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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a type of electron microscope that shows three-dimensional

images of a sample.

It is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.

Its development in 1981 earned its inventors, Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer (at IBM Zürich), the Nobel
Prize in Physics in 1986.

Works based on quantum tunneling. In classical physics, electron Is considered as particle but here
electron is considered as particle. So, it passes through the samples. A voltage is applied between the tip
and the sample. The tip is made of metal and it emits electrons to the sample. The tip is placed at a
constant height and scanned throughout the sample. The current varies inversely proportional to the
height of the sample. If the distance between the sample and the tip is low then the current is high and
vice versa. The current profile is then amplified and sent to computer for processing.

due to the remarkable detail and STM can give about the surface of a material, they are very useful for
studying friction, surface roughness, defects and surface reactions in materials like catalysts. STMs are
also very important tools in research surrounding semiconductors and microelectronics.

$30,000 to $150,000

Femtosecond lasers 300,000

A femtosecond laser is a laser which emits optical pulses with a duration well below 1 ps (→ ultrashort
pulses), i.e., in the domain of femtoseconds (1 fs = 10−15 s). It thus also belongs to the category of ultrafast
lasers or ultrashort pulse lasers.
into fields including, but not limited to, chemistry [67], metrology [68],
materials science [69], tele/data-communications [70] and energy research [71]. Opthalmology

monitoring in real time the structural dynamics and phase transition of bismuth (Bi) nanoclusters
and islands
induced by femtosecond laser pulses. Our approach to accomplish this task includes
building a time-resolved high energy electron diffraction setup that is capable of
delivering high energy and short electron pulses.
Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) is a pump-probe experiment method based on electron diffraction
from ultrafast electron pulses. The pump laser will inject into the sample to induce the transitions and,
after a finite time, another UV laser will hit the photocathode to produce electron pulses. After it passes
through the sample, the electron pulse will be scattered and form diffraction patterns on a CCD camera
carrying the structural information of the sample. By adjusting the time difference between the pump
laser and UV laser, one can obtain a series of diffraction patterns as a function of time, which can be used
to examine the dynamics of charge carriers, atoms, and molecules.
A spark discharge is coupled to a laser multicharged ion source to enhance ion generation. The
laser plasma triggers a spark discharge with electrodes located in front of the ablated target. For
an aluminum target, the spark discharge results in significant enhancement in the generation of
multicharged ions along with higher charge states than observed with the laser source alone.

This project integrates a laser multicharged ion source with a cost-effective ion density
amplification stage based on a spark discharge. The multicharged ions are selected and
transported to a processing chamber. With increased charge state, the ions carry substantial
potential energy. The multicharged ion interaction with the solid involves the release of this
potential energy in addition to its kinetic energy. For slow multicharged ions, the release of
potential energy can be localized to a depth of a few nanometers (10-9 meter) at the surface,
making them ideal for nanoprocessing. On the other hand, fast multicharged ion beams can
deposit significant energy at a relatively deep target location, making them ideal for applications
requiring localized high energy deposition as used in carbon ion radiotherapy.

nanoprocessing and nanofabrication of various electronic devices and sensors.

applications in biomedicine ranging from generation of monoenergetic x-rays for diagnostic

imaging to highly charged carbon ions for cancer therapy.

include highly sensitive secondary ion mass spectrometry for chemical analysis