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A VISUAL DICT I ONARY OF

ARCHITECTURE

FRANCIS D . K. CHING
A
VISUAL DICTIONARY
OF

ARCH ITECTU RE

J
1
1 1

FRANCIS D.K. CHING

A VNR BOOK

JOHN WILEY & SONS, IN(.


NEW YORK (HI(HESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO
A VISUAL DICT-IONARY OF

ARCH·ITECTURE

Atz¿H)
FRANCIS D.K. CHING
fER~ANV'~l
This book i5 printed on acid·fru paper. 8

CopYright @1995 'ry John Wiley &Sons, !nc. All rights reserve.{

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This publícation is designed to proMe accuratt antl authoritative ínfonnation in regard to the
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U~rary of Congre% Cataloging-irH'uuncatlon Data:


ISBN 0-471-28451-3

Printed in ~e Unlted S~ of America.

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12
<:ONTENTS

PREFACE 7

ARCHITECTURE 9 FORCE 96 PlASTIC 192


ARCH 12 FORTIFICATION 98 PlATE 194
BEAM 15 FOUNDATION 100 PlUMBING 196
BRICI< 18 FRAME 104 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202
BUILDING 21 GEOMETRY 108 ROOF 208
CABLE STRUcnJRE 28 GLASS 112 ROOM 216
CEILING 30 HARDWARE 114 SHELL 219
CERAMIC 32 HEAT 117 · SITEWORI< 221
CHURCH 35 HISTORY 128 SOIL 224
COLOR 38 HOUSE 136 SOLAR ENERGY 226
COLUMN 40 JOINERY 140 SOUND 228
CONCRETE 42 LIGHT 142 STAIR 233
CONSTRUCTION 48 LOAD 151 STONE 236
DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155- 'STRUCTURE 238
DOME 60 MATERIAL 161 SURVEY 246
DOOR 62 MEASURE 166 TEMPLE 248
DRAWING 66 MEMBRANE 168 THEATER 256
ELECTRIClTY 74 METAl 16? TRUSS 259
ELEVATOR 80 MOISTURE CONTROL 176 VAULT 26~

FASTENING 82 ORDER 179 VISION 264


FIREPLACE 87 ORNAMENT 182 WALL 266
FIRE SAFETY 88 PAINT 187 WINDOW 271
FLOOR 92 PLASTER 188 WOOD 276

INDEX 285
PREFACE

~.
~ ·~·~

·-·--·--

.
.
.r- -4-

One píe tu reís Justas a single image can be worth a The reader may use this d ctionary in a lncluded are fundamental terms
worth a thousand thousand words, a single word can number ofways.lf one krows the exact relating to architectural design,
words conjure up in the mirufs eye a term and wants to find CiJt rts history. and technology. Sinc.e
thousand images. Regardless of t.he meaning, then one can loo( it up in the architectcre is a visual art, most of
power of a solitary word or image, index. Looki~ up one term will always the entries naturally lend _themselves
however, ea eh ccmmunicates meaning present retated terms a;;-a:-¡ged to graphic representation. So me are
more effectively when brought around one or more illust<ations. more abstract but are included to
together lnto a sfngle preserrtatlon. help clarify related terms orto
The symbiotic reiationship between lf one does not Know the precise teim, complete the treatment of a subject.
graphic and verbal communicatlon is then ene can lcoK up the ~eneral Others are inserted sfmply bec.ause
the basfs for this visual dictionary of subject erther in the tab!e of contents they are of h!storical fnterest.
architecture. or the fndex. One can then refer to the
This is a booK for the curious to
appropriate section, bron-5e the
lnsteacl of an alphabetical listi119 of browse as well as a clesktop reference
illustrations. and sean fcr the terms.
entrles as found in most aictionaries. for the student of archftectuae. The·
While browsing, if one er.counters an
the informatlon is dustered around compltation of words and definitfons
errtry ora word used in a definrtion
basic aspects of architecture as is not intended to be exhaustive.
that is unfamiliar. ene c.a,, look rt up in
outlined in the table of contcnts. RAther, the selection is designed to
the índex.
Within each section, words are ptaced be comprehensive enough to reflect
in a visual context which further the rich, complex. anJ
explains. clarifies. and completes multidimensional nature of
their meaning. architecture.

7
Archituture ls an ;rt foral! to !ea m liecause an are concernea wlth lt. -John Ruskln • Archltect1.1re depends on

Order. Arran~ Eur:;thmy, Sym metry, Proprlety, and Economy. All of these must Pe liuilt wlth d~ reference to

dur;¡l;>illty, convenlenu, and lieauty. ~urabllity will lie assured when foundatlons are carrleJdown to the solld ground

and ~ls wl~ and liberal !y selectea; convenlence. when the amngement of the apartments !s fau!tless and

presents no hlndrance to use, and when eachclass ofbuildlngls asslgned to lts sultal;>le and approprlateexposure; and

!7e~uty, when t.he appear;¡nce of thework ls pleaslng and In good taste. and when lts members are In due proportlon
accordtng to correct principies of symmetry. -VItruvlus • Architecture ls the masterly, correct and magn iflcent play

of masses!7roughttD9etherln light. -leCorliusler • Anyoneenterlngonthe studyofarchitecture must understand

that even though a plan may have abstract !7eauty on paper, thefour faca des may seem we!l·l7alanced and the total

I'Oiume we«-p~. the !7ulldlng ltseff may turn out to l7e poor architecture.lntemal space, th3t space whlch
cannot ~ completefy rtpresent:ed In any fonn. whlch can Pe grasped and felt only through direct expmence.ls the
p~gonlstof .archf1uture. Tograsp space. toknow howtcseelt. ls the ~eytothe understandingoflnJikllng. -Bruno

Zevl• Arch~re.palntlng,and sculpturearecal!ecltheflnearts. They appeal totheeyeas muslcdoes to thet3r.


Butarchftut.ure 1s not judged (7yvlsual appealalone. Bulldlngs affectall of the human sen ses- sound, smell, touch,

taste. and vlslon. -Forrest Wllson • lt beca me apparent to us that architecture ls gene rally assumed to be a h~hly

specíallzed system wlth a set of prescrivea technlcalgoals ratherthan a sensual socl31 art responslveto real human

deslresandfeellngs. This nmltatlon ls mostfr!ghtenlng!y manlfested In the renanceontwo-dimenslonala'í34rams that

la y more stress on thec:¡uanttflablefeatures ofbulldlng organlzatlon than on the polychromatlc and thr~·dimenslonal

1\ualltiesoftnewholearchltectural experlence. -KentBioomer&Ch3r!es Moore • Theonly W3'JJ'OU can lnJIId. theonly

-.ay you can get the ~ulldtng lntc belng. ls through the measura~le. You must fol!ow tr.e bws of nature and use
c:¡uantltles of ~rk;l::. methoc:ls of constructlon, and englne.erlng. But In theend. when the ln;íldlng Pecomes p3rt ot living.

1t evokt:S unmeaS'Jral:Jie qualitles, and the splrlt of lts exlstence takes o·m. -l.ools Kahn • Bullt envlronments ha ve

varloii'S purposes: to shdt:er people and thelr actlvltles and possesslons from the elements. from human and animal

enemles. and from supernatural powers; to esta~nsh place: to create a hum.1n!z.ed, safe area In a profane and

pcn;entsallydangerous worlc.:; te stress soclalidenUty aná lndícate status; andsoon. Thus theorlglnsof archi~re

are~ understood lf one ta~es a wlder vlew ana conslders sociocultural factors. In the broadest sen se. toPe more

lm~"t than eh mate. ~hnology, materlals. and economy.ln any sltuatlon,lt ls the lnterplay of all th~ factors

th4t Pcstexpblns thefonn of ~ulldlngs. No single explanatlon wlllsufflce. ~use lnJIIdlngs- even apparently humP!e

dweUI"4S- are I!OrCthan materlaloVjects or structures. They arelnstltutlons, fr.lslccultll;.íl phcnomen¿ Pecp!ethlnk

envlronments Veforc they ~lk:l them. Thought orders space. time, actlvlty: status, roles. and vehavlor. But gr.-lng
physlcalexpre55lon to k:leas ls valuable. Encodlng Ideas makes them useful mnemonlcs; Ideas help rehavlor ¡,y remlndlng

peopleofhow to ;act. how to !leh3ve. and what lsexpeci'...ed ofthem.lt lslmportantto stress t!utalllnJ!Itenvlronments

