we write a list in a sentence, we need to write a comma between each item in the list.
It tells us to pause when we are reading.
Read the sentence without pausing.
"Robots can test blood clean floors and play games."
We do not read it like this.
Read the sentence with pausing.
"Robots can test blood, clean floors, and play games."
The pause helps us to understand the information better because it separates the items in a list. A comma
does the same thing.

Now it is your turn to read the sentence. Be sure to pause with the commas.

Dictation
104.4 Dictation – page 149
Dictate the sentence for students to write in the workbook.
Choose which line size is most comfortable for you.

I will read the sentence two times. Repeat it back to me, then write it on the paper.

A robot is run by a computer that tells it what to do. A robot is run by a computer that tells it what to
do. A robot is run by a computer that tells it what to do.
(The students write.)
Read the sentence back as I write it on the board. Give me hints about how to write the sentence cor-
rectly. (Start the sentence with a capital letter.) Ā r-ō-b-ŏ-t ĭ-z (use /s-z/) r-ŭ-n b-ī (use /y-ĭ-ī-ē) ā k-ŏ-m-
p-ū-t-er (use /k-s/, use the /er/ of her) TH-ă-t t-ĕ-l-l-z (use /s-z/) ĭ-t wh-ä-t (use two-letter /wh/) t-ö (use
/ŏ-ō-ö/) d-ö (use /ŏ-ō-ö/) (end the sentence with a period).
Supplement the students' suggestions by modeling correctly anything that the students leave out as
you write the sentence on the board. Ask the students to correct their own sentence.

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LESSON 105
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Learn how to count the syllables by counting the vowels.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn cei .

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SPELLING RULES: The G says /j/ because of the E.

SPELLING: even, large, ceiling, page, often

WRITING: Learn how to write a list and use commas.

FLUENCY: Practice reading high frequency words.

Materials
NEEDED: 3 LOE whiteboards, Phonogram Cards cei and g , 6 blocks per student, red
and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, 4 dice, High Frequency Words from previ-
ous lessons, bag, timer

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, 3 clipboards, squirt guns

Phonemic Awareness
Syllables Teacher Tip
What is a vowel? A vowel is a sound you can sing and your
The purpose of this lesson is to introduce
mouth is open. students to the idea that the number of
vowels equals the number of syllables.
What is one way we have learned to count syllables? Feel Since written vowels are so complex in
English, this concept will likely take a
how many times my mouth opens. Hum the word. while to master.

Which type of sound do we open our mouth to say? vowels

So another way to count the number of syllables is to count the number of vowels.
I will write a word on the board. Tell me how many syllables are in the word, then tell me what the vowel
sounds are.
Write paint on the board.
paint 1 syllable The vowel is /ā/.
139
140 Lesson 105

How many letters spell the vowel sound /ā/? two


We will underline the vowel.
Underline the vowel in paint.
Teacher Tip
How many vowels are in the word paint? one
How many syllables? one A vowel may be represented by one, two,
three, or four letters. Though most peo-
Write running on the board. ple learned that the vowels are A, E, I, O, U
and sometimes Y, this is a gross oversim-
Read the word. Tell me how many syllables are in the word, plification. English has 15 vowel sounds
and 28 ways to write them. The vowel in
then tell me what the vowel sounds are. paint is the two-letter phonogram AI.
running 2 syllables The vowels are /ŭ/ and /ĭ/.

How many vowels in running? two


We will underline the vowels.
Underline the vowels in running.
How many vowels are in the word running? two
How many syllables? two
Write cage on the board.
Teacher Tip
Read the word. Tell me how many syllables are in the word,
then tell me what the vowel sounds are. In the word cage, the silent final E is not a
vowel; it is a diacritical marking.
cage 1 syllable The vowel is /ā/

How many vowels did you hear? one


How is long /ā/ spelled in cage? with an A and a silent final E
Underline the vowel in cage.
How many vowels are in cage? one
How many syllables? one
Write below on the board.
Read the word. Tell me how many syllables are in the word, then tell me what the vowel sounds are.
below 2 syllables The vowels are /ē/ and /ō/.
We will underline the vowels.
Underline the vowels in below.
How many vowels are in the word below? two
How many syllables? two

In English every syllable must have a vowel.


Also, looking at how many vowels are in a word will give us a clue as to how many syllables are in the
word.

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Lesson 105 141

Spelling Rule
Words Ending in -GE
Phonogram Card g
Show the Phonogram Card g .
I have a problem for you to solve.
Sound out the word large as I write it on the board. /l-ar-j/
Write larg on the board as you sound it out loud.
Does this say /larj/? no
Why not? The G is at the end of the word. There is not an E, I, or Y after it.
I can make the G say /j/ by adding a silent final E.
Add an E to large.
Now what does it say? large
The G says /j/ because of the E.

Our third reason for a silent final E says, The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
Let's shout the rule. The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
Let's whisper it. The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.

Reading Words Ending in -GE


6 blocks for each student
I will write a word on the board. If you read it correctly, you
may place one block on the tower. When you have used all
the blocks you are finished and may knock down the tower.
Teacher Tip
large page
The A in village says the schwa sound.
age stage
charge strange
cage plunge
hinge teenager
lunge village

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142 Lesson 105

Phonograms
The Phonogram cei Phonogram Card cei
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card cei .
This says /sē/. What does it say? /sē/
Why does the C soften to /s/ in this phonogram? C always Teacher Tip
softens to /s/ before an E, I, or Y.
Technically the CEI phonogram is two
Write /sē/ three times on your whiteboard.
phonograms: C and EI. Logic of English
created this phonogram to replace the
spelling rule beloved by many Americans.
"Use I before E, except after C…" Though
the rule has too many exceptions to be
added to the LOE rules, it does consis-
tently explain that EI is used after C. The
students we surveyed all agreed that add-
ing this as a phonogram aided them in
simplifying the usage of EI and EY. This
phonogram is found in only eight words:
ceiling, deceive, conceit, conceive, perceive,
deceit, receipt, receive.

Phonogram Practice
The Phonogram Circuit - Individual
3 whiteboards or clipboards
Set up 3-5 stations around the room with whiteboards
Squirt guns
and dry erase markers. Tell students you will call out a
phonogram's sound(s). They need to run to each station,
write it, then read it. When they get back to the starting
point, call out a new sound.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Phonogram Circuit - Classroom
Divide the class into teams of 2-5 students. Place one Write phonograms on a waterproof
whiteboard or chalkboard. Place the
whiteboard at each station for each team. Direct each whiteboard outside, in a bathtub, or in
team to form a line. When you read the phonogram, another waterproof area. Provide stu-
one student from each team runs to each of the stations, dents with squirt guns. Read a phono-
writes the phonogram at each one, then returns to start, gram's sound(s). Students should squirt
the correct phonogram.
and tags the next student who runs the circuit writing
the next phonogram.

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Lesson 105 143

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Lazy Vowel Chart
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ē/. A E
O U usually say their long
1. even Even my dog thought it was funny. ē vĕn ē ven sounds at the end of a syl-
lable.

Underline the /ar/. Underline


the /j/. Double underline the
2. large That is a large bowl of cereal. larj lar ge E. The G says /j/ because of
the E. English words do not
end in I, U, V, or J.

Underline /sē/. Underline


3. ceiling A spider crawled across the ceiling. sē lĭng cei ling /ng/.

Put a line over the /ā/. Under-


line the /j/. Double underline
4. page Look at the picture on page one. pāj pāge the silent E. The vowel says its
long sound and the G says /j/
because of the E.

All first sounds. Add to the


5. often We often play together after school. ŏf tĕn of ten Lazy Vowel Chart.

often
The next word is often. We often play together after Teacher Tip
school. often
Some dialects pronounce the second syl-
Place your hand under your chin and say often. How many lable as /tĭn/. If this is the case, exaggerate
syllables in often? two the /ĕ/ sound for spelling purposes. Some
Now hum often. /hm-hm/ dialects say /ŏf ĕn/. If this is the case,
double underline the silent T.
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a Lazy Vowel in oftәn? yes
If we exaggerate the vowel it sounds like / ŏf tĕn/
What is the first syllable? /ŏf/
What does the second syllable say? /tĕn/
Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable. First syllable /ŏf/. /ŏ-f/
Second syllable /tĕn/. /t-ĕ-n/
Now write /ŏf tĕn/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.

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The student writes often on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write often. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes often on the board.
First syllable /of/. /ŏ-f/
Second syllable /tĕn/. /t-ĕ-n/
Is there anything to mark? No.
Let's read it together. /ŏ-f-t-ĕ-n/ often
Let's add often to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Writing and Comprehension


Writing Lists
Red dry erase marker
105.1 Writing – page 150

Today we will write a list about things we will do today.


Teacher Tip
What are some things you will do today?
The goal of this activity is for children to
Write the student's ideas on the board. explore descriptive language. At this
stage, some children will be able to write
a complete sentence to describe the pic-
Things To Do Today ture, others will only write phrases or in-
dividual words. Affirm all attempts at ex-
play a game pression. Do not overly emphasize correct
spelling or usage. Writing correct sen-
go to the park tences is a complex activity requiring stu-
dents to understand subjects, verbs, and
read a book complete thoughts. This will develop
… with time and further instruction.

In your workbook, write three things you plan to do today.


We have made a list.
Teacher Tip
Now we will write the list as a sentence. Some students will be ready to write sen-
First I will write a sentence about what I plan to do today. tences that follow a pattern. Other stu-
dents may simply write the list.
Write the sentence on the board. Put the commas in red.
Today I will play a game, go to the park, and read a book.
Notice between each item I put a comma. The comma sits on the baseline. When we are reading aloud
and we see a comma, we should take a small pause.
Read my sentence aloud. Be sure to pause for the commas.

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Lesson 105 145

Now it is your turn to write a sentence about what you plan to do today. You must include at least three
things you plan to do in your sentence. Be sure to put a comma between each one.

Fluency
High Frequency Word Race
4 dice
105.2 High Frequency Words – page 151 High Frequency Words from previous
lessons
Divide the high frequency word cards between four loca- Bag
tions in the room. Place one die at each location.
Timer
I will set a timer for 2 minutes. When I say, "go," run to the
first spot, roll the die, then select that many cards. Read each
card aloud. If you read it correctly the first time, you get to
Teacher Tip
put it in your bag. If you do not read it correctly, put it back
in the pile. Then run to the next station, roll the die, and read Save the high frequency word cards for
that many cards. Continue until the timer beeps. Then we use with later lessons.
will count how many words you have read.

Optional: High Frequency Word Sentences


High Frequency Words from previous
Use the high frequency words from Foundations A, B,
lessons
and C. Ask the student to choose words and arrange
them into sentences.

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REVIEW E
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


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1
punctuation.

Phonograms Read bu, gu, dge, ph. 1

Read ei, ey, eigh, cei. 3

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read words with a soft C and G. 2

Read words with the first three reasons for a silent final
2
E.

Read two-syllable words with long and short vowel


2
sounds.

Read two-syllable words with a schwa sound. 2

146
Review E 147

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards bu , gu , dge ,
(bu, gu, dge, ph, ei, ey, eigh, cei) ph , ei , ey , eigh , cei

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
E.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 153
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with Challenge
your highlighter.
Dictate the phonogram and ask the stu-
1. /ā-ē-ī/ that you may not use at the end of English words. dent to write it on a whiteboard without
a visual reference.
2. /b/ two-letter /b/
3. /g/ two-letter /g/
4. /ā-ī/ four-letter /ā-ī/.
5. /ā-ē/ that you may use at the end of English words.
6. /sē/
7. /j/ three-letter /j/
8. /f/ two-letter /f/

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
E.2 Spelling – page 155
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in front of the student so that every letter
is oriented correctly.
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place to spell the word.

phone large race

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148 Review E

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
E.3 Handwriting – page 157
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

Reading Assessment
Comprehension Teacher Tip
E.4 Matching – page 158
Listen to students read each sentence
Read the sentence. Match it to the correct picture. aloud. Note how the student reads the
various types of words. Many students at
this stage will still struggle with two-sylla-
ble words.

High Frequency Words


Index cards
E.5 High Frequency Words – page 159
Read each word aloud. Multi-Sensory Fun
Write each word on an index card. Ask
the student to read it, then run across the
room and put it in a pile.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

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Review E 149

Phonograms
"Phonogram Race" on page 87
"Go Fish" on page 94
"Phonogram Memory" on page 99
"Phonogram Bowling" on page 106
"Phonogram Slap - Individual" on page 110
"Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual" on page 118
"Phonogram Kangaroo" on page 125
"Phonogram Tight Rope - Individual" on page 129
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 134
"The Phonogram Circuit - Individual" on page 142

Long Vowels
"Long Vowel Game" on page 65
"A E O U" on page 89
"Long Vowel Hunt" on page 95
"Long Vowel Sort" on page 99
"Long Vowel Board Game" on page 107

Words with the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month. Write schwa words on a whiteboard. Pro-
vide the student with a Nerf® gun to
"shoot" each word as he reads it.
Words with Soft C and Soft G
"C Softens to /s/" on page 119
"Words Ending in -CE" on page 123
"G Softens to /j/" on page 135
"C and G" on page 136
"Reading Words Ending in -GE" on page 141

Silent Final E Words


"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 130

Reading Comprehension
"Read and Do" on page 63
"On the Farm" on page 109
"Following Directions" on page 122

High Frequency Words


"Reading Sort" on page 82
"High Frequency Word Game" on page 113
"High Frequency Word Race" on page 145

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LESSON 106
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Create new words that end in -LE.

SPELLING RULE: Every syllable must have a written vowel.


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SPELLING: apple, orange, little, together, food

COMPREHENSION: Learn to identify the main idea in a paragraph.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Game Cards, piece of paper, red and blue dry
erase markers, Phonogram Game Tiles, /er/ Poster

OPTIONAL: Timer

Phonogram Practice
Matching Phonograms - Individual
Phonogram Game Cards
Place a whiteboard at one end of the room and distribute
Whiteboard
the game cards at the other end in a random pile. Tell
Timer
the student you will say the sound(s) of a phonogram.
He needs to write it on the whiteboard. Check to see if
he is correct, then he should run to the other end of the
room, find the matching Phonogram Game Card, run back to the whiteboard, hold it up, and
read the sound(s). Optional: Use a timer.

Matching Phonograms - Classroom


1 set of Phonogram Game Cards per team
Divide the class into teams of 3-4 students, with a space 1 whiteboard per team
for each team. Place a whiteboard at one end of the room Timer
and spread the game cards in a pile at the other end. Tell
students you will say the sound(s) of a phonogram. The
first student on the team needs to write it on the whiteboard. Check to see if he is correct,
then he should run to the other end of the room, find the matching game card, run back to
the whiteboard, hold it up, and read the sound(s). When he finishes reading the sounds, the
next student in line goes.

