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Chapter Title

1. Safety Management

2. Accident Reporting Investigation and Analysis

National & Global Perspective

3. Electrical Safety

4. Fire Prevention and Protection

5. Personal Protective Equipment

6. Occupational Health in Construction Industry

Health and Safety Issues in Construction Industry

7. Accident Investigation & Prevention

8. Construction Site Safety

9. Site Workshop Safety

10. Safety Philosophy & Visible Management Commitment




For the progress and prosperity of any society increased, industrialization in a planned manner is necessary. Every work that we do involves some degree of hazard and construction activities are no exception. Exposure to an uncontrolled hazard over a sufficiently long period of time can give rise to adverse conditions such as ill health and industrial accidents.

Before the safety philosophies or principles of accident prevention are discussed, we should clearly understand the terms such as accident, hazard safety etc.

Accident: Any unplanned and unintended event giving rise to injury, ill health, death and damage to property and the environment or other losses. It interrupts or interferes with the orderly progress of activity.

Hazard: Any source or situation with a potential to cause harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the environment or a combination of these. In other words, it is any condition that may result in the occurrence of or contribute to the severity of an accident.

Hazard Identification: The process of recognizing a hazard in existence and defining its characteristic or impact.

III Health: Occupational ill health that is judged to have been caused by or made worse by a person's work activity or environment.

Risk: The combination of frequency or probability of occurrence and consequence of a specified hazardous event.

Safety: The state in which the risk of harm (to persons) or damage is limited to an acceptable level.


The basic theory of accident occurrence may briefly be stated as follows:

• An injury occurs only as the result of an accident.

• An accident occurs only due to an unsafe act or unsafe condition or both.

• Unsafe acts or unsafe conditions exist because of human faults.

• Faults of a person are inherited or acquired from the environment and the causes for these defects are:

i) Physiological or psychological unsuitability ii) Lack of knowledge or skill

iii) Improper mechanical or physical environment.

Thus, when an accident occurs there is always a chain of events that occurs in a logical and fixed order. Each link in the chain is dependent upon the preceding link. (Fig. 1.1)

This is known as the Heinrich Theory of Injury Occurrence. Thus, in the accident prevention work, it is essential to analyze every accident, establish the real causes and take suitable corrective action to prevent recurrence.

Unsuitable Physiological
or Psychological Lack of Knowledge Improper Environment
• •
• " •
Human Fault / Failure
• •
Unsafe Action Unsafe Condition
+ +

Injury Figure 1.1: Heinrich's Injury Causation Model


From the data available to him on the frequency of potential injury accidents H.W. Heinrich estimated that in unit group of 330 accidents of the same kind and involving the same person there would be: 1 major or lost time injury, 29 minor injuries, 300 no injury accidents, (Industrial accident prevention, 3rd edition, Heinrich 1950).

Serious or lost - time accident

Minor injury accidents


No injury accidents

Unsafe actions & unsafe conditions

Figure 1.2

Heinrich explains this 300-29-1 ratio (Figure 1.2) is an aid in accident prevention, because it vividly emphasizes preventive opportunity.


In order to ensure total protection of workers, preventive measures have to be adopted in controlling hazards and thus preventing accidents. Accident prevention is relatively simple. Because they are caused, accidents are preventable. Simple techniques have been evolved for this through experience. It is essential to analyse every accident, establish the causes and take suitable corrective action to prevent its recurrence.

Accidents are caused; they do not just happen. If not corrected, the same type of accidents will recur. All accidents are preventable because they happen due to human failure in unsafe acts/unsafe conditions.

Unsafe Act (Personal cause): The violation of a commonly accepted safe procedure, which resulted in the selected accident type.


Operating without authority Working at unsafe speed

Making safety devices inoperative Unsafe position or posture

Failure to use personal protective equipment

Unsafe Condition (Mechanical, Physical or Environmental Cause): The unsafe condition identifies the hazardous physical condition or circumstance, which permitted or occasioned the occurrence of the accident type.


Improper guarding Defective agencies

Hazardous arrangement or process Improper ventilation

Improper dress or apparel

For an effective safety programme, we need three E's representing Engineering, Education and Enforcement. To start at the beginning, the plant or the works must be engineered for safety. This implies that all new plants and processes should be provided with engineered safeguards. During operation of the plants, attention should be given to their proper upkeep. This should be supplemented by education of workers and emphasizing on the supervisors their role in enforcing the safety rules.


A summary of a state-of-the-art safety philosophy is given below:

i. All injuries can be prevented. The key work here is "all". This is a realistic goal and not just a theoretical objective. A supervisor with responsibility for the well being of workers cannot be effective without fully accepting this principle.

ii. Management, which includes all levels through the first-line supervisor, has the responsibility for preventing personal injuries. Since the line organisation has the responsibility for every operational activity of the factory, each supervisor must accept his share of responsibility for the safety of the workers.

iii. It is possible to safeguard all operating exposures that may result in injuries. It is possible to safeguard all operating exposures that may result in injuries. It is preferable, of course, to eliminate the sources of danger. However, where this is not possible or practicable, supervision must resort to such measures as the use of guards, safety devices and protective clothing. No matter what the exposure, an effective safeguard can be provided.

iv. It is necessary to train all to work safely. They must understand that it is to their advantage, as well as the company's, to work safely and that they have a definite responsibility to do so. Adequate training of the employees is a responsibility of supervision.

v. It is good business to prevent personal injuries on the job and off the job, in addition to causing personal suffering; injuries cost money and reduce efficiency.

vi. Safety is a condition of employment. Employees are expected to accept their responsibility for safety when they join the company the safety of themselves and of the people and facilities with which they work.


Many people believe that if we provide a safe workplace with well-guarded machinery, trained operators and workers clearly laid down procedures and vigilant supervision, there cannot be any accident. However, even with these optimum conditions many accidents may take place. Accident prevention basically depends upon the motivation of employees to work safely It is necessary to create and maintain workers' interest in the importance of safety This process will cultivate safe working habits among workers and supervisors.


The Organisation shall establish and maintain an Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System. An Organisation, which has already an existing, documented and implemented management system should extend the system to address and integrate an OSH management system.

The top management should define, document, endorse and review its OSH policy, which is appropriate to the nature, scale and the hazards and risks of its activities, the organisation should demonstrate its OSH policy and ensure commitment to its OSH management system. The top management should define and demonstrate its leadership and commitment to OSH by allocation of adequate resources to ensure improvement in its OSH performance and by carrying out an initial review of their existing arrangements for managing OSH and based on the review planning the progressive implementation of the elements of the system.


Safety organisation in a factory or an establishment is the agency employed by management to assign responsibility for accident prevention and to ensure performance under that responsibility. According to the Safety Statutes, it is the duty of the management to provide a safe workplace and instructions on the hazards involved in operations and indicate the safe way of performing the job. Thus, safety is a management responsibility and the drive for safety should come from the top.

As per sec. 38(2) of the Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service Act 1996) in every establishment wherein 500 or more building workers are employed, the employer shall appoint a Safety Officer. He should be given appropriate status corresponding to the status of the other Executive Heads of the establishment.


A high standard of safety can be achieved in a factory if employees at all levels are made to get involved in its safety programme. One way of doing this is to set up safety committees at different levels. Formulation of safety committees is one of the effective management tools for promotion of safety and making the employees safety conscious.

Under Sec. 38(1) of the Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1996, in every establishment wherein 500 or more building workers are employed, the employer shall constitute a Safety Committee consisting of representatives of the employer and the building workers.

The basic functions are:

i. to discuss and formulate safety policies and recommend their adoption by the management

ii. to discover unsafe conditions and practices and determine their remedies. iii. to work to obtain results by having its management approved recommendations put into practice.

While the central safety committee is responsible for the organisation as a whole, a Sectional Safety Committee can be organized for dealing with safety matters at the Section level. Shop level safety committees are in a better position to correct unsafe situations and a lot of useful suggestions/ideas will come from the workers.


A Safety programme should be able to achieve the following objectives: i. To prevent injuries to workers

ii. To remove unsafe conditions at work

iii. To prevent damage to plant, equipment, product and company property iv . To prevent fires and explosions

v. To provide adequate protection to machines and conduct training programmes to make workers safety conscious.

vi. Public liability such as prevention of injuries to public, and property damage


To be effective, a programme for maintaining interest in safety must be based on needs. To develop unsuitable activities and promotional material, the needs and emotions of supervisors and employees should be taken into account. The following are the basic emotions and needs:

i. Fear of painful injury, death, loss of income, family hardship, group disapproval of ridicule, supervisory criticism.

ii. Pride in safe workmanship, in good records, both individual and group.

iii. Recognition, desire for approval by others in-group and family, or praise from supervisors.

iv. Participation desire to be one among the group to get into action. v. Competition desire to outshine others.


Safety information can be given through accident analysis, educative materials released periodically and through display of safety posters.


Of the ways of arousing and maintaining interest in safety among the workers, none is more effective than supplying them with informative material, such as data from different department sites, frequency of accidents with short description and comparative statements with other months of the year, other years and organizations. Contributions from members of staff, information concerning certain classes of accidents noticeable by their frequency, their causes and methods for overcoming them can be used to advantage.


Safety posters are the most visible evidence of accident prevention at work. Posters have great value in a safety programme through their influence on attitudes and behaviour. When posters are designed, it is better to have these purposes in mind:

i. To remind persons of common human traits that causes accidents. ii. To impress upon people the benefits of working safely

iii. To suggest behavioural patterns that help prevent accidents. iv. To inspire friendly interest in the organization's safety efforts v. To remind persons of specific hazards

Posters are also useful in supporting special campaigns, for instance, wearing protective equipment, maintaining good housekeeping or offering safety suggestions. Posters promote traffic, home and even pedestrian safety by visual education.


Usually, a safety contest is held only after a safety programme has been established. Because, a well planned programme is a demonstration of the management's interest in safety. It will, to a great extent encourage active participation of supervisors and workers in a contest. Safety contests are conducted purely for their interest creating value. There are various types of contest based on injury experiences, improvement over past records and non-

Injury rate contests such as safety slogan, poster, housekeeping etc. Since accident prevention is closely associated with efficiency, many safety suggestions help not only in preventing accidents but also in lowering the cost of production project, in improving working conditions and in bettering the health and raising the morale of the workers. Posters and other propaganda should urge workers to suggest good ideas on safety. Due recognition for these suggestions should be given and noteworthy cases should be publicized in the factory establishment on bulletin boards.


It is important to distinguish between safety education and safety training. The purpose of safety education is to develop safety consciousness i.e. an awareness of the importance of eliminating accidents and a mental alertness in recognizing and correcting conditions and practices that might lead to injury. Safety training on the other hand aims at developing the worker's skill in the use of safe work techniques and practices.

Most accidents involve unsafe acts and unsafe conditions both the results of human failure. When tools and equipment are used improperly, such unsafe acts become major cause of accidents. One method of preventing unsafe acts IS to train workers in the proper use of tools and equipment. Similarly, to eliminate unsafe conditions, workers should be trained to establish and maintain a safe working environment. An effective training programme consists of three essential parts: objectives, course outline, and lesson plans.


The immediate job of preventing accidents falls upon the supervisor, not because it has been arbitrarily assigned to him, but because accident prevention and production control are closely associated with supervisory functions. Training of supervisors should therefore emphasize that safety is an integral part of their responsibilities along with cost control and production.

Human behaviour can be influenced by several factors: by the example of an occupier who spares no effort to create safe working conditions; by developing safe work procedures and insisting on adherence to them; by

teaching workers facts about the causes of accidents and methods of

prevention. These influences are best exerted through a well-planned

training programme, which can solve many problems.


Accidents and ill health are seldom-inevitable random events. They generally arise from failures in control and often have multiple causes. Although the

immediate cause of an event may be a human or technical failure such events usually arise from organizational failing which are the responsibility of management. Successful policies place heavy emphasis on achieving effective control over both people and technology. They aim at exploiting the strengths of employees while minimizing the influence of human limitations and fallibilities through the way the organisation is structured and the way jobs and systems are designed.

Management Control
Eliminating Unsafe Discovering causes Eliminating Unsafe
Conditions Actions
I I I By means of


Safe - guarding of machines

Rectifying or preventing defective conditions

Safe arrangements processes, method of work, etc.

Adequate and suitable illumination

Suitable and safe design and construction

Adequate and suitable ventilation

Safe dress and personal protective equipments

By means of


By means of


Job safety analysis Investigation of accidents

Inspection of plant and equipment

Recording and tabulation of data

Analysis of data

Personal adjustment Safety education and training

Supervision Discipline

Figure 1.3 : Accident Prevention Methods


Reporting: As per Section 39, it is obligatory on the employer to report the accidents to the authorities in their prescribed forms. (These reports also should serve as a guide for prevention effort but will not serve the purpose of finding out the causes. A suitable form has to be developed acceptable to each organisation). The form should normally contain the following question to extract facts:

(1) Name (2) Age. (3) Identity No. (4) Date. (5) Time. (6) Exact Place. (7) Witness. (8) Machine. Equipment Process etc. (9) What exactly the injured was doing? (10) What was defective? (11) What safe guards should have been used? (12) Were they available? (13) Was the injured had safety j instructions? (14) Was he aware of the Safety Arrangements?

The above questions when posed should bring out many of the facts leading to the accident. The answer may never be "Nothing" - Obviously; something went wrong or the person would not have been injured; the occurrence in which he was involved was certainly not planned or intended and so determining what did go wrong, becomes the object of investigation.


The report is described as a statement of fact or opmion. singly or in combination, which renders an account or factors, conditions or activities and is presented, to a responsible authority.

The primary purpose in report compilation is to inform the responsible authority as to assist his managerial functions of decision making and taking appropriate action. If he is so to be informed the report, as presented, is to be adequate, timely, accurate and realistic.


In construction, the report is to be as brief and concise as is consistent with completeness and employ language, which is simple, practical and direct. Simplicity of language is to be constructed as being so within the terms of the report, subject. The report might not be understood because of the word usage unnecessary but to be understood to be simply expressed.

The reporting of accident is of four types:

a) Reporting to Management

b) Reporting to 'Statutory Authorities

c) Reporting to Relatives.

d) Reporting to Insurance Authorities

We have to keep in mind that NO MANAGER can even start an investigation unless an accident is reported to him.

Reporting of Accidents - Methods for Promoting:

i. To make management's policy and system of reporting

ii. Training of Workers & Supervisors in reporting of accident iii. Frequent mentioning of benefits of accident reporting

Managers' Actions and Reactions in Promoting Accident Reporting:

i. Give a positive reaction to all reports. ii. Develop value awareness

iii. Pay more attention to positive individual performance

iv. Respond promptly and demonstrate personal belief in actions on sub standard acts and conditions.

v. Focus attention on the pre contact phase elements as much or more than on accident frequency.

Internal Reports:

There are four types of internal reports.

(a) First hand report to Management / In-charge of Factory. (b) Investigation report (with statements, photos, details etc. (c) Supervisor's Accident Report.

(d) Statement of Serious Accident happened during a period.

Accident investigation is a simple procedure, if certain basic principles are followed as given below:

• Every accident should be investigated.

• Investigation should be done on the spot and immediately after an accident. The scene of accident should not be disturbed until the investigation is over.

• Investigation should not be left to Supervisor alone, who is in-charge of a particular operation. It is always preferable to have some independent authority associated with the Supervisor.

• What are responsible for the accident should be the criteria for the investigation and not who is responsible. It should be fact finding and not fault finding

• In most of the cases of accidents both physical hazards and unsafe acts are present. Hence, it should be investigated thoroughly from all the angles.

• All evidence should be let in.

• People should be encouraged to tell the truth by adopting a policy of not punishing individuals whose faults have contributed to causation of accidents.

• There should be adequate and able machinery for investigation into the causes of accident.

• Supervisor of the department concerned the accident occurred should be associated with investigation procedure.

• Remedial measures suggested should be implemented as quickly as possible.

All accidents - which mayor may not result in injury need through investigation to plan for accident prevention. The consequences of a particular accident may be serious from the point of injury in a particular situation and the same accident may be simple in different circumstances. So nature of the injury should not be the criteria.

Investigation Parameters & Policy:

The main parameters are as follows:

(a) Which accidents should be investigated? (b) Time required for investigation

(c) Cost of Investigations

(d) Cost of Training of Investigators (e) Condition of hazard exposure

(f) Potentially adverse effects of hazards (g) Limited exposure hazards

(h) Degree of confidence in risk and possible loss assessment

Generally it is felt that accident investigation is to be carried out by Safety Officer or by the Executive looking after safety activities of the Construction Site.

But it is NOT CORRECT.

Accident investigation is to be carried out by LINE MANAGER/LINE EXECUTIVE for the following reasons.

Line Executive:

i. know the equipments

ii. know the conditions of work iii. know the people better

iv. want to know the truth about their control and effectiveness

Function of Safety Executive in Accident Investigation:

(a) Advising for preventing recurrence.

(b) Questioning the witnesses other persons. (c) Evaluating the procedures Involved

(d) Measuring management control.

Investigation Committee:

It is very much necessary to have a permanent investigation committee for serious accidents.