- ~.~.a na landscapes- are one W<rJ of oráerJng the world by mai:Jng orderlng systems v!sMe. The
esstnttal step. therefore,ls the oráerlng or organlzlng of the envlronment. -Amos Rapaport • Ruskln sald: 'Great

natlonswrlte thdr auto~raph!es In thrumanuscrlpts, the rookofthelrtleeds, thebookofthelrwordsandthe vook

of thelr art. Not one of these ~ooks can l1e understood unless we rt3d the two others, but of the thre.e the only

trust~or.e ls the last.' On the whole 1thlnk thls ls true.lfl had tosaywhlch w¡¡s telllng the truth arout soclety.
aspll(')Ch by a mlnlsterof houslng orthe actual ~ulldlngs put up In hls tlme.l shoukl "ellevethe lnJIIdfngs. -Kenneth Cla~
• We requlreof.arry rulldlng. that lt act well.anddothe thlngslt waslntended todo In the rest w¡¡y;that lts~k well,

and 53y the thlngs lt was lnten&ed te S3y In the Pt:st words; that lt look well. and please us by lts presence. whatever

lt has todo or ~· -John Ruskln • Arch/t.ecture al so exlsts wlthout necessary asslstance from an architect; and

archltects sometlmescreate bulldlngs whlch are not archltecture. -Narval White • Archfttcture ls proJuud !;y

ordlnary people. for ordlr13ry people; therefore lt should ~e eas!ly comprehensible to all. -Steen Eiler Rasmussen

8
ARCHITEC

The ART
architecture The productor result of archit tural work: ~u~ldings. collectively.

and SCIENCE
architecture

of DESIGNING
architecture The profession of destgnlng bulldlngs and other ha~l ble e:wlronments.

and CONSTRUCTING
architecture The consclous act of formlng thlngs resultlng In a untfylng orco rent structure.

BUILDINGS

9
ARCHITECTURE

art
The conscltnu use of sklll craft. ancl
creatlve lm.1glnatk>n In the productlon of
what ls beautlful appeallng. or of more than
ordil'l3ry slgnlflc.anu.

aesthetics
The branch of phllosophy that deals wlth
na
the nature of art. beauty, a t.'lste. with a
vlew to estabhshlng the meanlng and
valid'tty of critlcaljudgrnents conceming
wori::s of art. Also. esthetics.
beauty delight
The aggregate of qualitlesln a person or A hlgh degree of pleasure or
thlng that g!ves lntense pleasure to the enjoyment.
sen ses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mlnd or
splrlt, whether arislng from harmony of
fonn or color. excellence of craft.
trutlrfulness. orlglnallty. or other, often
unspeclflal7!e property.
taste
Critlcaljudgment. dlscernment, or
appreciatlon of what ls fitting. har.ncnious.
or beautiful prevalling in a culture or
personal toan 111<.llvldual

environmental desígn url1an desígn it!Uríor deslgn


The orderlng of the physlcal envlronment by The aspectof archltecture and clty The art. !nJslness. or professlon of
me3ns of archlt.xture. e~lnurlng. plannlng that de31s wlth the deslgn of pl3nnlng the deslgn and supervlslng tr.e
constrvctlon,landscape archttecture. urban structures and spaces. ~utlon of archttecturalintulors.
uroan áeslgn. and clty plannlng. lncludlng thelr color schernes.
fumíshl~s. flttlngs. flnlshes.and
city planning sorr.etlmes architectural features.
The actlvltyor professlon of deterrnlnlng the future
physlcal amngement and condltlon of a community. space pla nníng
lnvolvlng an appralsal of the current condltlons. 3 The aspect of archlt.ecture and Interior
forecast of future requlrements, a plan for the deslgn that deals wlth the plannlng.layout.
fulflllment of these requlrements. and proposals for deslgn. and furnlshlng of spaces wlthln a
legal. financia l. and constructlonal programs to proposed or exlstlng building.
lmp!ement the plan. Also called tcwn plannlng.
urean plannlng.

10
ARCHITECTURE

science
A branch of l:nowledge deallng wlth a body
of facts or truths olrtalned !1y dlrect
observation, experlmentallnvestlgatlon.
and methodical study, systematical!y
arranged ancl showlng theoperatlon of
generallaws.
technology
Appliecl sc!ence: the branch of knowleclge
that deals wlth the creation ancl use of
technlcal methocls and materials, and thelr
lnterrelatlon wlth lífe, society, and the
envJronment.
technics
The scJence of an art orof the arts In
general.
tectonics
The sclence or art of shaplng. omamentlng.
or assembllng materlals In constructlon.
architectonics
The unifylng structure or concept of an
artlstic work.

firmness engineering
The state or quality of uelng soliclly The art and sc!ence of applying scientífic
con s tructecl. principies to practica! encls in the design
and constructlon of structures. equlpment.
and systems.

11ehavioral science
Any of the 5clences, as salology and
anthropology. that sed: to dlscover genera 1
truthsfrom theo!:>servation of humJn
behavlor In soclety.
~ciology
The sclence of hum.-n socíallnstltutions
and relationships: specrf. the study of the
o~ln, deve!opmerrt. structure, fu nctlonlng,
and collectlve behavior of organlzed groups
of human befngs.
anthropology
The sclence of human belngs: speclf. the
study of the orlglns. physlc31 and cultur;~l
development, and envlronmental and socl.al
relatlons of hum.-nklnd.
--L-----------------~

., L,, ___ :..

11
tARCH f
A curYed strocture for spanning
an opening. des~ned to support a
vertical load primar~y ¡,y axial
ccmpression.
~ keystone .
The we.dgé-shaped. often embelllshed
N50nty M-eh ~ voussolr at the crown of an are h. servlng to
An arch constructeJ of Individual stone or
lock the other voussolrs In place.
brlck voo ssolrs. Ho-----1-J--

~voussoir --------------..
Any of the wedge-shaped unlts In a ' extrados
masonry arch or vautt. havl~ slde cuts The exterior curve. surface. or ;;.::.: nd3ry of
converglng "' one of the arch centers. the visible face of an are h. Alsv :3i!ecJ bacl..
~--- archivolt
A decorative molding or ba nd e;-, Ó<~e fa u cf
an arch followlng the curve cf u-~ ;ntr:ulos.

5pn'IM.4!r!--------
tThe
M='
·~-
v'oussoir the !m
flrst restlng on post r
1 • ,
~~e'~htofan
':'
archfrom
the sprlMI"" Une to the
..., ...,

=an=a=~==-==================~==~~------·-----·~he_s_t~--~~-of-~h-e-ln_Ua_d_os_.~~~~==========================
"'-'~..--->Mc---:intrados .·
The lnner curve or surface of a:1
formln~~Leco
..., ¡.¡¡ - 1 '1•
ncave uue~ersouc.
•~h

5pring
The point at whlch an are h. vad~. or dome
rlses from lts support. A!so CJi'.ed
; springl~.

~~Wn--------------------, r--------..-----=-· spandrel


.The. hÍghtst par1 or polnt of a The tr!angu!ar-shaped. sometin-.es
cormx ccnst:ructlon. as an are h. ornamentecl area 17etween the ~.ndos cf
vautt,or~- two adjolning arches, or ~ ~~ left
or rlght extndos of an arch •rJ t.:...e
i . rect3~ular framewori: surroUMirl.,1 tt.
- Éiiher of an arch curvlng down Also~spandril. 1
from the crown to the 1m post.
~}------------~~~·
alr.e up~t part of an
;~butrnent, often In the form of a
l::rlock. capfbl. or moldlng. from
which :.~n arch spri~s.

ordet:---------------.. r.g
Aey severa! concentric rings of Acrossp!eu connectlng the r'.l>s in a
forming an are h. esp. when e;¡ch unterlng. Also callea Jolster. f
beyond the Q:'.e Peicw.

..··¡ ~uwarc:h 1 ~enur!ng


:~- • An archway havlng sldes or .Jam~s not at A temporal)' framework for supportln~ a
-· - :~ rlght angles wlth the fa ce of its abutments masonry arch or vault durfng constroctlon
untlf the work can support ltself.

c2mber piece
Aboard used as centerlng for a flat arch. \~ \ \ \ \ \ i 1 1
slightly crowned to allow for settling of ¡ /
ffillll{
the are h. Also calle4catnber slip. _ _

12
ARCH

,...--------------t-1arch action 1
The manner In whlch an arch transforms the
vertical forces of a su pported load lnto
lncllneá components ancl transmlts them to
abutments on either sk:le of the archway.

,..--~-------+- ~rch axis


íhe median llne of an arched structure.
..--------t--'l line ofthrust!
' The setof.resultantsbf thrust and weight
each part of an arch imposes 011 the next
lower one. For bending to be ellminated
throughout an arch, the llne of thrust must
coincide wtth the arch axis.