150
Lesson 106 151

Spelling Rule
Every Syllable Needs a Vowel
Piece of paper
I will crumple the paper.
Red and blue dry erase markers
Crumple a piece of paper.

How many syllables in crumple? two


Multi-Sensory Fun
Let’s write crumple on the board.
Sound it out while I write each sound. /k-r-ŭ-m-p-l/ For students who want to learn more
about this rule, ask them to do the fol-
Write crumpl on the board as the students sound it out. lowing experiment:
Let’s read this together. /k-r-ŭ-m-p-l/ Say the sound /l/.
What is blocking it? My tongue.
That sounds right. How many syllables are in crumple? two Can you sing it? Yes, this sound can be
How many vowels do you see? one sustained.
That is a problem. Every syllable needs a vowel. Do you see a In this way /l/ is a bit like a vowel and a
consonant. When /l/ is heard at the end
vowel in the first syllable /krŭm/? yes of the word it is acting as if it wants to
What is the vowel? ŭ be a vowel. However, since our tongues
Do you see a vowel in the second syllable /pl/? no block the sound, it is really a consonant.
Therefore, we add a silent final E to be the
Then we need to add a silent final E. last written vowel.
Can we hear the E? no
Why is it there? Because the syllable needs a vowel.
This is our new Silent E rule: Every syllable must have a written vowel. Say it with me. Every syllable must
have a written vowel.

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152 Lesson 106

Phonemic Awareness
Creating New Words
Phonogram Game Tiles
Today we will make new words using phonogram tiles. I have
arranged the letters in a pattern. What does this say?
t l e /tl/

What does it say when I add these letters?


l i t t l e little

How does this change it?


s e t t l e settle

Continue as above. Sound out the following words.

b o t t l e p a d d l e

r a t t l e p e d d l e

t a t t l e s a d d l e

b a t t l e r i d d l e

m i d d l e w a d d l e

106.1 Matching – page 160


Read the sentence. Match it to the correct picture.

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Lesson 106 153

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Double underline the silent
1. apple This is a delicious apple. ăp pl ap ple final E. Every syllable must
have a written vowel.

Underline /or/. Underline


/j/ and double underline
2. orange My favorite pair of shoes is orange. or ănj or ange the silent E. The G says /j/
because of the E.

Double underline the silent


3. little That is a little kitten. lĭt tl lit tle final E. Every syllable must
have a written vowel.

Put two dots over the /ö/.


/ŏ-ō-ö/ said its broad sound.
2 Underline /TH/ and put a 2
4. together We like to play that game together. tö gĕTH er tö geth er over it. /th-TH/ said its second
sound. Underline /er/. Add to
the /er/ Poster.

5. food Bring your favorite picnic food. föd food Underline /ö/.

apple
The first word is apple. This is a delicious apple. apple
Place your hand under your chin and say apple. How many syllables in apple? two
Now hum apple. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
What is the first syllable? /ăp/
What does the second syllable say? /pl/
Let’s sound it out syllable by syllable. First syllable /ăp/. /ă-p/
Second syllable /pl/. /p-l/
Add a silent final E.
Now write /ăp pl/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes apple on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write apple. Sound it out as I write it.


The teacher writes apple on the board.
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154 Lesson 106

First syllable /ăp/. /ă-p/


Second syllable /pl/. /p-l/
Add a silent final E.
How do we mark a silent final E? Underline it twice.
Why do we need a silent final E? Every syllable must have a written vowel.
Let's read it together. /ă-p-p-l/ apple

Comprehension & Fluency


Fred
106.2 Fred – page 162
Read the story.

Notice this story is broken into seven parts. Each part is called a paragraph. When writers express their
ideas, they organize them into groups.

Point to each of the paragraphs.

How many paragraphs are in this story? seven

Re-read the first paragraph. What is this paragraph about? It tells what the turtle looks like.

Re-read the second paragraph. What is it about? It tells where the turtle lives.

Re-read the third paragraph. What is it about? It tells what Fred does when he wants to eat.

Re-read the fourth paragraph. What is it about? It tells what Fred eats.

Re-read the fifth paragraph. What is it about? It tells about how Fred likes to take a bath.

Re-read the sixth paragraph. What is it about? It tells about what Fred likes to do in the bathtub.

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LESSON 107
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Further explore open and closed syllables.

PHONOGRAMS: Learn ew .

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SPELLING RULES: Practice silent E rules.

SPELLING: new, table, purple, letter, brown

COMPREHENSION: Reader 6 - Dolphins

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Card ew , highlighter, chalk, red and blue dry
erase markers, /er/ Poster, Reader 6

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, paper

Phonograms
The Phonogram ew
Phonogram Card ew
Show the Phonogram Card ew . Whiteboard
This says /ö-ū/. What does it say? /ö-ū/
Write /ö-ū/ three times on your whiteboard.

Phonogram Practice
Blind Writing
Whiteboard
Call out a phonogram by the sound(s). Ask the students
to write it on their whiteboard with their eyes closed.
Practice the phonograms that students have not yet mas- Teacher Tip
tered.
This activity is good for practicing the
muscle memory needed to master fluid
handwriting.

155
156 Lesson 107

Phonemic Awareness
Double Consonants and Short Vowels
Highlighter
107.1 Silent E's – page 164
In your workbook you have two lists of words with a silent
final E in the last syllable. You will be a detective and discover Teacher Tip
what is happening in each of these words. Read the words in
the first column. This concept may be too abstract for
some students. Others will recognize that
apple bottle the vowel will say its long sound before a
single consonant and find it helpful for
bubble wiggle reading and spelling. For students who do
paddle not understand the pattern, move on.
When sounding out words, they may
What do you notice about these words? They all end in LE. simply try the various vowel sounds in or-
They all have double letters. der of frequency until they find the one
that makes sense.
Highlight the double letters. Is the vowel short or long? short
Mark each of the vowels with the short sound.
Do you see the colors in the words? That is where the syllable
divides. The syllable divides between the double letters. The double letters close the syllable so that the
vowel is short.

Read each of the words in the second column.

maple staple bugle


table title

What is the same about these words? They all end in LE.
What is different? They do not have double letters. The vowel says its long sound.
How many syllables are in the word maple? two
Why does the A say its long sound in maple? It is at the end of the syllable.
What is the rule? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
When there is only one consonant before the /l/, the syllable is open and the vowel says its long sound.
Let's read the words again.

Spelling Rule Practice


Silent Final E Game
Chalk
Draw a hopscotch board with fifteen squares. Write one
Paper
of the following silent final E words on each square. If
you are playing indoors use sheets of paper to create the
game.
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Lesson 107 157

Place a stone on one of the words. Ask the student to hop to it. Before he hops on each square
he should read the word. When he reaches the word with the stone, he should read the word,
tell why the E is needed, then hop back.

table sauce
solve page
true stage Challenge
cage fence
cable peace Dictate the words for students to write
before playing the game.
cave blue
same simple
have

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints

1. new I have a new coat. nö new Underline /ö/.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the
2. table The plate is on the table. tā bl tā ble syllable. Double underline the
silent final E. Every syllable
must have a written vowel.

Underline the /er/. Double


underline the silent final E.
3. purple The purple sweater is cute. per pl pur ple Every syllable must have a
written vowel. Add to the
/er/ Poster.

What is the first letter in your Underline /er/. Add to the


4. letter name?
lĕt ter let ter /er/ Poster.

5. brown The brown dog ran away. brown brown Underline /ow/.

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158 Lesson 107

Comprehension & Fluency


Reader
Reader 6
Take out Reader 6.
What is the title of this book? Dolphins
Have you ever seen a dolphin?
If I have never seen a dolphin before, how would you describe it to me?

Read the book aloud to me.


What is something new you learned about dolphins?

Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this book while pointing at the pictures.

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LESSON 108
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ui .

SPELLING RULES: Add a silent E to make the word look bigger.

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VOCABULARY: The prefix un-.

SPELLING: are, were, fruit, shape, huge

READING COMPREHENSION: Practice identifying the main idea in a paragraph. Use


keywords.

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Card ui , Phonogram Game Cards, 6 index cards,
zipper, pipe cleaner, shirt with buttons, towel, jacket with snaps, lock, /er/ Poster, high-
lighter, Reader 6

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles

Phonograms
The Phonogram ui
Phonogram Card ui
Show the Phonogram Card ui . Whiteboard
This says /ö/. What does it say? /ö/
Can you use /ö/ at the end of the word? no
Why? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Write /ö/ three times on your whiteboard.

159
160 Lesson 108

Phonogram Practice
Go Fish
Phonogram Game Cards
Deal five cards per player. Place the remaining cards in
Choose 20-30 matching phonogram
the middle of the table face down and spread them out
pairs.
into a “fishing pond.” The first player chooses another
player to ask, “Do you have a ___?” Students should ask
for a phonogram that matches one in their hand by say-
ing the sound(s). If the answer is “yes,” the asking player receives the card and lays down
the matched pair. The asking player then repeats her turn. If the answer is “no,” the player
who was asked should say, “Go fish.” The asking player then draws a card from the pond. If
a match is found, it is laid down and the asking player repeats her turn. If no match is found,
play moves to the next player on the left. Continue to play until all the cards have been
matched. The player with the most matches wins.

Spelling Rule
Silent Final E
Today we will learn a new reason for a silent final E. Sometimes we add an E to very short words to make
them look bigger. I will write a word on the board. I want you to read it.
Double underline the silent E in each word as you write it.
are were
axe owe

Why do we need a silent E in these words? to make them look bigger

Vocabulary
The Prefix un-
Six index cards
Write the following words on six index cards.
Zipper
unlock unfold
Pipe cleaner
unzip unbutton
unbend unsnap Shirt with buttons
Towel
Place the objects on the table. Ask the student to choose a Jacket with snaps
word, read it, then act it out using one of the objects. Lock

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Lesson 108 161

What is the same about each of these words? They all start with un-.

What does /ŭn/ mean? It means to do it in reverse or to undo an action.

Point to the word unlock. How many morphemes are in unlock? two
What are they? un and lock
How many are in unsnap? two un and snap

Spelling
Spelling List
/er/ Poster
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline the/ar/. Double
underline the silent final E.
1. are Are you ready to go? ar are Add an E to make the word
look bigger.

Underline the /er/. Double


underline the silent final E.
2. were We were at the park. wer were Add an E to make the word
look bigger. Add to the
/er/ Poster.

3. fruit We had a fruit salad for lunch. fröt fruit Underline /ö/.

Underline /sh/. Put a line over


the /ā/ and double underline
4. shape What is your favorite shape? shāp shāpe the silent final E. The vowel
said its long sound because
of the E.

Put a line over the /ū/. Under-


line the /j/. Double underline
5. huge Wow, this statue is huge! hūj hūge the silent final E. The vowel
said its long sound and the G
said /j/ because of the E.

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162 Lesson 108

Comprehension & Fluency


Re-Reading
Highlighter
Take out Reader 6, Dolphins. Each page of Dolphins has one
Reader 6
paragraph. Each paragraph is about one idea. As we read the
pages, I want you to think about what is the main idea of the
paragraph.

Read page 1.
What is this page about? It describes dolphins.
What are some keywords that describe dolphins? smart, playful, smile, swim
Choose two keywords that describe dolphins and highlight them.

Read page 2.
What is this paragraph about? It is about how dolphins jump.
Highlight the word jump.
How high can dolphins jump? 16 feet

Go outside and measure 16 feet. Compare it in height to a tree or building.


Have you ever seen a dolphin jump?
Where?

Read page 3.
What is this page about? It is about how dolphins breathe, or how dolphins get air.
Highlight the word breath. (Or highlight air.)
How do dolphins breathe? They go up to the surface and breathe through a blowhole.
Look at the picture. Find the blowhole in the top of the dolphin's head.
Do you have a blowhole? no
How do you breathe? through my nose
Can you breathe water? no
Can a dolphin breathe water? no
Can a fish breathe water? yes
What does a fish use to breathe? gills

Read page 4.
What is the main idea of this page? It tells how dolphins spy hop.
What does it mean to spy hop? The dolphins jump and look around.
Highlight the words spy hop.

Read page 5.
What is the main idea of this page? Dolphins live in a pod.
Is there a second idea? Dolphins speak to each other.
Highlight pod and speak.
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Lesson 108 163

What is a pod? It is a group of dolphins.


Do dolphins live alone? No, they live in groups called pods.
How do the dolphins talk to each other? They squeak.

Read page 6.
What is the main idea of this page? Dolphins help each other.
Highlight the words care and help.
How do dolphins help each other? If one is sick, they bring it to the surface to help it breathe.
What would happen if they did not bring it up for air? It would drown.

Read pages 7 and 8.


Highlight the word prey.
What do you think prey means? It is the food they eat.
How do they find their prey? They make sounds and the sounds bounce off the prey.
This is called echolocation. Do you hear the word echo in echolocation?
Have you ever heard an echo?
Dolphins send out noises and listen for the sound to echo back to them.

Read page 9.
What is the main idea on this page? Dolphins use a fish ball to hunt.
Highlight one or two words that show the main idea.
How do dolphins hunt fish? They gather them into a fish ball. They hunt together.

Read page 10.


What is the main idea on this page? Dolphins can do tricks.
Highlight one word that shows the main idea.
What kind of tricks can a dolphin learn? catch balls, jump through hoops, swim in teams
Look at the picture. What tricks do you see these dolphins doing?
Have you ever seen a dolphin show?

Writing
Copywork Teacher Tip
108.1 Handwriting – page 165
In Foundations C students should be able
Read the sentence aloud. Copy it on the lines in your work- to copy a sentence that is written in a
book using your best handwriting. bookface font into either manuscript or
cursive. Some students will still need a
handwriting model to follow. Additional
handwriting pages are available for pur-
chase in both manuscript and cursive at
www.LogicOfEnglish.com/store.

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LESSON 109
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Review the meaning of the -S in plurals.

SPELLING RULES: Add an E to keep singular words that end in -S from looking plural.
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SPELLING: horse, swimsuit, house, change, fisherman

COMPREHENSION: Find the main idea.

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, 2 papers, 2 pencils, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/
Poster

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, stamp and ink, books and videos about dolphins

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe Multi-Sensory Fun
109.1 Tic-Tac-Toe – page 166
Provide each player with a stamp and ink
Decide who will play X's and who will play O's. One per- to use on the Tic-Tac-Toe boards instead
son chooses a phonogram and reads the sound(s) aloud. of writing X's and O's.
If he reads it correctly, he may place an X or an O on the
square. Proceed as if playing Tic-Tac-Toe until someone
places three in a row or a tie is declared.

Phonemic Awareness
Listening for Plurals
2 papers
Place the objects on the table.
2 pencils
I will write a word on the board. Using these objects, show
me what the word means.

164
Lesson 109 165

papers

The students holds up 2 papers.


pencil

The student holds up 1 pencil.


Why did you hold up 2 papers and only one pencil? The S makes it plural. The S means more than one.
In other words, S is a morpheme that means more than one in English.