The following persons will be in the committee: i. Safety Executive/Officer

II. Shop Manager/Executive

iii. Safety Committee Member (Workers' Representative)


• Initial response to the accident

• The way in which an accident is reported

• Way of making report

• Actions to control activity at the scene of accident

• Actions by workers in the accident area

• Action by emergency team

Functions of Safety Officer/Engineer in Accident Investigation:

• To advise

• To provide technical guidance on the investigative process and techniques

• T 0 advise about best use of resources in the investigations


The first and second Line Managers dominate this group. Their main functions are as below:

i. To collect the on-the-spot evidence ii. To examine the evidence

iii. To apply precise working knowledge of the activity and iv. To try to determine causes


Analysis of any accident is required to find out causes of accident and to find out the reasons for the safety programme out of control.

Accident analysis is a "ON GOING PROCESS".

Steps in Accident Analysis:

STEP-1: Investigator making an overview at accident site

STEP-2: Efforts made by Investigator during investigation STEP-3: Putting corrective measures in action

Disciplined and organised analysis is most efficient in the long run. The output of any analysis depends on input. Analysis is of two types:

TYPE-1: Qualitative. TYPE-2: Quantitative

Qualitative Analysis:

This is an objective but on mathematical review of the factors relating to SAFETY. Objective of this analysis is-

To prevent all similar accidents in future

Quantitative Analysis:

This is an analysis and it is a follow on process after the influencing factors are found out by qualitative analysis.

This analysis includes consideration of probability of:

• Cost of losses

• Cost of preventive measures.

Objective of this analysis is to:

To prevent accidents when it is economically feasible to do so, that means the business activities may be stopped for achieving safety.

Cause Analysis:

Cause analysis is the most vital part of accident investigation.

Some of the important methods of analysis are:

• Subsystem Analysis

• Interface Analysis

• Design Criteria Analysis

• Failure Mode & Effects Analysis

• Fault tree Analysis


Name of the Establishment:






DI 10

(Please tick at the appropriate box)

Date of investigation:


Investigation carried out by:


Date Time: Location:

----------------- ---------------- -----------

Extent of injury:


Extent of property / material damage:


Details of i nj u red person/s: ___

Name : Dept. :

------------------------------------ -------------

Pay sheet (P.S. No.): Category:

----------------------- ---------- __

Injured person is an employee of:

Unit A

Unit B

Unit C




Contractor D

Other (Specify) D

(Please tick at the proper box) Name:


Machinery, Equipment jobs involved:

Description of Accident:

Treatment given:

Admitted in: Hospital



Not admitted in hospital

Observations made at site:

Made on: At

------------------ ---------



Safety advice given:

Name of the supervisor:

Tel. No.:


(Safety Department)

Members of investigation committee



National & Global Perspective

There are approximately 10 million buildings and other construction workers in India This is an industry, which covers a vast field of activity in the engineering mechanical and civil processes It has a tremendous role to play in all the developmental acclivities such as roads, bridges, culverts transmission towers, thermal stations, hydro-electric projects and so on. A large number of multinational, national and local companies employing lakh of workers and are equally large number of self employed individuals are also engaged in building and construction work and allied activities like white washing, painting plumping and fixing of mechanical and electrical fixtures.

The environment of construction is subjected to various varieties of nature such as rains, floods, cyclones, earthquakes, uncertainties of geological and soil conditions and exposure to extreme temperatures and weather construction jobs are highly labour-intensive and also highly mechanized. The entire activity is mobile, seasonal, sporadic, intermittent and without any stability and durability of employment. The building and construction workers keep on hoping from place to place as a particular building r construction works get completed. In other words, there is not one single employer to who they are tied up even on a semi permanent basis. A majority of the operations are performed by contract and casual labour who are most vulnerable to the fluctuations in employment and the various attendant risks and hazards which are associated with jobs like detonation of rocks into boulders, conversion of boulders into chips, loading of chips into trucks transportation of chips to building and construction sites and eventually harnessing a wide range of materials into finished products i.e., a road or a house or a transmission tower etc.

The I. L. 0 classifies the construction industry as Government and private sector firms erecting buildings or habitation or for commercial purposes and public works such as roads bridges, Culverts, tunnels, dams or airports. In the United States and some other countries, construction workers also clean hazardous waste sites.

Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of health hazards on the lob Such exposure differs from trade to trade as also from job to job on a day to day and even on an hour to hour basis. Exposure to anyone hazard is typically Intermittent and of short duration! but IS likely to recur. The severity of each hazard depends on the concentration and duration of exposure for that particular


Construction hazards are divided into four classes • Chemical Hazards

• Physical Hazards

• Biological Hazards

• Social Hazards

Chemical Hazards

1. Chemical Hazards are often airborne and can appear as dust, fume, mist, vapour or gas; thus exposure usually occurs by inhalation, although some air borne hazards may settle on and be absorbed through the Intact skin (e.g. pesticides and some other organic solvents). Several Illness have been linked to the following categories of construction workers.

• Silicosis among sand blasters, tunnel builders and rock drill operators.

• Asbestosis (and other diseases caused by asbestos) among asbestos Insulation workers, steam pipe fitters, building demolition workers & others.

• Bronchitis among welders.

• Skin allergies among masons and other who work with cement.

• Cement dust is generated when cement is mixed. The dust is a respiratory and mucous membrane irritant in high concentration. When it settles on the skin and mixes with sweat, however, cement dust can cause dermatitis.

• Neurological disorders among painters and others exposed to organic solvent and lead.

2. Elevated death rates from cancer of the lung and respiratory have been found among asbestics insulator workers, roofers, welders and some wood workers

3. Lead poisoning occurs a among bridge rehabilitation workers and painters

4. Heat stress (from wearing full body protective suits} among hazardous waste clean up workers and roofers

5. White finger (Raymonds Syndrome) appears among some hack hammer operators and other workers who use vibrating drills.

6. Alcoholism and other alcohol related diseases are more frequent among construction.

Physical Hazards

1. Construction workers are exposed to physical hazards such as noise, heal & cold radiation vibration and barometric pressure.

2. Noise is produced by the activity of demolition, engines of alt kinds of vehicles and machines operating in construction sites

3. Vibration is generated due 10 pneumatic hammers, hand tools and earth moving and other large mobile machines.

4. Heat and cold hazards arise primarily because a large portion of work is conducted while exposed to the weather. Roofers are exposed to the sun with no protection

5. The principal source of non-ionizing ultra violet radiation is the sun and electric are welding

6. Those who work under water or in pressurized tunnels or in caissons are exposed to high barometric pressure. Such workers are at a risk of developing a variety of conditions associated with high-pressure decompression sickness, inert gas nareosis, aseptic bone necrosis and other disorders.

Oxygen deficiency may occur in tunnels either because oxygen is displaced by other gases or because it is consumed by microbes or by the oxidation of pyrites

7. Strains and sprains are quite common among construction workers Falls due to unstable footing unguarded holes and slips off scaffolding and ladders are very common.

Biological Hazards

1. Biological hazards are presented by exposure to infectious microorganisms to toxic substances of biological origin or animal attack

2. Excavation workers can develop histoplasmosis, which is an infection lungs caused by a common soil fungus.

3. Workers may also be exposed to the risk of malaria yellow fever or Iyme disease if the work is conducted in areas where these organisms and their insects vectors are prevalent

Social Hazards

1. Since the work for e is constantly changing and many projects require living in work camps away from home and family, construction workers generally lacks stable and dependable networks of social support. Migration under economic compulsions from one part of the territory of India to another causes dislocation of home life including educational deprivation of children. It has generally been observed that the whole family i.e. husband, wife and children moves and as it moves and lands at the destination point it is exposed to new stresses and strains on account of changes in climate, change of language change of socio-cultural customs and practices and such change is generally to the detriment of interests of migrant families. Adjustment to these changes at the new terrain becomes difficult and often painful. These hazards are not unique to any trade but are common to all construction workers in one way or the other.

2. Radon occurs naturally in some rock and may leak into the work environment where it will decay into other radioactive isotopes. Some of these alpha emitters that may be inhaled increase the risk of lung cancer.

3. Blasting generates not only flying debris but also dust and nitrogen oxides.

4. Work in excavation deeper than 1 metre needs care and attention. The hazard is the risk being struck by earth and debris as the ground collapses

along the side of the excavation A cubic metre of earth weighs more than 1 ton a worker struck by only a small fall of ground risks broken limbs crushed internal organs and suffocation.

5. Construction projects are known to impact environmental deterioration Noise. Vibration and dust and particles are known as the major public nuisances during construction. The noise, vibration, building settlement ground settlement, topographical change. Water (Surface ground) contamination and drought problems have a direct impact on the environment.

6. The workers are exposed to crystalline, silica dust, cement dust, noise vibration, diesel engine exhaust, chemical vapour, random and oxygen deficient atmosphere during underground construction work such as tunneling for roads, highways and rail roads, laying pipelines for sewers hot water steam, electrical conduits and telephone lines underground workers are at risk for serious and often fatal injuries.

Trends of Accidents at Construction Sites Number Frequencies And Intensity

Global Scenario

Fatal Injuries

As construction involves a. large pr portion the work force construction fatalities also affect a large population. For example In the United States construction represents 5% to 6% of the work force, but accounts for 15% of work related fatalities more than any other sector. The construction sector in Japan is 10% of the work force but has 42% of the work related deaths. In Sweden, the numbers are 6% and 13% respectively.

The most common fatal injuries among construction workers in the United States are

• Falls (30%)

• Transportation accidents (26%)

• Contacts with objects or equipment (9%)

• Exposure to harmful substances (18%)

• Electrocution from contact with electric wmnq overhead power lines or electrically powered machinery or hand tools (75%)

Among trades in the United States the rate of fatal injunes is the highest among structural steel workers (118 fatalities per 100, 000 full time equivalent workers for 92-93 compared to a rate of 17 per 100, 000 for other trade combined) and 70% of structural steel workers fatalities were from falls.

The proportion of fatalities by event differed for each trade. For supervisors, falls and transportation accidents accounted for about 60% of all fatalities.

For carpenters, painters, roofers and structural steel workers, falls were most common accounting for 50%, 55%, 70% and 69% all fatalities for those trades respectively.

For operating engineers and excavating machine operators, transportation accidents were the most common causes accounting for 4ao 0 and 65 % of fatalities for those trades respectively.

Disabling or lost Time Injuries

In the United States and Canada, the most common causes of lost time injuries are over exertion; being struck by an object; falls to a lower level; trips and falls on the same level.

The activities most often associated with lost time Injuries are manual material handling and installation (e.g. installing dry well, piping or ventilation, dock work). Injuries occurring in transit (e.g. walking, climbing, descending) are common.

Statistical Data of Accidents

It is estimated that more than 10 million workers receive injuries In the course of a year around the world Compared to the manufacturing sector which average 60-80 accidents per1000 workers, the construction industry average 160-250 accidents per 1000 workers.

Table 1

Accident Rates in Select Countries 1985 - 1990

Country Accidents per 1000 employees
1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Canada 80 75 75 75 75 75
France 130 125 125 125 120 125
Mauritius 75 75 70 70 70 70
Mexico 80 70 75 70 70 70
Spain 100 110 125 130 130 138
Sweden 50 50 55 54 50 48
United 70 70 70 70 70 70
Germany 125 125 125 122 122 120
.. .. Source: Extracted from Fig. 4.2, Chapter 4, Health and Safety and Workmg Conditions tn the buildmg, civil engineering and public work industries, ILO sectorial activities programme. Twelfth session, Geneva, 1992, Report 1, p 36.

Table 2 National Scenario

Country Accident rate per 1000 Fatality rate per 1000
persons persons
Austria 142 25
France 125 30
Germany 120 16
Mauritius 70 15
Mexico 70 24
Spain 138 38
Sweden 48 9
United States 70 25 Large portions of construction workers are unskilled labourers. The construction workers typically are hired from project to project and may spend only a few weeks or months at one project There Id are consequences for both workers and work projects The construction workers are exposed to different hazards.

Due to non-availability of statistics, no authentic figures of injuries are available. However, the analytical study of the accident cases on the construction sites published in some newspapers in Maharashtra for the period from August 1992 to July 1998 was carried out and the findings are reproduced as below:

Sr. Const. Activity Total Percent No. of Percent of
No. No. of Workers Workers
Accident Killed/Injured Killed/Injured
1 . Construction work 39 41.05 145/219 44.61/56.88
2. Soil excavation 16 16.84 68/33 20.92/8.57
3. Use of explosives 15 15.78 56/99 17.23/25.71
4. Tunneling 7 7.36 22/12 6.76/3.11
5. Demolition 7 7.36 7.12 2.15/3.11
6. Hoisting 5 5.26 20/10 6.15/2.59
7. Working on heights 5 5.26 6/0 1.84/0
8. Bituminous road 1 1.05 1/0.0 30/0
Total 95 99.96 325/385 Existing Provisions & Current & Statutory Provisions under the Status & Statutory Provision for Enforcement

To regulate the employment and conditions of service of building and construction workers and to provide for their safety health and welfare measures and for other matters connected therewith or Incidental Hereto Government has brought out an Umbrella Act i.e. "Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.

The following provisions are incorporated under the Act.

• Registration of building workers as beneficiaries under Sec. 11 to 17.

• Workers Welfare Boards under Sec., 18 to 27.

• Hours of work and welfare measures under Sec 28 to 37, and

• For safety and health measures under Sec 38 to 41 .

Penalties and Procedure

The Sec. 47 stipulates that whoever contravenes the provisions of any rules made under Sec 40 shall be punishable with the imprisonment for a term, which may extend for three months or with a fine which may extend to two thousand rupees or with both and In the case of continuing contravention continues after conviction for the first such contravention The Sec 48 provides that if employer fails to give notice of commencement of the work under Sec. 46, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees or both.


• DGFASLI is a technical organisation of Union Ministry of Labour junctions as a service organization to advise government, industries, trade unions and other interests concerned with matters relating to safety, health and welfare of workers

• To interact with ILO and other international organisations and plays an advisor role on Safety Health and Welfare mailers.

• To impart safety training to the management and supervisory personnel.

• To organize National Seminars & Workshops In order to create safety awareness among management, supervisory personnel.

Role of State Government

The role of State Governments defined under the Building and other construction workers Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.

Under Sec 4(1): To constitute a committee to be called the State Building and Other Construction Advisory Committee.

Under Sec 18( 1): To constitute a Board name of the State Building Construction Workers Welfare Board.

Under Sec. 19(1): To make Rules regarding the measures to be taken for the Safety and Health of building workers.Under Sec. 42(2): To appoint Chief Inspector of Inspection of Building and Other Construction Workers.

Role of Central Labour Commissioner (CLC)

The CLC has been appointed as Director General for enforcing the Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 vide Ministry of Labour Notification No. SO 198 (E) dated 14th Mareh 1997.


Role of Manager

Manager is a leader who enables people to work together most efficiently and he involves in planning, leading, organizing and controlling the work. He should ensure that goods specifying the content and time frame should be defined and included in the basic statement of company policy.


• to provide adequate means and organize and establish a suitable

programme on safety and health of workers :

• to comply with National Laws and Regulations

• to comply with the prescribed safety and health measures

• he should prepare and undertake to keep thelEI workplace free from any accidents

lEI avoid excessively or unnecessarily strenuous work positions and

movements to see that materials and products used are suitable

from the safety point of view.

lEI to adopt the working methods which are less harmful to Workers.

(§] to take all appropriate precautionary ensures to protect the persons from being exposed to hazards present at or in the vicinity of construction sites.

(§] to arrange for regular inspections of all buildings plants equipments, machineries etc and critically examine the defects and other deficiencies

(§] to carry out the supervisions to ensure that workers perform their work with due regard to their safety and health .

lEI to assign the workers suitable work suited to their age, physique state of health and skill.

(§] to ensure that all workers are made aware of relevant or local laws regulations etc.

(§] to provide adequate special safety training in occupational health & safety to the supervisors and workers.

IE! to ensure that the data pertaining to the dates, kinds, frequency, causes and cost of accidents are compiled, analyzed and shared with all those in the company with relevant responsibilities

IE! when purchasing construction material he should ensure that

adequate attention is paid to the availability of substitutes for potentially dangerous material.


• Expert in terms of knowledge of the department and procedure

• To represent the team's views to higher management

• First level in handling problems and grievances

• Leader in terms of giving instructions communicating information down the line

• Understanding of companies procedures and agreements

• Expected to operate his department with maximum output and minimum of waste and cost

• The Supervisors job involves three basic principles Determine the proper, efficient method

Instruct the employer in the proper method Make sure that instructions are followed

(Reproduced from National Safety Council's Quarterly Journal-Industrial Safety Chronicle Jan - Mareh 2000 Issue).



Never neglect this hazard even though the open circuit voltage is low. The work is normally earthed and welder can also easily become earthed. When changing electrodes setting up work or changing working conditions, welder can readily be exposed to open circuit voltage. Danger of exposing to open circuit voltage is more when welder is hot and sweaty.

Welders should keep themselves insulated from the work and from the electrode and holder. Welders should never allow the bare metal part of an electrode or holder to touch their bare skin or any wet clothing. Never change electrode with bare hand or wet gloves or when standing on wet floors or grounded surfaces.