1
Junic~lar .uc_h ¡
An •rch shapeJ to develop only axial
compresslon und~r a glven loading. This
sh:ap<: may lx found by lnvertlng the
funicular sh.:lpe for a cable carrying a similar
loaál"!J pattem As wlth any funlcul3r
a
structure. funicular arch ls subject to
Pendlng ~ the loadlng pattem changes.
An t7YerW ~ry is t~ funlcu/¡r $hape for
;m ard C3tT)Íng 1 vtrt!C311oad uniformly
Jl5triMd Wf14 the /enqth ofthe arch axis. jthrust-;
T1le par¡rolJ 1$ Che funlcuf3r sh3~ for an arch The outwa.rd force or pressure rertea l;ry
urT)fng a o;r:rtfczf load unfformly diwW..d ane part of a structure against another.
C<ltrlts horlzw...af pro}ectlon ~~¡:¡¡;_:ift,.: Jrift" 1
¡ i Thethrust of an arched structure on lts
abutments. proportlona 1to the total load
-..~...J.L.-----------ru--~,-and span, and lnversely proportK)nal tothe
nse.

-{)------·-4·
tígid arch---· i
An archeá structure of timber, steel. or
retnforceá concrete. constructed as a rlgld
body capab!e of carrying bendlng stresses.

fu:ed arch
A fheá frarr~ structure havlng an arched
form.
t ~Mment ~
two-hing~ arch -------~
The partof a structure recelvlng and
A two-hlnged frame structure havir.gan
supportlng the thrust of an aren. vault. or
arched form. strut.
thru·hinged arch tieroa
A thru·hlng~ frame structure h3vlng an An lron or steel rod servlng as a structural
arched form. tle. esp. one keeplng the lower ends of an
~Su fr;¡m~ 5trvcture aren or frame from spreadlng.

13
ARCH
~triangular aren'
A primiUve form of arch consisting of t"'o
stones la id diagonally to support ea eh
<::<:·-..\. \ ~~ other over an openlng.

..........:_:.~
··:-:;~
corbel arch
fl.t .nch ; ~1 ~ French arch ·
A falseare~ c,:~s~ructed by corbeling
courses from e-a eh slde of an opening until
An arch havlng a horizontal A ftat arch having voussolrs ínc!ined to the thcy meet ata midpclnt where a ca pstone
lntrados with voussofrs r.:~diating same angle on each slde of the center. Is lald to comp!eU the wort. The stepped
from ~ center l.?elow. often uuilt reve-als may be smoothed. but no arch
wfth a slight cam!1er to allow for actlon ls effe.c:.ed.
sett»ng. Also cal~lc arcfv, 1

~,- rampant.m::h ·
/L··J . 1
..L__._.
i
An aren havlng one 1m post higher than the
other.
stilted a re h
An arch restir~ on imposts tre-ated as
downward c.cnti~uations of the arctrolt.
round arch' • RoiTL1n arch ,Peltarch
An arch h:avlng a continuously An arch havlng a semicircular í~tr.:ldos. 'A róund arch rest'rng 011 two large corbels
cur.·ed lntrados. esp. a with curved faces.
semicircular one.
~~~----------- ~s~~h
An ;¡rch havlng an lntraclos that Mdens
aPo't'e the sprl~lng Pefore 113rTOWíng toa
rourlded crown. Also calle4Moorish arch.,
,'trefolt aren
An arch havlng a cusped lntrados with three

~~~larc~··.i
round or polnW foils.

An arch stn!ck from one or more


centers ~lgw the sprínglng line.
• skewir.lck.' -·--,------__;
A stone or course of masonry havlng a ; basket·handle arch
sloplng f.Jceagalnst whích thc: end of a A three-cerrtered Jrch having a crown wlth a
segmenta! arch rests. radlus muen gre3ter than that of the outer
__ j pairofcurves. Alsocallefn~ de panlcf

-~>(.·
1

polll'ted arch · • ettulÍ~rárárc&' z r =' ta~arclt' , drop aJ'Cii


An aren ~vlng a pointed crown. A polnted arch havlng two centers and r.:~dll A polnted arch havlng two centers and A polnted 3 rch havlng two centers and
equal to the span. radll greater than the span. r.:~dll less th:an the spart.

e~thi~-~Rh; 1 r..
A polnteá arch, esp. ene havlng two centers
and e.qual r.:~dfl.

: surpased arch
An aren havlng a rí~ cf less than half the
span .
. -3.. o~earch
A polnted are h. each hJunch of whk:h ls a
doubte curve with t~ c.cncave side
uppermost

14
BEAM

r+--"-"--+-r--1span '
The extent of space ~tween two supports of a structure.
1...,---'-L..........-L- Also. the strocture so supported.
; fclearspa~,_:..,:-"-------------41
The dlstance b-etween the inner faces of the supports of a
span .

.r.= '~=!r~~ler
1 span.
distance ~tween the supports of ;¡

¿t tf±[f t~ t
---~==~========~==~~~¡:1
t____

\ Ptná~ mcment ..,_._---------"V"-~~--"':.?'---.


