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1.

0 ABSTRACT

The title of this experiment is disassociation constant estimation using acetic acid and sodium
hydroxide titration. The objectives of this experiment are to determine the molarity acetic acid
and be able to understand the end point upon titrimetric analysis. We also should be able to
calculate the disassociation constant, Ka. This experiment was divided into two parts; part A
for standardization of acetic acid and part B for determination of the Ka of acetic acid. For part
A, firstly we added 10 ml of 0.01M acetic acid solution into a 100 ml conical flask. Then, 50
ml of distilled was added into conical flask and 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was
added. Then, burette was filled with 50 ml of 0.05 M NaOH and titrated the color of entire
solution from colorless to very pale pink. The volume of NaOH was recorded and the molarity
of acetic acid was calculated. For part B, 10 ml of 0.01 M acetic acid solution was added into
100 ml conical flask. 50 ml distilled water and 4-5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator was
added into conical flask. Next, the burette was filled with 50 ml of 0.05 M NaOH and pH was
recorded. The entire solution was titrated from colorless to pink. The volume of NaOH was
added vs pH value was recorded. NaOH was added in small amount which was less than 1 ml.
the pH was inserted and the solution was equilibrated. The pH was recorded and it’s continued
until pH remained constant at 11-12. Based on the experiment, the result we obtained the value
molarity of acetic acid is 0.01 M and the value of dissociation constant acetic acid, Ka is
4.446x10-9. Based on the graph plotted, we obtained our equivalence point is at pH 8 when 5
ml of NaOH is added. At the end of the result obtained, acetic acid is a weak acid as the value
of dissociation constant acetic acid, Ka is 4.446x10-9. In conclusion, the value of dissociation
constant acetic acid, Ka is 4.446x10-9. This shows that acetic acid is a weak acid.
2.0 INTRODUCTION

Titration is a method of quantitative chemical analysis that use to determine the unknown
concentration of an identified analyte (S M Khopkar, 2014). Volumetric analysis is a play role
in titration for volume measurements. A known concentration and volume of titrant reacts with
a solution of analyte or titrant to determine concentration. The volume of titrant reacted is
called titration volume.PH indicator or pH meter is used to determine the neutralization has
been reached and titration is complete for acid base titrations. From titration, the equation of
molarity and volume of acid must equal to molarity and volume of bas which is M1V1=M2V2
(Kenneth W. Raymond, 2009).

Acid-base titrations depends on the neutralization between an acid and base when mixed
in a solution. An appropriate pH indicator is added to the titration chamber, reflecting the pH
range of the equivalence point. The acid–base indicator indicates the endpoint of the titration
by changing color. The endpoint and the equivalence point are not exactly the same because
the equivalence point is determined by the stoichiometry of the reaction while the endpoint is
just the color change from the indicator (Khan, B., 2012).

A titration curve is normally a plot of pH versus volume of titrant. In this experiment, we


monitor the pH value using pH meter. As base is added to acid, the pH value will increase
until the solution gets close to the equivalence point. Near the equivalence point, a rapid change
in pH occurs. At the equivalence point, equal numbers of moles of acid and base have been
added and the pH will reflect which species are present. The titration curve will be sigmoidal
with the inflection point is the equivalence point. Beyond the equivalence point, where more
base has been added than acid, more gradual increases in pH are observed (Skoog, 2014).The
acid dissociation constant, Ka, is a measure of the strength of an acid in the solution. Taking
the negative logarithm of the Ka results in more easily expressed which is the pKa .The larger
the value of pKa, the smaller the extent of dissociation at any given pH, the weaker the acid.
There are two types of titration errors in acid and base titrations. The first is a determinate
error that occurs when the pH at which the indicator changes color different from the pH at the
equivalence point. The second type is an intermediate error that originates from the limited
ability of the eye to distinguish reproducibly the intermediate color of the indicator. This
magnitude error depends on the change in pH at the equivalence point (Skoog, 2014).
3.0 OBJECTIVE

1. To determine the molarity of acetic acid.


2. To understand the end point and the equivalent point of trimetric analysis.
3. To calculate the disassociation constant (Ka)
4.0 METHODOLOGY

4.1 Chemicals used throughout the experiment

Distilled water, Acetic acid 0.01M (CH3COOH), Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH).

4.2 Methods

4.2.1 Standardization of Acetic Acid

10mL of acetic acid


with 0.01M and 50mL Then 4-5 drops of
of distilled water was phenolphthalein indicator
added into conical into conical flask.
flask.