In confined spaces cables should be covered or so placed to avoid contact with sparks. Ground the frames of portable as well as stationary power units.

The safety recommendations for working with the oxygen and acetylene equipment (cylinders, regulator, hose etc. and supply) are as follows:

Never use oxygen near flammable materials, especially grease, oil or any substance likely to cause or accelerate fire. Oxygen itself is not flammable but does support combustion.

Never permit oil or grease to come in contact with oxygen cylinders valves regulators hose or fittings. Do not handle oxygen cylinders with oily hands or oily gloves.

Never use oxygen pressure reducing regulators, hose or other pieces of apparatus with any other gases.

Open oxygen cylinder valve slowly

Oxygen must never be used for ventilation or as a substitute for "Compressed Air"

Never use oxygen from cylinders without first connecting a suitable pressure reducing regulator to the cylinder valve

Never tamper with nor attempt to repair oxygen cylinder valves Acetylene cylinders should be used and stored valve up.

Never use acetylene form cylinders without a suitable pressure

When opening an acetylene cylinder valve turn the key or spindle not more than one and one -have turns.

Acetylene cylinder key for opening valve must be kept on valve stem while cylinder is in use so that the acetylene cylinder may be quickly turned off in an emergency.

Never use acetylene pressure reducing regulators, hose or other pieces of apparatus with any other gases.

Should a leak occur in an acetylene cylinder, take the cylinder out in the open air keeping well away from fires or open lights. Notify the manufacturer immediately if any leaks occur.

Never use acetylene at pressures in excess of 15 psi. The bent gauges should not be used on shop floor.

The old gauges should be checked in small tool maintenance section before issuing on shop floor.

All the connections of the regulators and the cylinder should be checked for leakage by using soap immediately after connecting the regulator to the cylinder and the cylinders should not be used gascutting operation before testing of leakages.

The gauges and adjusting screws should be checked properly before fixing the regulators in the cylinder.

Backfire valve (non-return valve) should be used before connecting the regulator with the cylinder.



There are constant fire hazards at construction sites. A fire can start anytime anywhere at a construction site and quickly grow into a conflagration causing immense damage to equipment materials buildings structures etc. thereby having time and cost repercussions on the construction project. Fire hazards can be caused by people and processes either directly or indirectly out of ignorance or due to carelessness. It is therefore imperative to properly implement fire prevention and control measures at construction sites.

For better management of fire hazards at our power plant construction sites we in BHEL having formulated a CODE FOR FIRE SAFETY. In this code we have clearly defined the facilities that we could expect from our customers the facilities we would insist on being made available by our sub contractors. In short the code lays emphasis on the following factors for efficient management of fire hazards at construction sites:

1. Design layout and allocation of areas sheds buildings etc. f site offices

stores workshops etc. are such that:

safe access to and means of escape from all site locations are assured spacing is adequate to allow fire fighting

storage of equipment and materials can be done without scattering high fire risks allover the site fostering the spread of fire but by isolating them.

2. Responsibility for adopting necessary fire protection measures at every construction site is appropriately fixed with accountability for close followup to ensures that all safeguards are put into practice and strictly enforced.

3. Fire Safety Committee is constituted at every construction site to overview fire safety measures with definite timetables for meetings, inspections and formulation of action plans.

4. Effective liaison is maintained with customer subeontractors, local fire stations etc. to co-ordinate fire safety measures for best results.

5. Periodic as well as surprise safety audits are conducted to keel the system alert.

6. Fire prevention measures are planned to take care of certain important

aspects such as:

construction of fencing around storage areas;

use of non-combustible materials or at least materials of limited combustibility for construction of temporary site, offices, stores, rest rooms etc.

subdivision of stored materials and equipment into fire sections with a valve to be suitably fixed

clear marking of combustible materials and safe storage for them

good housekeeping to avoid accumulation of combustible materials at sites

enforcement of "NO SMOKING" rules in fire hazards areas

appropriate precautionary measures while lighting afire during welding and cutting operations etc. and implementation of HOT WORK PERMIT SYSTEM.

7. Fire Control Measures are planned to have

a fire alarm system to alert all concerned people immediately on the detection of afire at any location in the site at all times of day and night an effective communication system from all important site locations with site fire station and nearest location fire brigade etc.

first aid fire fighting facilities with appropriate types of portable fire extinguishers suitable located installed and maintained

hydrant system along with necessary hoses and fittings with all assured supply of water for 24 hours a day covering all important site locations

A round-the- clock patrol service to keep watch, raise alarm and start fire fighting operations on the detection of an accidental fire.

Suitably trained fire fighting teams recruited from the site personnel including security guards made available at the site during working as well as non-working hours

An EMERGENCY PLAN clearly indicating each employee's including those of sub contractors' responsibility in the event of fire.



Human activities are mostly housed in building of one kind or another. Delayed detection of fires lead to collapse of structures spread through concealed spaces and with fuel contribution from combustible materials used in construction the entire set up becomes complicated. High-rise building and basements pose hazards of their own.

When a prospective industrialist starts looking for a suitable building for his factory he is entirely concerned in obtaining an adequate floor space without any thought on the type of building its orientation ventilation water facilities and connection to the city or town. I n spite of heavy concentration of occupancy in such a factory the design of the building almost completely ignores any planning for an emergency such as due to fire collapse of structure main and alternate routes of escape etc. critical analysis of fire reveal that disproportionately high percentage of total fire looses in buildings have been caused by a small percentage of total number of fires termed as "large loss fires". These analyses also highlights "structural deficiency" as one of the major fire cause. Use of combustible and non-fire resistance materials structural elements horizontal/vertical fire spread through the interior was identified as main deficiencies. Structural fire protection is methodology which fire of individual buildings can be prevented for at least reduced.

The structural design of buildings is the domain of professional arehitect. It is quite vast and complex and has to take into account besides fire protection

other aspect such as strength and stability resistance to penetration of water type of occupancies etc.

It is hence necessary to deal with the fire protection aspect touching upon the principles which govern the behaviour of buildings in afire and precautions that must be undertaken to make the building fire resisting and thereby prevent Occurrence of fire.


Technically the fire safety of a building implies the resistance of buildings in terms of hours when subjected to a fire of known intensity. In wider terms the following aspects are deemed to be covered:

1. Fire prevention and reduction in number of outbreaks of fire

2. Spread of fire both internally and externally

3. Safe exist or escape during emergency

4. Efficient fire retarding system

The building designed for fire safety to be effective has to protect against the following hazards:

1. Personal hazard i.e. possibility of loss or damage to life.

2. Internal hazard i.e. possibility of fire Occurrence and spreading inside the building itself and

3. Exposure hazard i.e. possibility of fire spreading from one building to adjoining one or across the road.

The building involved in a fire suffers both chemical destruction and abnormal physical strains and stress. The enormous heat developed twists the structural members causing collapse. When the hot structures are doused with water the sudden cooling also causes physical stresses. Hence, this phenomenon is an indicator to the importance of structural Ad engineering design and choice of materials of construction.


Development of modern technology offers very wide range of materials for the purpose of construction. The more important properties, which influence the behaviour of materials when involved in a fire, are:

1. Combustibility:

Materials, which burn, are called combustible and by suitably adjusting the conditions even incombustible materials can be made to burn. For example iron and steel will burn in pure oxygen atmosphere.

2. Flammability

This is a measure of case of ignition and burning. Only non-flammable materials and those with very low or low flammability index shall be sued n cons ruction. Obviously highly flammable materials are to be avoided in building construction.

3. Rate of surface spread of flame:

This is the rate at which flame spreads over the surfaces.


This term is used in connection with parts or elements of structures such as wall column or floor and not on Individual materials.

Some of the important building materials and their properties along with their fire characteristics are as below:

1. Timber

Wood as a material of construction for industrial buildings is not advisable as it will normally burn readily and make the building vulnerable to fire. However depending upon its thickness species design workmanship and pre treatment it has certain degree of fire resistance. It is a poor conductor of heat and has a tendency to form a protective skin tends to smolder slowly rather than to turn thus reducing the rate of combustion. Because of its workability and relative cheapness and abundance timber is still used as a building materials.

2. Bricks

A number of different types and qualities of bricks are available (e.g.) clay bricks sand lime bricks fire bricks concrete bricks etc. bricks are generally little affected by fire and are the most commonly used materials for buildings. Under high heat bricks may spall or flake off to some extent.

3. Hollow Blocks

Hollow clay blocks are to clay bricks in fire resistance but their thin walls may spall off under heat due to unequal expansion. However where "blow off panels" or "week walls" are required in hazardous areas they are quite useful.

4. Stone

The most commonly used stone is Granite, which contains free quartz, which has the peculiar property of expanding very rapidly at about 575°C

and completely shattering. However in large and solid block this effect is not usually serious.

In the U.K. lime stone and sand stone are also used. Limestone decomposes at about 800°C into free lime and carbon dioxide forming a skin of calcium oxide. Water used in fire fighting will stake the quicklime and cause the skin to fall away. Stand stone may shrink and crack in a fire. Stone is generally a good heat insulator. However when subjected to continuous heat is split into pieces or spa/Is particularly when water is suddenly played as in fire fighting. Thus it is inferior to brick.

5. Cement

Cement is of good fire resistance, which can be increased by addition of Pozzolanas, substance of volcanic origin in a pulverized condition.

6. Concrete

Concrete when set has the property of expanding or contracting slightly depending on whether it is wet or dry. In fire concrete is rapidly dried and contracts noticeably between 400°C and 500°C resulting in cracks. At about 8000C cement begins to decompose and if a water jet is directed on a concrete wall heated to this temperature it may rapidly disintegrate. The behavior of concrete depends on the composition of its aggregates and the duration of its exposure to heat. Slag and clinker aggregates are as good as brick.

7. R.C.C

In a fire the steel rods in RCC will lose their strength if subjected to excessive heat and this may weaken the structure:

8. Iron and Steel

Cast iron is not good from the fire angle since it will crack when water is applied during fire fighting. Structural steel presents no risk of combustion but may cause fire spread by conduction. Loose of strength of steel at high temperatures may cause collapse. Steel loses 2/3rd of its strength at about 6000C. Moreover its high coefficient of expansion may also cause distortion and collapse. Steel should always be protected by a suitable outer layer of noncombustible heat insulating materials.

9. Glass

Glass melts at high temperature. Usually, it cracks up during rapid heating and can allow fire to pass through. Even radiant heat can cause cracking up of glass and expose contents of building to radiant heat.

Heat-resisting glasses have been developed but they are too expensive to be used as building materials. Wired glass has better fire resistance than ordinary glass since even when it is badly cracked the wire holds the pieces in position.


A variety of boards such as plywood, particleboard, pulp board, resin bonded boards etc. are used for ceilings. Partitions, wall linings etc. because of their excellent qualities of high sound absorption, high thermal resistance, lightweight easy, workability etc., but they are highly vulnerable to fire. Asbestos boards with 12-15% asbestos usually A.C sheets disrupt violently in a fire. A.C sheets with higher asbestos upto 80% are more satisfactory.


With the increased use of air conditioning and refrigeration a large variety of insulating materials have been developed and are used glass wool, thermocole etc. These cannot be called noncombustible. In fact, thermocole is said to give rise to poisonous phosgene gas in fire causing fire-fighting operations very hazardous.


A number of surface coatings are applied to all parts of buildings and structures both for preservation and/or decorative purposes. These are normally paints which are generally flammable but do not enhance source fire spread appreciably except when the film is too thick. Fire resisting paints are now available and are used in hazardous areas. They are not fire proof but will assist in reducing flame.


Plastics and plastic laminates of a large variety are nowadays widely used in buildings because of their washability workability aesthetic appeal and many other attractive properties. However, from the point of view of fire plastic is not fire proof and besides their proneness to fire also produce toxic products of combustion hindering fire-fighting operations.


Because of its cheapness workability non-rusting nature eliminating the need for paints or such surface coatings and the advantages of lightness combined with strength adequate for ordinary purposes, aluminium is being increasingly used in many structural applications such as window paneling railing light stairways bolts, latches, hinges and so on particularly in high rise dwellings offices and similar places. However, from the fire protection point of view

aluminium has serious limitations such as combustibility at relatively lower temperatures loss of strength and high thermal conductivity and proneness to corrosion. It is, therefore no recommended for industrial structures.


Any structure or building has to encounter support and resist the following loads:

a. Permanent dead load - constant

b. Transient dead load - variable

c. Impact & rolling load - variable

d. Wind load

e. Natural phenomena like storm, flood etc.

The design should cater for all these loads plus a factor of safety, which should counter fire resistance. The stress pattern of a building on fire is continuously altered In view of heating and cooling operations, which affects the structures in different ways


Single Storied Building

A typical modern single storey industrial building is steel framed, building often consisting of a variable jungle of steel columns generally left uncased. These columns support a continuous lightweight roof carried on a series of roof trusses. The roof coverings more commonly used are corrugated sheets are ACC sheets and glass. In certain special application FRP sheets are also used in these days. In such build proper casing of steel work with fire resisting materials is essential to prevent roof collapse in the event of fire.


The design of the buildings must ensure preventing or at least minimizing the spread of fire internally or externally so that personal internal and exposure hazards are kept down low though not altogether eliminated. This can be done by isolating or limiting the fire areas by a suitable layout providing features for horizontal vertical and exposure protection. This can be enumerated in the following headlines:-

Limiting of Fire Area

It is very ideal set up separate blocks for various operations, which would greatly reduce spread hazard. Due to paucity of space it will be impracticable. Where it is absolutely impossible limiting the fire area can be achieved by providing fire barrier walls and ceilings.

Horizontal Protection

This can be achieved by any of the following methods of a combination of them:

a. Fire Barrier Walls: Built of non-combustible materials as per fire insurance rules. These walls are termed as "perfect party walls". The nature of walls and their design different from each case depending upon the roofs materials of construction etc. in general the walls are normally 18" thick brickwork or 9" thick R.C.C. construction.

b. Parapet Walls: i.e. extension of walls under item (a) above the roof, which would enable arresting the spread of fire above roof.

c. Kerbings around blocks and storage tanks which would contain the burning liquids within.

d. Baffles draft stops made of non combustible materials extending from girders to the roof to prevent lateral movement of hot gases

e. Fire proof doors erected in openings of firewalls, which would enable to contain the fire within a fire area and arrest spreading the same to abating area.


This is necessitated to arrest the rapidly rising fire and hot gases in the event of fire break out to upper floors. This can be achieved by building the roof of intermediate floors with non-combustible materials. The air-conditioning ducts, which pass from floor to floor, act as files at the time of fire. At every floor level dampers can be provided inside ducts. The dampers can be electrically interlocked not only to warn movement of fire through ducts but a so close the damper and switch off the installation.

The staircase lift walls must be of fireproof construction and duly segregated from one building to the other. The degree of exposure depends upon the buildings etc. the whole fire load on one building can shift to the other building with favourable wind velocity and direction temperature and humidity available at that time. The spread can be arrested by the following:

• Blank walls must be constructed on the external face of the building facing the other.

• The door and window openings in the walls stated in item above must be protected by fire doors of fire resistant wire glasses.

• By drenching system covering all such openings.


Enough provisions must be made available at all floor levels for an escape Point. Besides the purpose of evacuation during a distress such exits would offer convenience for fire fighting staff to take up positions and fight the fire.

Fire insurance rules state clearly about the numbers of staircases needed per floor and criteria for their location. It is essential that all such staircases must be provided with hydrant point without which they are futile.



Legal Requirements

In the Factories Act 1948 there are specific provrsions for providing the Personal Protective Equipment to the workers who are exposed to unsafe and unhealthy operations and processes are framed in such a spirit that the workers working on the operations and in the processes are protected against possible hazards. It is also the intention of the law that these personal protective equipments shall be of such type and made of such materials that it withstand to such specific hazards for which it is actually being used.

Need for Personal Protective Equipment

In Industry it may be possible to substitute a dangerous substance with a safer substance to isolate the process to have automatic and mechanical handling of the substance or to have controlled ventilation of the process or to plan and arrange operation that personal protective equipment are not necessary. But sometimes it may not be possible to introduce such measures or there might be as such circumstance it will become necessary to use Personal Protective Equipment. It must be borne in mind that Personal Protective Equipment do not eliminate hazard. These devices are designed to interpose an effective barrier B between a person and harmful substances or radiation's.

Requirements of Personal Protective Equipment

Requirements of suitable Personal Protective Equipment can be listed as under:

a. Nature of Hazard

b. Severity of the Hazard

c. Type of Contaminant

d. Concentration of the Contaminant

e. Duration of Work

f. Location of the contaminated area with respect of a source of respirable


g. Expected activity of the wearer

h. Operating characteristic and limitation of equipment

i. Reliability of the Equipment

j. Acceptance of the Wearer k. Cost of the Equipment

Types of Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment may be divided into two broad groups: i. Non respiratory Protective Equipment

ii. Respiratory Protective Equipment

Non-Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment for various parts of the body can be divided into five broad group:

1. Head Protection: Head Protectors may be hard hats and caps made of aluminium PVC Fibre Glass laminated plastic or vulcanized fiber. They may be fitted with brackets for fixing welding masks protective face screen or a lamp. The hats and caps are provided with replaceable harness, which provides sufficient clearance between @4 the top of the head and shell.