An extern;¡( momerrt~ndlng to ca•Jse fi3rt
~~~
of ;¡ structure to rotJte or ~end. eaU31 to
the ·~le su m of the moments a!;>out
the neutn! axis of the sectlon u~&r­
co ns Jder¡¡tJo n.
\ ..~'-~----------------------L ..• a;mpresslon
1 ~~ moment r------------------~---,
• An lnt:er.u/ rnamerrt'ec{U31 and opposi'"..e toa \------------------------~ Un51on
~~ roment. generated by a fcru:

.~~--
couple to Nlntaln equilibrium of t.\~
sectbn Deing consldered.

' ~ft·-----__..1 ---__::~..=.--=....!,_..$----------- · ;neut.i-alaxis '


~~ulardlstance a spanr.i~
lf'.em~ ~tes from ¡¡ true wu~ An lmaglnary llne passlng through the
under ?4nsverse loadlng.lncrt:3sing ¡ cef!troid of the cross sectlon of a be amor
with load ¡¡nJ span. and decre3slrlq ·r'lf';h , other member su~ject to !lending. alonq
3!11ncre3Se In the morr.ent of lnert!J of y which no ~ending stresses occur.
thc: sectloo or tM rnodulus of ef3~..ctty
ofthe~L
e \?ending. stre5s '
Vé'-.. . . A coml7inatlon of campresslve and tenslon
~ stresses developed at 2 cross sectlon of •
~-~\ r structura! mem~ to reslst ;¡ transv~
~sllgfit' convex curva tu re lntent\of1;¡11y
lltam, glrder, or truss to
~nt 1nto ;¡ ~ force. having a maxlmum yalue at the
compens.1~ for an antlclpated ~ surface furthest from the neutral axis.
~-

' ~~h~~ - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ J ·---:\vertical she<~ring stress ;


-An externa! she.1rforce ata cross section : The shearing stress developed along a
of a beam orother member sutj~ to cross sectlon of a ~e3m to reslst
Penal~. fl1l!lll to tM a~ebralc su mcf transverse shear, havlng a ma,xtmum value
tnn~ forces on one slde of the at the neutral axis and decreaslng
sectlon. nonllnearly toward the outer faces .

. jlSO-···--······----~
¡ hoñzqntal ~b~ring ~tres&
The snéarlng stress déVetOped t.J pr-event
slippage alang longtt:udlnal planes of a b-e-a m
urJer transverse loadlng. ~ual at any point
to the vertical ~h~~r:l~-~ *e:;;; at tnat point
Also ca tlec9ongftudínáf s~rín4 s~s;

15
BEAM

fp =Me{])------- mamentoflnertia
The sumOfthe prOducts of ea eh element of
where 2n 2rea 2nd the square of tt5 dlstance from
f• = extmn~ firer stress in ~nding acoplanar axis ofrotatlon. Moment of
lnertla ls a geometrlc property that
M = bendtng momtnt lndlcates how t:he cross·sectlonal area of a
structural mem~er ls dlstrl~ted and does
e = dist.Jnc~ from neutnllaxís to th~ not reflect the lntrlnslc physlcal propertles
outermost surfac~ in b~nding
ofa material.
lf
Yc = ®~-------- section modulu'
·Á~~riipMy of a cross stcuon.
then deflned as the nnoment of lnertia of the
sectlon dlvlded lly the dista nce from the
f¡, =M¡s neutral axis to the most remote surface.

Whk ~ :1 ~ span reduces th~ btndlng The tfflclency cf aPe3m fs lncrt3sed by


~!.y :1 f;JacrcfZ. Jou/Jiing th~ depth CQnflgurlng the cros5 sect~on to provtde the
reduces t!le bending 5tresses by :1 factor(){ 4. requireJ mcmetrt cf lnmú or sectlon modulus
wlth the sma0e$t possM~ area. usual1y by
matfng the sectlon Jeep wrth most ofthe
materíJf at the ~mitles where th~
maximJJm bending ~ occur.

33.25 ínZ = Area of sectlon 11.20 in 2 = Area of sxtion

250fn4 = 1 aboutx-xaxfs 386fn4 = 1 aboutx-xaxis


52.6fn3 =S 54.7in3 = S

principal stresses
The tensile and compresslv~ stresses ·
resultlng from the lnteractlon of ~nalnf!
and shea r stresses ata cross sutlon of a
beam.
_1- At the txtreme surfac.es (){a /:la m. only
!>endlng 5tr~ses &Xi5t anJ the princlp;ll
st:res:.es are equtvalerrt to the tensiJe 2nd
wmpr-csslvc str~ses resuftlng from Paldtnq.
Át th~ nelltralaxls (){ the sectlon. only shar
st:resses exlst and these can~ rcsc~~eJ lf!W
tal sil~ ;md compresslre ~ses xtJn~ at 45"

J mgfe.s to the neutnf3Xis.


For m lrrú:mledim element sut;ect to botb
be:ndlng x.J she3r stres5eS, the prlnctp.a/
stresses h3re :~n inclinzticn ktemlneá by the
rd3tlr~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5.

'tress trajectorle' 1

llnes deplctlng the dlrectlon !lut not the 1


~- tensfon
magnltuae of the principal stresses In a
~ea m.

- 5hear cen'Ur
T~~p~·~nal~la-~!'f_a
s~t~~gi[Wfi!Cfi'i''"- -,- .
trari5vei=Sé103d'rr1iísf p-a·ss '" ordé~ to
prevent torslon or twlstlng.of the mem~er
a~out.a longltudlnal axis.

16
BEAM
5imple !7eam

---f... ~ L 1ll J. J.+ J. t u;r_ A t>eam restlf\3 o.li sim~~~Ü.~lJS at Do t.~


ends, whlch are free te rota~ ánd have no
moment reslst4nce. As wtth any st.otl..:aily
:: t :;
. 1 . detennlnate structure, the values of an

sheard~g"m lllllllllll · ). ·~.·.!i'~~.-~·


reactlons. shears. and moments for a
simple beam are lndependent of lts crc-ss·
1. 'l:/ sectlonal shape and ma~al.
A gr3phlc representatlon of the varíatlon In
magnltude of the externa! shears present In
·.~:• 111 ¡(IIIIÍ !
_ .. _ ! .. _. 1

¡
11

1
astructureforaglvensetoftransverse -·- cantilever!1eam
loads and support con.::lltlons. Concentrated loads produce e~maf she~ Unifom:fy distribtiud foads produce fine;;ri) :· ·· : ¡&;'prli~rij fleaiJI.s,u pPPfted. a~ only_one

------~ ::~;::¡-~!"'""''"'"···'''""'¿'~•~~:~·· ~~:.~: -~·~;~~e,


1

momentdi.lgram •·•''""· •:· ... - . .· . --

A '"""'EIC'=~~- · torrott~~n.ln

f-: -~:€~!i;~~1í!!S:- .: ' : ¡ . 1:

lo.uls alid support condltlons. The overall Concentr.lted loads produce bendlng mom~ts Unífom:ly distribr.úd loads produce
dd1ected shape of a structure sut>ject to whlch vary hne;;rfy between faads. parabcíJc3fly val)ir.~ mcments.
l;>endlng can often t>e lnferred from the ·
shape of its momentdlagram.
~--

overhanging t>eam
A slmple beam extend!ng beyond one lts
supports. The overhang reduces the
posltlve moment at mldspan whlle
developing a negat!ve mament at the lnse
of the cantllever over the support.
Assuming; unlformly dlstrWvW (o; J. tJ;e
projectlon for wlt!ch the mom~ over t.'le
Sl.:ppor't ls eqLf3f and oppos!U ta the morr.t:rt
3t mldspan is approxlmdtely% of the s¡:m

positive moment ._,. ._~-~.. ,. .-------------~--.....~


A l:>ending rT~<Jment uf.¡t proaiícesa concave
ClHYature ata sectlon of a structure.

f-11$ ,1, J. ,L L,l, J.,L l.L i,LM As51.imir_,; unlformly distri/?r.rW l;;;J.
1 •
the project!ons for Ml!ch tl!e mommts
om-the supports ;re tq!J31 mJ
oppos.'U to the momer.t 3t midsp;n
;;re approxfmatdy '!' IJf the sp;m.

h3unch
The part of a t>eam that jsthlcl;e~.oc, _
~~~c~J?g~~te,r #.'~t
r~~~~Tlie eff.cfency Of ¡ fieam can ~~
ínc~?.iS@¡;y shaplng lts lertgth In respon..~
to the rnornerrt and shear vafues whlch
,_.~ =-~~~ .
tr..nsfer t>endlng ·s~s. Jncre-ase the
rigldlty of the ~m. and ~uce tts
maxlmum deflect1on.
5uspended-span
typlcally vary afong tts longitudinal axis.
Asimple t>eam supporW by the
cantllevers of two adjolnln~ spans wtth
plnnea constructlonjolnts at polnts of·
uro moment. Also calká hu~-span.

ccrttinuou5 Üe4m .

---~:~~;~~~~~r:fivr,.·
rlgfáttyaiid smaller moments than a ser¿s
of simple t>eams havlng similar spans and
loading. Both frxed·end and contlnuous
reams are lndetermlnate structures for
which the values of all reactlons. shears.
and rno~nts are dependent not only or.
na
span a loaalng but also on cross·
sectlonai shap~ a'ld material.
effectiYe length
The distJ~Ce t>etween inflectlon polnts In
the sp3~ ;fa flxed·end or continuous be;;~.
qui11a!e.·: in nature to the actualleng~h ~
J simp!J s~pportea ::ream.

17
¡I.Jl.!U!Ki
A IT\3sonry unit of clay, formea into
a rectar.gwr prism while plastic
ar.d lurdeneá P)' drying in the sun or
firi~inaUn.

'ccmmott~~ ~~~~ :; scft·mud process


Brict m~ for general !lulkllng purposes · The process of formlng !1rlck by moldlng
and :ICt s~tally treated for color and re!atlvely wet e!ay havlng~re C$J:Vt0 rt Jt
t.e~~re. Aisocallea building brlclt -- .. -- ....... - ... - ~ ......

jsandstruck brick
míngvrict·
Brlcl: formea In the soft·mud process wlt.,~ 3
Brlcl: m~ofspec~lclaysforfaclng a wall.
mokll!ned wlth sand to prevent stlckln9.
oft.en treateJ te produce the ~sJ~~'~"glg~ , produclng a matte·textured surface.
ar.d surfau texture. Also calfed fact lñ-lcJc. ....... :
r waterstruck hick
1 Priá_type! Bricl: formea In the soft-mud process w!th 3
A des~natlon indlcatlng the pennlssl!?le mok:f lul7ricated wlth waterto prevent stlci:t~.
~rl3tlon In slu, color, eh lppage. arJd produclng a smooth. dense surface.
dJst.ortb1 albwed In a faclng !?rlck unlt.
FBX
y'tHf·mud pro~ 1
Tñe processoffonnlng Drlck and structur.tl U!e
Faclng l1ricl:: sutta!?le for use where a ~ extrudlng stlff !1ut plastlc clay havfng a
~ninlmum ~rlatlon In slze. narrow color molsturecontent of12t to15'.t throuqh a!~
r;; ng~. and high degree of 1.11echanlcal aí'J cuttlng th~ extruslon to length wlth w'res
pafectlon are rea.ulred. Defore flrlng.
FB5 fdrrpress process i
Facln~ kici: sulta!lle for use where a wlder
The process of fonnlng !1rlck ~ molding
color~ and greater varlatlon In slze are
re!atlvely dry e!ay havlng a mólsture co~•.e:q: of
~rmitteá than for type FBX.
51 W under h!gh pressure. resultlng in sbrp·
FPA edged. smooth-surfaced !1rlcks.
F.a~ l1ricl:: su ita !?le for us~ where
partlcubr cffeas are deslred resultlng 1 b1nJ
frotn 11011ur.lfonn1ty In slze. color. ana Afumau or oven for !lumlllg. !laklng. or dryi~
textun: of the Individual unlts. ~~~.esp. one forflrlng pottuy.l:>akir-3
· !1rlás, or dryi~ tlm!ler.
j~~hin~'f
, lorici~' ¡ - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ : Plfing úrlek un~ltemately wlth too much or
A dr!s~natlon lndlcatlng the dura!71ilty of a too httle alr to vary thelr face COlOr.
m:± untt wnen exposed to weatherlng. The
U.S.!s dlv1ka In~ three weatherlng
!cufl
. 1
··
~- serer!. moder;;te, and negligl!lle- A !nicl: or tlm!1~ rejected as ~elng ~lnfer'yr
¡¡,cc.~·ding toannual wlnter ralnfail and the quailty.
2n~l number of freezlng-cycle days. 6rlck
is pJd for use In each rt9lon accordlng to
~ strength. maximum water
· a~.andmaxlmums.otur;;tlon
coefl'.clent.