Spelling Rule Practice


Silent E's For Words Ending in /s/
It is time to be a spelling detective again. I will write four words on the board. Read them quietly in your
head.
house purse

mouse moose

Raise your hand if you see something that is the same between all these words. They all end in S and a
silent E.
Read each of the words aloud to me. Teacher Tip
I wonder why there is a silent E in these words.
Does house mean one or two? one This is an abstract concept for students.
The goal is not mastery about why the E
Write hous on the board. is needed but an understanding that
there IS a reason. The goal is familiarity
But if I wrote house like this, it would end in an S. Then it with reading words with a silent E and un-
would look like it meant more than one. derstanding that it is there for a variety of
Point to the word house. reasons. Children may simplify the reason
to: because it ends in S.
We have a silent E in house to keep it from looking plural.

What do we say if I have three of these? houses


Teacher Tip
How many times do you hear the /s-z/ phonogram in
houses? two Some people pronounce houses with
Do you hear another sound between the /s/ and /z/ sounds two /z/ sounds.
in houses? /ĕ/
Write houses on the board. Challenge
The new Silent E rule is: Add an E to keep singular words that If the students understand the concept,
end in S from looking plural. then discuss other examples such as:
base, horse, nurse, purse.

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166 Lesson 109

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline /or/. Underline /s/
and double underline the
1. horse The horse tossed his mane. hors hor se silent final E. Add an E to keep
singular words that end in S
from looking plural.

2. swimsuit My swimsuit is blue. swĭm söt swim suit Underline /ö/.

Underline the /ow/. Underline


the /s/. Double underline the
The gray house on the corner
3. house is for sale.
hows hou se silent final E. Add an E to keep
singular words that end in S
from looking plural.

Underline /ch/. Draw a line


over the /ā/, underline the
/j/, and double underline the
4. change Leaves change colors in September. chānj chānge silent final E. The vowel said
its long sound and the G said
/j/ because of the E.

Underline /sh/. Underline


5. fisherman The fisherman caught five fish. fĭsh er măn fish er man /er/. Use the /er/ of her. Add
to the /er/ Poster.

Comprehension & Fluency


Learning More about Dolphins
Visit a dolphin show. Watch a video about dolphins. Listen to a recording of dolphin sounds.
Make "dolphin sounds" by letting the air out of balloon while changing the size and shape of
the neck. Learn about echolocation. Play Marco Polo with a twist to experience finding prey
using echolocation. Direct the finder to call out "hunt" and those who are trying to avoid cap-
ture call out "fish." Discuss how various animals breathe - study noses, blowholes, trunks, and
gills. Learn about the prey of other animals. For more great resources for teaching children
about dolphins visit: www.dolphins-world.com/Dolphins_for_Kids.html.

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Lesson 109 167

Star Teacher Tip


109.2 Star – page 168
Research has shown that the ability to
Read the story to yourself. identify the main idea is an important
part of reading comprehension as well as
Now let's reread the story together. writing. By discussing the main idea in
texts students begin to learn how written
Read paragraph one. What is the main idea of this para- texts are organized and to develop skills
to aid them in comprehending more
graph? It describes how Star looks. complex texts in the future.
Read paragraph two. What is the main idea of this para-
graph? It tells what Star eats.

Read paragraph three. What is the main idea of this paragraph? It talks about riding Star.

Read paragraph four. What is the main idea of this paragraph? It tells how Star responds when she talks to
her.

Read paragraph five. What is the main idea of this paragraph? It tells about taking a nap with Star.

Writing
Dictation
109.3 Dictation – page 171
Dictate the sentence for students to write on the worksheet.
Choose which line size is most comfortable for you.

I will read the sentence two times. Repeat it back to me, then write it on the paper.
Dolphins hunt together in pods. Dolphins hunt together in pods. Dolphins hunt together in pods.
(The students write.)
Read the sentence back as I write it on the board. Give me hints about how to write the sentence correct-
ly. (Start the sentence with a capital letter.) D-ō-l-f-ĭ-n-z (use two-letter /f/, use /s-z/) h-ŭ-n-t t-ö-g-ĕ-TH-er
(use /ŏ-ō-ö/, use the /er/ of her) ĭ-n p-ŏ-d-z (use /s-z/) (end the sentence with a period).
Supplement the students' suggestions by modeling correctly anything that the students leave out as
you write the sentence on the board. Ask the students to correct their own sentence.

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LESSON 110
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn oe .

SPELLING RULES: Unseen reason for a silent E. Review silent final E's.
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SPELLING: come, some, toes, mouse, uncle

FLUENCY: Practice reading high frequency words.

WRITING: Write a sentence from keywords.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE whiteboard, Phonogram Cards oe and e , Phonogram Game Cards, die,
game piece, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, scissors, basket, high-
lighter

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, slips of paper, Bob Books - Set 2 and Set 3

Phonograms
The Phonogram oe
Whiteboard
Show the Phonogram Card oe . Phonogram Card oe
This says /ō-ö/. What does it say? /ō-ö/
How many sounds is /ō-ö/? two
Write /ō-ö/ three times on your whiteboard.

The Phonogram oe
Vocabulary
Words that use /ō-ö/ are very rare. I will write three
of them on the board. I want you to read them. After If the students know the following words,
introduce these as well: hoe, doe, aloe.
you read the word, use it in a sentence.
toe
shoe
canoe

168
Lesson 110 169

Phonogram Practice
Dolphin Phonogram Hunt - Individual
Phonogram Game Cards - 1 of each
Place the phonograms in a pile. Spread them out. This
phonogram that has been learned
will be your fish ball. Designate an area of the room for
the student to bring the "prey" (the found phonograms).
Say a phonogram's sound(s). The student should "swim"
to the "fish ball," find the phonogram, then "swim" back and place it in the "prey" pile.

Phonogram Echolocation - Classroom


Phonogram Game Cards
Clear a space in the room. Give each student a phono-
Pairs of phonograms
gram. Every student should have an unknown partner
that has a matching phonogram. Students should navi-
gate from person to person while saying the sound(s) of
their phonogram. They must seek for the person with the matching phonogram. (Optional:
Ask the students to close their eyes.)

Spelling Rule
Unseen Reason for a Silent E
Phonogram Card e
Show the Phonogram Card e .
What does this say? /ĕ-ē/

What does it say at the end of some words? /ē/ and sometimes it is silent
Hold your finger up to your mouth and whisper "silent."
When a word ends in an E, it is more likely to be silent than a Teacher Tip
sound than we can hear.
Students may sound out come as /k-ŏ-m/,
What are some reasons we have learned for a silent final some as /s-ŏ-m/, and done as /d-ŏ-n/.
Many students will immediately recog-
E? To make the vowel say its long sound. English words do nize the words despite the fact they are
not end in V. Every syllable must have a vowel. To make the pronounced with a schwa sound. If they
word bigger. do not, then say, "This is an example of a
lazy vowel word. The vowel is saying its
Sometimes we do not know the reason for the E. However, lazy sound /ә/."
the E is still silent.

I will write a word on the board. I want you to read it. Remember, the E is silent and it is not doing any
other job that we can see.

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170 Lesson 110

Underline the silent E twice as the students read the words.


gone some Multi-Sensory Fun
there done
Some linguists suggest the E in these
come none words was once pronounced. Speak in a
funny voice and say the words with a
There are not many words where we cannot see the reason long E at the end.
for the E. However, when we find one, we will simply call it an
unseen reason.

Spelling Rule Practice


Silent E Ladders and Slides
Die
110.1 Silent E Ladders and Slides – page 173 Game piece
Roll the die. Move ahead the number of spaces shown.
Read each word as you pass and tell why the word needs
a silent final E. If you end on a space with a ladder, climb to the word at the top of the ladder.
If you end on a space with a slide, slide down to the word at the bottom.

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Lesson 110 171

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
Lazy Vowel Chart
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Double underline the silent
1. come When will you come back? kŏm come final E. Unseen reason. Add to
the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Double underline the silent


2. some May I have some? sŏm some final E. Unseen reason. Add to
the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline /ō/. Use /ō-ö/. Put a


2 2 over /z/. /s-z/ said its second
3. toes Touch your toes. tōz toes sound. To make a noun plural,
add the ending -S.

Underline the /ow/. Underline


the S. Double underline the
4. mouse We have a mouse in the house. mows mou se silent final E. Add an E to keep
singular words that end in S
from looking plural.

Double underline the silent


5. uncle My uncle is a fisherman. ŭn kl un cle final E. Every syllable must
have a vowel.

come
The first word is come. When will you come back? come
Place your hand under your chin and say come. How many syllables in come? one
Now hum come. /hm/
How many syllables? one
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /kŏm/
Sound it out. /k-ŏ-m/
Use a /k-s/ and add a silent final E.
The student writes come on her whiteboard.

Now help me to write it by sounding it out.


The teacher writes come on the board while the students sound it out aloud.

/k-ŏ-m/
What do we need to underline? Double underline the silent final E.
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172 Lesson 110

Why do we have a silent final E in come? We can't see the reason.


Let’s read it together. /k-ŏ-m/ cŏme
How do we usually say this word? come
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

some
The second word is some. May I have some? some
Place your hand under your chin and say some. How many syllables in some? one
Now hum some. /hm/
How many syllables? one
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /sŏm/
Sound it out. /s-ŏ-m/
Use a /s-z/ and add a silent final E.
The student writes some on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write some.


The teacher writes some on the board while the students sound it out aloud.

/s-ŏ-m/
What do we need to underline? Double underline the silent final E.
Why do we have a silent final E in some? We can't see the reason.

Let’s read it together. /s-ŏ-m/ sŏme


How do we usually say this word? some
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

Fluency
Reading Basketball - Individual
Scissors
110.2 Reading Basketball – page 175 Basket
Cut out the words. Put them upside down in a pile. Slips of paper
Choose a spot for the basket. Make a 1 point line and a 2
point line. Ask the child to draw a word, read it, crumple
Teacher Tip
it up, then try to shoot a basket from either the 1 or 2
point line. Award him one point for reading it correctly If you desire to save these words to use in
and the correct number of points for making a basket. future high frequency word games, copy
the words onto slips of paper to crumple
and throw in the basket.

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Lesson 110 173

Reading Basketball Relay - Classroom


Scissors
110.2 Reading Basketball – page 175 Basket
Divide the students into teams of 3-4 students. Cut out 3
sets of words per team. Provide each team with a pile of
words and a basket. Choose a spot for the basket. Make Teacher Tip
a 1 point line and a 2 point line. Line students up. Ask
Save the high frequency word cards for
the first child to draw a word, read it, crumple it up, use with later lessons.
then try to shoot a basket from either the 1 or 2 point
line. Award his team one point for reading it correctly
and the correct number of points for making a basket. The next student on the team steps up
to read a word and make a basket.

Comprehension
Mice
Highlighter
110.3 Mice – page 177
Read the story to yourself. Highlight one or two keywords in
each paragraph. Teacher Tip

Who is telling us about mice in this story? the cat Different children may select different
keywords. When evaluating keywords,
How do you know this? A cat is pointing to the mouse in the the word should be a noun, verb, adjec-
picture. tive, or adverb. Students should not se-
lect words such as the, is, have…
When we read, the words tell us key information. However,
authors may also use pictures to provide further details.
Readers
Bob Books Set 2
Go, Bus
Bob Books Set 3
Ten Men

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174 Lesson 110

Writing & Comprehension


Giraffes Teacher Tip
110.4 Giraffes – page 180
Discuss why the G says /j/ in giraffe. Also
Look at the picture of the giraffe in your workbook. What are point to the silent final E. Discuss how
some keywords that describe this giraffe? this is an unseen reason for the E.

Write the student's ideas on the board.

Giraffes
long neck
white with brown spots

Write your three favorite keywords to describe a giraffe in your workbook.

Now we will write one sentence that describes the giraffe.


Teacher Tip
Write the sentence on the board.
If the students list words that include
The giraffe is white with brown spots. phonograms or rules that have not been
Read my sentence aloud. learned, provide a simple explanation
while writing the word on the board.
Now it is your turn to write a sentence about what a giraffe
looks like. You may use ideas from the board or create your
own. Challenge
Demonstrate how to write a description
that includes a list. For example: A giraffe
has a long neck, small ears, and long legs.
Highlight the commas. Ask the student
to write a sentence that includes a list.

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REVIEW F
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1

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punctuation.

Phonograms Read ei, ey, eigh, cei. 1

Read ew, ui, oe. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read words with a soft C and G. 2

Read silent final E words with seven reasons for the E. 2

Read two-syllable words with long and short vowel


2
sounds.

Read two-syllable words with a schwa sound. 2

175
176 Lesson 110

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards ei , ey , eigh ,
(ei, ey, eigh, cei, ew, ui, oe) cei , ew , ui , oe

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
F.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 181
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with your highlighter.

1. /ā-ī/ four-letter /ā-ī/.


2. /ö-ū/ that you may use at the end of English words.
3. /ō-ö/
4. /ā-ē-ī/ that you may not use at the end of English words.
5. /ö/ the /ö/ of fruit, that you may not use at the end of English words.
6. /sē/

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
F.2 Handwriting – page 182
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
Scissors
F.3 Spelling – page 183
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly.
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place to spell the word.

morning race fruit

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Lesson 110 177

Reading Assessment
Comprehension
F.4 Matching – page 185 Teacher Tip
Read the sentence. Match it to the correct picture. Listen to students read each sentence
aloud. Note how the student reads the
various types of words. Many students at
this stage will still struggle with two-sylla-
ble words.

High Frequency Words Index cards


F.5 High Frequency Words – page 186
Read each word aloud. Multi-Sensory Fun
Write each word on an index card. Ask
the student to read it, then run across the
room and put it in a pile.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual" on page 118
"Phonogram Kangaroo" on page 125
"Phonogram Tight Rope - Individual" on page 129
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 134
"The Phonogram Circuit - Individual" on page 142
"Matching Phonograms - Individual" on page 150
"Blind Writing" on page 155
"Go Fish" on page 160
"Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe" on page 164
"Dolphin Phonogram Hunt - Individual" on page 169

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178 Lesson 110

Long Vowels
"Long Vowel Game" on page 65
"A E O U" on page 89
"Long Vowel Hunt" on page 95
"Long Vowel Sort" on page 99
"Long Vowel Board Game" on page 107

Words with the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month. Write schwa words on index cards. Pro-
vide the student with a car to zoom at
each word as he reads it.
Words with Soft C and Soft G
"C Softens to /s/" on page 119
"Words Ending in -CE" on page 123
"G Softens to /j/" on page 135
"C and G" on page 136
"Reading Words Ending in -GE" on page 141

Silent Final E Words


"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 130
"Creating New Words" on page 152
"Silent Final E Game" on page 156
"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 170

Reading Comprehension
Have the student re-read one of the readers or texts from the workbook. Discuss the text
together.
Practice reading the Bob Books listed in previous lessons. Discuss the stories together.
"Read and Do" on page 63
"On the Farm" on page 109
"Following Directions" on page 122

High Frequency Words


"Reading Sort" on page 82
"High Frequency Word Game" on page 113
"High Frequency Word Race" on page 145
"Reading Basketball - Individual" on page 172

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LESSON 111
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Listen for the sounds of ed in past tense words.