Equipment: Hats Caps and Helmets

Material Hazard
1. Asbestos Sparks, hot materials and heat
2. Plastic and Rubber Moisture, acids, alkalis, electric shocks and
3. Cotton wool Sparks and dust
4. Metal Falling objects, flying particles, cuts and
abrasions 2. Eye and Face Protection

Numerous eye injuries are caused by dust, flying particles, splashed and harmful radiations. It is difficult to cover precisely the various processes in which the workers may be required to wear goggles. The hazards encountered with sledding, caulking, dressing, wood working, casting of metals, galvanizing and dripping of molten metals Chemicals gas welding and cutting/are welding.

Eye protection may be safety spectacles mono goggles impact goggles welding goggles foundry goggles chemicals goggles gas tight goggles face shields welding helmets etc.

3. Hand and Arm Protection

Protection of hands and arm becomes necessary when workers have to handle materials having sharp end sharp edges or when hot and molten metals chemicals and corrosive substances have to be handled. The Protective Equipment may be gloves wrist gloves mittens hand pads and thump guards and sleeves. It is important not only that the various parts of arms and hand are adequately covered but that they should be covered by material suitable for withstanding and specific hazards involved.

Equipment: Sleeves Whistles Hand Gloves

Material Hazard
1 . Asbestos Sparks, hot materials, heat
2. Chrome Leather Sparks, hot materials, hot liquids, flying
particles cuts and abrasions
3. Plastic Moisture, acids and alkalis
4. Rubber Moisture acids and alkalis, electric shock
5. Chemical Resistant Materials Acids and alkalis
6. Reflective Fabric Hot liquids 4. Foot and Leg Protection

Adequate protection may have to be provided to the workers employed in certain jobs. Risk of injury may be in handling of heavy materials caustic and corrosive liquids wet conditions, molten metals etc. Common foot and leg protective equipment are safety shoes and boots, legging foot guards and leg guards.

Material Hazard
Asbestos Sparks, hot materials
Chrome Leather Sparks hot materials hot liquids, flying particles and
cuts and abrasions
Plastic Moisture Acids and alkalis
Rubber Dermatitis Moisture, acids and alkalis electric shock
Fibre Metals Sparks, flying objects, flying particles, cuts and
abrasions and machinery
Chemical Resistant Acids and alkalis
Reflective fabric Hot liquids Equipment: Shoes and Boots

Material Hazard
Steel Toe Caps Falling Objects
Non Skid Shoes Wet Surface
Wooden Soles Hot materials s heat, hot/cold surface, moisture, acids,
and alkalis, slips and falls
Chrome Leather Sparks, hot materials heat and hot liquids
Rubber Hot liquids, moisture acids and
Alkalis, electric shock and dermatitis
Conductive Rubber Explosive 5. Body Protection

Sometimes it becomes necessary to provide special protective equipment for the body in the form of aprons overalls jackets and complete head to toe protective suits. Nature of potential hazard degree of the hazard involved and nature of activities of the user concerned are important consideration in the selection of safety clothing. Although complete coverage of the body and legs is not needed since many cases and unnecessary safety clothing may hamper the efficiency of the user no compromise should be made with strict safety requirements. If a user needs complete coverage he should have it.

Equipment: Coats and Aprons

Material Hazard
a. Asbestos Sparks, hot material and heat
b. Chrome Leather Sparks hot materials hot liquids flying
particles and cuts and abrasions
c. Plastic Moisture acids and alkalis electric shock and
d. Rubber Moisture acids and alkalis electric shock and
e. Canvas Flying particles cuts and abrasions
f. Chemical Resistant Acids and alkalis
g. Reflective Fabric Hot liquids Respiratory Personal Protective Equipment

Atmospheric contaminants range from the relatively harmless substances to toxic dusts fumes smokes mists vapour and gases. Processes, which present hazards of exposure of harmful substances, should if possible be closed or ventilated to eliminate or minimize the hazard. If enclosure ventilation or other engineering means of control are not possible or become very costly to apply to the degree required ensuring absolute safety respiratory equipment should

be provided to the workers exposed to possible hazard. Even though engineering means of control are applied satisfactorily .a supply of appropriate protective equipment should be readily available for use as there will be plant breakdowns and repairs may have to be carried out in contaminated environments. Respiratory protective equipment should be considered a last resort or as stand by protection and never a substitute for effective engineering control.

Classification of Hazards

Type of hazards to which a worker is exposed is the basis of selection of the right type of respiratory protective equipments. The hazards may be classified as under.

a. Oxygen Deficiency

Atmosphere In confined spaces such as vats tanks holds of the ships etc. may contain air with oxygen content much lower than the normal (21 % by volume). This may be due to dilution or displacement of the air by other gases or vapors or because of loss of oxygen due to decay or organic matter chemical reaction and natural oxidation over a long period of time. A person breathing air with oxygen content of 19% or less may exhibit symptoms ranging from increased rate of breathing acceleration of pulse rate to unconsciousness and death. The respiratory protective equipment in such conditions should either supply normal air or oxygen to worker.

b. Gaseous Contaminants

These may be toxic or inert gases. The toxic gases may produce harmful effect even If they are present in relatively low concentrations. The inert gases produce undesirable effects primarily by displacement of oxygen.

i. Gaseous contaminants immediately dangerous to life:

These contaminants are gases present concentrations that would endanger life of a worker breathing them even for a:' short period of time. In other words, a gas is immediately t dangerous to life if it is present in certain concentration. Where it is not possible to determine the extent of concentration or the kind of gas all gases should be I considered as 'immediately dangerous to life'.

ii. Gaseous contaminants not immediately dangerous to life:

These contaminants are gases present in concentration that could be breathed by a worker for a short time without 1 endangering his life but which may cause possible after a prolonged single exposure of repeated short exposure. But even after the concentrations of the contaminants is known no exact formula can be applied to determine if the contaminants is immediately dangerous to life or not.

c. Particulate contaminants (Dusts fumes smokes mists etc.)

Majority of particulate contaminants are not immediately dangerous to life. They may be solid liquid or a combination of solid and liquids and may be classified into three boards group:

i. Toxic particulate contaminants:

These when inhaled may pass from the lungs into the blood stream and are then carried to the various parts of the body. The effect may be chemical irritation systematic poisoning or allergic reactions. Common contaminants in this group are antimony arsenic cadmium chromic acid and chromates, lead and manganese etc.

ii. Fibrosis producing dusts:

These dusts do not pass into the blood stream but in the lungs and may cause pulmonary impairment. The common examples under this group are asbestos, coal, bauxite and free silica.

iii. Nuisance Dusts

Those may dissolve and pass directly into the blood stream or may remain in the lungs neither producing local or systematic effects.

d. Combination of gaseous and particulate contaminants:

The gaseous and particulate contaminates may be entirely of different substances like carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen produced by blasting and the dust from the blasted material or they may be some substances in liquid and vapor form like volatile liquids.

Types of Respiratory Protective Equipment

Respiratory protection equipment may be classified as:

1. Airline Respirator

Airline respirator consists of a face piece (half or full mask or a louse fitting helmet or hood) to which air is supplied through a small diameter hose. It may be a continuous flow type or a demand type:

• In a continuous flow type air is supplied continuously to the face piece helmet or hood. Exhaled air or the excess air entering the face piece escapes to the atmosphere. Air supplied should be at least to enter the face piece at least 170 litres per minute to enter the helmet or hood.

• In a demand type respirator air is supplied to a face piece when the wearer inhales and the rate is governed by his volume rate of breathing. Air form an air compressor is supplied to the face piece through demand valve, which is actuated by the slight negative pressure created when the wearer inhales. On exhalation the demand valve closes and exhaled air escapes to the surrounding atmosphere through exhalation valve. Airline respirator

provides protection so long as the air supply is maintained but the wearer's travel is restricted by the length of the air supply hose. Care should be taken to ensure that the air supply is respirable and is not conminated and is free from objectionable odors, oil or water mist and rust particle from the supply line.

2. Suction Hose Mask

It consists of a full-face piece connected to a large diameter flexible hose. The worker draw air by his own breathing effort the hose is attached to the wearer's body by suitable safety harness with safety line and the air inlet end of the hose is provided with a filter to arrest particulate matter. Air can be drawn in by inspiratory effort of the wear upto 30 ft. length of the hose.

3. Pressure Hose Mask

This hose mask is similar to suction hose mask except that the air IS forced through a large diameter house by a hand or motor operated blower. The blower is to be operated continuously while the mask is in use.

4. Self contained compressed air or oxygen breathing apparatus

This is an equipment by means of which wearer obtains respirable air or oxygen form compressed air or oxygen cylinder which is an integral part of the apparatus. In a demand type self-contained breathing apparatus the wearer inhales and the quantity of air or oxygen admitted is governed by his breathing. The wearer's exhaled air accepts to the surrounding atmosphere.

In compressed oxygen cylinder re-circulating type breathing apparatus high-pressure oxygen from the cylinder passes through a pressure reducing and regulating valve into a breathing bag. The wearer inhales this oxygen through a one-way breathing valve and his exhaled breath passes into a canister containing chemicals to absorb gas into the same breathing bag. Oxygen enters the breathing bag from the supply cylinder only when the volume of gas in the bag has decreased sufficiently to allow the supply valve to open.

From respiratory point of view self-contained breathing apparatus has no limitation as to the gas or deficiency in the surrounding atmosphere but other factors may limit the time.

Oxygen Regenerating Re-circulating Type Self:

In this apparatus moisture content from the wear's exhaled breath reacts with granular chemical in a canister to liberate oxygen. Also the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by the chemicals in the canister. This oxygen enters the breathing bag from which the wearer inhales through a corrugated breathing tube connecting the bag to the face piece.


Canister Gas Mask

This consists of a canister containing appropriate chemical a full-face piece and body harness to hold the canister in place on the body of the wearer. Air is drawn through the canister by the wearer and during its passage through the canister the contaminant present in the incoming air is absorbed in the chemical. The canisters are designed for specific gases and it is very important that the appropriate type is used. The canister gas mask can only be used in atmosphere not deficient in oxygen and not containing more than 2% by volume of most toxic gases. Also the life of the canister will depend upon the type of canister the concentration of gas and activity of the wearer. Like canister gas mask chemical carriage respirator provides respiratory protection for a period that depends on the type of cartridge used the concentration of the gas or vapor and the wearer's activity. It is recommended for low concentration gases and vapors (maximum of 0.1 %).

Self-Rescue Type Respirators

This is designed to provide the greatest possible respiratory protection consistent with the practicability of carrying the device at all times so that it is always available for use during escape. It consists of a small filter element a mouthpiece, a hose clip and means of carrying conveniently on the body. The filter elements are similar to chemical cartridge. The extent of protection afforded is between that provided by canister gas mask and that provided by a chemical cartridge respirator.

Mechanical Filter Respirator

These remove particulate matter from the inspired air, which passes through a filter. These filters may be of the single use or reusable type. If these respirators are used in heavy concentration of particulate to matter, the filter will be clogged with dust particles too quickly and they may have to be replaced every now and then. Micro filters are special filters designed to arrest ultra microscopic size of dust particles and those are used where extremely fine dusts are encountered.

Selection of Respirator

The following factors should be considered:

a. Nature of the Hazard

b. Severity of the Hazard

c. Type' of Contaminant

d. Concentration of the contaminant

e. Period for which respiratory protection must be provided

f. Location of the contaminated area

g. Expected activity of the wearer and

h. Operating characteristic and limitations of the available respirator

Care of Respirators

Instruction in the use of respirators among other thing should include the following aspects:

a. Why it is to be used

b. How it is to be used

c. Checking that it is in good operating condition

d. Fitting of respirator

e. Proper use and maintenance of the respirator


























Dust is the greatest enemy confronting industry true so in case of dusty processes in Engineering Industry.

The respirable dust (in size range 0.5 micron to 3 micron) is a health hazard producing after a variable period of exposure a lung known as PNEUMOCONIOSIS in case of Engineering Industry.

i. SILICOSIS due to inhalation of Silica Dust a serious type, which may gradually cripple the worker by reducing his working capacity due to lung fibrosis and other complications.

ii. SIDEROSIS due to inhalation of Iron Dust particles a mild type.

iii. ANTHRACOSIS due to inhalation of Coal Oust. Dust evolved in construction industry is silica dust, iron dust particles and coal dust.


Silica containing dust is involved in the following processes in Construction Industry wherein the workers run the risk of exposure to the dust hazards.

i. Foundry workers: Workers on (Silica) Sand handling, Sand sieving, Sand mill operation, Molding Sand making, Core making Knockout/Shakeout operation Repair and relining of couple, ladles and furnaces.

II. Metal finishing workers Cleaning of casting. Fettling/chipping Brushing Air blast cleaning. Dry grinding, Polishing, Buffing and Sand Blasting/Shot Blasting.


The most serious form of Pneumoconiosis is due to inhalation of air containing Silica (S) O2) characterized by generalized fibrotic changes and development of military nodulation in both lungs and clinically by shortness of breath, decreased chest expansion lessened capacity for work in advanced case impairment of total lung capacity due to alveolar fibrosis-or-pulmonable. There is no effective treatment for Silicosis, change is irreversible.

It is a noticeable disease under Factories Act 1948 Mines Act 1952 and Compensation diseases under Workmen's Compensation Act 1928/1952. The damage done in silicosis is permanent and an unalterable irreversible tissue change takes place in the lungs. It take a very long times to develop and thus silicosis may not become disabling until some years even after dust exposure has ceased.

The problem of latency is embarrassing as such dust control measures recommended cannot really be appraised until men exposed have worked to this vague latent period.

The length of exposure that can produce the disease varies with the working conditions individual susceptibility and health status of workers on an average 10 to 25 years exposure.


The cardinal symptom of silicosis is a gradually increasing dysponea. This together with lessening ability to work may first lead the individual to seek medical advice. Even when the dysponea is severe there is no orthopnea of Cyanosis and no clubbing of the fingers. There is a un-production cough and vague chest pains.

Workers complain of tight chest expansion is diminished but for its determination a record of previous chest expansion is imperative.


Physical examination is unsatisfactory. If fibrosis has progressed t there may be thickening weakened breath sounds and prolonged expiration. On inspection an advanced case with severe dysponea presents a striking picture as he is compelled to use all his accessory muscles of respiration and wheezes may be heard over the chest.

Thus in an advanced case impairment of total lung capacity (TLC) is present as a result of alveolar fibrosis and dimmunition of capillary bed as well as vascular sclerosis leading to hypertrophy of right heart (Cor-Pulmonale).


The diagnosis of Silicosis depends mostly on X-Ray of chest, which shows a 'SNOW STORM' appearance in lung fields. Experience has shown that there are sources of possible error to be reckoned with, the workers may present symptoms of dry cough, dysponea, chest tightness and prolonged expiration and the examiner may be fairly certain to find corroborative evidence in X-Ray film but it is not always there. There may be finding in X-Ray film but no symptoms especially in early silicosis and healed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.

All the environmental factors should be weighted in studying the film always with the possibility in mind that the appearance in film may be due to causes other than Silica Dust.

Without the confirmed history of prolonged exposure of Silica Dust with the etiological variables in mind a positive diagnosis is not permissible.

Silicosis hazard is more serious a malady of Mining as compared to Factories as in mines environment silica dust pollution cannot be eliminated, controlled

effectively and silica dust does come in the breathing zone of the miners for whom also it may not be possible to wear personal protective equipment respiratory dust masks due to lack of education motivation and supervision.

All the already mentioned dusty processes, in Construction Industry in which Silica Dust is evolved are declared Dangerous Operations under Section 87 of Factories Act 1948 Rule 102 of Public Factory Rules 1952 under Section V - Grinding and Glazing of Metal and processes incidental there to and Section VIII - Cleaning smoothening or roughening etc. of articles by a jet of sand metal short or grit or other abrasive propelled by a blast of compressed air or steam. Medical examination on employment and periodical medical examination as per above schedules are carried out by the Certifying Surgeons to ensure that the workers' lungs are in a healthy state and the workers are fit for employment and continuing employment on dusty processes and fitness certificate are issued on Form No.32 in respect of each worker.


Iron Dust is encountered in Iron Foundry workers, Electric Are Welders, workers doing dry grinding of iron, buffing polishing and shot blasting.


Siderosis is due to inhalation of Iron Oxide (iron dust). It seldom causes serious symptoms unless there are co existent silicosis as in Iron Foundry workers and workers on dry grinding, polishing and Sand Blasting etc.


Coal Dust is a hazard not only for minors but for all handling coal on the surface i.e. also coal collie/handlers, Firemen in Railways, Graphite workers, Boilers scalars besides certain category of workers In Construction Industry. In Construction Industry coal dust is involved in the following processes:

i. Foundry work

ii. Coal handlers couple collie boiler men furnace men

iii. Coal handlers in Thermal Power Plant and all other factories where coal fired energy are used for power.


(Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis) previously it was thought that pulmonary anthracosis was inert, non-progressive, causes few and mild symptoms if any. Recent studies indicate that there are two general phases in coal miners pneumoconiosis.

i. The first phase is labeled simple pneumoconiosis, which is associated

with little ventilator impairment. This phase may require about 12 years of work exposure for its development.

ii. The second phase is characterized by progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) this causes severe respiratory disability and frequently results premature death. Once a background of simple pneumoconiosis has been attained in coal worker a progressive massive fibrosis may develop out of it even without further exposure to it.

Coal miners pneumoconiosis has been declared a noticeable disease in the Indian Mines Act 1952 and Compensable Disease under the Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Act of 1959.

Cases of coal workers pneumoconiosis are less liable to develop to complications tuberculosis etc.


Treatment of an established case consists in removing the workers for further exposure to the dust a job placement. Treatment chronic bronchitis, other concurrent infections, tuberculosis etc., with appropriate chemotherapy and other measures and if possible rehabilitation in an occupation within the worker's physiological capacity and ability.

Early diagnosis and change in occupation offers the best hope. In fact the greatest enemy confronting construction industry is dust despite our endeavor it remains true that the environment pollution is one of our major worries.


For prophylaxis most important is to ensure that the dust is minimized if not eliminated and is within the M.A.C. a value whereby meaning control of dust hazard for which most important is prevention of exposure of dust to workers:

i. Engineering Control:

Principle lines in interception of the dust at the point of generation with suitable collecting Hoods attached to conducting dust on to an extraction system suction by negative pressure collection arrangement i.e. Cyclone Dust Collector for large no of units and unit dust collector for small number of units or by Electrostatic Precipitators.

Substitution of processes wherever practicable: Hydro blasting for sand blast cleaning/sand blasting wet grinding for dry grinding.

It should be made obligatory for manufacturers of machinery to provide built in dust collection arrangement with grinding machines polishing machines etc.

ii. Personnel Protection:

Where dust cannot be fully controlled eliminated a dust mask/respiratory mask is a must to be used by all workers on dusty jobs such respirator should be effective for the particular dust encountered also be comfortable and easy to wear and acceptable to workers along with this effective education motivation and supervision is a must.

iii. Medical Monitoring:

a. The first and the foremost duty of Industrial Medical Officer in an industry is to recognize and identify processes and locations of dust evolution i.e. appraisal of dust in different working situations or processes and locations lack of adequate ventilation or other deficiencies so that action be taken to device suitable measure for control. This shows the importance of Industrial Medical Officer in the management team an importance which has not been fully appreciated and there is no doubt that it is only when the industrial Medical Officer is accepted as an integral part of the management that the benefits to be expected form Medical Supervision can be fully realized.

b. Medical Inspection: Pre-employment medical examination

including X-Ray and sputum test should be carried out on every worker before employment also lung function tests be invariably employed.

Periodical Medical Examination of all workers on dust jobs should be done to ensure that their lungs are in a healthy state. Workers with radiological 0 other evidence of disease should not be allowed to continue in dust occupation.

Clinical Examination and X-Ray can also pinpoint in which part of the process the danger lays and these are therefore valuable for focusing on the need for better dust control. Again Periodical Examination when subjected to epidemiological analysis in relation to dust exposure provides a measure of the efficacy of a particular dust control device. Dust may affect the eyes as such the use of protective eye goggles is also recommended for all workers on dusty processes to save their eyes.


The ear can be damaged by many occupational hazards but noise is by far most important. There is no major industry that is devoid of noise. In terms of industrial production our modern high speed and sophisticated technological world may not be as successful as we would wish. These contrasts markedly wit our ability to produce unwanted sound more commonly called as noise. Great efforts are being made to reduce this noise so that we can live quieter lives. Noise has three main effects on the exposed population. When

exposed to high noise levels for a sufficient period of time deafness will result. At lower noise levels although deafness will not occur, there will be difficulty in communication. Noise maya so produce annoyance and Irritation. The physical characteristics of noise In relation to hearing loss is the sound pressure level and frequency or vibration and its is measuring in logarithmic scale of decibels.

The ear can protect itself to some extent from noise by means of the reflex contraction of certain muscles in the middle ear, which limits the amount of energy, which is transmitted to the sound receptors of the inner ear. This protection is limited by muscle fatigue and is of little use when the ear is confronted with sudden very loud sound when young humans can detect sound over a frequency range of 20 to 120, 000 Hertz. Maximum sensitivity exists over the range covered by the spoken work around 1000 to 4000 hertz. As age advances there is deterioration in the appreciation of sound and this condition is called Presbycusis. Noise induced hearing loss differs from Presbycusis in being more selective in the frequency range affected. The main effects Occur at the upper levels of speech appreciation around 4000 hertz. With time and continued exposure the loss extends to a range of 3000 to 6000 hertz. This diminishes hearer's ability to follow conversation. Noise induced hearing loss is not ameliorated by the use of the hearing air and hearing aid may even accentuate the frequency distortion.

Non-Auditory Effects of Noise

Noise can cause alteration in heart rate as well as change in blood pressure and sweat rate. Greater energy is spending while work in noisy condition than in quiet environment. Whereas the effects of sudden noise, obviously disrupts work performance continuous noise may have subtle psychological and psychomotor effects. High frequencies are more annoying than low frequencies.

Noise Control

Once deafened by noise there is nothing that can be done to restore hearing acuity. Hence greater care must be taken for the prevention of noise deafness by all industrial concerns by using effective noise control measures. To control noise effectively the following majors may be adopted.

1. Elimination of Noise by:

i. The use of quieter machinery and/or

ii. By using a quieter process

2. Separation of noisy equipment and the operators by:

a. Enclosing the noisy equipment or

b. Enclosing the operators or

c. By both

3. Providing Hearing Protections where engineering controls are not possible. Personal Protection may be expensive because of:

a. Necessity of frequent equipment replacement due to wear & tear and loss.

b. High cost involved in the education and training of the work force in its correct use particularly for new recruits.

c. Cost involved in the maintenance and cleaning of the equipment.

One of the ways by which noise can be eliminated is by the use of quieter machinery e.g. the use of acoustically quiet compressors or by the use of a quieter process.

Use of enclosures is an important method of noise control: The design of the enclosures should be made by an expert in this field. The expert should take into account the frequency content of the noise the attenuation properties of the materials the temperature requirements of the machines and the possible vibration isolation need. Despite the need for experts some simpler problems can be solve by us like the use of sound Insulators (such as bricks concrete heavy gauge steel etc.) and the use of sound absorbers (like acoustic tiles and mineral wool) to reduce reverberant noise from within the machinery. To be effective enclosures must be airtight.

Hearing Protectors

The range of hearing protectors now commercially available is every wide. In practice the selection of hearing protection resolves itself into a choice between earmuffs of some kind or the other and one of the various patterns of ear insert. The Key purpose of hearing protection is to reduce the noise emission level of the wearer. This protection afforded by the hearing protector depends on their attenuation. When wearing protectors are opted for great attention must be attached too the problems of getting people to wear them, which in turn depends on comfort and acceptability of the protectors. The type of suitable protector to be used should be determined with the help of experts in the field and also from the information and literature given by the manufacturer of the instrument. Care should be taken to see that the protectors are not damaged or misused or lost by the user. The worker should be fully educate with the method of use and care taking of the hearing protector


The prevention of occupational deafness is an important problem in many factories. It comes within the general cope of health and safety at work. Employers Management and people at work all have an obligation to fulfill in this regard of reducing the noise levels and they will need good advice, which the experts should be able to provide. Those who develop noise deafness in their work place should be properly compensated and rehabilitated so that they can continue to be useful citizens of the country.


Pleased as we are in this tropical country with plenty of heart and sunshine all of us are exposed to some heat stress at one time or the other. But an industrial worker has to face additional heat and humidity in the workrooms arising either from the process or because of lack of ventilation in workrooms.

Exposure to excessive heat occurs in industries dealing with hot processes. Such heat exposures may be either of:

1. Hot dry type or

2. Warm moist type.

In hot dray industries such as steel mills forge shops etc. Heat escapes mainly by radiation and convection from the processes and equipment in the surrounding workplaces. Workers exposed to such conditions maintain their thermal balance by evaporation of sweat. Warm moist type of heat exposures occur in cotton mills dye houses and deep mines where the workers finds it difficult to dispose of the heat of his own body metabolism through the normal process of perspiration.

The high moisture content of the atmospheric air in these situations prevents rapid evaporation of perspiration causing great discomfort to the worker. Under such condition of heat stress the productivity gets adversely affected and these workers may suffer from disorders like:

i. Heat Strokes

ii. Heat Exhaustion and iii. Heat Cramps

i. Heat Stroke:

Heat stroke is a condition in which the heat-regulating centre in the brain fails with the result that there is total stoppage of perspiration in the affected person. His body temperature starts rising and may eventually go upto 110 F. unless promptly treated the condition may prove fatal under nourishment old age alcoholism and lack of acclimatization are predisposing factors.

ii. Heat Exhaustion:

Heat exhaustion is a condition in which the worker complains of tiredness and weakness. His heart and circulatory system is not able to work with that much speed, which is required to supply enough blood to his muscles. Such cases complain of nausea and vomiting and may pass on the stage of unconsciousness. They do perspire but not sufficient enough.

iii. Heat Cramps:

This is a further stage of the former where excessive perspiration produces a depletion of salt and water in the body. Such workers get painful contractions of the calf and abdominal muscles. Provision of coal drinking water adequate rest pauses wherever necessary and acclimatization through gradual exposure to heat helps to great deal to prevent this condition. As far as possible avoid employment of elderly and weak persons on such jobs. Since the average daily intake of salt in an Indian diet is high supply of salt tablets on a routine basis is not necessary.


Heat escaping into the environment form hot processes can be controlled in Inflation of hot surfaces s leading against radiant heat and through provision of local exhaust ventilation at the work spot. Improvement in general ventilation is also helpful. Spot cooling of hot object to be handled like boiler ash can be tried in some situations. Isolation of hot processes of use of personal protective devices e.g. asbestos or aluminized overalls gloves etc. may be tried. Unlagged steam pipelines and closure of existing windows for security reasons is the commonest cause of additional heat. Proper lagging on steam pipes even though economical in the long run is most often neglected.

No standards have been laid down under the Factories Act in respect .of maximum or ideal temperature in the workrooms. In respect of Textile Industry according to an agreement arrived at by the Indian Central cotton Committee in 1959 the dry bulb temperature in the loom shed shall not be less than 5 F and more than 0 F over the wet bulb and the relative humidity shall not exceed 54%. The dry bulb temperature should not exceed 88° F except on occasions and temporary vagaries of climate. The minimum air changes in the loom shed shall be 12 per hour.


Reports of the collapse of unfinished structures and major accidents crowd the columns of newspapers almost everyday. In many cases dangerous situations developed during construction phases spillover to the dismay of post-construction occupants. These unhappy episodes strike at the very root of a dynamic construction phase that has just emerged.

Currently the annual value of Indian Construction is of the order of Rs. 1500 billion or As. 70 lac per working minute-astonishing indeed. Added to this activity intensity is the complexity that surrounds Indian Construction today Mega marine structure for communications and energy conveyance: Express highways: petrochemical complexes, Airports and energy systems are slated to receive huge investments and the execution of these projects will be guided by the development of state-of-the-art technologies and a stipulation to completion as per set time schedule and In accordance with global standards. Since resources for these projects command high costs, the users are mandated to complete the projects without being traumatized by the frequency of recurring accidents and unsafe events.

In Retrospect

It is considered desirable to have an introspection of the accident profile in Indian Construction as a prelude to initiate managerial responses to meet the emerging needs. Prof. V. B Pandit has conducted an exhaustive study of the accident cases reported on construction sector during the period Aug. 1992 to July 1998

His findings are quite revealing Activity wise accidents and the rate of fatality are detailed below:

Types of Activity No. of Construction No. of Workers
Sites Killed Killed Injured % Injured
Construction Work 39 145 44.60 219 56.88
Soil Excavation 16 68 20.92 33 8.57
Use of Explosives 15 56 17.22 99 25.71
Tunnelling 7 22 6.76 12 3.11
Demolition 7 7 2.15 12 3.11
Hoisting 5 20 6.15 10 2.59
Working at Heights 5 6 1.84 0 0.00
Bituminous Road 1 1 0.30 0 0.00
Total 95 325 100.00 385 100.00 Note: % figures rounded off to 100.

Source: Analytical study of the accident cases on the construction sites published in newspapers during Aug. 92 - July 98, Prof. V.B. pandit, Indian Highways, Nov. 1999.

At the all India level 165 per 1000 workers get injured during construction activity. This is very high compared to those reported in developed countries and some of the developing countries. The accident rates per 1000 persons in some of these countries are France 125, Germany 120, Mauritius 70, Mexico 70, United States 70 and Sweden 48.

The major hazards identified relate to:

• Collapse

• Fall

• Fire

• Electrocution

• Drowning

• Fall of loose boulders

• Loading of trucks

• Misuse and faulty erection of hoist

• Faulty design

Health Issues

Workers are exposed to the harmful effects of chemicals; cement lead and solvents during construction operation Chemical substances have their presence in adhesives, cleaning agents for brick work and stone work, decorative/protective treatments for timber and metals floor treatments fungicides cements and grouts, insulants, seal and solvents.

Exposure to these substances leads to diseases such as asbestosis. Irritant and allergic dermatitis, Cancer/Ulcer, Kidney damage, Burns of skins, Dizziness and loss of Judgment, Decompression Sickness, etc.

Stress and Trauma

In addition to health problems construction personnel often confront stress and trauma Stress or the fear or pain that disturbs or Interfere with the normal physiological equilibrium is a regular occurrence. Trauma or emotional disorder with attendant feelings of anxiety obsessional thoughts, compulsive acts and physical complaints without evidence of disease also effect productivity, to a great extent.

Noise pollution is a major contributor to stress and trauma. Irritating or hazardous sound may be harmful in two ways:

• Hearing injuries: Hearing may be impaired by one single exposure to very loud noise. A hearing injury cannot be cured in the normal circumstances

• Affecting blood circulation and hormone balance when a person is exposed to loud sounds the organism undergoes different stress

reactions Blood Circulation is affected. At soundlessly as low as 60- 70 Db., many blood vessels in the body start to increase blood circulation. Various stress hormones start being liberated at noise levels 01 80-90 Db. This affects Carbohydrate metabolism and resistance to infections. These disturbances are compounded by the noise pollution emanating from other sources not related to construction activity.

Economic Consequences

The occurrence of a hazard or a hazardous situation as discussed above has its adverse implications on the prospects of the units engaged in Construction activity.

The stoppage of work leads to time and cost overruns. In many situations, the contractors working .on slender margins face the agony of substantial erosion in margin. This should be reconciled to the tact that in construction "The product is sold before it is made", thereby implying that there is no scope for revision of the price tag.

Accidents contribute to disruption in human resource combination and associated delay in recruitment training and regrouping

In addition to the direct costs such as pay loss and cost of rehabilitation there are hidden costs such as replacement of the victim, breakage of equipment and loss of production arising from a hazardous situation.

From a futuristic view hazards contribute to the problems. They are:

• Loss of bids

• Delayed transfer of resources to other projects

• Destitution

• Litigation and

• Loss of productivity

These issues merit attention while framing an Integrated Safety Management programme.

Integrated Safety Management

We are at the cross roads of several challenging situation. The winds of change are characterized by the ongoing globalization, privatization and deregulation. The resultant combination of these factors will be:

• International mobility of Capital

• Induction of sophisticated technology

• Competition as a source of wealth creation

• Internationalization of regulatory framework

• Global standards

• Strict adherence to schedule of completion and financial commitments

• Payment of compensation at global rates

What are the implications of these developments on Safe and Health Management?

The industry has to mend its ways towards adopting an integrated Safety Management System. The perceived objectives should cover the following issues:

• Skill Upgradation: Lack of exposure to the technology and operational aspects contribute to accidents. Seventy per cent of the Construction Workers are unskilled. Twenty per cent semi-skilled and the remaining skilled. Multiple skilling of workers have never been attempted. The skilling and exposure to state-of-the-art technology should be introduced on a priority basis so that mishaps at the operational level can be avoided.

• Compliance of Safety Codes: The Bureau of Indian Standard has brought out a number of codes relating to various activities of civil engineering works. They include code of safety for excavation work (IS 3765), demolitions of structures (IS 4130)' working with construction machinery (IS 7293)' protective clothing and equipment (IS 10386)' etc. A judicious response both from the client and contractor is called for.

Safety Audit

Safety audit is expected to critically evaluate the safety programme: particularly the systems to identify and control hazards and to ensure that the compliance is not only with the minimum status of standards but also meet the standard code of practice The broad areas of evaluation cover safety is storage and transportation of hazardous materials: fire prevention personal protective equipment pollution control emergency preparedness etc.

Although there is no specific statutory obligation for the conduct of such an audit, there is a statutory basis for adopting it. The amendments to Factories Act redefining only top management as top occupier Section 2(n) and incorporating a general duty on the occupier section 7(a) calling on him to provided a safe system of work have put pressure on the management programmes.