~· NW Jffre.l7rick¡ --- .. _;
The ~ofwater a~ Py a clay_ A lmck grade sulta!lle for exposure to A GT-iéfiñaele of flre e!ay and used for ilnln~
l"'.lSOIIIj' unft whenlmmersea In elther cold j~~l~~ ~~as wflen used as a ámaqs and flreplaces.
~ bollln4 l'l7ter for a st3 ted length of time. ltacbp orln ltfterlor masonry.-
~as a perunt3ge of the welght of t.~-'~
~".edrylllllt. A Wct()ry e!ay used In the maklng of
~rucl&t;S, aña otner o&]ects exposed
~ilcoefficie® to hlgh tempera tu res.
The rnioofthe welght ofwater a!1sorPed
~Sóhiy DIIIC hi!mt!rsta In cokf ~!Y.,
'llt7ter te the welght absorbed when A materláf havfng the alnllty to ~taln tts
~In rolhng water. lndlcatlng the phys!calshape and cfiem!Cai Ji&n§ w~
~ reslstanu of the lmck to the subj~ to hlgh temperatures.
#Ctlon of freezl~ and thawlng.

3 welght of water al?sorPed ~--'
ITI35011f)' unlt when
partlally lmmersed for
croe minute. expressed 1~ grams or ounces
p minute. AlsocalleJ fñltlal rau of
¡¡~

18
BRICK

.3 courses = 8 in. (20.3 mm} moduL-lr brick


Abrid dline~S'<Xl Lvgerthan the A 17rld: h.wing nominal dimenslons of

1
to
actual dl~s:cn account for the 4 X 21,'3 X 3 in. (102 X 68 X 203 111m) .
. thicl:ness rf 3 :nortar Jcint.
- -L---
NormJn 17rick
1
A!n-id: h.wing nominal dimensions af
4 X 21,'3 X 12 in. (102 X 68 X 3{)5 mm) ..·

SCRI7riá
Bricl: havi119 nominal dimens!ons of
6 X 21/3 X 12Jn. (102 X 68 X 3()5 mm).

engineerea brick
Alnicl: h.wlng nominal dimenslons of
4x3~/sx51n. (102x81x203mm).

Norwegi.an 17rick
A 17rlcl: h.wi~ nominal dimensions of
4x 31/s d2 in. (102x81 x305 mm).

4 courses = 8 In. (20.3 mm)


Roman 17rick
Brlck ha·tlng ncminJI dimens!ons of
4x2x 12 in. (102x51 x305 mm).

jumbo úriá . ecano my Pl-id:


Any cf v:JriooJS C'ierslzed 17ricks h3ving A modu~r l>riá havlng nomirl31 dlmenslons
nomlnJI di~~S:Ons established by the cf 4x 4 x 5 in. (102 x 102 x 203 mm).
manubct~~e·.

scap 1 "/ stret.cMr


A brd or tte r.3Ying normal face " Al?rlcl; or other ll13sonry untt lata
dlmensloos ~Jt 2 nominal thickness of hortzoot..fly In a wall wtth the lo~er
2ln.(51mm~ eage ~ or paral!el to the $l.Jrl;ou.
¡,g-· J ··--·--·-- .. ---~r.,
A !mcl:: cut t.-. rsverse!y so as to leave A 17rld: or other ll13SOnry u_nlt llta
oneendw~ hortzont.aily lt1 a wall wttn the snorter
end ~ or parallel to the surface.

··-···~~J
~:..· rJi1 stones or !.más toa
Tocnípor A l7rld: lakl hortzontally on the longer
cert.aln s~ c-r sl1ape. edge wtth the shorter end expos&L
Also.~J

fc.~~u
A l7rld: lata vertlcally wlth the longer
fa ce ed.ge ~pqsed.
· ilorl
f¡;;:¡,;k lakl vertlcally wlth the 11read
faceex~.

---·---- :shineri
'A l>rld: IJJ h<:Jrizontallycn the longer
wge with che bread fa ce exposed A!::o
called qull str~her. ¡

• See mJsonry for types of mortJr¡:;r.:s

19
BRI(K

flmckwcrij
6rfct~lon. esp. tht art of bondin9
lnid:s effea!Yely.
... .... soldlerccur5e'
'~nd t Acontlnuous ccurse of soldlers In
Anyofmblsamngements of masonry brlckwork.
unlts ~a regular, recognlz.Jbfe, usually
overbp~ pattern to lncrease the
strength and enhance the appea ra nce of
the conskuctlon.
~tack~ond
¡ "'"~~~----···-·····------- .... · '). brlckwori: or masonry bond having
A !ni:im or masonry bond camposed of successlve courses of stretchcrs wlth all
ov~ stretchers. Alsa called head jolnts allg ned vert lea lly. Also.
,s~roncU ~acked !1ond.!

pa.otllond1
A lni:iwort bona havlng a course of headers
~ ~flveor slxcqu~ .Qf
stretchers.AisacaiW ,frieffi.1ñ17~, f

