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HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

SPILLWAYS
by:
Dr. Zahiraniza Mustaffa

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General Contents:

• Introduction
– Introduction

• Types of Spillways
– Ogee Spillways
– Morning Glory Spillways
– Side Channel Spillways
– Siphon Spillways

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INTRODUCTION
• What is a spillway?
– A part of a dam that acts as an overflow
passage.
– Allows flood water to safely pass (spill)
downstream when the reservoir is full.

• Some common types of spillways are:


– Ogee Spillways
– Morning Glory Spillways
– Side Channel Spillways
– Siphon Spillways
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Kenyir Dam, Terengganu
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Pergau Dam, Kelantan

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Ogee Spillway
• Most common spillway being used.

• An overflow spillway is a section of a dam


designed to permit water to pass over its crest.

• This weir is not really a sharp-crested weir BUT


its shape corresponds to the underside of the
nappe of a sharp-crested weir.

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• The discharge, Q passing over a spillway,
2 3/ 2
Q  Cd 2g LH
3

where, Cd is the discharge coefficient, L is the width of the


weir and H is the head of water above the crest.

• Cd is the discharge coefficient given by,


H
Cd  0.72  0.11
P

where, Cd is the discharge coefficient, P is the height of the


weir and H is the head of water above the crest.
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Ogee Spillway Model in the Laboratory
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Energy Losses Along a Spillway

• Is there any equations to describe the amount


of losses along the spillway? NO

• Why?
– Because it is hard to predict the behavior of
flow over spillway as the velocity is really
fast, turbulence takes place, water vapors
etc.

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• So, how do they estimate EL?
1. Engineers normally assumed the energy
loss is 10% of the total energy at the
upstream section, H1.
EL = 10% H1

2. Actual calculation by using the energy


equation:
If, H1 = H2 + EL
Then, EL = H 1 - H 2

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2
1 EL = 10% H1
V12/2g
Q

Spillway
H1 V22/2g
H2
y1
Dam

y2

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Morning Glory Spillway
• Sometimes known as the shaft spillway or drop
inlet spillway.

• A spillway in which the discharge enters over a


circular crest section, drops through a vertical
(or sloping) shaft, and then discharges through
a horizontal (or nearly horizontal)
conduit/tunnel.

• The shape of the intake is similar to a morning-


glory flower.

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• When do we use a morning-glory spillway?
– Space limitations, topographic features do
not permit to place other spillways.

– At embankment dams because it is not safe


for spillways to be constructed on the
embankment.

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Control weir –
circular crest section

Vertical shaft

Elbow

To conduit/tunnel

LAYOUT OF A
MORNING GLORY SPILLWAY

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Morning Glory Spillways
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BELL MOUTH SPILLWAY

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Vertical shaft

Circular Crest

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Rectangular Crest

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• Depending on the amount of water at the
vicinity of the spillway, the flow may appear
(control) in three ways:
– Crest control
– Orifice control
– Full-pipe flow control

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Side Channel Spillway
• A spillway that discharges water in a channel
parallel to the spillway crest.

• Consists of circular crest section, a vertical


shaft, an elbow in a vertical plane and a tunnel
section.

• The side channel must provide slope steep


enough to carry away the accumulating flow in
the channel.

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Siphon Spillway
• A device for discharging excess water in a pipe
over the dam crest.

• Consists of an inlet, an upward sloping section,


a crown with a level cross section, a downward
sloping section and an outlet.

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• When do we use a siphon spillway?
– When it is desired to keep reservoir level
within a modest range of fluctuations
– As a service reservoir

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