Lastly the volume of NaOH


required was recorded and Then 50mL of NaOH with 0.05M filled
the molarity of the acetic into burette and titrated into conical
acid calculated. flask until the solution remain pink.
4.2.2 Determination of Ka of Acetic Acid

10mL of standardized aqueous 5-5 drops of phenolphthalein


acetic acid with 0.01M solution indicator added into conical flask.
added into conical flask along Then 50mL of NaOH with 0.05M
with 50mL of distilled water. filled into burette.

After that titration process begun


by adding NaOH until the colour of Then pH paper was insert into
solution remain pink. The pH vs conical flask to take initial pH
volume of NaOH added was value of the solution and the
recorded. value was noted.

In small aliquots NaOH was added to let the solution equilibrate


and the pH was recorded. The last step was repeated until the pH
value relatively constant at 11-12.
5.0 RESULTS
5.1 Standardization of acetic acid

Volume of sodium hydroxide (mL) titrated = 27 mL


Molarity of acetic acid = 0.0225 M

*Calculation for Molarity of acetic acid shown in appendix

5.2 Determination of the disassociation constant, Ka of Acetic Acid

Table 5.1: Data on pH values of solution against volume of NaOH (mL) added
pH Volume of NaOH (mL) added

4.20 0.7
4.28 2.0
4.94 4.0
4.77 6.0
5.06 8.0
5.12 10.0
5.26 12.0
5.37 14.0
5.54 16.0
5.64 18.0
5.83 20.0
6.04 22.0
6.51 24.0
8.06 26.0
10.10 28.0
11.65 30.0
Graph pH vs Volume of NaOH (mL)
14

12

10
8.06
8
pH

6 pH

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Volume of NaOH (mL)

Figure 5.1: Graph of pH against volume of NaOH (mL) added in titration method.
5.3 Determination Ka of acetic acid
5.3.1 Half chemical equation for dissociation of acetic acid

CH3COO- + H2O ----> CH3COOH + H₃O⁺


5.3.2 Dissociation constant, Ka

Ka= [H₃O⁺] [CH3COO] / [CH3COOH]

1. Initial point - Volume of NaOH (mL) = 0 , pH= 4.2

pH = -log [H₃O⁺] = 4.2


[H₃O⁺] = 10-4.2 mol/L = 6.3096 × 10⁻⁵ mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =6.3096 × 10⁻⁵ mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 – 6.3096 × 10⁻⁵) mol/L =0.0224 mol/L
Ka = (6.3096 × 10⁻⁵) (6.3096 × 10⁻⁵)/ 0.0224 = 1.777 x 10-7

2. Half equivalent point. – Volume of NaOH = 13 Ml , pH= 5.0

pH = -log [H₃O⁺] = 5.0


[H₃O⁺] = 10-5 mol/L= 1x10-5 mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =1x10-5 mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 –1x10-5 mol/L=0.02249 mol/L
Ka= (1x10-5 mol/LV) (1x10-5 ) mol/L / 0.02249 = 4.446x10-9

3. Equivalent point – Volume of NaOH (Ml) = 26 Ml, pH= 8.06


pH = -log [H₃O⁺] = 8.06
[H₃O⁺] = 10-8.06 mol/L = 8.709x10-9 mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =8.709x10-9 mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 – 8.709x10-9 mol/L =0.22499 mol/L
Ka= (8.709x10-9) (8.709x10-9) mol/L / 0.22499 = 3.371x10-16

Therefore, dissociation constant (Ka) of acetic acid at half equivalent point is = 4.446x10-9
6.0 DISCUSSION

The acid dissociation constant is the equilibrium constant of the dissociation reaction of an
acid which is denoted by Ka. This equilibrium constant is a quantitative measure of the strength
of an acid in a solution. The acid dissociation constant is also known as the acidity
constant or acid-ionization constant (helmesntine, 2018). The measurement of the changes of
pH during neutralization of a weak acid with alkali can be employed to obtain an accurate value
of strength of an acid and its disassociation constant (Bates, 1943).

In this experiment, an aqueous of weak acid, acetic acid solution with 0.01 M concentration
was used and titrated with a strong base, sodium hydroxide with 0.05 M of concentration. This
experiment was divided into two parts. For the standardization of acetic acid test, about 27 mL of
sodium hydroxide was required during the titration for the entire solution which also contains
phenolphthalein indicator to change from colorless to a very pale pink. This standardization
method is to determine the exact concentration or molarity of an acetic acid. From this test, a
measured volume of sodium hydroxide titrated with a known concentration of acetic acid could be
used to determine the molarity of acetic acid. Based on the results, it shows that the molarity of
acetic acid obtained was 0.0225 M after being titrated with strong base, NaOH.