Risk Management

Risk management is a comprehensive approach to handling exposure to loss arising out of hazards Any peril that can cause financial impairment to the business enterprise IS the subject of risk management is true that insurance does not eliminate the risks Involved In Construction Contracting, but it does

shift most of the financial threat to professional risk -bearers. The important insurance coverage to be considered include:

• Property insurance on project during construction

• Property insurance on Contractors own property

• Liability Insurance

• Employee Insurance

• Automobile Insurance, and

• Business, Accident & Life Insurance

Training in Safety Management

Obligatory health and safety induction training schemes are important if we intend to manage safety in a rational manner. Most of the developed countries have evolved training programmes to meet the needs of construction Industry. They are detailed here under the caption "Global Response" .

Global Response

Induction training in occupation & safety has been a requirement since 1991 in Australia. Workers must produce the certificate of successful completion of this training course before being allowed to enter a Construction site.

In Austria, safety technicians are required to attend a basic course which lasts for two weeks and which is organised by the Accident Insurance Corporation. The Institution organizes mobile training units to introduce safe working methods on building sites. All training programmes for building workers and supervisors contain safety modules.

In Finland, "The Centre for Occupational Safety" holds basic and continuation courses in labour protection for employers and workers.

In France, "Organisme Professional Deprevention Du Batiment Et Bes Travaux Publics (OPPBTP)" conducts training programmes on construction Safety for permanent and temporary workers.

In Greece, training in Occupational Safety and health is provided at various levels of formal training. The Ministry of labour is collaborating with technical vocational Lyceum in conducting training programmes.

In the Netherlands, Safety and Health training has been developed by private training Institutions of the Construction Industry such as stitching vakopleiding bouwnijverheld and bouw centrum (Building Central and are doing excellent work).

In Spain, an agreement was signed between employers and workers organisation for the establishment for a Construction Industry Safety and Health Commissioner. The commission advises on the action to be taken to develop an improved safety environment in the construction industry

Swedish Model

Sweden enjoys one of the safest situations in construction sector - only half the incidence of accidents reported in the U.S. The reasons are not too far to seek. The Work Environment Act 1977 places joint responsibility upon employer and worker for the requisite training of Safety delegates. Greater emphasis is placed on obligatory health and safety training and competence testing. Other organisations such as AMU, the Swedish Building Workers' union and BYGGFORBUNDET all conduct comprehensive occupational safety and health programmes. The Swedish legislation requires designers of facilities to take into account healthy and safety considerations.

In the U.S., the Training Institute of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) provides a number of courses for Management, Supervisors and workers in Construction Industry. The Institute offers several "train the trainers" courses.

Indian Situation

A comprehensive Safety and Health Management scheme is yet to evolve in India. The main issues to be addressed in training are:

• Pre-employment training

• On-the-job and off-the-job training

• Raising a cadre of trainers training

• Arousing personnel initiative

• Videotapes - video taping of actual incidents can be used for training

• Do it yourself training scheme

The organisation for Safety Management should comprise senior managers, supervisors and workers representatives, trainers & consultants (if any).

Finally, the ILO provides us a tip when it observes - The cost of collective protection is half the cost of accidents. The collective protection cost in respect of buildings is 1.5 percent of turn over. 0.4 percent of turnover in the case of companies involved in finishing and 5 percent of turnover in the case of companies involved in erecting structural frames and roofing. The dictum JJA stitch in time saves nine" is relevant today as these were in the past.

(Reproduced from National Safety Council quarterly Journal - Industrial Safety Chronicle, Jan-Mareh, 2003 Issue)



The purpose of conducting an accident investigation and producing a formal report on the findings is:

• To identify the causes of an accident

• To prevent recurrence of the accident by prescribing and implementing suitable actions to eliminate the causes or to protect from their consequences

• To ensure that both statutory and clients requirements on injury and accident reporting are met.

The accident Investigation process comprises of a number of consecutive stages once the initial and accident reporting are met.

The accident Investigation process comprises of a number of consecutive stages once the occurrence of an accident is notified. These are:

• Formation of an investigation team

• The investigation

• Analysis of findings

• Recommendations for remedial action

A) Initial investigation (Immediate)

The First Line Engineer/Supervisor responsible for staff, equipment and contractors involved in the accident shall form an Investigation team without delay. They will normally (depending on availability) involve the relevant section head(s) and. if Contractors are involved, their senior site representatives.

The objectives of the initial investigations are:

• To ensure that the site is a safe condition and that action has been taken to identify the most obvious cause(s) of the accident and protect against recurrence

• To collect initial information prior to the site being disturbed. The

information normally include:

Positions of personnel and equipment Identification of witnesses

Documentation/procedures in operation at the time of the accident

Environmental conditions

Phase of operations, process condition, etc. Markings left by equipment involved

Effectiveness of Emergency Response procedures immediately following the accident.

The Engineer/Supervisor should take every opportunity to ensure that photographs, statements, etc. are taken during the initial Investigation wherever practical.

B) Forming an Investigation Team

Following the initial investigation by the First Line Supervisor the full investigation team will be formed depending on the severity of injury and/or damage resulting from the accident, and the technical complexity of the activity being carried out at the time.

C) The investigation process

In general the Investigating Team should consider the following points.

Evaluation of the potential severity and probable frequency of recurrence.

Addressing the question of why an act or condition was not recognized, or recognized and tolerated

Reviewing, when appropriate, existing standards.

Evaluation of controls (supervision, inspection and audit)

a. Timing of the investigation

Investigations should take place as soon as possible after the accident has occurred. The quality of evidence can deteriorate rapidly with time, and delayed investigations are usually not as conclusive as those performed soon after the event. Important evidence can be gained from observation made at the location, particularly if equipment remains as it was at the time of the accident

Photographs, measurements and witnesses should be taken as quickly as possible after the event. All information should be forwarded as soon as possible to the investigation team leader.

b. Preparation

For most accident situations, background is required on the following:

• General procedures for the type of activity/operation being carried out at the time; these may include departmental instructions, safety regulations, written Instructions, permit to work, policies and contract scope of work

• Location plans and road maps etc.

• Organisation charts showing local command structures and listing persons Involved

c. Fact finding

The objective of this stage of the Investigation is to collect is many facts as possible which will help the Investigators to understand the accident and the events surrounding it.

After a successful investigation, it should be possible to:

• Give a precise description of the accident, its background and the

events leading up to it

• Describe the conditions prevailing at the time (operating environment)

• Identify the equipment used, Its capabilities and any failures

• Describe the locations of key personnel and their actions immediate before the accident.

• Comment on the reaction to the accident (emergency response)

Significant factors to identify are recent changes to work routine, procedures or equipment, as many accident investigations have found that a change has been made just prior to the occurrence and may involve changes in personnel, shifts, working patterns, levels of activity, procedures and equipment. All information should be verified wherever possible. In particular it should be noted that the statements made by different witnesses are sometimes in conflict, and outside/further corroboration may be needed.

d. Site inspection

A thorough inspection of the accident site can provide a great deal of valuable information, particularly if it has been possible to view and photograph the scene immediately after the accident has occurred.

The Investigation should look for any conditions in the immediate area, which could have made a contribution to the accident, however small. The following list should be used as a basis for site investigations by team members.

Items to check at the scene of an accident.

• The position of all equipment, vehicles and plant in relation to other equipment and facilities.

• The condition of any load bearing surfaces- .Any evidence of


• How the location/site is illuminated (if the accident occurred at night)

• General state of housekeeping.

• The apparent condition of all equipment and facilities .The presence

(absence) of warning signs/notices.

• Effects of weather on the location (rain, wind, sand build-up, etc.)

• Presence of witnesses (identify and interview as soon as possible)

• Smells, discoloration, spillage and spray marks

• Presence of unauthorized persons

• Evidence of excessive forces being applied (skid marks, scorch marks, etc)

• Items that do not belong at the scene

e. Interviews with witnesses and supervisors

The main task of the investigating team IS to listen to witnesses as the tell the story their way, and not to influence the telling by comments or

leading questions. This requires patience and understanding. Interviews are best held in private. If the investigation is a team effort then great care should be taken not to make a witness feel Intimidated by too many people At the end of the interview the Investigator should feed back his notes to the witness to make sure that no misunderstanding exists. Any anomalies in the evidence should then be discussed, with the witness being invited to clarify points as necessary.

Investigators faced with conflicting witnesses' statements should not feel that the investigation would fail if the stories were not reconciled. They should instead look for whatever evidence there is to suggest which is the most likely statement. In doing this they can also bring their own experience into play.

f. Written instructions and procedures

When written procedures exist for tasks being performed at the time of the accident the investigators should try to establish to what extent they were understood and acted upon. Audits frequently find that procedures are routinely not reflected in practice, particularly in the case of a recurring accidents Instructions and procedures such as pern 1 it to work may provide valuable leads to root causes

g. Records

Records such as 'as built' drawings, instrument records, computer printouts Log-book, transport documentation and time sheets provide hard evidence which may help Investigations.

D) Investigation methods

The circumstances surrounding different accidents may vary considerably, and so may the patterns of the investigation. Nevertheless, the initial stages of every investigation should consider a \vide range of possible cause factors and identify likely leads to follow in the subsequent stages.

A structured checklist has been developed from various sources shown in Appendix. The scope of the investigation is divided into four areas:

• Environment

• Equipment

• People

• Organisation

Used during investigation stage this 'aide memoire' will help to maintain the breadth of the inquiry. It may also serve to identify and classify causal factors for recording and analysis purposes.

E) Identifying root causes

The initial stages on an investigation normally focus on conditions and activities close to the accident and only IMMEDIATE CAUSES may be

identified at this time. However, the CONDITIONS underlying these causes will themselves need to be investigated. It may be necessary to take a closer look in the following areas:

• Engineering design

• Operating procedures and philosophies

• Equipment selection

• Planning methods

• Job responsibilities and descriptions

• Organizational relationships

• Control systems

• Training methods and experience criteria

• Working/duty hours policies and practice

• Internal safety inspections/auditing

• Contract conditions and control

• Maintenance procedures and accords

• Testing methods and records

It should be noted that an investigation confined to immediate surroundings of the accident will only be able to identify localized causes and recommendations only be able to deal with local problems and will not be effective in preventing similar accidents at other locations or to other groups of workers carrying out related tasks.

In-depth Investigations should seek the 'cause behind the cause' (i.e., defect in planning, controlling and executing safe operations). Where deficiencies have been identified, the analysis process should look into why they were not detected and corrected before the accident occurred.

In all cases systematic investigation should ensure that possible causes are considered both in range and depth appropriate to the accident (or potential of the accident) Refer to Appendix-8 for a listing and description of both immediate and underlying causes.

F) Recommendations for Preventing Recurrence

The ultimate objective of the investigation process is to initiate actions to prevent further accidents of a similar nature.

The final list of recommendations for action should include AT LEAST ONE action against each identifiable cause. It should be noted that not all causes can be eliminated, and some may only be removed at prohibitive cost. Some recommendations will therefore aim at reducing a hazard to an acceptable level, others at improving protective systems to limit the consequences.

G) Implementation of Action Items

Implementation of action items should be on a formal to help effective followup Action items should be grouped according to the action party and implementation schedules agreed.

Difficulty sometimes arises in deciding when an item has been actioned, particularly with those described as 'on-going' or 'in-hand' Specifying a time frame (see above) will help to avoid this problem.

Hardware items are normally easier to identify as having been completed, for example when a modification has been effected or new equipment provided.

Procedural changes are more difficult to monitor against target completion dates For example, a new procedure IS produced, the procedure has then to be incorporated Into a manual at a later date and staff affected by the procedure have to be fully informed. It IS recommended that a procedural action point be considered to have been completed when:

• An instruction has been Issued and circulated to a" parties concerned and

• The change in procedures has been monitored and found to be in effect. It may be necessary to set a deadline to ensure implementation is not unduly delayed.

Items involving training or changes in supervision, manning levels etc. should be handled in a similar way to procedures. The changes must be planned, circulated as necessary and monitored until they have been seen to take effect.



• Failure in communications

Was inadequate communication between parties directly or Indirectly involved with the activities leading to the accident a contributing factor

• Failure to follow rules/procedures

Was failure to follow established rules and procedures a contributing factor? (Permit-to-work system not followed, gas testing or vessel entry, procedures not followed. etc.)

• Inadequate warning/safety devices

Were inadequate warning signs (lights, horns, whistles, etc.) or malfunctioning warning signals a contributing factor? Or were safety devices, such as relief valves, blow down system, level, pressure, gas or fire detectors, guards, screens or safety nets, by-passed, disconnected, misadjusted, incorrectly replaced or not installed a contributing factor?

• Improper manual handling

Was improper handling (incorrect lifting, carrying, gripping, applying of force) a contributing factor?

• Inadequate PPE

Was inadequate quality of required PPE equipment a contributing factor?

• Failure to wear PPE

Was the failure to wear required PPE equipment a contributing factor?

• Influence of intoxicating substances

Were the effects, including side effects, of intoxicating liquids or illegal drugs a contributory factor?

• Inadequate equipment/tools

Were the quality or quantity of the equipment or tools a contributing factor (non sparking tools, un-insulated electrical tools. no flame or spark arrestors etc.) Did I the equipment or tools fail during operation?

• Misuse of equipment/tools

Was improper use of tools or equipment a contributing factor?

• Work environment

Was excessive noise, inadequate ventilation, inadequate illumination, inadequate traffic control, inadequate building or workshop layout, inadequate furniture, etc a contributing factor?

• Access

Was Inadequate or congested access, exit aisle space, or clearance a contributing factor?

• External factors (third party, weather)

Were uncontrollable outside influences (third party drivers, environmental conditions, sabotage, war, weather, floods, landslides, etc) a contributing factor?

• Other

All contributing factors which cannot be categorized within the before

mentioned immediate causes


• Inadequate physical/mental capability

Was some person's lack of physical (eyesight, cripple, hernia, fitness, etc.) or mental capability or the lack of aptitude for the job a factor?

• Inadequate knowledge/skill

Was the lack of knowledge on how to perform the task safely a factor, or was the lack of skill to do the job safely a factor?

• Excessive stress

Was physical or mental stress a factor in the accident?

• Improper motivation

Was motivation to perform Jmpropcr activities or to perform critical activities a factor). Were any of the persons involved distracted, reckless or disinterested

• Inadequate supervision

Was inadequate leadership in direct line supervrsron or inadequate leadership of safety programme activities a factor?

• Inadequate policy, safety plan

Was an inadequate formulation of the policy statement a factor, or was an inadequate safety plan a factor?

• Inadequate panning and organisation

Was inadequate job planning or preparation a factor, or was an inadequate organizational structure (manpower, communication) a factor?

• Inadequate procedures, work standards

Were inadequate methods, procedures, and practices or rules a factor?

• Failure to observe/use warning safety devices

Were available warning safety devices ignored, or were necessary warning signals not Installed, placed or used?

• Inadequate engineering/design

Was inadequate design/specification of the facility or of the process line equipment or of safety devices a factor? Or was inadequate construction or Inspection of construction a factor?

• Inadequate maintenance/inspection

Was premature failure or malfunction of equipment or structures a factor? Or as insufficient (or lack of) preventive maintenance or periodic inspection programme a factor?