VOCABULARY: Learn the past tense.

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PHONOGRAMS: Learn ed .

SPELLING: done, planted, pushed, called, tunnels

COMPREHENSION: Practice reading three-syllable words. Pre-reading

WRITING: Write descriptive words.

Materials
NEEDED: 2-4 LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including ed , 3 sheets of paper, scis-
sors, index cards, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, world map

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, finger paint, laser pointer, Bob Books from Sets 2
and 3

Phonograms
The Phonogram ed
Phonogram Card ed
Show the Phonogram Card ed . Whiteboard
This says /ĕd-d-t/. What does it say? /ĕd-d-t/
How many sounds is /ĕd-d-t/? three
Write /ĕd-d-t/ three times on your whiteboard.

179
180 Lesson 111

Phonemic Awareness
Listening for the Sounds of ed
Phonogram Card ed
I will say two words. Tell me what is different between them.

need needed One means I need it now, the other means I


needed it in the past. The sound /ĕd/ is different.
Teacher Tip
want wanted One means I want it now, the other means I
wanted it in the past. The sound /ĕd/ is different. Young children will probably not use the
word "past" but rather "yesterday" or "be-
jump jumped One means I jump now, the other means I fore." That is fine. Your goal is to be sure
they understand the meaning of -ED.
jumped in the past. The sound /t/ is different.

/ed-d-t/ is called the past tense ending because it tells us that


something happened in the past.

Past Tense Words


Phonogram Card ed
111.1 ED Words – page 187
scissors
Show the Phonogram Card ed . 3 sheets of paper or
3 whiteboards
Write "ed" on one piece of paper. Write "d" on a second
piece of paper. Write "t" on a third piece of paper. Put
the papers in three different areas in the room. Cut out Challenge
the words from the worksheet. Place them in a pile face
down in the center of the room. Place a whiteboard or a piece of a paper
at each station. Ask the student to write
All of these words end in the phonogram /ĕd-d-t/. Read the the words at the station with the correct
word. Run and put the word in this pile if the ending ED says sound.
/ĕd/. Put the word in this pile if it says /d/. Put the word in
this pile if the phonogram says /t/.
Teacher Tip
ed d t To play a non-active version of this game,
cut out the words and place them in a
started owned picked pile. Draw the three columns on the
needed called helped board. Ask the student to draw a word
shouted filled jumped and write it under the correct column.
waited opened asked
wanted signed locked
Teacher Tip
missed
Save the cards from 111.1 to use in Lesson
112.

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Lesson 111 181

Reading -ED Words Teacher Tip


111.2 Reading Practice – page 189
If your students do not know the sports
Read each paragraph. Draw a line to match the correct pic- terms: net, slam dunk, pitch, base, court…
ture to the words. discuss the sports and words before as-
signing the activity by showing pictures
of the various sports and discussing them.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Treasure Hunt - Individual
Phonogram Cards
Hide the Phonogram Cards that need additional practice
Whiteboard
around the room. Direct students to run and find the
hidden phonograms. When they find one, they should
bring it to you, write the letter on the whiteboard, and
read the sound(s).

Phonogram Treasure Hunt - Classroom


2-4 whiteboards
Divide the class into two teams. Set up 2-4 whiteboards Write the phonograms learned so far on
in the front of the room. Choose 2-4 students to check 15-20 index cards
the phonograms. Direct one team to cover their eyes.
The second team should hide phonograms throughout
the room. The first team then opens their eyes and searches for phonograms. When a student
finds a phonogram, he must bring it to one of the checkers, read it, and write it on the white-
board. If it was read correctly, the checker awards one point. If it was written correctly, the
checker awards a second point.

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182 Lesson 111

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Double underline the silent
1. done What time will you be done? dŏn done final E. Unseen reason. Add
done to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

2. planted We planted beans. plăn tĕd plan ted Underline /ed/.

Put two dots over /ü/.


3 /ŭ-ū-ö-ü/ said its broad
3. pushed Tucker pushed the shopping cart. püsht püsh ed sound. Underline /sh/. Under-
line /t/ and put a 3 over it.
/ed-d-t/ said its third sound.

Put two dots over /ä/. /ă-ā-ä/


2 said its broad sound. Under-
4. called "Wait for me!" I called. källd cälled line /d/ and put a 2 over it.
/ed-d-t/ said its second
sound.

2 Put a 2 over /z/. /s-z/ said its


5. tunnels We can make snow tunnels. tŭn nĕlz tun nels second sound.

done
The first word is done. What time will you be done? done Multi-Sensory Fun
Place your hand under your chin and say done. How many Write the words with finger paint.
syllables in done? one
Now hum done. /hm/
How many syllables? one
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /dŏn/
Sound it out. /d-ŏ-n/
Add a silent final E. Multi-Sensory Fun
The student writes done on her whiteboard.
Provide the student with a laser pointer.
Ask him to point to a word on the Lazy
It is now my turn to write done. Drive my marker by sounding Vowel Chart and read it.
it out.
The teacher writes done on the board.

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Lesson 111 183

/d-ŏ-n/
What do we need to underline? Double underline the silent final E.
Why do we have a silent final E in done? We can't see the reason.

Let’s read it together. /d-ŏ-n/ dŏne


How do we usually say this word? done
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

planted Teacher Tip


The next word is planted. We planted beans. planted
Place your hand under your chin and say planted. How many Mastering how to spell past tense words
when the ED sounds like /d/ or /t/ re-
syllables in planted? two quires a high level of linguistic sophistica-
Now hum planted. /hm-hm/ tion. The student must not only recog-
How many syllables? two nize the sounds, but also notice that it is a
past tense verb. At this stage the goal is to
Sound out the first syllable plan. /p-l-ă-n/ help students to read these words cor-
Sound out the second syllable ted. /t-ĕ-d/ rectly and become aware of them in writ-
Use /ĕd-d-t/. ing. Later levels of Foundations will work
towards developing greater accuracy
Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue. while writing.
The student writes planted on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write planted. Drive my marker by


sounding it out.
The teacher writes planted on the board.
/p-l-ă-n-t-ĕ-d/
What do we need to underline? Underline the /ĕd/.
Let’s read it together. /p-l-ă-n-t-ĕ-d/ planted
Cover up the -ED with your hand.
What does this say? plant
How are plant and planted different? ED means it happened in the past.

pushed
The next word is pushed. Tucker pushed the shopping cart. pushed
Place your hand under your chin and say pushed. How many syllables in pushed? one
Does pushed mean that it happened in the past? yes
What is /ĕd-d-t-/ saying in pushed? /t/
What does pushed say if we take off the /t/? push
Sound out pushed /p-ü-sh-t/
Use /ĕd-d-t/.
The student writes pushed on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write pushed. Drive my marker by sounding it out.

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The teacher writes pushed on the board.


/p-ü-sh-t/
What do we need to underline? Underline the /ĕd/ and put a 3 over it. /ĕd-d-t/ said its third sound.
Cover up the -ED with your hand.
What does this say? push
How are push and pushed different? ED means it happened in the past.

Fluency
Three-Syllable Words Teacher Tip
111.3 Three-Syllable Words – page 190
In later levels students will learn the syl-
You have been learning so many phonograms and rules that labication rules. At this time, help the stu-
now you are ready to learn to read bigger words. dent to systematically sound out the
word from left to right. If the student
needs help, mark the multi-letter phono-
When you see a big word there are different strategies you grams, vowels, silent E's… and have him
can try. try again.

First, begin at the beginning and try to sound out each pho-
nogram.

If you do not recognize the word, then look at the word and see if you can find any multi-letter phono-
grams and underline them, then try to sound it out again.

Read each of the words aloud. Then match it to the picture.

Comprehension
Pre-Reading
World map
111.4 Pre-Reading – page 192
Look at the pictures. What do you see?

This is a place called Ha Long Bay which is in Vietnam. Teacher Tip


People in this part of the world live on houseboats and in
floating houses. Save the images in this activity for use
with Lesson 115.
Can you find a house in one of the pictures?
What do you think it would be like to live on a houseboat?
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Lesson 111 185

How would it be different from where you live now?


How would you get from house to house?
Would you be able to drive cars?
Show the students where Vietnam is on a map. Point to Ha
Long Bay. Compare this to where you live on the map. Readers
What is a bay? Bob Books Set 2
A place where the land curves around the ocean (or a lake). Bed Bugs (If needed, help the student
to read the contraction don't.)
Point to bays on the map. Bob Books Set 3
Red Car
In the next lesson we will learn more about Ha Long Bay.

Writing & Comprehension


Descriptive Words Challenge
Good writers use descriptive words to describe their subject.
I will read a sentence. Put your thumbs up if it is a sentence Ask the students to make up sentences
aloud that are descriptive and ones that
that is descriptive and helps you to imagine the place. Put are boring. Be aware that many children
your thumbs down if the sentence does not give details and will not have a complete sentence or will
does not help you imagine the place. make a run-on sentence. Do not focus on
this. Rather focus on whether they use
The clear blue water is surrounded by enormous descriptive language.
rocks. thumbs up

There is water. thumbs down

It is a house. thumbs down

The small blue house with a red roof is floating on the water. thumbs up

The bird flew. thumbs down

The red bird with a black head darted from tree to tree in search of the perfect place to build its
nest. thumbs up

111.4 Pre-Reading – page 192


Teacher Tip
Let's look at the pictures again. This looks like a very beautiful
place. Tell me a sentence that describes something you see. Accept any attempts to describe that in-
clude details. Do not worry about proper
Be sure to include descriptive words. grammar, complete sentences, etc. at this
time. The goal is to encourage the stu-
dent to explore descriptive language.

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LESSON 112
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn aw .

VOCABULARY: Match the past and present tense forms of a word.


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SPELLING: missed, saw, draw, person, followed

COMPREHENSION: Reader 7 - Ha Long Bay

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including aw , sidewalk chalk, beanbag,
paper plates, crayons or makers, words from worksheet 111.2, red and blue dry erase
markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, Reader 7, map

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Set 2

Phonograms
The Phonogram aw
Phonogram Card aw
Show the Phonogram Card aw .
This says /ä/. What does it say? /ä/
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel
How many letters are in this spelling of /ä/? two
May we use it at the end of English words? yes
We will call this two-letter /ä/ that may be used at the end of English words. What is it called? two-letter
/ä/ that may be used at the end of English words

Write two-letter /ä/ three times on your whiteboard.


Which one is the neatest?
Put a smiley face next to it.

186
Lesson 112 187

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual
Phonogram Cards
Draw a hopscotch board without anything in the squares.
Sidewalk chalk
Show the student a Phonogram Card. Have him read it,
Beanbag
then write it in the square of his choice. Fill in all the
squares in this manner. Direct the student to toss a bean-
bag onto one of the squares. He must hop to the bean-
bag, reading each phonogram he passes, pick up the beanbag, and hop back again reading
each of the sounds.

Indoor Phonogram Hopscotch


Phonogram Cards
Provide the student with seven pieces of paper. Show
Paper
the student a Phonogram Card. Have him read it, then
Crayons or markers
write one phonogram on each piece of paper. Continue
until all seven phonograms have been used. Arrange the Beanbag
papers to play Phonogram Hopscotch or Phonogram
Relay.

Phonogram Relay - Classroom


One set of paper plate phonograms per
Divide students into teams of 2-4 students. Each team
team
should set out one set of Phonogram Plates on the floor.
Each team then lines up behind their plates. When the
teacher says, “go,” the first student should hop onto each
plate and read the sound(s). When he reaches the end, he turns around, runs back, and tags
the next person in line.

Vocabulary
Past Tense Memory Game
Past Tense Words from 111.2
112.1 Past Tense Memory – page 193
Arrange the words from 111.2 and 112.1 upside down in
rows on the table. Challenge
We will play a game of memory. Turn over a yellow card. Read
Put the word cards upside down in a pile.
the word. Then turn over an orange card and read it. If they Draw a card, read it, then think of a sen-
are related words you may keep the cards and play again. tence that uses the word.
Otherwise turn the cards over and the play moves to the
next player.

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188 Lesson 112

Spelling
Spelling List Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles. /er/ Poster

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Double the S. We often
double F, L, and S after a single
Yesterday I missed class because I 3 vowel at the end of a base
1. missed was sick.
mĭst missed word. Underline /t/ and put a
3 over it. /ed-d-t/ said its third
sound.

Underline two-letter /ä/ that


2. saw I saw a frog catch a fly. sä saw may be used at the end of
English words.

3. draw Draw a picture of a tree. drä draw Underline two-letter /ä/.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/


4. person Alex is a nice person. per sŏn per son of her. Add to the /er/ Poster.
Add to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline /ō/ and put a 2


2 2 over it. /ow-ō/ said its second
5. followed I followed Mr. Fitz out of the room. fŏl lōd fol low ed sound. Underline /d/ and put
a 2 over it. /ed-d-t/ said its
second sound.

missed
The first word is missed. Yesterday I missed class because I was sick. missed
Place your hand under your chin and say missed. How many syllables in missed? one
Yesterday I missed class. This happened in the past.
What ending do I add to a word to make it past? /ed-d-t/

What do I get if I take the ED off of missed? miss


Let's sound out miss. /m-ĭ-s/
/s/. Double the /s/ because it is after a single short vowel.
What do we add to make it missed? /ed-d-t/
Emphasize the /t/ sound at the end of missed.
The student writes missed on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write missed. Drive my marker by sounding it out.


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Lesson 112 189

The teacher writes missed on the board.


/m-ĭ-s-s-t/
What do we need to underline? Underline the /t/ and put a 3 over it. /ed-d-t/ said its third sound /t/.
Cover up the ed with your hand.
What does this say? miss
How are miss and missed different? ED means it happened in the past.

person
The next word is person. Alex is a nice person. person
Place your hand under your chin and say person. How many syllables in person? two
Now hum person. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /persŏn/
Sound out the first syllable /per/. /p-er/
Use the /er/ of her.
Sound out the second syllable /sŏn/. /s-ŏ-n/
Write persŏn with each syllable in a different color.
The student writes person on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write person. Drive my marker by sounding it out.


The teacher writes person on the board.
/p-er-s-ŏ-n/
What do we need to underline? Underline /er/.

Let’s read it together. /p-er-s-ŏ-n/ persŏn


How do we usually say this word? persәn
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

Comprehension
More About This Reader
Ha Long Bay is on the northern coast of Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. With at least 1600
limestone islands and islets that are mostly uninhabited, it has been listed as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site and as one of the World's New Seven Wonders of Nature. Although it is a
popular tourist site, the four “floating” villages there still depend largely on fishing for their
livelihood. Ha Long Bay is a perfect example of this world's amazing beauty and diversity in
both geographical features and cultures!