closa- ..................... .
A NSOnry unlt speclally formed or cut
.~-·~~·· ..
to fDsh a cou~ or complete the bond Po na ccurse __ ... ··
at ~ ca¡ner of a wafl. Alsa. closure.
Acontlnuous course of headers or
rondstones overlapplng more than one
wythe of IT!3sonry.

~~~l
Alni:im laona havlng altemate courses
of hakrs anJ stretchers In wh lch the
~n untered on stretchtrs and the
jo!nts ~ stretchers nne up vertical !y
lnaiCOIII'StS.

~ ~=~h::~-,-~-t~:·:~~- ---- -
forroa-1~ng acourse orfor s¡¡aclng
reglbr lnicks. Also¡ctuun closure.

f..lem~~~~ Flemish cro~s Pond


Á~ bon(i ltavlng altematlng A modlfled Flemlsh bond hav!ng courses of
headtrs aná stretchtrs In eJCh cou~. altei'TI3te heaaers and stretchers
~ ~ ~ng centered a rore and Pelow alterna ti~ wlth stretchlng cou~.
.íl~.

--- flare header


~da~ --------------··· ----- ~==-::::!±::=::!. A brlck h3vlng a damr ena exposed as
A~uarter lmci: fodln!Shlng a 3 heac.ler In pattemed brlcl:won:.
cor..e or for spaclng regular lnicks.t
A!so. ki,. ci0$Ure.

!f~~
A fonn~~nd In whlch the
1

c.ourse:s n offset to fonn a dta mona


pattera.

20
BUILDING
A relatively permanent encloseá
structure constructed over a plot
of land for habitable use.
A~ Is .1 sheltb' from r3ÍIT, sun, and wlnd.
This mplks 3 ~ and Walls wsupport lt.lf
the ~ emtmy m;Jose th~ spau wtthln,
~ n ~ for access. 311d WlndCW$
for IJ#t. Ro:7fs anJ wafls. door5 and Wfndows
3~ ~ ~ fe3tur~ rJfbuffdlf195.

Roof5 TIU'f b.: f!.it:.


sloping. or curved. A roo f
wlth ~ 5/ope ls C3ileá3/.an- to. When two
~ roof5 ~ upa1 par.~lld w;¡U:; and le.in
a~rmr;ne ~ they mea 1n a hor/zorrt.31
rlJge .ñ ~~.XIII forma G:~lk 3t t:1ch ~­
lftwc rQ/Js m;;;i~ 3 project:Jng angl¿, thelr
rwfs ~ ln3n lt1cliMJ l1nt c.alfed a Hp.
lfthe ..all5 me&t;, a reentu~ng angl~. the
ltlcfJr,d ile of IrrtersectSon ls c.alfed a Va/ley.
Orcul.r JIQ/Js carr¡ ca1ld or dcmlc31 rocfs..
lf thae ls m«e dwl tX7e stcry. the fL1t; roo{
qf the ~ stcry b.:com~ the F1oor ()( the
stQry ~.lfthe f'()(l{ extenJs teyond the
wa/1 tJrzt su~ Jt, the project~on ls c.alfed
the ~ lf the W31al5o proj~cts to supp«t
the ~ (J(the roof. the projection is
ca/JtJ 3 ComJce. The principal member ()( 3
ccmice, JllhJch project51lf:~ a 5heJ f and crO'Nr15
the IQ( i5 c;tlleJ 3 Corona.

W3Hs re ger.er;Hty 1113de Wfd~r}U5ta t tk


bcttom S;)¡¡:; to geta better b.:.arlng on the
grounJ. T1r5 projectltXr 15 the Ba5e. A slmlf3r
~ .it the tq7 Is c.a/Jed 3 Cilp or. /{ ft
project6 nJCh. 3 Ccrrke, ¡¡:; 1135 b.:en sa/J. A
1ow Jr.ll Is akJ" r~ A short plece rJf
PiaD .ílbolrt .25 bng .25/t Is thlct ls c.alld 3
f'cst,.111átftt~5<JfT1ethlfl9,il
r~tkprt~ lt6 c.apanJb~ls
thcT the [)le. A tal post ls c.aneá a Pler. tf1t ls
5q113~ ;nd a Cdumn tf ft ls round. C:lp:; ()(
¡Xers xt1 cdumns xt c.alled C:lpftals. and tht
p-t ~ the C3p anJ the ba~. the 5h3ft.
The M ~~()(.a c:Ipit:.al ls CJJII&á
the~.

l
A l>am tit3t sp311'5 the spxe Páwun two
p1er5 or ccJumns or b.:twetn 3 pier or c.dumn
Mlá a t1r.1115 aJIJed;n Archltrav~. or Epistyk.
t\b(;t.l~ te.~ the architrave and tht
CCJm1a. tha'e Is generalfy a lltti~ strip of wall
(.;1/f,¿J the ~ Archltr;ve, frleze. and
&ornlce~the~A~
cf columns Is C4i1eJa Cclontude. The spxes
~ pters or coVnns ~ sometlm~
5p3m.eJ Py .Jvch&s. ,15C"{¿5 ()( wh/ch /5 c.a//ed
311~

The spx:e ~~para/Id wansls


~ CC'r"er'eá by a sa-t rJf c.?r1Unuou5
3rdl c.;fleJ .a Y.i111~ ln5tad rJfby a floor or • fllunJ..atlon
rocf.
~ubstructure .
The Wa( tk fler, anJ the Cdumn. wtth or The underlylng structurefor~g the
irlt:hovt the pede5t;l. con-stttu te th~ chlef foundatlon of a ~ulfdlng or other.,
~memb.:rs,· theFrie:zt;mdComlu.
constructlon. · ·
flrltlr the rtXJf tit.7t restó upon them.
~ the chídptofthe load they
urry. The ~ the Ncre5, and ~
Spandrds fcml part cf the /caJ re/3tJy~ to
Wt: 15 ~ tMrJ. Mar~ supportJng
members ~1.3tJve to wh.Jt ls aboY~ them.

&5/ks ~ valu.1ble 35 3 sh~/Ur. a bulldinq


may be In ltédf .a noble .md de/Jghtful obj~t.
.and .architects ~ bvilder5 who. by gMnq 3
system
Pvd&ng p:J proportJcns and flr.e dáails. and
A group of lnteractlng.lnterrelated. or
by tm~ é>-~tlfullfl3tma/5,1113Í~ /t
Jnterdependent thlngs or parts formlng a
rafU3&/e onl't517Wn3CC(I(Jnt.,in.kpendentiyof
complex or unlftea whole. esp. to serve a
ft5~.
common purpose.
-Wllliam Robert Ware
(he American ViqnoiJ

)1
BUILDING

high·rise
r \.
Descrll1lng a lrolldlng h.avlng a
1
\ comp.aratlvely large numl1er of storles
!
1
i
~
and equlpped wlth elevators. r--..

o l
_, ____ i ----____,~
fFT~::.-----L--f-
... _ __,.:t;~-------------f
stcry f l ~ írFi? i /\
Acornp~ koriz.o~ arvision of .a l ! /,.J -.,,
l1uildi~. h¡vf114 a contlnuous or ne:arly : :l
contlnuous floor ana compr!slng the · : -
sp.a~ Det;.leen two ~acent levefs. ·.¡ 1111 1111111 !llll! -
(-- ...7'
------'--

11

iH!-1 IHH -
n~ n :m .:m ni iií ní nr nr nr nr m nr nr nnn -
f---e-
f---e-
1--

~~ 1 4- ,.,_ 1--1- ~ 1 1 1 L.l~,¡ 1 B [l_l.[[[[I f----c-

)J lh. 1 1 1 + f+ rt- 11 1 1 f J 1 r· 1 11 T K i l 1---

low-risc:
Descrltring .a b-uilding havlng onc:. two. or
three starles anJ usually 110 eleva ter.
One of the upper floors of .a warehouse or
fa~. typlcat~ unpartltloned aná
sometlmes converted or adapted to other
uses. as living o_uarters. artlsts' studlos. or
exh íi:>itlon ga lleríes.
Ioft l:ruikiing
Al?tJ:!dlng havlng severa! floors with large
areas of unobstructed space. orlglnally
rerrte.d out for tlght Industrial purposes and
r.ow fre1uently cor.verted to resldentlal
occ¡;par.cy.
BUILDING

.rttic
A room or space dlrectly under the roof of a
Plll!ding. tsp. a house.
luffe~tory -·-··---------·-·---··--- ·--..
A usalne living space withln a sloping roof. ·••
usually hav~ng dormer wlndows for lighting.

-ÚawJ spue .,.,..,.,.,,


An area In a building I!Jvlng aclearance
less than human height. M accessiole
f¡y crawhng. esp. such a space below the
flrst floor tha t ls enclosed by A room or set of rooms. for the storage
foundatlon walls. of food. fuel. or the lfke. wholly or partly
underground and usually oe.neath a
building.

cyclcne ce1L1r
A cellar orother undergrcund place for
shelt:er durlng vlolent storms. as
cyclones. tornaoms. or hurrlcanes. Alsa
callea stcrm ce!L1r.
/

¡f !1ulkhe3d ----······--···········------/
A horizontal or lncllned door over a
:-- floor
A contlnuous supportlng surface

~ -~l----------~----s-ta_i~--ay_g_M_n_g_~_c_~_s_to ~------------------~
. extendlng horizontally throughout a
¡ buikllng. havlng a number of rooms and
__
a_ce_na_r_.____ ; constrtutlng one leve! In the strocture.
-é-- l

:--- mezzanine
! A low or partial story Wtween two main
¡ storles of a bulkllng, esp. one that projects
i as a blcony and forms a composltíon wlth
, the story beneath lt.
-e--

r fi~tfloor
! The gro-;nd floorof a bu!k:!Jng. In 8rltaln and
: elsewhere. the flrst floor !S tlle floor
[ immedlately above the ground floor.
'";'-- ground ftoor
: Thefloorofa lrolldlng atorneartstto
ground level

;--· i>asement
i A story of a building that is whofly or part~·
~--1.---------...._...¡,_ _________.. ___ A - vóe!ow- ground level.
areaway 1

A sunken area affording access.


subbasement
alr, and llght toa !1asement door
Arry story or ffoor below the main basement
orwlndow.
of a building

13
BUILDING

fro nüspieu
A prtnclp¡lif.3C3de, ora partorfeature of a
facaa. often tre¡t.eJ as a separa te
elef!'l!nt of tl-.e des~n and hlghllghted 11y
orna~ntatlon.
?'

¡--- pavílion
~ A central orf\ar.l:i:-..g projxt~ subalvlslon
' of a f:3C3de. us~i!J ~tea by more
elabora te decon':lcn or gre¡¡tQ hel9ht a~.d
d!stinct!on of ~~r,e.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~H
~ 1

~l=f=l~~I.A..J:Idlb,l;l~l:bl::ld:!=!its~~~~~~~!*.&!d:!..J:Y:u:ii=-l"'Fi!~~n
1
·
1 stcr-;
A major hor.zontal archltectural
dlvlslorusofafacJdeorthew.ii
oh n;;ve..
ñlsefront
A~ falstfyl~ the slze
or lmp:Jrtance of a 17vlldlng.