• Other underlying causes

Those, which cannot be, categorized within the before-mentioned underlying causes



Contractors shall ensure that they have safe, comprehensive and complete procedures for all his construction activities. These shall be fully communicated to all relevant personnel. As a minimum Contractors shall comply with the requirements detailed below:

A. Instructions for Scaffolding, Staging and Ladders

Adequate scaffolding and ladders shall be used to provide safe access to all parts of an \\'orks situated within 1.5 metres or more above ground level

a. Personnel

i. All persons involved in the erection and dismantling of scaffold and staging shall be trained and experienced in that work

ii. No person, other than the scaffolders and supervisors involved, permitted to be upon any part of scaffold and staging

iii. Personnel, other than the scaffolders and supervisors involved, shall only be permitted upon scaffolding and staging that has been inspected and clearly labeled 'ready for use"

b. Equipment

All scaffolding and staging equipment, inclusive of access, lifting and anchoring equipment integral to the structure, . shall be propriety manufacture and approved to a recognized standard. Such equipment shall be in a safe condition and shall be used in accordance with its designed purpose.

c. Inspections

The responsible person of client or contractor shall ensure that a scaffold/staging inspection logbook is maintained on site to record all inspections

i. Prior to erection, the scaffolding supervisor In charge of the work, shall inspect the ground area upon which the scaffold is to be positioned

ii. Prior to erection, the scaffolding supervisor shall inspect all equipment which shall form any part of the scaffold staging, means of access and work platform and lifting facility

iii. Prior to work each day, the scaffolding supervisor shall inspect all scaffolds arid stagings, inclusive of peripheral equipment. A weatherproof plasticised or equivalent signed labels shall be placed at each access point and at the boundary of each scaffold section to clearly indicate if the scaffold is "ready for use", or "not to be used".

iv. Where any scaffold or staging is altered or adjusted in any way, it shall be inspected by the scaffolding supervisor prior to work upon it recommencing

v. Subsequent to rain or heavy wind, the scaffolding supervisor shall inspect all scaffolds and stagings prior to work recommencing.

d. Erection

i. Base

On hard surfaces, such as steel or good concrete, standards may be placed directly on the surface. On other surfaces, the load shall be spread by placing the standards on sole plates and base plastics. The earth beneath shall be firm and level. Sole plates should preferably support at least two standards.

ii. Standards

Standards shall be vertical or slightly inclined towards the host structure and shall be spaced to provide adequate support, i.e.,

Heavy-duty scaffold 1.8 m spacing

General purpose 21 m spacing

Light duty/access 24 m spacing

The joints of standards shall be staggered, so that all vertical Joints do not occur in the same bay.

iii. ledgers

Ledgers shall be fixed horizontally inside of the standards. They shall be fixed with load bearing right-angled couplers. The Joints of ledgers shall be staggered so that they do not occur in the same bay.

iv. Transoms

Transoms shall be fixed to ledges 0 standards with right-angled couplers or, putlog clips. The maximum spacings for transom shall related to board thickness and are as follows:

Board Thickness 32 mm

40 mm

51 mm

63 mm

Transom Spacing 0.990 m

1.520 m

2.590 m

3.250 m

v. ledger Bracing

Ledger bracing shall be provided between alternative pairs of standards. These shall start at base level and continue through full height of the scaffold. They shall be coupled to the ledgers, close to the node point, using 90 degrees couplers.

vi. Facade Bracing

Facade bracing shall be provided to preserve longitudinal safety. Unless such stability is provided by another means, facade bracing shall start at base plate level and continue to the top lift, it may zigzag from bottom to top or can be a continuous sloping tube. It shall be tied at every lift to extend transoms, with right-angled couplers or to the standards with swivel couplers.

vii. Guard Rails

Guardrails shall be provided where persons may fall 2 m or more. They shall also be provided at any height, where the scaffold is over water or where the person may fall onto dangerous surfacesa fragile roofs, machinery, etc. Guardrails shall be rigid other than on tank/ vessel staging, where they may be steel rope. In this situation, persons not moving around the staging shall be clipped on.

viii. Work Platforms

The dimensions of work platforms may vary, dependent upon their intended function. However, minimum dimensions shall be as follows:

Function Width
Access and inspection platform 440 mm or 2 boards wide
for men without materials or only
for the passage of materials.
For men and materials, provided 870 mm or 4 boards wide
that a minimum of 440 mm is left
clear for the passage of 640 mm
for barrows, etc.
Platforms located at 20 m or 1 .5 m or 7 boards wide
more above ground level ix. Toe Boards

Toe boards shall be pr vided around all open sides of wbrk platforms. They shall be securely fixed and shall extend at least 1.50 mm above the platform. On certain small tank/vessel stagings. toe boards may be impractical. In this case, written authorization for exclusion may be requested from company representative.

x. Ties

Every scaffold, with the exception of tower scaffolds, shall be provided with ties. These shall be fitted at a minimum ratio of one tie for every 40 m sq of scaffold area and shall be evenly distributed throughout the scaffold. Any recognized type of tie may be formed, and types may be mixed where this enhances the integrity of the scaffold.

xi. Mobile Tower Scaffolds

i. Where applicable, all preceding requirements shall be provided

for mobile towers. For mobile towers the following are


ii. Castors/wheels shall be fitted with effective locking devices iii. Castor/wheels shall be locked facing outwards

iv. Foot tics shall be near to the castors/wheel as is practicable

v. The minimum base to height ratio shall be - 1 :3.5 (internal) 1:3 (external)

vi. Where ballast is required, it shall be properly positioned and securely lashed

xii. Means of Access

i. Ladders shall be positioned at 15 degree off vertical (1 unit of horizontal displacement of base to 4 units vertical height of ladder support) and shall be adequately secures, with a minimum vertical protrusion of I meter at the upper step-off point.

ii. Where a height greater than 9 meters has to be climbed a series of ladders, with intermediate platforms properly protected with guardrails and toes board shall be provided.

xiii. Dismantling

i. No items shall be thrown to the ground. It is preferable to lower all items by line, but hand balling (lowering by hand), is permissible if the number of available scaffolders is sufficient.

ii. Relative to the reducing height of the scaffold/staging, boards shall be transferred down lift by lift to from adequate work platforms for the scaffolders Involved in dismantling.

xiv. General

i. No part of any operational line or pressurized piping shall be used as a support, or tie point for scaffolds or stagings

ii. Hanging, suspended, bridging and cantilever scaffolds shall be designed by competent engineer, who shall prove his design by principles. In addition to this design sketch and calculations, the engineer shall provide a written erection/dismantling procedure.

B. Instructions for Road works, Earthworks and Excavation

a. Road works

i. Whenever work has to be carried out on, across, or within 2.5 m of a road, the contractor shall obtain the prior permission of the client. ii. If practicable construct a by-pass road away from the works as agreed with the Company Representative.

iii. Provide warning signs: Signs shall be local language; English and Pictorial Pyramid cones shall be used to mark excavation alongside roads.

iv. Provide flagman to warn and control traffic. Flagman shall be competent person aware of their responsibilities. Provide fluorescent type vests for all personnel involved in the work and ensure that they are worn at all times.

v. Provide during hour of darkness, operational flashing lamps, amber in colour, situated in such a manner as to clearly indicate to road users the hazard conditions existing.

vi. Where graders are in use, drivers shall maintain a gap of at least 50 m between machines. The leading machine on the team shall drive on the left hand side of the road.

vii. The Contractor shall take the necessary measures to prevent debris from falling onto the roads and shall continuously remove any such debris that does fall onto the road during the work.

b. Earthworks

When carrying out operations associated with earthworks, the Contractor shall:

i. Position adequate warning signs that earthworks are in progress to the satisfaction of the Company Representative. Such signs shall be in local language, English and pictorial.

ii. Ensure that all operations of plant are aware of hazards such as pits and slopes which may cause the plant to overturn and that these hazards are adequately marked with drums, stakes and/or bunting. iii. Ensure that all plant IS operated in a safe manner by suitable qualified and experienced supervisors.

iv. An excavation permit shall be obtained prior to the commencement of any excavation at, or in the proximity of any oil, gas or water facility- including but not limited to production- storage, gathering, pumping or booster facilities, oil gas or water wells, oil, gas or water pipelines.

v. An excavation permit shall be obtained prior to the commencement of an excavation at, or in the proximity of any electrical facility, including, but not limited to gathering, transformer, feeder or testing facilities, sub-surface or overhead electrical transmission systems, including overhead line right of ways

vi. With reference to the above, and as established by this document, an excavation permit shall be obtained prior to the commencement of an excavation on, or in close proximity to any camp, industrial area, residential area, designated road or access road, temporary or otherwise, serving any oil or gas facility.

c. Excavation Operations

i. The excavation shall be carried out in strict accordance with the conditions stated on the permit. Every effort shall be made to

identify unmarked underground services prior to commencement of excavation.

ii. When hand digging is specified personnel shall be informed that picks and shovels can damage cables and GRE pipe.

iii. Work requiring the digging of trench shall be programmed so that trenches are left open for no longer than IS essential.

iv. Where the permit requires the excavation to be gas tested before work starts, the above-mentioned Inspection shall not be carried out until the excavation is proven gas free.

v. All excavations shall be inspected subsequent to any rains and subsequent to the ingress of water from other sources. Where the water entering the excavation appears to be ground water, work shall cease immediately until the excavation has again been cleared as being gas free.

vi. All trenches or pits, in excess of 1.2 m in depth, into which personnel may 1: 18 foreseeable be required to enter, shall be suitably shored to prevent earth slides and falling objects. As an alternative, all sides of the excavation trench or pit shall be sloped back to a safe angle of repose (as detonated by a competent person qualified in soil mechanics) to prevent earth slides.

vii. Excavated earth shall not be stored close to the trench edges.

Where practicable a strip of one meter on both sides of the trench shall be leveled and cleared of loose item or materials.

viii. Personnel shall not work close to the edges of excavations.

Temporary crossings for personnel shall be provided over any trench in excess of 1.5 m I in depth. Such crossings shall be at least 600 mm wide of adequate strength and shall have a handrail on at least one side.

ix. All pits, trenches and excavations shall be roped off and suitable warning notices provided with the exception of main oil/gas pipeline trenches during construction stage. Where any excavation is to remain open during the hours of darkness, warning lights, in sufficient numbers shall be strategically positioned.

x. Where any plant i.e power shovel, digger, rock breaker, etc. is working, around or in an excavation, no person shall be permitted to work in the excavations within 5 m of the machine, or within 3 m of the reach of the machine. Where personnel are required to hand trim excavations within 4 5 m. of the machine, it shall be stopped from operating until the hand trimming is complete.

xi. Excess spoil, not backfield into the excavation, shall be removed from site, unless a windrow is specified.

xii. The supervisor in charge of the work shall ensure that the backfield and compacted excavation matches the level of the surrounding earth.

c. Blasting

a. Scope of Work

i. These guidelines do not including works carried out for seismic surveys or well perforating operations

ii. Blasting operations are carried out by both company personnel and contractors, as follows:

• Oil well rig site cellar preparation, carried out by specialist contractor

• Pipeline trench blasting, carried out by construction contractors. iii. All blasting operations by the company for oil well cellar preparation shall be performed with Power gel or equivalent slur explosives

iv. Pipeline blasting operations by contractors may be preformed with premixed commercial explosives, using Power gel as the primer charge

b. Detonating devices

i. Blasting charges may be detonated directly by a detonator or by means of detonating cord with or without delay relays.

ii. The initial detonation may be achieved by means of an electrical detonator or a plain detonator initiated by a low explosive safety fuse.

iii. The choice of detonating device shall be made by the Blasting Supervisor, taking into consideration the type of blasting being performed, the location (presence of buildings, oilfield installations. etc) and the presence of hazards (high voltage lines, radio transmitters, etc)

iv. Plain detonators in association with safety fuse shall only be used in remote locations where all-round visibility ensures that the area is clear. In general, the following limitations apply:

• They may not be used within 5 km of any roads, habitations, oilfield Installations, worksite or personnel not directly associated with the blasting operation

• Visibility around the area is sufficient to ensure no nonassociated personnel or livestock is at risk from the operation where dust storms or any other condition reduce visibility, blasting shall not take place

• The safety fuse is tested for burn rate prior to use and sufficient fuse used to give time for the shot-firer to withdraw on toot to the safety area In the event of a vehicle breakdown.

• Sentries are posted at a safe distance on all possible access routes to prevent access of non-associated personnel

• Electric detonators shall also be chosen and used with regard to their sensitivity to stray electrical currents and radio transmission.

c. Basic Preparations

i. All blasting operations shall be performed under a valid Blasting Permit, supervised by a holder of a valid Blasting Supervisor License.

ii. Adequate emergency communications and emergency equipment shall be available at the blasting site prior to and throughout any blasting operation

iii. Prior to any blasting operation, the blasting area shall be surveyed and the location of any buildings, power lines, or over ground or underground installations determined.

iv. A specific work permit shall be raised for any blasting operation using 100 kg or more of explosives, In the following circumstances:

• Where the Blast Area is within 500 m of any above ground structure - whether habitation, oil well, oilfield Installation pipeline, power line or electrical substation

• Where the Blast Area is within 100 m of any underground installation, of whatever nature.

v. No smoking materials or other sources of Ignition (matches, lighters etc.) are permitted in the blast area, with the specific exception of the blast initiating equipment, in the direct control of the shot-firer vi. Blasting operations shall be planned such that the final blast takes place at the latest 90 minutes before sunset.

d. Site Preparation

i. Drill patterns and drill depth shall be defined with due regard to the following:

• Type of rock to be blasted and required width and depth of blast.

• Charge ratio, delay system, amount of stemming

ii. Only the required quantity of blasting explosives shall be brought to the blast area to load the shot holes actually. In preparation.

iii. Priming of the blasting explosive with detonating or initiating devices shall be made by designated, qualified personnel- with the absolute minimum of personnel present to arrange the explosives. Priming shall take place only when it is ascertained safe to do so, in suitable conditions and with sufficient time to complete the blast in daylight.

iv. Excavation equipment shall be reintroduced in the blasting area after loading of shot holes only if required to cover the blast and if deemed safe to do so by Blasting Supervisor.

v. The required covering of the Blast Area, especially in large-scale blasts i.e. pipeline blasting, shall be determined by the Blasting Supervisor with consideration of the type of blast, the priming method used, the terrain and any surrounding installations

e. Vibration Control

i. All blasting in the vicinity of underground or over ground installations of whatever nature shall be monitored for vibration by use of a vibrograph or similar instrument. The distance within which vibration monitoring shall take place will depend on the terrain and blast energy but in general any structure closer than 250 m shall require monitoring. In the case of large blasts this distance may extend to 500 m

ii. The requirement for monitoring and the position of the recording Instrumentation shall be determined on site following the initial site survey but at no time shall monitoring Instrumentation be placed more than 100 m from the structure or service being monitored.

iii. Peak particle velocity (PPV) parameters shall be determined on site depending on the type of installation or structure present but at no times shall exceed:

• 10 mm/sec for underground services and installations or over ground installations of a robust nature (e.g. pipelines)

• 5 mm/sec for less robust over ground structures such as buildings

f. Trial Blasts

i. For large scale blasting operations such as pipeline blasting, trial blasts shall be performed to ensure that the drilling pattern, charge ratio, delay system, blast covering selected is correct, that maximum PPV is within the required limits and that fly rock is minimized.

ii. During pipeline blasting, or other operations where more than one site is used, and also when the conditions of the operation changes due to changes in type of rock or the presence of installations, additional trial blasts shall be performed

iii. If a misfire or misfires are found on inspection of the blast area after a blast the "All Clear" siren shall not be sounded and sentries shall remain In position

iv. In the case of total misfire of a blast, no person shall enter the blast area for a minimum of atleast 5 minutes following a misfire with electric detonators or 30 minutes when using plain detonators and safety fuse

v. The precise procedures to follow in case of a misfire shall be determined on site by the Blasting Supervisor taking into consideration the following guidelines:

• Where it is possible to reconnect and misfire holes, this shall be done following all procedures for the main blast

• Where multiple electric detonators are used, and some are seen or thought to have misfired, each misfired detonator shall be individually disconnected from the firing line and checked with a safety ohm metre. Detonators found to be unfired shall be

reconnected to the firing line and fired following procedures for the main blast.

• If the detonator has fired, but the main charge is suspected of misfire direct clearing of rubble to inspect will be required. Where this is not possible, a new shot hole as close as possible to the misfired hole should be drilled, charged and fired following procedures for the main, blast.



This section defines the standards to be applied to site workshops. Contractors shall conform to these or equivalent standards that, as a minimum, satisfy the stated requirements.

Suitable temporary workshops shall be provided wherever small construction or maintenance activities are to be carried out. They shall provide a clean safe working environment.

A. Layout of Workshops

i. All workshops shall be laid out such that clear areas are defined for each activity performed in the workshops, and that the activities are segregated such that each activity docs not interfere or cause hazards to others present

ii. Hazardous activities such as welding, cutting, grinding, grit blasting, painting etc, shall be segregated from other activities, normally in dedicated booths.

iii. All hazardous materials shall be securely stored in dedicated areas.

Separated from work areas and. where necessary, other hazards

iv. Transit walkways shall be clearly defined in all workshops, as shall all work areas, specifically those requiring limits on access due to the nature of activity performed.

v. All emergency systems, escape routes, fire alarms and firefighting equipments, first aid equipment, requirements to wear personal protective equipment etc. shall be indicated by clearly visible signs.

B. Colour Coding & Provisions

i. Wherever possible, work areas, storage areas, walkways, hazardous areas and escape routes shall be indicated by means of colour coding. Colour coding shall follow the ISO recommendation R 408, as follows:

Colour Meaning Example of Use
Red Stop: Harmful activity, Stop signals, Emergency shutdowns,
Prohibition Identification of firefighting
Yellow Caution, Danger Indication of Hazards (Fire,
explosion, radiation, chemical trip
etc.). Identification of thresholds
dangerous passages, obstacles.
Green Safety Escape routes, refuges, first aid,
eyebaths deluge showers
Blue Information, Mandatory Mandatory information signs. Wear
action personal protective equipment. In addition to the above, contrast colours and/or wording or symbols may be added to improve visibility, as follows:

Safety Colour Contrast Colour Symbols or Wording
Red White Black
Yellow Black Black
Green White White
Blue White White A specific use of contrast colours is yellow and black diagonal striping, which is used to indicate hazards or sources of particular danger such as moving machine load lay down areas, or areas where hazardous activities are carried out, or which requirement permits.

Safety colours may be applied directly to surfaces to indicate their condition. Thus emergency walkways or escape routes should, in general, be painted green, while the flooring of a welding shop, or other permanent restricted access or hazardous area should be painted either yellow, or yellow with black stripes, depending on the level or type of hazard present. Safety colours should not, however, be overused, and normal workplace floors should be painted a neutral colour such as grey.

i. Adequate lighting and ventilation shall be provided in all workplaces, where necessary air conditioning shall be provided to ensure a reasonable ambient temperature.

ii. Adequate storage facilities shall be provided for all tools and equipment used in any workplace and a system of control implemented such that only those tools or places of equipment required for the task being performed are deployed.

iii. Adequate toilets and washrooms shall be provided in all workplaces.