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190 Lesson 112

Reader
Reader 7
Take out Reader 7. Map
What is the title of this book? Ha Long Bay
What is a bay? A body of water surrounded by land.
What is the name of the bay we will learn about? Ha Long Teacher Tip
Do you think this is an English word?
Ha is pronounced Hä. If students mispro-
Ha Long is Vietnamese. nounce it, draw two dots over the A. Dis-
cuss how A usually says /ä/ at the end of
Show the students where Ha Long Bay is located on a map. a base word.

What will we learn about as we read this book? We will learn


about Ha Long Bay.

Read the book aloud to me. Readers


Would you like to visit Ha Long Bay? Bob Books Set 2
What would you want to see there? Pip and Pog
Sox the Fox
Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this The Red Hen
book. OK, Kids
The Sad Cat

Writing
Copywork
112.2 Handwriting – page 195
Read the sentence aloud. Copy it on the lines in your workbook using your best handwriting.

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LESSON 113
Objectives
SPELLING RULES: Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word.

VOCABULARY: Past tense, antonyms

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SPELLING: city, invented, happy, area, instead

COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, playdough, popsicle sticks, Phonogram Card y , scissors,
red, blue, and green dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, map, highlighter, big and tiny
stuffed animals, something soft and something hard, Reader 7

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, timer, limestone, 2-3 other rocks, dragon fruit,
papaya, persimmons, jack fruit, pineapple, or mangoes, table, blanket, video about
Vietnam, books about caves or Vietnam, Bob Books from Sets 2, 3, and 4

Phonogram Practice
Texture Writing Playdough
Provide students with playdough and a popsicle stick. Popsicle sticks
Roll the playdough out flat. Call out a phonogram for
the students to write in the dough using the popsicle
stick.

Vocabulary
Past Tense
113.1 Past Tense – page 196
Read the sentence. Write the word that completes the sentence in the blank.

191
192 Lesson 113

Spelling Rule
When Y Says /ē/
Phonogram Card y
Show the Phonogram Card y . Red and blue dry erase markers
What does this say? /y-ĭ-ī-ē/
Today we are going to talk about when Y says /ē/.
I will write a word on the board. I will sound it out as I write it.
Write baby.
/b-ā-b-ē/
What does this say? baby
What did Y say? /ē/
How many syllables in baby? two
I will write another word.
Write ugly.
/ŭ-g-l-ē/
What does this say? ugly
How many syllables in ugly? two

This is the new rule: Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word. Let's say it together.
Write cry.
What does this say? cry
What did the Y say? /ī/
How many syllables in cry? one

What is the rule that tells us what sound Y makes at the end of a one-syllable word? When a one-syllable
word ends in Y it says /ī/.
Write sandy.
What does this say? sandy
How many syllables in sandy? two
What is the rule? Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word.
Write fly.
What does this say? fly
How many syllables in fly? one
What is the rule? When a one-syllable word ends in Y it says /ī/.

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Lesson 113 193

Reading Y Words
Scissors
113.2 Y Words – page 197 Timer
Cut out the words. Put them in a pile face down. Desig-
nate a spot in the room to bring words where Y is saying
/y/, a different place to bring words where Y is saying Challenge
/ī/, and a third area for words where Y is saying /ē/. Set a timer. See how many words the stu-
Pick a word. Read it aloud. If the Y said /y/, run and put it dent can sort in a given time. Or time
how long it takes. Can he beat his time?
here. If the Y said /ī/ put it here. If the Y said /ē/ put it here. In a classroom, form relay teams.
Then run back and pick up a new word.

Teacher Tip
Save the words for use with Lesson 114.

Spelling List
Spelling List
Red, blue, and green dry-erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
C softens to /s/ before an E, I,
or Y. Otherwise C says /k/. Y
1. city This city has many good schools. sĭ tē ci ty says /ē/ only at the end of a
multi-syllable word.

You invented a new ice cream


2. invented flavor.
ĭn vĕn tĕd in ven ted Underline /ed/.

Y says /ē/ only at the end of a


3. happy I am so happy to see you! hăp pē hap py multi-syllable word.

Put a line over the /ā/ and the


/ē/. A E O U usually say their
long sounds at the end of the
4. area Let's sit in this shady area. ā rē ä ā rē ä syllable. Put two dots over /ä/.
/ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound.
Add to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

2 Underline /ĕ/ and put a 2


5. instead Let's take a hike instead. ĭn stĕd in stead over it. /ē-ĕ-ā/ said its second
sound.

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194 Lesson 113

area Teacher Tip


The third word is area. Let's sit in this shady area. area
Place your hand under your chin and say area. How many Some children may hear area as a two-
syllable word pronounced /ār-yә/. To
syllables in area? three help them distinguish each syllable, clear-
Now hum area. /hm-hm-hm/ ly articulate each syllable. Dictionaries
How many syllables? three indicate three syllables in the pronuncia-
tion of this word.
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /ā-rē-ä/
Say /ā-rē-ä/ with me. /ā-rē-ä/
Sound out the first syllable /ā/. /ā/
Sound out the second syllable /rē/. /r-ē/
Sound out the third syllable /ä/. /ä/
How do we usually spell /ä/ at the end of the word? with an A
Write each syllable in a different color.
The student writes area on her whiteboard.
Teacher Tip
It is now my turn to write area. Drive my marker by sounding Remember schwa is technically an un-
it out. stressed vowel sound. Therefore in multi-
The teacher writes area on the board. syllable words the schwa is the most
/ā-r-ē-ä/ commonly heard sound.
How do we mark area? Put a line over the /ā/.

Why did A say its long sound /ā/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
Put a line over the /ē/.
Why did E say its long sound /ē/? A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of the syllable.
Put two dots over the /ä/.
Why did the A say /ä/? When a word ends with the phonogram A it says /ä/.
Let’s read it together. /ā-r-ē-ä/ area
Let’s add area to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

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Lesson 113 195

Comprehension & Fluency


Re-Reading
Reader 7
Take out Reader 7, Ha Long Bay. Read page 1.
Map
What does enormous mean? huge, large, giant
Highlighter
Locate Ha Long Bay on the map. Limestone
What sea does Ha Long Bay border? South China Sea Samples of 2-3 other types of rock
Trace the edge of the land with your finger and show how Dragon fruit, papaya, persimmons, jack
the bay curves inward. Point out the islands. Imagine the fruit, pineapple, or mangoes
enormous rocks on the islands. Table
Blanket
Look at the picture. How does it relate to what you
read? The picture shows an enormous rock.
Find one or two words on the page that describe Ha Long
Bay and highlight them.

Read page 2.
Multi-Sensory Fun
What are the rocks made of? limestone
There are many types of rock. The rocks in Ha Long Bay are Place a blanket over a table and read the
limestone. book in the "cave." Imagine that you are
in one of the limestone caves around Ha
If available, show the students a piece of limestone and two Long Bay.
or three other types of rock such as granite, sandstone, and
quartz.
Look at the picture. How does it relate to what you read? The picture shows a cave.
Find one or two words on the page that describe Ha Long Bay and highlight them.

Read page 3.
Look at the picture. How does it relate to what you read? There is a boat in a tunnel in the rock.
Find one or two words on the page that describe Ha Long Bay and highlight them.

Read page 4.
Multi-Sensory Fun
How do people in Ha Long Bay travel? by boat
How do you travel? by car, walking, bike, bus, train, airplane Buy dragon fruit, papaya, persimmons,
How is the man paddling his boat? with his feet jack fruit, pineapple, or mangoes to share
with the children. Imagine how in Ha
Pretend to paddle a boat with your feet. Long Bay someone would travel by boat
Look at the picture. How does it relate to what you selling the fruits. Discuss how the fruits
read? The picture shows a man paddling a boat with his are grown on land and sold to the people
on Ha Long Bay who then sell fish to the
feet. people who live on the land.
Read page 5.
What is a merchant? someone who sells things
We do not use the word merchant very often. What are clues in the story that tell us what merchant
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196 Lesson 113

means? The story says the merchant buys and sells

Look at the pictures of the fruit in her boat. Do you recognize any of these fruits?
There are many different types of food in the world.

Read page 6.
What is the most common job in Ha Long Bay? fishing

Read page 7.
Where do people live in Ha Long Bay? in houseboats or in floating houses
Look at the picture. What do you think it would be like to live in a houseboat?

Read page 8.
Teacher Tip
That smaller boat is probably someone's home. Compare the
houseboat on page 8 to the houseboat on page 9. Would Ask students to consider the fact that for
you want to live in one? someone who is born in Ha Long Bay and
spends their whole life there, they are not
likely to see anything unusual or particu-
Read page 9. larly interesting about their own environ-
What did the people on this page do? They connected their ment and culture. Use this reader as a
houseboats together to make a village. starting point to help students notice
and appreciate the value in places out-
What do you think it would be like to live in a village of side of their own environment.
houseboats?
How would it be different from where you live?
How would it be the same?

Read page 10.


Readers
Would you want to visit Ha Long Bay?
Why or why not? Bob Books Set 2
0 to 10
Close your eyes. Imagine that you grew up in a village in Ha Bob Books Set 3
Floppy Mop
Long Bay. You traveled to your neighbor's house by boat. Summer
Your dad went fishing every day for his job. You fished off the Kittens
side of your house to catch dinner. The lady with the fruit Funny Bunny
Bob Books Set 4
boat came by each week to sell fruits. This is all normal to Bump!
you. You have always lived in Ha Long Bay. Cat and Mouse
The Swimmers (Happily has I saying /ĭ/
Now imagine that you came for a visit to _____ (fill in the at the end of the syllable.)
blank with where you live). Which things would be strange
and new to you?

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Lesson 113 197

Writing
Dictation
113.3 Dictation – page 199
Dictate the sentence for students to write on their worksheet.
Choose which line size is most comfortable for you.

I will read the sentence two times. Repeat it back to me, then write it on the paper.

In Ha Long Bay neighbors visit each other by boat. In Ha Long Bay neighbors visit each other by boat. In
Ha Long Bay neighbors visit each other by boat.
(The students write.)
Read the sentence back as I write it on the board. Give me hints about how to write the sentence cor-
rectly. (Start the sentence with a capital letter.) Ĭ-n (use capital letters at the beginning of each word in a
place name) H-ä L-ŏ-ng B-ā (use two-letter /ā/ that may be used at the end of English words) n-ā-b-or-z
(use 4-letter /ā/, use /or/, use /s-z/) v-ĭ-z-ĭ-t (use /s-z/) ē-ch (use /ē-ĕ-ā/, use /ch-k-sh/) ŏ-TH-er (use the /er/
of her) b-ī (use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/) b-ō-t (use two-letter /ō/) (end the sentence with a period).

Vocabulary
Antonyms Big stuffed animal
Show the students the two stuffed animals. Tiny stuffed animal
This one is big. This one is tiny. Big and tiny are the opposite. Something soft
Show the students something hard and something soft. Something hard
This is hard. This one is soft.

We call words which are opposites antonyms. Let's say antonym together. antonym

What does antonym mean? opposite

I will say a word. I want you to say a word that means the opposite.

slow fast opened closed

tall short good bad

thin fat hot cold

Look around the room and find two objects that are somehow opposite.

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LESSON 114
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn au .

SPELLING RULES: Practice Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word.
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SPELLING: baby, twelve, copy, because, story

COMPREHENSION: Read a myth.

WRITING: Write using descriptive words.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, words from 113.2, scissors, towels or small blankets, small
ropes or strings, Phonogram Cards including au and aw , stick with string and magnet,
paper clips, red and blue dry erase markers

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, timer, paper and markers

Spelling Rule
Y Boats
Scissors
114.1 Y Words – page 201 Words from 113.2
Cut out the words from 114.1. Add the words from 113.2. Towels or small blankets
Small ropes or strings
Today we will pretend that we live in a floating village of
Timer
houseboats in Ha Long Bay. Lay out the towels as if they are
different houses. Use the ropes to tie some houses together.

I will show you a word. Read it. If you read it correctly you
Challenge
may step to the next houseboat.
Set a timer. See how many words the stu-
dent can sort in a given time. Or time
how long it takes. Can he beat his time?
In a classroom, form relay teams.

198
Lesson 114 199

Phonograms
The Phonogram au
Phonogram Cards au and aw
Show the Phonogram Card au . Whiteboard
This says /ä/. /ä/
Can you sing the sound /ä/? yes
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? vowel

Can you use it at the end of the word? no


Why? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J

Show the Phonogram Cards au and aw .


How are these the same? They both start with an A. They both say /ä/.
How are they different? One ends in a U and one ends in a W.
Which one may I use at the end of the word? AW
Why can't I use AU? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.

Write two-letter /ä/ that you may not use at the end of English words three times on your whiteboard.
Which one is the neatest?
Put a smiley face next to it.

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Fishing
15-20 Phonogram Game Cards
Tie a string to the stick and add a small magnet to the
Stick with string and magnet tied to it
bottom. Attach a paper clip to each phonogram game
Paper clips
card. Place 4-8 cards face up on the floor facing the stu-
dents. Call out a phonogram and direct the students to
catch the correct phonogram on the magnet. If the stu-
dent catches the correct one, he keeps it. Replace the Teacher Tip
card with a new phonogram.
As students play the game, imagine to-
gether they are fishing in Ha Long Bay.

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200 Lesson 114

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ā/. A E
O U usually say their long
1. baby My sister is a tiny baby. bā bē bā by sounds at the end of the
syllable. Y says /ē/ only at the
end of a multi-syllable word.

Underline the V and double


underline the silent E. English
2. twelve We need twelve pencils. twĕlv twelve words do not end in V; add a
silent final E.

Y says /ē/ only at the end of a


3. copy Copy the words onto your paper. kŏp ē cop y multi-syllable word. C softens
to /s/ only before an E, I, or Y.

Put a line over the /ē/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the syl-
2 lable. Underline /ä/. Underline
Rob ate a snack because he was
4. because hungry.
bē käz bē cau se /z/, put a 2 over it, and double
underline the silent final E.
Add an E to keep singular
words that end in -s from
looking plural.

Underline /or/. Y says /ē/ only


Tell me the story of how you got a
5. story pet turtle.
stor ē stor y at the end of a multi-syllable
word.

Teacher Tip
In baby the syllable breaks after the A be-
cause the A is saying its long sound. In
copy the syllable breaks after the P be-
cause the O is saying its short sound.
Some programs teach that a double con-
sonant is needed to close the syllable.
Though this sometimes occurs, there
would be countless exceptions, such as
copy, to such a rule.