~~~~~~~~~~~
l?ay
Arr¡ of;; 11~mber of prlr.clpal
alvlsl<xls of. wall roof. or other
part of;; ~Jildl~ mar\:~ off by
vertical or transve~ supports.
bll~r-;
A ft'lajor horizontal dlvlslon of a w;; il
havl114 na m.erlor wfndows.
171ind
Describí:'~ a recess In aw;¡ll havi~ l?alccny
the appe4 ra nce of a wln.:low (171irJ An~pl3tfonn
wi!Ww) or Joor {Pflna aoor). projectl~ from the w¡¡ 11 of a
lnse~ :a comple-te a Sérles of 17v~ and enclosea by a
WlnOows O!' t<l provide sytnme-trj of rain~ or parapet.
de~n.

:¡ =~· fenestratlon
The deslgn.
111111 1 proportlonln!J. and
1.
alsposltlon of
:
wfndows ana other
1 exterior openlngs
of a 17ulldlng.
1

nnnn

24
BUILDING

t
~~~
F" ~ ~ fe
. ¡::::= 1- r =
,...--

1=: 1::::: 1:::

\#lfJ 'pó~l?:i 1 rt• - >


f ~-~;-J
A r.a~ p~tfunn. appro;;¡;heJ by steps An ~r appendage ta a 11ulldlng. A paréh havlng a roof supportea by
sometl~ havlng a nxrf. at the formlr14 a covered approach or columns, often leadlng ta the en trance of a
ofahou~. vestlllule ta a doorway. ~ulldlng.

\ · ~n usualtf roofeJ ~~d


pt1y enc!osea. as by a raUir:g. often
r
~len~ /
striesorrelul.o."'Y spacd columns
supportlng an er.tJbtature and usually one
~1"4 across the front and sldes of slde of a roof str.xture.
a ~- A!so.ferandab. i

t~,;i, esp. a fully fuml:shd o e ifoster:n~t


·A prlvateorslde en trance, as 011(: for
useJ 415 a livl~ rt:iom. ··.< pedestrians next ta a porte·cochere.
::~:;:.: r·-·----·-·-·- ---·-·············-·-·-·¿po~here .
-)'~ ¡ · "A porch roof proJJt¡ng over a driveway
·~>¡: at the entrance ta a 11ulldlng and
:_r. ' shelter¡Ag-fho~ gettlng In or out of

)_/ \L.¿)
ve.blcle5>Al5ocalleatarrt.u. porch.
f • .~.. . .
e.

1 1
1 :
i ;
~:::::r:~)

,_~,,
Ar. open. unrociea porch or ~tform
~ng fi"'O'' a hou~ or ~r
~ng. -------------~

portal , .
A doorway. ga):e. or entrance, esp. an
lmposlng one emphaslzed by slze and
stately archltp;tural treatment.

25
BUILDING

rotunda
A rCIJnd. dorned !lullding, ora large and
b~h clrcu!arspace In such a !lulfdlng. esp.
or..! surmounted !')'a dome.
l_l '¡·
piloti _: ____¡
ell
A wlng at rlght angles to the length of a
!lullding. Also. ef.
wing
.._-- Any of a series of Apart of a building projectl~ from a "4
columns supportlng a su!lordlnate to or maln part.
!lulldl~ a!:>ove an open
ground !evel

sL;b
A ~..anqu!Jr ii<Ji!dlng h3Y!r.qlittle wldth
~..., re-spect t.o :ts length 3na he!qht.

,, : :.
[ ... ,- An area open to the sky and mostly or
court
__:_entlrely surroundea by walls or 17ulfdlngs.

~
A P-.lltalng orstructure hlgh In
proportlon te lts lateral dlmenslons. .
~standing alone orformir.g part of
a lo rgtr 17ulldlng.
atrium
Pioá
Ask)'it. central court In a
A ~rge build:rng divlded lnto a numberof
buil.::li~~. esp. a brge Interior one
~me a~rtments. offices, or shops.
h3vl~ a g!ass roof and courtyard
surrc~ ·Jed by severa! storles of Acourt adjacent to or withfn a building. esp.
galb'.es. one enclosed on 311 four sldes.

"
patio
~~ - ....................... .
Acourtyard, esp. of a house. enclosed by
AcOOtlnakd or arcadeá space wtthln the
boJ)' of a ~ng !lut open to the alr on one
L.fi low !nJJ!dlngs. arca des, or wal!s.

~ ?ften ;n:·an upper story overlooklng an


~court.
pún.o nol7i1e -···--................... ---·-· . ..... 1
The pr;r.clpal story of a large !luildlng, as a atrium
pal:oce orvllla. wtth fcrmal receptlon and An open. skylit court around
din~ rooms. us~lly one fl!qht a!love the which a house or bultdlng ls ~u lit.
~floor.

D
cortile ------ ...... ------ ..... _-- -··· ---
A lar~ or principal courtyard of an !tallan
palmo.

paL1ZZO
A large. lmposlng puplic ~J:Iá:·~ ~ priv3':.e
residen ce. esp. In lt31Y.

26
BUILDING
orientation
The posltion of a ~uilding on a slte In
relatlon to true north, to polnts on the
compass, toa speclfk; place or feature, or
to local condltlons of sunllght, wln~ and
:_ ;<: .,__,:

cbim front
To assert or dema nd re~nitlon or To face In a specific directlon or look out
possesstcn. upon. folly
A whimslcal or extravagant structure bu lit
to serve as aconversatlon plece.lená
lnterest toa vlew, or com memorate a
person or event.
pavilion
Asmall.often ornamental ~ullding lri a
merge garden.
To comlnr.e. !knd. or unlte gradually by
stages so .as te !llur k:lentlty or
dlstlnctlons.

pl1Z.1
A pul711c sqU.Jre or open space In a
city or town.

gazebo
A freestanálng roofeá structure, usually
open on the sldes. affordlng shade aná rest
In a garden or par!::.

'luadrangfe ___ , ___ ---------- ---· . --· ----


Asquare or <tu.~drangular space Of' court
surrounded by abui!d1119 or llultdlngs. as on
2 ccllege c.ompus. Also calleá quad.

g4illeria ======~;:w;=n;:;~~~=Tr=Tr===r l;oelvedere


Aspa<:lo!JS promenade, court. or lndoor ![][ lf afd0RE-H ------.
A17ultdlng. or archítectural fea tu re of a
maR, usuarly havlng a vaulted roof and llned !?uiiJing. desf9ned and sltuated te look out
with comrr.erci;¡l establlshments. upan 3 pleaslng scene.
pro~rude
topi3ry
An aro;~
use.dfora
puDllc p!xe.ls

Jllée
for stroft

French te-m for a bread J


or.wall:.esp.~n•.·
pleasu~ or dlsp!ay. a

walk plante.J ,..¡th trees. •


_, p
,. . ~ 1 i
~"
Cllpped or trlmmed lnto ornamentalarld
fantastlc shapes. or the woO: or art of such
clipplng. --

Jr!?or --- --- .. -.. ---------......... -- ----------


Ashelta c.f shruP$ •ná lmmches or of
bWceworl: ~wlned wlth cllmln119 vlnes ·
dflawers.
., . ~~ ,.
... -~1 ·

1:4-ellis
A fume supportlng open lattlcewoO:. used
25 a screen
or ¡¡ support for growlng vlnes
Of' plants

1.3ttice
A structure of crossulstrlps arranged to
forma rt:.J"ll r p3 ttem of open spaces.
pergola ·
A structure of parallel colon nades
supportlng an open roof of Peilms and
crossi119 rafters or trelllswoO:. aver wHlch
cllm!llng plants are tralned ta grow.

27
r
¡
l
CABLE STRUCTURE

suspenslo~ struct.ure single-curvature structure


A structure of ca!71es suspended and A suspenslon structure utlllzl~ a parallel
prestressed !letween ccmpresslon series of ca!7les to support surface-formlng
members to dlrectly support applied loads. t>eams or pl3tes. A single-curnture
structure ls suscept!!:rle to flutter lnduced
suspenslon 11ridge by the aerodynamic effects of wlnd. Thls
A lníage havlng a d.e.c.l: suspenaed from llability can be reduce& by lncreasing the
cables raised on towers and securely deaa load on the structure or anchorlng the
anchored to abutments at the ends. prlmary cal71es to the ground with

·. ~¡.. transve~guycal71es.