Where necessary, special cleansers shall be provided, to prevent workers using unsuitable industrial solvents for skin cleansing.

C. Electrical installations

i. Care shall be taken that all electrical equipment is connected to the correct voltage for which it is designed.

ii. All electrical equipment, with the expectation of double-insulated hand tools shall be fitted with a ground conductor

iii. Plug adaptors shall not be used in any Industrial installation. All

equipments shall be fitted with the correct plug to fit in its corresponding socket

iv. Sockets shall be available in all industrial work sites multiple appliances or power tools shall not be plugged into a single socket via a multi-outlet adaptor.

v. All permanently installed electrical equipment shall be protected by a circuit-breaking device protecting against overload and ground fault conditions.

vi. All permanently installed electrical equipment shall also be fitted with isolation switches, disconnecting both live and neutral conductors. Such isolation switches, if remote from the equipment shall be fitted with effective lockout devices such that they may be made safe while undergoing maintenance or repair.

D. Maintenance

i. All Industrial premises shall undergo, regular preventive maintenance of their facilities. Such preventive maintenance shall be planned and recorded. Attention shall be given to the condition of all safety routes and exits, lighting, ventilation, sanitary facilities Floor and workbench surfaces shall be repaired as required. Walls, ceiling and fixtures shall be painted on a regular basis to maintain the standards of illumination required.

ii. All electrical installations shall be inspected and repaired as required. With specific attention given to integrity of insulation and earthling provisions. Like\vise compressed air, industrial gas and water Installations shall be inspected and repaired. Such inspections and repairs shall be planned and recorded.

iii. All fixed equipment and machine tools, hand tools; etc shall be subject to regular inspection, maintenance and replacements required, to ensure the safety of their operators. Such inspections and repairs shall be planned and recorded.

E. Housekeeping

i. Good housekeeping shall be considered one of the fundamental defenses against accidents and Injuries in the workplace and as such, the responsibility of all personnel.

ii. All emergency walkways, passages and exits, fire doors, break glass alarm points, firefighting equipment, first aid and other emergency stations shall be kept clean, unobstructed and in good working order.

iii. All workplaces shall be maintained clear of debris, waste and other rubbish, which shall be disposed of in segregated containers for disposal.

iv. All spillages of liquids, especially of oil or greasy liquids shall be

immediately cleaned up by absorption in inert sand or other suitable materials. If rags are used to mop up spills of flammables, they shall immediately be removed to a safe place and stored In closed containers for safe disposal

v. All materials, boxes, pallets, etc shall be stacked in such a way that they do not pose a threat to workers. All such storage shall be segregated from the work area and circulation passages. The height of stacks of material shall be such that no risk of toppling exists. Pallets and boxes shall not generally be stacked more than three high. Drums shall not be stacked on top of each other unless palletized.

F. Hand Tools

a) General Regulations

i. The responsible person shall ensure that hand tools are maintained in good condition. Regular inspections shall be made of all hand tools and all defects repaired or the tool removed from service.

ii. Tools shall be used only for the specific purpose for which they were designed. Thus, wrenches shall not be used as hammers; screwdrivers shall not be used as levers or chisels, etc.

iii. When working at heights where there may be other persons passing below tools shall be secured with a line so as to prevent them falling, if dropped.

b) Spanners, Screwdrivers and Small Tools

i. Spanners shall be selected which enclose the nut or bolt head as much as possible in any given Job. In order of preference (from both the safety and efficiency point of view), spanners should be selected as follows:

1. Socket spanners

2. Ring spanners

3. Open-ended spanners

4. Adjustable spanners (monkey wrench)

ii. Screwdrivers shall only be used for their designed purpose and never as levers, gouges, chisels, punches or hammers.

iii. Screwdrivers shall be selected for the work to be done both in terms of size and screw head type. Thus flat-ended screwdrivers shall not be used on cruciform-headed or 'Phillips' type screws.

iv. Screwdriver tips shall be maintained in good condition with the flats carefully dressed to fit the screw head.

v. Chisels shall be maintained in good condition cutting edges should be correctly sharpened and hardened or tempered for the work. Any "mushrooming" of the head shall be dressed off regularly.

vi. Eye protection and work gloves shall be worn at all times when chipping or cutting with chisels Other workers close by shall also be suitably protected from living chips or splinters.

vii. When operating with hand tools in potentially hazardous areas, i.e. in the presence of flammable liquids, vapours or gases, care & shall be taken not to drop them on concrete or stone floors. Damping the floor with water or covering with a suitable material is recommended.

G) Portable Electrically Powered Tools

i. All portable electrically powered tools shall have the following

construction features -

Fitted with adequate fuse protection, either in the tools body or its electric plug

Be either Class 2, double insulated and/or have reinforced insulation through out with a provision for earthling


Be provided with an automatic shut-off device \which renders it inoperative if the operator releases his holding a non- sustaining trigger switch locking devices or sustaining buttons should be avoided

ii. Whenever utilized, electric power extension cords shall have adequate current rating for the equipment to be powered and contain an independent (3rd) earthing conductor They shall at all times be fitted with a male plug on one end and female socket(s) on the other, both of the same type and current rating" The socket housings shall be of sound shockproof construction- Extension cords shall never be left coiled when in use Coiled cables will cause inductive heating and can lead to melted cable and fire.

iii. Portable electrically-powered tools shall not be used in potentially hazardous or explosive environments In addition, extreme care shall be taken in working areas containing oil, water, caustic, corrosive or conductive fluids particularly with regards to routing of power leads

iv. Power extension leads shall be routed in such a wav so as not to expose them to physical or chemical damage i.e. routed through doorways and hatches which may be closed, across walkways or corridors, over or In contact with hot surfaces or piping, sharp or abrasive surfaces or in contact with corrosive chemicals.

v. Prior to any work on an electrically powered tool such as changing a bit or blade, the tool shall be unplugged from the power supply.

vi. When the tools is titled with an adjustable chuck, only the correct chuck wrench shall be used for adjusting it The operator shall at all times ensure that the chuck wrench has been removed prior to operating the tool.

vii. All electrically powered portable saws (circular saws) shall be fitted with both a fixed guard over the upper half, and a movable guard over the lower part. Both guards shall at all times be operative. Blocking open of the lower guards is prohibited.

H) Pneumatic Tools

i. Using high-pressure air to clean or remove dust form cloth is prohibited

ii. Compressed air lines laying on the ground create tripping hazard. They should be suitably routed or covered.

iii. Workers using percussive or rotary pneumatic tools are also exposed to the harmful effects of noise- Proper hearing protection shall be worn at all time.

iv. It shall be fitted with the following -;

A manual isolation valve between its storage tank and the air lines to permit their isolation

A bleed-down valve to depressurize the airlines prior to disconnecting them.

An automatic check valve operating to isolate the airlines from IS the storage tank in the event of line failure causing an uncontrolled loss of air.

An adequate purging system on the accumulator tank to remove any water or oil contamination.

v. In permanent installations of compressed air, the air supply shall be piped as close as possible to the workplace and the minimum of flexible hose used to the tools Multiple access points with quick connectors should be used to give maximum flexibility It is advisable to fit fluid traps and urges to permanent air piping to remove any oil or water buildup, which could be a safety hazard, or cause equipment malfunction.

vi. Flexible air lines shall be protected from damage by vehicles and materials and routed such that they do not represent a trip hazard to workers Channel ways shall be supplied when crossing walkways and roadways Where carried overhead or vertically, they, should be supported by messenger cable bridging or other suitable support.

vii. Unless titled with a quick release connection containing an automatic check valve, pneumatic lines shall be depressurised and isolated from the compressed air source prior to disconnecting either the tools from the line or the line form the source of compressed air.

viii. All pneumatic hand tools shall be fitted with spring valves such that when the operator releases his hold, the tool is deactivated.

J. Fixed Workshop Equipment

i. All moving parts of machinery, such as drive belts, gear wheels, etc shall have adequate guards in place all times to prevent injury.

ii. Adequate protect-ion shall also be in place at the point of operation i.e. circular or band saw blades, grinding wheels, power presses, etc to prevent operator injury from both the equipment and debris such as metal chips, sawdust etc created in the work process.

iii. All electrically powered equipment shall have an independent grounding conductor to prevent shock hazards An independent circuit breaker shall be installed, apart from any switch gear on the equipment itself, to

iii. In addition to the above, personnel engaged in grit blasting shall wear suitable long-armed gauntlets a long apron and high boots for body protection

iv. At all times personnel engaged in abrasive blasting shall be supervised by a competent person, who will ensure that the breathing air supply is maintained all times and that work is carried out in a safe and efficient manner.

c) Blasting Equipment

i. Abrasive blasting equipment shall be utilized and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

ii. The abrasive blasting tool shall incorporate an automatic safety shut-off valve such that if the operator loses his grip on the tool, air and grit supply are immediately shut off.

iii. Air shall be delivered to the blasting tool through an electrically conductive hose, connected to earth such that static electricity build-up is prevented, to avoid both shock hazards to the operator and spark discharges which could ignite any flammable dust generated in the blasting operation

iv. Where blasting is carried out in permanent installation a dedicated blasting booth shall be constructed

d) Abrasive Blasting Materials

i. High silica sand or other abrasive materials containing free silica shall not be utilized due to the extreme health hazard presented by these materials.

ii. The preferred material for abrasive blasting operations is reduced sparking copper slag.

iii. Abrasive shall not be recycled for secondary use unless written authorisation is obtained from a client representative.

e) Work Practices -On Site Operations

i. The blasting area, inclusive of the blast pod feeding area and lay down area and an adequate peripheral safety zone shall be cordoned off with high visibility warning tape. Warning notices shall be placed at all accessible sides of the work area Where practical, physical screens shall be erected to isolate the blasting area.

ii. When abrasive blasting is being carried out in confined spaces, adequate air extraction equipment shall be deployed to ensure no build-up of hazardous dust in the work area.

iii. When working on scaffolding, blasters shall at all times be supplied with a safety line, fixed securely to the structure prior to initiating blasting Care shall be taken when routing blast air and operator helmet air to the elevated structure such that they are in no way strained or in danger of punching.

electrically isolate the equipment in the event of failure, or for routine repairs or preventive maintenance Such a circuit breaker shall be fitted with a locking mechanism to prevent accidental switch-on when under repair or maintenance.

K. Grinders

i. Grinders wheels shall be covered with a solid guard over that part of the circumference not used for grinding, to protect operators in case of wheel breakage. Also an adjustable guard shall be set over the usable area of the wheel.

ii. A dead man device (i.e. foot pedal actuation) should be installed. This prevents the grinder being left running unattended.

iii. Operators shall use the circumference face of the wheel never the side

l. Abrasive Blasting Operations

a) General

i. High-silica sand or other abrasive materials containing free silica shall not be utilised due to the extreme health hazard presented by these materials.

ii. Abrasive blasting operations present two distinct hazards 10 workers i.e. inhalation of hazardous dusts or physical injury

b) Personal Protective Equipment in Blasting

i. Personnel engaged in abrasive blasting operations shall always wear a specifically designed blasting helmet This consists of a helmet enclosing entire head and neck of the worker and extending down both the back and chest area sufficient distance to prevent abrasive entry It shall be fined with a wide angle transparent visor, which shall be specific to the particular design of helmet and easily replaced when damaged It shall be supplied with fresh air operating under a positive pressure, system, to prevent dust or abrasive entry.

ii. The air supply to be blasting helmet shall be drawn from a clean air area. Air supply volume/pressure shall be as per manufacturer's recommendations and fitted with sufficient in line filtering to ensure the following minimum level of purity.

Contaminant Maximum Permitted Concentration
Carbon Monoxide 5 ppm
Carbon Dioxide 500 ppm
Oil content 0.5 mg/m3
Moisture Content Zero Free Water g) Transport of Compressed Gas Cylinders

i. All cylinders when being transpol1 ed shall have the protective guards or caps in place over the valve assemblies. Cylinders shall be transported in the upright position and be placed in sectional boxes or containers in such a manner that they cannot knock against other cylinders or obstructions.

ii. Cylinders of different gas shall not be mixed together in the same container when being transported. Oxygen cylinders shall under no circumstances be transported together with acetylene or any other forms of flammable substances.

iii. Cylinders shall not be rolled from vehicles and allowed to free fall onto rubber tyres or similar packaging but shall be lowered to the ground under controlled conditions.

iv. If more than one cylinder has to be lifted a properly designed and certified cradle shall be used.

v. Where gases of different types are stored at the same locations, cylinders shall be grouped by type of: gas and the groups arranged to take into account the gases contained e.g. flammable gases shall not be stored near oxidizing gases.

vi. Storage rooms shall be of fire resistant construction, well ventilated and designed such that the cylinders are shaded from the direct rays of the sun

vii. Stores shall be located as far as possible (but not less than 20 meters) from flammable substances such as oil, gasoline or waste

viii. Cylinders shall be stored in an upright position within the store and secured in such a manner as they cannot tailor be knocked over.

ix. Protective caps or guards shall be retained in place on all full and empty cylinders within the store.

x. No smoking, naked lights or sources of ignition shall be allowed within or in the vicinity of cylinder stores

xi. The user shall verify the cylinder contents by the markings before putting the cylinder to use If unable to identity the contents by the makings the cylinder shall not be used and returned to the supplier. Special care shall be taken in verifying inert gases before introducing them into live equipment.

xii. Where a compressed gas cylinder is connected to flexible hose, the hose shall be of adequate pressure rating and made from a material that resist any corrosive effects of the gas.

xiii. Cylinder valves shall opened slowly with the valve pointed away from the operator or any other person. Only approved tools shall be used to open and close cylinder valve.

xiv. Under no circumstances shall compressed oxygen be substituted for testing or purging when compressed air nitrogen are called for

xv. Under no circumstances shall oxygen be allowed to come into contact with any from of grease or oil because of the risk of the risk of explosion and fire.

h) Gas Welding

i. Adequate provision shall be made for the removal of welding fumes from the workplace. In confined places, extraction fans, shall be utilized.

ii. All flammable materials shall be removed from the area of operation, especially all greases, solvents, rags. etc.

iii. Adequate fire extinguish of dry powder or C02 type, shall be available at the worksite. These extinguishers shall be supplemented with fire blanket and/or sand buckets as appropriate. Water or foam extinguishers shall not be used

iv. Personal protective equipment, which shall be specifically; designed and manufactured to BS 2653 or equivalent lSI standards on "Protective Clothing for Welders shall be warn by all welding/cutting operators and assistants.

v. Burning/cutting and welding torches shall be ignited only by a welders flint gun or piezo-electric igniter. Matches or "smouldering rope shall not be used.

vi. All welding/cutting sets shall be equipped with both flash-back arrestors and check valve, which shall be manufactured to BS 6158 or equivalent lSI standards on "Safety device for fuel gases and oxygen or compressed air for welding, cutting and related processes and subject to regular preventive maintenance test and inspection.

vii. All hose couplings shall be securely fastened Care shall be exercised in the laying of hoses to avoid kinking, sharp edges, hot spots and areas of transit. Hoses shall be subject to regular inspection for damage and leakage. All leak tests shall be carried out with soapy water only.

H) Arc Welding

i. All are welding power sources shall be manufactured to as BS 638 or equivalent lSI standards on II Arc welding power sources, equipment and accessories" All equipment shall be subjected to regular preventive maintenance, inspect on and testing to ensure the safety of operators.

ii. Personal protective equipment which shall be specifically designed and manufactured to BS 2653 or equivalent lSI standards on "Protective Clothing for Welders shall be worn by all arc welding operators and assistants.

iii. All are welding can cause serious eye injury, therefore, whenever possible it shall be carried out in dedicated welding booths. Where this is not possible, adequate shielding, by means of fire resistant screens, shall be provided to shield for other workers in the vicinity from the welding are.

iv. Electric are welding sets shall be located as close to the work piece as conveniently possible, with due regard to safety to avoid the use of long trailing cables.

v. When portable welding transformers are used the central point on the low tension side shall be bonded to the transformer before the

transformer is connected up on the high tension side. The transformer shall be effectively earthed.

vi. In the case of portable motor generator welding sets.. the frames and bedplates of the DC generator shall be effectively earthed.

vii. All arc welding shall be carried out with an independent earth conductor from the welding power source to the work piece. All earth connections shall be bolted or clamped directly to the work to ensure a good electrical contact.

viiLElectrode holders shall have..e positive clamping mechanism for the electrode. They.._s_h-sl,!¥ei~~pected regularly and maintained in a good and safe conrfition at all times.

)x.J,.ta vessel, which contains or has contained hydrocarbons, flammable or explosive material is to be opened all welding in the vicinity shall be shut down. Welding shall not be restarted until the vessel has been fully purged and gas tested or resealed.

x. When breaking the electrical continuity of any pipe or vessel, which contains, or has contained an explosive/flammable mixture, a low resistance cable bond shall be firmly connected to reach each side of the point to avoid arcing by stray welding current.

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