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Lesson 114 201

Comprehension
Reading Paper and markers
114.2 The Myth of Ha Long Bay – page 203
Read the myth about Ha Long Bay. Teacher Tip
Is this a true story? no In Vietnamese, Ha Long literally means
What provides clues that this story is not true? There are Descending Dragon. This has been sim-
dragons who spit jewels. The jewels turn into rocks. plified to swooping due to the ages of the
students. There are many variations on
This type of story is called a myth. Many cultures have myths the myth told about Ha Long Bay.
that are told to explain parts of the world around them.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Digging Deeper
Ask students to illustrate the Myth of Ha
There are many ways to learn more about the themes Long Bay.
covered in Reader 7: Ha Long Bay. Read a book about
caves. Visit a cave. Learn about stalagmites and stalac-
tites. Eat Vietnamese food. Watch a travel video about Vietnam. Watch one of the many free
online videos about Ha Long Bay. Go fishing.

Writing & Comprehension


Descriptive Words Teacher Tip
114.3 Descriptive Words – page 204
The goal of this activity is for children to
Look at the picture in your workbook. This picture was taken explore descriptive language. At this
in Hoi An, Vietnam. Describe the picture to me. stage, some children will be able to write
a complete sentence to describe the pic-
As the student describes the image, take notes on the ture, others will only write phrases or in-
dividual words. Affirm all attempts at ex-
board by writing down the keywords. pression. Do not overly emphasize correct
spelling or usage. Writing correct sen-
tences is a complex activity requiring stu-
Man in Boat dents to understand subjects, verbs, and
round boat complete thoughts. This will develop
with time and further instruction.
basket of tiny fish
green water
pink round bucket
Choose words that you think best describe the picture and write them on the lines.

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LESSON 115
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn augh .

SPELLING: laugh, many, taught, here, there


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FLUENCY: High frequency words

WRITING: Write descriptive words to create a travel brochure.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards augh and au , scissors, red and blue dry
erase markers, game pieces, die, High Frequency Words from previous lessons, 111.4 Pre-
Reading worksheet, 1/2 sheet of paper

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, ziplock bag filled with tempera paint, timer, travel
brochures

Phonograms
The Phonogram augh
Phonogram Cards augh , au
Show the Phonogram Card augh .
This says /ä-ăf/. What does it say? /ä-ăf/

Show the Phonogram Cards augh , au


How are these the same? They both say /ä/. They both have the letters A and U.
How are they different? One ends in GH and also says /ăf/.

Write /ä-ăf/ three times on your whiteboard.


Which one is the neatest?
Put a smiley face next to it.

202
Lesson 115 203

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Flip
115.1 Phonogram Flip – page 205
Scissors
Cut along the green dotted lines to create flaps. Stop at the
solid red line. Fold the page in half along the solid red line.
Ask the student to choose a flap, read the phonogram, then
open the flap and write the phonogram on the line.

Spelling
Spelling List Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their Ziplock bag filled with tempera paint
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Write the words with your pointer finger
on a ziplock bag filled with tempera
paint.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints

2 Underline /af/ and put a 2


1. laugh My baby brother makes me laugh. lăf laugh over it. /ä-af/ said its second
sound.

Y says /ē/ only at the end of a


2. many Many hands make light work. măn ē man y multi-syllable word.

3. taught Mike taught me a yo-yo trick. tät taught Underline /ä/.

Put a line over the /ē/. Double


underline the silent final E.
4. here We will eat here. hēr hēre The vowel said its long sound
because of the E.

Underline /TH/ and put a 2


2 over it. /th-TH/ said its sec-
5. there We will meet you there. THĕr there ond sound. Double underline
the silent final E. Unseen
reason.

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204 Lesson 115

many
The second word is many. Many hands make light Teacher Tip
work. many
Be sure to exaggerate the /ă/ sound.
Place your hand under your chin and say many. How many There is not a known reason for the dif-
syllables in many? two ference in pronunciation. Some teachers
Hum many. How many syllables? /hm-hm/ two may choose to mark it with an X as an
exception.
This word has a sound that is not pronounced clearly. I will
say the word again. /măn ē/
What is the first syllable? /măn/
Sound out /măn/. /m-ă-n/
What is the second syllable? /ē/
Use /y-ĭ-ī-ē/.
Now write /măn ē/. Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes many on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write many. Sound it out as I write it on the board.


The teacher writes many on the whiteboard.
First syllable /măn/. /m-ă-n/
Second syllable /ē/. /ē/

Why did the Y say /ē/? Because it is at the end of a two-syllable word.
What is the rule? Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word.
Let’s read it together. /m-ă-n-ē/ many

there
The last word is there. We will meet you there. there
Place your hand under your chin and say there. How many syllables in there? one
Sound out there. /TH-ĕ-r/
Silent final E.
The student writes there on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write there. Sound it out as I write it on the board.


The teacher writes there on the whiteboard.
/TH-ĕ-r/ silent final E.
How do we mark it? Underline /TH/ and put a 2 over it. /th-TH/ said its second sound. Double underline
the silent final E.
Do you see a reason for the E? no
This is an unseen reason.
Write here on the board.
How are here and there related? They are related in meaning. They are spelled the same except for the T.
One way I remember that there is a silent final E in there is to remember that it is related to here.
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Lesson 115 205

Fluency
High Frequency Board Game
Scissors
115.2 High Frequency Words – pages 207-209 Game pieces
Cut out the words and place them upside down alongside Die
the game board. Add high frequency words from previous High Frequency Words from previous
lessons that need additional practice. Ask each student to lessons
choose a game piece. Place them at the beginning of the Timer
board, on the blue sunburst.
Today we will practice reading words. Roll the die. Then
choose a word. If you read it correctly you may move the Multi-Sensory Fun
number or spaces shown on the die in the direction of the Set a timer for each turn. The student
small arrows. If you land on a long arrow going up, move up may read as many words as possible dur-
to where the arrow ends. If you land on a long arrow going ing his turn. He moves forward one space
for each word he reads correctly.
down, follow it to where it lands. When you reach the white
sunburst, you win!

Comprehension
Reading -ED Words
115.3 Ball Game – page 210
Read what happened during the game. Draw a line to show where the ball is traveling.

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206 Lesson 115

Writing & Comprehension


Descriptive Words
Scissors
Get travel brochures and show them to the students. These
111.4 Pre-Reading
may be about parks, attractions, hotels, museums, or any-
4 1/4 X 11 sheet of paper (1/2 sheet)
thing else in your area. These are commonly found in gas
stations, hotel lobbies, restaurants, and libraries. Glue or tape
What are these? Travel brochures
Why did someone write these? They advertise various things
to do, places to stay, and places to eat.
Discuss the brochures.
The past few lessons we have been learning about Ha Long Bay. Every year more than 1 million people visit
Ha Long Bay as tourists.

Today we will write a travel brochure for Ha Long Bay.


Let's think of words to describe Ha Long Bay together.
Challenge
Write a sentence that describes the pic-
Ha Long Bay ture.

enormous rocks
dragon boats
excellent fishing

Teacher Tip
Write the words on the board as the students describe Ha
The goal of this activity is for children to
Long Bay. Leave the words as a reference while they create explore descriptive language. At this
their travel brochures. stage, some children will be able to write
You have a piece of paper to create your own brochure to tell a complete sentence to describe the pic-
ture, others will only write phrases or in-
others about Ha Long Bay. Cut out pictures from 111.4. Glue dividual words. Affirm all attempts at ex-
them into your brochure and write words to describe Ha pression. Do not overly emphasize correct
Long Bay. spelling or usage. Writing correct sen-
tences is a complex activity requiring stu-
dents to understand subjects, verbs, and
complete thoughts. This will develop
with time and further instruction.

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REVIEW G
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1

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punctuation.

Phonograms Read ew, ui, oe. 1

Read ed, aw, au, augh. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read past tense words which use the suffix -ED. 2

Read silent final E words with seven reasons for the E. 2

Read two-syllable words ending in a single vowel Y. 2

Read three-syllable words. 3

207
208 Review G

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards ew , ui , oe ,
(ew, ui, oe, ed, aw, au, augh) ed , aw , au , augh

What's That Phonogram?


Highlighter
G.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 212
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with your highlighter.

1. /ō-ö/
2. /ed-d-t/ past tense ending.
3. /ä/ that you may use at the end of English words.
4. /ö-ū/ that you may use at the end of English words.
5. /ä/ that you may not use at the end of English words.
6. /ä-ăf/

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
Scissors
G.2 Spelling – page 213
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in
front of the student so that every letter is oriented correctly.
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place to spell the word.

saw eight

give planted

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
G.3 Handwriting – page 215
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.
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Review G 209

Reading Assessment
Comprehension
Index cards
G.4 Matching – page 216
Match the sentences to the pictures. Teacher Tip
Listen to students read each sentence
aloud. Note how the student reads the
various types of words. Many students at
this stage will still struggle with two-sylla-
High Frequency Words ble words.

G.5 High Frequency Words – page 218


Read each word aloud. Multi-Sensory Fun
Write each word on an index card. Ask
the student to read it, then run across the
room and put it in a pile.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Matching Phonograms" on page 150
"Blind Writing" on page 155
"Go Fish" on page 160
"Phonogram Tic-Tac-Toe" on page 164
"Dolphin Phonogram Hunt" on page 169
"Phonogram Treasure Hunt" on page 181
"Phonogram Hopscotch" on page 187
"Texture Writing" on page 191
"Phonogram Fishing" on page 199
"Phonogram Flip" on page 203

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210 Review G

Words with the Schwa Sound


Squirt gun
Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month.
Multi-Sensory Fun
Past Tense Words
Write words with a schwa on a white-
"Reading -ED Words" on page 181
board. Provide students with a squirt gun.
"Past Tense Memory Game" on page 187 Ask the student to read the word, then
"Reading -ED Words" on page 205 squirt it.

Words Ending in Y
"Reading Y Words" on page 193
"Y Boats" on page 198

Silent Final E Words


"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 130
"Creating New Words" on page 152
"Silent Final E Game" on page 156
"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 170

Reading Comprehension
Have the student re-read one of the readers or texts from the workbook. Discuss the text
together.
Practice reading the Bob Books listed in previous lessons. Discuss the stories together.
"On the Farm" on page 109
"Following Directions" on page 122

High Frequency Words


"High Frequency Word Game" on page 113
"High Frequency Word Race" on page 145
"Reading Basketball" on page 172
"High Frequency Board Game" on page 205

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LESSON 116
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ie .

PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Learn about words with a silent L.

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VOCABULARY: Learn the meaning of the prefix un-.

SPELLING: fields, walking, talked, early, fullest

COMPREHENSION: Pre-reading

WRITING: Keywords

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ie , Bingo game pieces, 3 colors of high-
lighters, red and blue dry erase markers, /er/ Poster, heavy box, wagon or cart, rug, rope

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Sets 3 and 4

Phonograms
The Phonogram ie
Phonogram Card ie
Show the Phonogram Card ie . Whiteboard
This says /ē/. What does it say? /ē/

How many letters are in /ē/? two


Do we have other ways to spell long /ē/ that have two letters? yes
What are they? ee, ea, ey
So we need a name for this phonogram.
I will write a word on the board. I want you to read it.

field /f-ē-l-d/ field

We will call this the /ē/ of field.


Write the /ē/ of field three times on your whiteboard.
Which one is the neatest?

211
212 Lesson 116

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Bingo
Bingo game pieces
116.1 Phonogram Bingo – page 219
Using the Bingo cards provided, call out sounds while
the students cover them. Play until the board is covered. Direct the students to read the pho-
nograms back as they uncover each square on the board.

Vocabulary
The Prefix un-
3 colors of highlighters
116.2 The Prefix un- – page 221
In the last lesson we learned about reading three-syllable
words. Today we will practice reading three-syllable words. Teacher Tip
When you see a big word, it is a good idea to look for parts of If a student struggles to read a three syl-
the word you recognize. lable word, cover the second and third
syllable with a piece of paper and ask the
Read the first sentence aloud. Dad is unplugging the lights. student to read the first syllable. Then un-
What does unplugging mean? to take the plug out cover the second syllable, etc.
What part of the word means "not"? un-
Highlight the un-.
Highlight the word plug in a different color.
What does -ing mean? It is happening now.
Highlight -ing in a third color.
Unplugging has three morphemes or units of meaning.

As you read each sentence, match the sentence to the correct picture. Then highlight each of the mor-
phemes in the three-syllable words. All the three-syllable words are in red.

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Lesson 116 213

Phonemic Awareness
Silent L Teacher Tip
I will write three words on the board. Try to read them to
yourself. I will give you two hints. First, these words all have Give students a chance to try to figure
out the words on their own. Tell them to
one letter that is silent. Second, these words all rhyme. try all the sounds of /ă-ā-ä/.
talk chalk
walk

Let's sound out each word together. /t-ä-k/


Which sound of /ă-ā-ä/ do we hear in talk? /ä/
How do we mark /ä/? put two dots over it
Which letter is silent? /l/
I will double underline the L to show that it is silent.

tälk

Let's try to say talk with the /l/ sound. /tälk/


Now let's say it with the /l/ faster and faster. /tälk/ /tälk/ /tälk/ /tälk/
It is difficult to pronounce the /l/ sound clearly and quickly.
Maybe at one time people pronounced the /l/ but it was easier to pronounce it without the /l/.
Continue in the same manner with walk and chalk.
What do you notice about these words? /l/ is silent. /ă-ā-ä/ is saying /ä/.

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214 Lesson 116

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their white-
/er/ Poster
boards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints

2 Underline the /ē/. Put a 2 over


1. fields The corn is growing in the fields. fēldz fields the /z/. /s-z/ said its second
sound.

Put two dots over the /ä/.


/ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound.
2. walking Dad is walking on the path. wäk ĭng wälk ing Double underline the silent L.
Underline /ng/.

Put two dots over the /ä/.


/ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound.
3 Double underline the silent
3. talked The boys talked to their teacher. täkt tälked L. Underline /t/ and put a 3
over it. /ed-d-t/ said its third
sound.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/ of


search. Y says /ē/ only at the
4. early I want to be home early. er lē ear ly end of a multi-syllable word.
Add it to the /er/ Poster.

Put two dots over the /ü/.


/ŭ-ū-ö-ü/ said its broad
5. fullest The fullest cup is Ashley's. fül lĕst fül lest sound. We often double F, L,
and S after a single vowel at
the end of a base word.

walking
The next word is walking. Dad is walking on the path. walking
Place your hand under your chin and say, walking. How many syllables in walking? two
Hum walking. How many syllables? /hm-hm/ two
This word has a silent letter. What is it? /l/
What is the first syllable? /wälk/
Sound out /wälk/. /w-ä-l-k/
What is the second syllable? /ĭ-ng/
Write the first syllable in red and the second syllable in blue.
The student writes walking on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write walking. Sound it out as I write it on the board.

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Lesson 116 215

The teacher writes walking on the whiteboard.


First syllable /wälk/. /w-ä-l-k/
Second syllable /ĭng/. /ĭ-ng/

How do we mark it? Put two dots over the /ä/. /ă-ā-ä/ said its broad sound after a W and before an L.
Double underline the /l/. It is silent. Underline the /ng/.