For another part in this experiment which is the determination of the Ka of acetic acid,
another titration analysis has been conducted which the same amount of acetic acid solution and
sodium hydroxide solution were used. However, in this part, the volume of sodium hydroxide
added into acetic acid solution was recorded along with the pH of acetic acid solution during
titration until the pH at 11-12 remains constant. From the data obtained, a titration curve of pH (y-
axis) against volume of sodium hydroxide added, mL (x-axis) has been plotted as shown in figure
4.2 which equivalence point can be figured out. Equivalence point is a point at which the moles of
the titrant and analyte are equal. (Vista, 2018).
Theoretically, as base is added to acid, a gradual increase in pH will occur until the solution
gets close to the equivalence point. Near the equivalence point, a rapid change in pH occurs (OR,
2014). Based on the graph obtained by referring to figure 4.2, the pH started to increase gradually
as more sodium hydroxide added into the solution. As the volume of sodium hydroxide reached
26 mL, the solution was completely neutralized with pH value at 8, and the titration curve shows
the changed in direction and continue to increase. From the theory, the titration curve will be
sigmoidal with the inflection point (the point where the curvature changes direction) is the
equivalence point (OR, 2014). As refer to part 5.1, 27 mL needed to get the solution neutralized
during standardization of acetic acid while in part 5.2, 26 mL was also required. From this, it can
be conclude that the equivalent point of this titration was closed to standardization value and it can
be preferred as valid.

Further discussion regarding to determine the dissociation constant of acetic acid, the more
dissociation value Ka value indicates a stronger acid which is more of the acid dissociate and
small Ka value indicates a weaker acid which is less of the acid dissociates (Bates, 1943). In this
part, 3 values of Ka were obtained which based on 3 different points on the titration graph such as
initial point, half equivalent point and equivalent point. From the result at 5.2, dissociation constant
Ka of acetic acid at half equivalent point was 4.446x10-9. The value of Ka obtained was smaller
compared to theoretical value which is 1.8 x 10-5 (Clark, 2013). From result, it can be concluded
the determination of dissociation constant of acetic acid in this experiment was valid and it does
indicates that acetic acid was a weak acid.

Overall, for this experiment, all the objectives were achieved which are determine the
molarity of acetic acid, able to understand the equivalent point in titration curve and calculate the
value of dissociation constant Ka of acetic acid . Some errors were recognized during conducting
the experiment which might cause the result differ from theory. First, during the pH testing, pH
probe was not rinsed properly which cause the pH meter to give inaccurate reading. Then, the
parallax error occurred during the titration of 50 mL of NaOH which affected the reading of
Volume NaOH required for the solution to neutralize.
6.1 EXERCISE FROM KALAM5

1. Plot a graph of pH (y-axis) vs. volume NaOH added (x-axis).

Graph pH vs Volume of NaOH (mL)


14

12

10
Equivalence point
8
pH

6 pH

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 26 30 35
Volume of NaOH (mL) mL

Figure 6.1: Graph of pH (y-axis) vs. volume NaOH added (x-axis).


2. Determine the equivalence point from the graph.
- From the graph, equivalence point obtained was at pH 8

3. Record the NaOH volume on the graph sheet.


- The NaOH volume obtained from the graph based on equivalence point was 26 mL.

4. From your graph sheet data, select three experimental points (mL NaOH, pH) at ¼, ½, and
¾ of the distance between the initial point and the equivalence point of the titration.

Ka= [H+][CH3COO-]/[CH3COOH] pH =-log[H+]

At ¼ of the distance between the initial point and the equivalence point, pH =4

pH = -log[H₃O⁺] = 4
[H₃O⁺] = 10-4 mol/L= 1x10-4 mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =1x10-4 mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 –1x10-4 mol/L= 00.0224mol/L
Ka=(1x10-4 mol/LV)( 1x10-4)mol/L / 0.0224 = 4.46x10-7

At ½ of the distance between the initial point and the equivalence point, pH =5.0

pH = -log[H₃O⁺] = 5.0
[H₃O⁺] = 10-5 mol/L= 1x10-5 mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =1x10-5 mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 –1x10-5 mol/L=0.02249 mol/L
Ka=(1x10-5 mol/LV)( 1x10-5 )mol/L / 0.02249 = 4.446x10-9
At ¾ of the distance between the initial point and the equivalence point, pH =6

pH = -log[H₃O⁺] = 6
[H₃O⁺] = 10-6 mol/L= 1x10-6 mol/L
From the equation, [CH3COO] = [H₃O⁺] =1x10-6 mol/L
[CH3COOH] = (0.0225 –1x10-6 mol/L=0.02249 mol/L
Ka=(1x10-6 mol/LV)( 1x10-6 )mol/L / 0.02249 = 4.446x10-11