Comprehension
Pre-Reading
Heavy box
Place a heavy object such as a large box of books in front
Rope
of the child. The object should be too heavy for the child to
Rug
carry.
Wagon or cart with wheels
This is very heavy. I cannot carry it very far.
I need to bring it to ____. (Choose a place about 100 yards
away.) What are some options for how I could move it there?

Let's try to push it. Try to push the box across the room.
Readers
Let's try to tie a rope around it and drag it. You try to pull it. Bob Books Set 3
Lolly-Pops
Maybe we could drag it on a rug. I will put the box on the Bob Books Set 4
rug. Now you try to drag it. Willy's Wish
Jumper and the Clown
Let's put it on this wagon (cart). Now try to move it.

Which way is the easiest? the wagon or cart


Why? The wheels make it easier.

Wheels are a great way to transport something that is heavy. Wheels make it easier to move a heavy load.
What are some things that use wheels to help us move things more easily? stroller, car, train, truck, gro-
cery cart, wheelbarrow

Reading Comprehension
116.3 Move It – page 222
Read the words in the blue box. Think what you would do if you had to move it a long distance. What
would be the best way? Match the words in the blue box to the tool in the green box you would use.

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216 Lesson 116

Writing & Comprehension


Reading Comprehension and Writing
Highlighter
116.4 Gondola – page 223
Read the paragraph. Circle the picture that shows a gondola.
Highlight the five words that helped you the most.

Point to the first picture. Why is this not a gondola? It is not a boat. The driver does
not have a paddle. There is no one riding in it.

Point to the second picture. Why is this not a gondola? The driver is not paddling
with a long oar. There is more than one driver.

Point to the third picture. Why is this a gondola? It is a long, skinny boat. The driver is
standing in back with a long oar. People are sitting in front.

What words in this paragraph were the most helpful to you in learning how a gon-
dola is different from other boats?
Write the words on the board as students identify them.

Gondola
long
skinny
boat
long oar

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LESSON 117
Objectives
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: Read words with a silent L.

VOCABULARY: The prefix un-.

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SPELLING: would, could, should, each, hold

COMPREHENSION: Reader 8: Rickshaws. Draw a picture of a rickshaw based on the


description in the book.

WRITING: Copywork

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, 2 sets of Phonogram Game Cards, Reader 8, paper and mark-
ers

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, Bob Books from Set 4

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Memory
Two sets of 15-25 Phonogram Game
Mix two sets of Phonogram Game Cards. Lay all the
Cards in two different colors
cards face down in rows in the middle of the table. The
first player chooses a card and flips it upright so every-
one may see it and reads the sound(s). He then chooses
a second card, flips it upright, and reads the sounds. If Multi-Sensory Fun
the phonograms match, he keeps the pair and goes again.
If the phonograms do not match, he turns them face If teaching cursive, use one set of cards
with cursive phonograms and one set
down and play passes to the next player. The game ends with bookface.
when all the pieces are matched. The player with the
most phonograms wins.

217
218 Lesson 117

Phonemic Awareness
Silent L
I will quietly write three words on the board. I want you to try to read them to yourself. I will give you two
hints. First, these words all have one letter that is silent. Second, these words all rhyme.

Which letter would you guess is silent? answers will vary

could
Teacher Tip
would
should Provide students a chance to figure out
the words on their own. These are the
Did you figure out what these words say? only three words where ou says /ü/.
Let's sound out each word together. /k-ü-d/
Which sound of /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ do we hear in could? None of
them.
Most words will follow the rules. Sometimes there will be an exception. These three words are an excep-
tion. When we hear a sound that does not match we will put an x over it.

Which sound is silent? /l/


Let's double underline it to show that it is silent.
X
co uld
Continue in the same manner with would and should.

What do you notice about these words? The /l/ is silent. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ is saying /ü/.

Reading Could, Would, Should


117.1 Matching – page 224
When we have a problem, it is a good idea to think of ways to solve it.
For example, if I am hungry what should I do? You should eat something.
If I am sick, what should I do? You could take some medicine. You could see a doctor.
Today you need to read the problem and match it to a possible solution.

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Lesson 117 219

Vocabulary
The Prefix un-
117.2 The Prefix un- – page 225
Read the sentence. Write the word that completes the sentence in the blank.

Spelling
Spelling List
Dictate the words for the students to write on their whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline the /ü/ and put
x an X over it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said
1. would Would you please close the door? wüd would a sound that is an exception.
Double underline the silent L.

Underline the /ü/ and put


an X over it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said
x a sound that is an exception.
You could invite your sister to
2. could come.
küd could Double underline the silent L.
C always softens to /s/ before
an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says
/k/.

Underline /sh/. Underline


x the /ü/ and put an X over
3. should I should take a break now. shüd sh ould it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said a sound
that is an exception. Double
underline the silent L.

You will each need one sheet of


4. each paper.
ēch ea ch Underline /ē/. Underline /ch/.

Put a line over the /ō/. I and


5. hold Hold the ball over your head. hōld hōld O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

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220 Lesson 117

Comprehension
Reader
Reader 8
Take out Reader 8. Paper and markers
What is the title of this book? Rickshaws
What is a rickshaw?
Look at the picture on the cover. What do you think a rick- Readers
shaw is by looking at the picture? Bob Books Set 4
By reading this book you will learn more about rickshaws. Samantha! (Eyes is a highly irregular
word. Help students to decode it.)
When the students have finished reading the book ask: Max and the Tom Cats
What is a rickshaw?
Draw a picture of a rickshaw.

Writing
Copywork
117.3 Handwriting – page 226
Read the sentence aloud. Copy it on the lines in your workbook using your best handwriting.

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LESSON 118
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ti .

SPELLING: better, action, station, away, across

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COMPREHENSION: Re-reading

WRITING: Dictation

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Card ti , large whiteboard, ball or nerf gun,
index cards, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, world map,
highlighter, paper and pencil, Reader 8

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, squirt gun

Phonograms
The Phonogram ti
Phonogram Card ti
Show the Phonogram Card ti .
This says /sh/. /sh/
Can you sing the sound /sh/? no
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant

Can we use this /sh/ at the end of the word? no


Why not? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.

What other way do we know to spell /sh/? SH


Write sh on the board next to ti.
Since the T is taller than the S, we will call this tall /sh/. Write tall /sh/ three times on your whiteboard.
Which one is the neatest?

221
222 Lesson 118

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Target
Large whiteboard
Read the phonogram sound(s) while the student writes
Small, soft ball or
them on a large whiteboard to create a target. When all
Nerf® guns with suction cup darts
the phonograms have been written, tell the student to
step back 3-5 paces. Provide the student with a small, Squirt gun
soft ball or a nerf gun. Read a phonogram. The student
should try to hit the phonogram by throwing the ball at Multi-Sensory Fun
it or by shooting it with the nerf gun.
Write the phonograms on a whiteboard.
Target Station Provide the students with a squirt gun to
spray the phonogram.
Create a Phonogram Target Station. Write the phono-
grams on index cards and tape them on a blank wall. As
an activity, have students read a phonogram and toss a Ball
ball at it. Award one point for reading it correctly and Index Cards
one point for hitting it with the ball.

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Lesson 118 223

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.
/er/ Poster

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline /er/. Use the /er/ of
1. better The second picture is better. bĕt ter bet ter her. Add to the /er/ Poster.

C always softens to /s/ before


2. action Lights, camera, action! ăk shŏn ac tion an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says
/k/. Underline tall /sh/.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
3. station We walked to the subway station. stā shŏn stā tion sounds at the end of the syl-
lable. Underline tall /sh/.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the syl-
4. away Joe went away on a trip. ā wā ā way lable. Underline two-letter /ā/
that may be used at the end
of English words. Add to the
Lazy Vowel Chart.

Put a line over the /ā/. A E


O U usually say their long
sounds at the end of the
I waved to my teacher across the
5. across street.
ā krŏs ā cross syllable. We often double F, L,
and S after a single vowel at
the end of a base word. Add
to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

away
The next word is away. Joe went away on a trip. away
Place your hand under your chin and say away. How many syllables in away? two
Now hum away. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /āwā/
Sound out the first syllable /ā/. /ā/
Sound out the second syllable /wā/. /w-ā/
Use two-letter /ā/ that you may use at the end of English words.

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224 Lesson 118

Write away with each syllable in a different color.


The student writes away on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write away. Drive my marker by sounding it out.


The teacher writes away on the board.
/ā-w-ā/
What do we need to mark? Put a line over the /ā/. A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of
the syllable. Underline two-letter /ā/ that you may use at the end of English words.
Let’s read it together. /ā-w-ā/ āway
How do we usually say this word? әway
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

across
The next word is across. I waved to my teacher across the street. across
Place your hand under your chin and say across. How many syllables in across? two
Now hum across. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /ākros/
Sound out the first syllable /ā/. /ā/
Sound out the second syllable cross. /k-r-ŏ-s/
/s/. Double the /s/.

Write across with each syllable in a different color.


The student writes across on her whiteboard.

It is now my turn to write across. Drive my marker by sounding it out.


The teacher writes across on the board.

/ā-k-r-ŏ-s-s/
What do we need to mark? Put a line over the /ā/. A E O U usually say their long sounds at the end of
the syllable.
Let’s read it together. /ā-k-r-ŏ-s-s/ ācross
How do we usually say this word? әcross
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

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Lesson 118 225

Comprehension
Re-Reading
Reader 8
Take out Reader 8, Rickshaws. Read page 1.
World map
This is a picture of one of the first rickshaws.
Highlighter
Where were rickshaws invented? Japan
Find Japan on a map. Mark Japan.

Notice under the picture, it also says Japan. This means the picture was taken in Japan.
How were the first rickshaws pulled? They were pulled by a man walking or running in front.

Read page 2.
How did rickshaws change? They were pulled by bikes instead of by people.
Where was this picture taken? Nepal
Mark Nepal on the map.

Read page 3.
What is different about this rickshaw? It is pushed from behind.
This picture was taken in Indonesia.
Mark Indonesia on the map.

Read page 4.
How are rickshaws with motors different from cars? They are smaller. They have only three wheels. They
are open on the side.
Where was this picture taken? Sudan
Mark Sudan on the map.

Read page 5.
Where are rickshaws used? All over the world.
Have you ever been in a place where the roads are packed with rickshaws?

Read page 6.
Why are rickshaws popular? They are quick. They can move through small spaces. They are cheap to buy
and do not use much gas.
Where was this picture taken? India
Mark India on the map.

Read page 7. Teacher Tip


What are rickshaws used for? Carrying people, bringing kids Notice the phonogram i said its long
to school, carrying heavy loads. /ē/ sound in India.
What do you think the man is carrying?
Where was this picture taken? India
Read page 8.

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226 Lesson 118

What is unusual about the rickshaw on this page? It is going through water.
Why is there water on the street? It is flooded.
Where was this picture taken? Thailand Teacher Tip
Mark Thailand on the map.
TH has an advanced phonogram sound
/t/ as in Thailand and Thomas. Explain to
Read page 9. students this does not occur in many
What type of rickshaw is in this picture? a bike rickshaw words and will be taught later.
What do you notice about this rickshaw?
Where was this picture taken? Netherlands
Mark the Netherlands on the map.

Read page 10.


Vocabulary
How is this rickshaw powered? by the sun
Sol means sun. Highlight SOL in solar. Other words that use the root sol include:
Solar panels can collect energy from the sun and turn it into solarium and solstice.
electricity. Have you ever seen a solar panel?
Where are the solar panels on this rickshaw? on the top, on
the roof
Point to them.
What do the solar panels do? Collect energy from the sun to power the rickshaw.
Where was this picture taken? Netherlands
Do you want to ride in or drive a rickshaw someday?
What kind would you drive?

Without reading the text, retell what you learned in this book.

Writing
Dictation
Paper and pencil
118.1 Dictation – page 227
Dictate the sentence for students to write on their work-
sheets. Read the sentence aloud two times and have the students repeat it back and write it. Then
have the students read the sentence back with spelling hints as you write it on the board.
All rickshaws have three wheels. All rickshaws have three wheels. All rickshaws have three wheels.
(The students write.)
(Start the sentence with a capital letter.) Ä-l-l r-ĭ-k-sh-ä-z (use two-letter /k/, use two-letter /ä/ that may
be used at the end of English words, use /s-z/) h-ă-v (English words do not end in V, add a silent E) th-r-ē
(use /ē/ double /ē/) wh-ē-l-z (use two-letter /wh/, use /ē/ double /ē/, use /s-z/) (end the sentence with a
period).
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LESSON 119
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn si .

SPELLING: most, confusion, party, might, window

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COMPREHENSION: Read a non-fiction article about the history of bikes and answer
questions.

WRITING: Practice describing an object.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards si and ti , box, Phonogram Game
Cards, bags for half of the students, timer, Lazy Vowel Chart, Rickshaw Girl by Mitali
Perkins, Legos®, scissors, 4 colors of dry erase markers

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, wheels of various sizes, small rocks

Phonograms
The Phonogram si
Phonogram Cards si and ti
Show the Phonogram Card si .
This says /sh-ZH/. /sh-ZH/
What is the same about /sh/ and /ZH/? The position of my mouth.
Place your hand on your throat as you say /sh/ and /ZH/. How are these sounds different? /ZH/ is voiced.
/sh/ is unvoiced.

Can you sing the sound /sh/? no


Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant
Can you sing the sound /ZH/? no
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant

Show the Phonogram Cards si and ti .


What is the same about these? They both say /sh/. They both end in an I.
Write /sh-ZH/ three times on your whiteboard.
Which one is the neatest?
227
228 Lesson 119

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Collection - Individual
Box
119.1 Phonogram Collection – page 228 Phonogram Game Cards
Hide the 25 Phonogram Cards from Foundations C
throughout the room. Provide the student with a box.
He should go around the room collecting. Each time one is found, he must read it correctly to
add it to his box. If he misreads the phonogram, he gives it to you to re-hide.

Phonogram Collection - Classroom


Bags for half of the students
119.1 Phonogram Collection – page 228 1 set of Phonogram Game Cards for
Organize the 25 Phonogram Game Cards from Founda- every 4 students.
tions C. There should be one set for every 4 students. Mix Timer
the sets together. Divide the class into two groups - the
collectors and the sellers. Divide the Phonogram Game
Cards evenly amongst the sellers. Provide the collectors with a list of phonograms. The col-
lectors are to travel from seller to seller asking for phonograms by sound and spelling hint. If
the seller has it, they are to give it to the collector. If the seller does not have that phonogram,
they should say, "Go collect elsewhere." Set a timer. Who can collect the most phonograms?

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Lesson 119 229

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Put a line over the /ō/. I and
1. most Most trees are very tall. mōst mōst O may say /ī/ and /ō/ before
two consonants.

C always softens to /s/ before


an E, I, or Y. Put a line over the
/ū/. A E O U usually say their
Her question revealed her 2 long sounds at the end of the
2. confusion confusion.
kŏn fū ZHŏn con fū sion syllable. Underline /ZH/ and
put a 2 over it. /sh-ZH/ said
its second sound. Add to the
Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline /ar/. Y says /ē/ only


You are invited to my birthday
3. party party.
par tē par ty at the end of a multi-syllable
word.

4. might I might ride my bike. mīt might Underline three-letter /ī/.

2 Underline /ō/ and put a 2


5. window The man washed the window. wĭn dō win dow over it. /ow-ō/ said its second
sound.

Comprehension
The History of Bikes
Wheels of various sizes
119.2 The History of the Bike – page 229 Small rocks
Read the story.

What was a boneshaker? a bike that was very bumpy to ride


Why were the first bikes so bumpy? They had metal wheels Multi-Sensory Fun
and a metal seat.
Using various sizes of wheels and small
How did people try to fix that problem? They made bikes rocks, conduct an experiment. Which
with big wheels. size of wheel rolls over the bumps most
What was wrong with the high wheeler bikes? People fell off easily?

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230 Lesson 119

of them.
What type of bike is the bike today based upon? the safety bike

Have you ever ridden a bike?


Do you own a bike?
Describe your bike to me.
What color is it?
How many wheels does it have?
Legos® or other building toys

Going Deeper
Ride a rickshaw. Many cities have rickshaws in parks or urban
Read Aloud
areas as a form of transport for tourists. Ask the students to
build a model rickshaw using Legos® or other building toys. Rickshaw Girl by Mitali Perkins

Writing & Comprehension


Writing 4 colors of dry erase markers

Today we will learn a really big word!


Write transportation on the board.
Teacher Tip
Let's read this word together.
What is transportation? Sound it out syllable by syllable.
Underline port.
Port means to carry.
Underline trans.
Trans means across. Therefore transportation is something that carries across a distance. For example, a
bus carries people from one place to the next. A bus is one form of transportation.
What is another form of transportation?
Write the students' ideas on the board.

travel
car
boat
truck
airplane
rickshaw

These are all different forms of transportation.

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Lesson 119 231

Describing
119.3 Transportation – page 231
Scissors
Cut out the words. Place them face down in a pile.
Today we will play a game. You will choose a word. Read it
quietly to yourself. Then write a clue on the board and I (or
Teacher Tip
the class) will try to guess what kind of transportation you are
describing. If we cannot guess, then write another clue. If this is difficult, modify the activity by
either asking the student to give an oral
For example: airplane description or asking the student to spell
wings the clue using phonogram tiles.

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LESSON 120
Objectives
PHONOGRAMS: Learn ci .

SPELLING: special, chicken, caution, never, country


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COMPREHENSION: Read and follow directions.

FLUENCY: Practice reading high frequency words.

WRITING: Write a description.

Materials
NEEDED: LOE Whiteboard, Phonogram Cards including ci , obstacles for obstacle
course, red and blue dry erase markers, Lazy Vowel Chart, /er/ Poster, highlighter, scis-
sors, 4 dice, High Frequency Words from previous lessons, bag, timer

OPTIONAL: Phonogram Game Tiles, paper and clipboard

Phonograms
The Phonogram ci
Phonogram Card ci
Show the Phonogram Card ci .
This says /sh/. /sh/
Can you sing the sound /sh/? no
Is it a vowel or a consonant sound? consonant

Can we use this /sh/ at the end of the word? no


Why not? English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.

What other way do we know to spell /sh/? SH, TI, SI

Write ti on the board next to ci.

Since the C is shorter than the T we will call this short /sh/. Write short /sh/ three times on your white-
board.
Which one is the neatest?
232
Lesson 120 233

Phonogram Practice
Phonogram Obstacle Course - Individual
Whiteboard and marker
Set up nine stations around the room. At each station
or blank paper and clipboard
put a phonogram card and marker. Between each of the
Phonogram Cards
stations place an obstacle to run around, a table to crawl
under, something to balance on, or something to climb Obstacles for obstacle course
over. Demonstrate to the students how to go through the
obstacle course. Provide each student with a whiteboard
or a clipboard with paper. When they see a phonogram, they need to stop, read it, write it on
the whiteboard while saying the short directions aloud, and show it to you. When you nod
"yes," they can go on to the next obstacle.

Obstacle Course - Classroom


Assign a student referee to each phonogram station. The
Teacher Tip
referee needs to make sure the phonogram is read and Students who act as referees gain a lot of
written correctly. When one student finishes the course, repeated exposure to the phonogram at
he then moves into the position of referee for the first their station. This is a great way to help
students who are struggling with a pho-
station and all the referees move forward one station.
nogram to gain additional practice and
This will free one referee to move into the line to com- confidence.
plete the obstacle course.

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234 Lesson 120

Spelling
Spelling List
Red and blue dry erase markers
Dictate the words for the students to write on their
Lazy Vowel Chart
whiteboards or with phonogram tiles.
/er/ Poster

Say Spelling
Word Sentence to Spell Markings Hints
Underline /sh/. Use short /sh/.
1. special Sam is my special guest. spĕ shăl spe cial Add to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline /ch/. Underline /k/.


The chicken sandwiches were Use two-letter /k/ used only
2. chicken delicious.
chĭk ĕn chick en after a single, short vowel.
Add to the Lazy Vowel Chart.

Underline two-letter /ä/ that


may not be used at the end of
3. caution The caution light was blinking. kä shŏn cau tion English words. Underline /sh/.
Use tall /sh/. Add to the Lazy
Vowel Chart.

Underline /er/. Use the /er/ of


4. never Never play with fire. nĕv er nev er her. Add to the /er/ Poster.

C always softens to /s/ before


an E, I, or Y. Otherwise, C says
4 /k/. Underline /ŭ/ and put a
5. country My country has many rivers. kŭn trē coun try 4 over it. /ow-ō-ö-ŭ/ said its
fourth sound. Y says /ē/ only
at the end of a multi-syllable
word.

special
The first word is special. Sam is my special guest. special
Place your hand under your chin and say special. How many syllables in special? two
Now hum special. /hm-hm/
How many syllables? two
Do you hear a lazy vowel sound? yes
I will say the word and pronounce the vowel clearly. /spĕ-shăl/
Sound out the first syllable /spĕ/. /s-p-ĕ/
Sound out the second syllable /shăl/. /sh-ă-l/
Use short /sh/.

Write special with each syllable in a different color.


The student writes special on her whiteboard.
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Lesson 120 235

It is now my turn to write special. Drive my marker by sounding it out.


The teacher writes special on the board.
/s-p-ĕ-sh-ă-l/
What do we need to mark? Underline /sh/.

Let’s read it together. /s-p-ĕ-sh-ă-l/ speciăl


There is something special about the word special. Can you find it? The E says /ĕ/ at the end of the syl-
lable. This does not happen very often. It is an exception.
How do we usually say this word? speciәl
Let’s add it to our Lazy Vowel Chart.

Comprehension
Reading
Highlighter
120.1 Matching – page 233
Read the description of the boat. Match it to the correct
picture. Highlight the keywords in each sentence that helped you to match it correctly.

Writing
Rickshaws Teacher Tip
120.2 Rickshaws – page 234
Some students may choose to write sen-
In the last few lessons we have learned a lot about rickshaws. tences, others may write only phrases.
Though rickshaws are very common in some places in the Though you may choose to inform them
about the need to capitalize the first let-
world, they are quite rare in the United States. This means ter in the sentence and use an end mark,
that many people do not know what a rickshaw is. be careful to not rob them of the creativ-
ity of writing.
Draw a picture of a rickshaw. Then in your own words de-
scribe what a rickshaw looks like and what it is used for.

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236 Lesson 120

Fluency
High Frequency Word Race
Scissors
120.3 High Frequency Words – page 235 4 dice
Cut out the words. Divide the high frequency word cards High Frequency Words from previous
between four locations in the room. Place one die at each lessons
location. Bag
I will set a timer for 2 minutes. When I say, "go," run to the first Timer
spot, roll the die, then select that many cards. Read each card
aloud. If you read it correctly the first time you get to put it
in your bag. If you do not read it correctly, put it back in the pile. Then run to the next station, roll the die,
and read that many cards. Continue until the timer beeps. Then we will count how many words you have
read.

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REVIEW H
Area Skill Mastery

Handwriting Copy a sentence with an uppercase letter and


1

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punctuation.

Phonograms Read ed, aw, au, augh. 1

Read ie, ti, ci, si. 2

Spelling Spell words by choosing the correct phonograms from


1
a limited set of options.

Reading Read words with a silent L. 3

Read two-syllable words ending in Y. 2

237
238 Review H

Phonogram Assessment
Reading Phonograms
Ask the students to read each of the phonogram cards. Phonogram Cards ed , aw , au ,
(ed, aw, au, augh, ie, ti, ci, si) aw , augh , ie , ti , ci ,
si
What's That Phonogram?
H.1 What’s That Phonogram? – page 237
Highlighter
On your page are groups of four phonograms. I will say a
phonogram's sound(s). Color the correct phonogram with
your highlighter.

1. /ē/ the /ē/ of field.


2. /ä/ that you may not use at the end of English words.
3. /ä/ that you may use at the end of English words.
4. /ä-ăf/
5. /ed-d-t/ past tense ending.
6. /sh/ tall /sh/
7. /sh/ short /sh/
8. /sh-ZH/

Spelling Assessment
Spelling
H.2 Spelling – page 239
Cut out the phonogram tiles and place them on the table in front of the student so that every letter
is oriented correctly.
I will say a word. Using the phonograms, drag them into place to spell the word.

unkind might
baby early

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Review H 239

Handwriting Assessment
Copywork
H.3 Handwriting – page 241
Choose the line size that you prefer. Copy the sentence.

Reading Assessment
Comprehension Teacher Tip
H.4 Ball – page 242
Listen to students read each sentence
Read the story. Draw a line to show how the players passed aloud. Note how the student reads the
the ball. various types of words. Many students at
this stage will still struggle with two-sylla-
ble words.

High Frequency Words Multi-Sensory Fun


H.5 High Frequency Words – page 244
Write each word on an index card. Ask
Read each word aloud. the student to read it, then run across the
room and put it in a pile.

Practice Ideas
Handwriting
If the student continues to struggle with writing, review how to form each of the letters
using either Foundations A and B or The Rhythm of Handwriting. Incorporate daily handwriting
games as found in Foundations A and B to provide additional practice.

Phonograms
"Phonogram Treasure Hunt - Individual" on page 181
"Phonogram Hopscotch - Individual" on page 187
"Texture Writing" on page 191
"Phonogram Fishing" on page 199
"Phonogram Flip" on page 203
"Phonogram Bingo" on page 212
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240 Review H

"Phonogram Memory" on page 217


"Phonogram Target" on page 222
"Phonogram Collection - Individual" on page 228
"Phonogram Obstacle Course - Individual" on page 233

Words with the Schwa Sound Multi-Sensory Fun


Practice reading the words on the Lazy Vowel Chart
each day for a month. Write words with a schwa on a white-
board. Provide students with a squirt gun.
Ask the student to read the word, then
Words with a Silent L squirt it.
"Silent L" on page 218
"Silent L" on page 218

Past Tense Words


"Reading -ED Words" on page 181
"Past Tense Memory Game" on page 187
"Reading -ED Words" on page 205

Words Ending in Y
"Reading Y Words" on page 193
"Y Boats" on page 198

Silent Final E Words


"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 130
"Creating New Words" on page 152
"Silent Final E Game" on page 156
"Silent E Ladders and Slides" on page 170

Reading Comprehension
Have the student re-read one of the readers or texts from the workbook. Discuss the text
together.
Practice reading the Bob Books listed in previous lessons. Discuss the stories together.
"On the Farm" on page 109
"Following Directions" on page 122

High Frequency Words


"High Frequency Word Race" on page 145
"Reading Basketball" on page 172
"High Frequency Board Game" on page 205
"High Frequency Word Race" on page 236

Copyright © 2013 Pedia Learning Inc.


Single Teacher License. Non-Transferable.
Index Collage 65
Collection 228
Dolphin Hunt 169
Fishing 199
Flip 203
A Go Fish 62, 94, 160
Hopscotch 118, 203
A E O U Usually Say Their Long Sounds at the End of the Indoor Hopscotch 118, 187
Syllable 88, 89 Kangaroo 125
Last One! 69
B Light Up 42
Broad A 17 Matching 150
Memory 99, 217
C Obstacle Course 233
Race 23
Compound Words 2, 7, 13, 24 Relay 119, 181
Comprehension Game 5, 35, 51, 63, 122, 215 Sensory Box 81
Could 218 Slap 49, 110
C softens to /s/ 119, 123, 124, 136 Sprint 38
Stop and Go 130
D
Target 222
Double Consonant 43 Texture Writing 191
Tic-Tac-Toe 13, 164
G Tight Rope 129
Train 7
G Softens to /j/ 135
Treasure Hunt 187
H Phonograms
AU 199
High Frequency Word Game 25, 82, 113, 172, 205, 236 AUGH 202
AW 186
I BU 93
I and O Before Two Consonants 60, 61, 64 CEI 142
CI 232
K DGE 106
EAR 11
Keywords 55, 92, 104, 136, 162, 173, 174, 216 ED 179
EI 124
L
EIGH 134
Long Vowel Game 65, 95, 99, 107 EW 152
Long Vowels 88 EY 128
GN 79
O GU 98
IE 210
O 30
IR 1
P KN 74
OE 168
Past Tense 180, 187, 191 OO 52, 53
Phonogram Games PH 110
Basketball 32 SI 227
Bingo 2, 76, 134, 212 TI 221
Blind Writing 155 UI 159
Board Game 53 UR 6
Bowling 106 WOR 23
Choo-Choo 17 WR 37
Ciruit 142 Plurals 68, 164
Prefix
RE- 129
UN- 160, 212, 219

R
Race 87
Reader
Dolphins 158, 162
Firefly 41, 47
Ha Long Bay 190, 195
Kids Can Do Great Things 67, 71
Ostriches 97, 104, 113
Rickshaws 220, 225
Robots 127, 132
Trains 10, 15

S
Schwa 18, 22, 30, 100
Short and Long Vowels 49
Should 218
Silent Final E
Every Syllable Needs a Vowel 151, 156
The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ 123, 141
To Keep a Singular Word from Looking Plural 165
To Make a Word Look Bigger 160
Unseen Reason 169
Silent Final E Games 152, 156
Ladders and Slides 130, 170
Silent L 213, 218
Suffix
-ED 180, 187
-ER 66
-EST 50
-ING 32, 38, 44, 120
Syllables 80, 139

T
Three-Syllable Words 184
Two-Syllable Words 94

W
Would 218
Writing 25, 55, 82, 174, 185, 201, 206, 230, 235

Y
Y at the End of a Two-Syllable Word 192, 193, 198