5. Calculate the value of Ka for acetic acid Using the three data points chosen,

Ka=(ka1/4 +ka1/2+ka1/3)/3

=(4.46x10-7 + 4.446x10-9 + 4.446x10-11 )/3 = 1.50x10-


7.0 CONCLUSION

This experiment is associated with the disassociation constant which aims to understand
the end point and the equivalent point of titrimetric analysis and to calculate the disassociation
constant (Ka). From the results obtained, it shows that the determination of dissociation constant
of acetic acid in this experiment was valid and it does indicates that acetic acid was a weak acid
even though the value of Ka obtained was smaller compared to theoretical value. From the results
recorded, it also can be concluded that acetic acid is a weak acid as seeing that the theory stated
that the more dissociation value Ka value indicates a stronger acid which is more of the acid
dissociate and small Ka value indicates a weaker acid which is less of the acid dissociates. From
this experiment, it can be concluded that the main objective which is to understand the end point
and the equivalent point of titrimetric analysis and to calculate the disassociation constant (Ka)
achieved by obtaining the proven results.

Throughout this experiment, some errors has occurred which affected the result as the acid
may have titrated excessively even after the solution have turned pink. The experimental error
could have been evaded if the burette was handled with caution. Besides, the pH probe might have
interpreted the readings less accurate. Thus, a calibration on the pH probe before experiment start
is a crucial. Plus, every time the reading of sample is taken, the probe need to be rinsed with
distilled water to neutralize the pH reading of machine.

8.0 RECOMMENDATION

Some improvements is suggested in order to improve the experiment and to obtain a better
results. Firstly, pH probe need to be calibrated frequently so that the result readings acquired will
be more accurate and precise. Next, the result readings is advised to be taken at least 3 times and
the average results is recorded so that it will be more accurate. Besides that, parallax error must be
avoided such as when reading the burette must be at eye level and the meniscus has to be read at
bottom of the curve.
9.0 REFERENCE

S M Khopkar - (2014), Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry.

Kenneth W. Raymond - (2009), General Organic and Biological Chemistry - Page 240.

Khan, B. - (2012). Basics of chemistry. New Delhi: Studium Press.

Skooog, W. (2014). Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. In W. Skoog, Fundamentals of


Analytical Chemistry (9th edition ed., pp. 368-376). United States of America:
BROOKS/COLE Cengage Learning.

Titration Fundamentals. (2016, July 21). Retrieved March 20, 2018, from
https://chem.libretexts.org/Demonstrations_and_Experiments/Basic_Lab_Techniques/Tit
ration/Titration_Fundamentals

Bates, R. G. (1943). DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS AND pH-TITRATION CURVES.

Clark, J. (2013). chemguide.co. Retrieved 21 March, 2018, from


https://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/acids.html

helmesntine, a. m. (19 February, 2018). /thought.co acid disassociation constant. Retrieved 21


March, 2018, from Thought.co: https://www.thoughtco.com/acid-dissociation-constant-
definition-ka-606347

OR, P. (21 10, 2014). Titration curves, indicators and acid disassociation constant. Chemistry
with Computers, pp. 1-10.

Vista, T. (2018). Equivalence Point. Retrieved 21 March, 2018, from TutorVista:


https://chemistry.tutorvista.com/analytical-chemistry/equivalence-point.html
10.0 APPENDIX
10.1 CALCULATION
10.1.1 Standardization of acetic acid
Determine molarity of acetic acid,

MaVa=MbVb

Ma= concentration of acid


Va= volume of acid
Mb = concentration of base
Vb= volume of base

Volume of NaOH titrated = 27 mL


Ma x 0.06 mL = 00.05 x 0.027
Ma = 0.0225 M

Thus, molarity of acetic acid is 0.0225 M


10.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

10.2.1 Standardization of Acetic Acid

Figure 10.1 Preparation of Acetic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide solution

Figure 10.2 Acetic Acid after titration process completed


10.2.2 Determination of Ka of Acetic Acid

Figure 10.3 Determination of pH of Acetic Acid

Figure 10.4 Final pH value of Acetic Acid after titration process completed