~~~~~'-~
. .•. ~~~~
r 1f ,
.
.

guy cable -·- --·-- ------- --------------.,


Acable for al>sorblng the horizontal
component of thrust in a suspension or
~
cal:>le-stayed structure and
transferrlng the force toa ground
foundation.
prímary cable
Avertical or incllned ccmpresslon One of the pretensl011ed
meml;>er In a suspenslon or ca!71e- cables dlrectly supportlng
stayed structure. supportlng the sum the load on asuspens!on
of ~ vert.lcal force ccmpcnents In the structure.
prliT13ry ana guy cafks. lncnnlng the
IT135t enal:ks 1t to plcl: up some of the
hortz011tal cable thrust and reduces
the force 1n ~ guyca!rles.
¡---------------------- secondary cable
011e of the pretensloned
double-calne 'tructure ---------- cables used for stablllzln
A suspenslon s~re havlng upper a suspenstonstructlire
.and lower sets of cables of dlfferent ag.alnst ftlltter, usually
curva tu res. pmensloned by tles or having a cumture
compressl011 struts to make the opposlte te tha t of the
__ , system more rlgk:l and resist3nt to primary cables.
flutter.
dou¡,le-curvature
structure
Asuspenslon structure
composea of .a flek.l of
1 crossed C41l>!es of dlfferent
1
and often reverse
curvatureS. Each set of
ca!:rfes h3s a different
natu:-al ~rlod ofvl¡,ratlon.
_1
thusforml~ a self-
t--·- bou!Weycable dam~nln~ system that ls
Acable for anchorlng a set of secor.dJr:¡ more reslstant to flutter.
cables in a suspenslon S""...,JCture.

cable-stayed structure
A structure havlng vertical or lncllned
masts from whlch cables extend to suppcrt
hor!zontally spannlng members arrar.ged irl
a ¡rarallel or radial pattem.'

29
., <EILING
The overhead interior surface or
linif14 of a room, often concealing the
undersiáe ofthe floor or roof above.

l?eam ceiling
The undc:rslde of a ftoor showlng ~
supportlng 11eams ar~d flnlshed to forma
celllng.

jcoffer 1
~
~
CQVe cet1~ ;
Ace!ling I!Mng a cove.Aiso. coved
u!lifli.
-
-.::¡··-·1_/./ ;
One of a number ofreces sed. usu;lly square
or octagonal panels in acelllng. ~. or
va u!t. Also callea c.alsscn. Llcurur.
C()Ve ~
-···············-·--···-·········· •.....• ... - 1- bcunar/
A co~ surfue fonnln9 part of a · A celllng. sofflt:. orvault aóorred Mt-h .;¡
celh"i at lt5 ~so asto ellmlnat.e t:he pattern of recessed p:onefs.
usuallnt:erlor angle ~etween t:he wall and
the ce~nng.

plafond ,
A flat: or v¡¡ulte<l celllng of decorative
charactu.

30
CABLE STRUCTURE
A structural system utilizing the ca He
as the principal means of support. -

·· sag
The.vert~al distance from the supports to
the lowest polnt of a cable structure.
As the SJg of J CJbfe increJ5t:S, the lntem.al
forces devtloped in the CJbie dtere3se.

ca!;.~
A flexible structural memDt:r. as wlre ro pe
or ~1 chaln, havtng hlgh tenslle strength /
lxlt offerlng no resista nce to com presslon
ór~g.

i
!
funicularslupe ___ _¡ ~
The shape assumed Vj a freely cleformlng
C3Pielocatlon
and In dlrectelresponse to the magnltude
externa! forces. A cable ••••••••·••·••••
alw-ays adapts 1ts sh3pe so that 1t lsln pure
tenslon unJer the actlon of an applled load.
funicular polygon · ..,.--·-·· 0• 0-000 ooooo•o __ 0
/

The wpe assurnc:d V¡ a freely cleformlng n------------o ,. funicuL1r structure


~ In dlrect rtSpOnse toa set of ' ........ /', f. structure sha pea to carry or
~-~.._.._... .Jio-.J ~\ t/1,
"""'""'""''"w;g MiS. .E'\ ...............
',,, ,---- , / ''/J.. ..... ...._______
, . . ""'',~ ,/;1
, 1
support a g!ven loadlng Vjelther axl31
tenslon or compresslon. For arry

~~~=::.~:::~,i~;~-------~~~>------------<_/:::;{1
\ ', ', ,/ ,/1 !jlven loadlng condit;lon, there ls only

,,:¡¡~~~~~¡¡¡~¡¡,,
~ gener.:ll funicular shapeolf the
L:ndlng pattern ch3 nges. bendl~ ls
J"rstr!buteaload. li \. \.,, .. _____ ,.,..,
iruluud In the structure.

;¡~==r:~--------------;}¡!~~;~¡i
polnt.s not In the same vertlcalllne. For a
load that ls unlformly dlstrluuted In a
~1 prqectlon. the curYe approaches ,
~ of a par.~bola __________ o_ o. _______ o_ o_____ 0_ 0_·------ _ 000-- __ -------0 _0_0 ___ . 00 o. oo.o o00 o---0 o_o_ ooo. ____ _;

8clttresses. -o-ooo•o·------0 o•-o o·._.


~5tnlt5. --oo••----o·o·--------00""
orsnbre/ement5 ¡re rtflUlreJ ~ cont:Jfn ¡nJ '.,;
~theh0itzont3/CI)mponents()(the~/lle '··.,
thrusts. ••••••

~ k~ularsu rn~,._._~ A lens-shaped structure havlng the


outward thrusts of an arch ualanced by the
lnwarcJ pulls of a cable. resultlng In no net
lateral forces at the supports.

28
9 CEILING
dropceili~ suspended ceiling
A ~ry cel~ formed to provtae space A ceill~ suspended from an ovemead floor
fcr plpln.g or auctJi!ori. orto ~tter the or roof structu reto provlde space for
propcrtlons of ~room. A!so. dropp~ pipes. ductwori:,llghtlng flxtures. or other
uilifli. ---·-----· servlce equlpment.
. .. :. ;··:1;.~: . . ·--..· ~ ..;... , :·; ~ :-:~· :.;_ .., .': .. .:. ~: ~ ~: .· .=~:; ~~ ~--: ·7.: ·: =:::;-\''· 1 ~ ~! ~:·. :<;.) ~:¡!·::':. ·.'. ···.l·-~ ~-;: ',:) .'.*:':._"-·2•:. ·-~,~:'
:::::=========:::;:============:.::::::::r:::z;:;;±:ti::o:::::i:¡:±:::::=:::::::~z:i:::~ti~~::iz.:~;i::¡:;;¡b~¡;i:¡;c~~~=:±:~-:--- plenum /
l The space Detween a suspended celllng and
_! the floor structure aDove. esp. one that
serves as a recelvl119 cham!lerfor
condttloned alr to De dlst.rlbuted to
lnhablteJ spaces orfor return alr to De
conveyed pack toa central pl3nt for
processtng.
accuswltik
Tl~ m.ade In v.arlous sius aná textil res from
a soft. sound-~!lsorVlng m.:~tertll. as corl acoustical ceiling
minen! fll>er. or ~bss flb~. A cellln!J of acoustlcal tlle or other sou nd-
absorblng material.
metal pan ____________ .............. --·---\
An~stlcaltllecons~ofasteelor \
alumlnum pan hav!ng a perfontea fau and
cont.alning a sepante tayer of sound-
a11sortlng material

f exposed grid J
A metal grld of lnvertea tees supportín~
the acoustlcal tlles of a suspended ceillng.
---- crosstee
A second3 ry mem ber of the grld su pportlng
a suspended ceiling system, usu.ally a
sheet-rret.al tee carrled by t~ maln
runn.ers.
------· mJin runnu
A principal memDel- of ~ grid supportlng a ~~-grur·.?
suspendea ceinng system, usually a sheet- A metal grtd for supportlng a suspended
metal char.nel or tee suspended by ha119er celhng of acoustlcal ti les havlng raD!:>eted
wlres from the 0'>-'erhead structure. J_o~~- -----
. --- ~p!ine
A thln rnetalstr:p lnserted lnCO the edges
oftwo acoos-ck:al tile= toma~ a l::ruttjolnt
betwunthern.
lllli!!i;llii!IIIIIIIIIIIWrr- -------- --· kerf / ~
.wconccal&:J grld ~
.
Agroo.'e cut In c.o the eJges of an acousUcal A metal grld suppórtlng the acoustlcal tlles
tlle to rteelve a spline ar T-shaped m~~r of ~ suspended celllng. hldcfer. wlthln kerfs
~rt1~qrid. cut lnto the edges of the ti les.

li~r mebl uiling


A suspended ce:1!119 system of narrow
metalstrlps. usiJ311y lncorpor;;tl~ modu13r
tlghtl"4 and alr-nanán119 components.
:;;;. -"
j lntegrated celling
"S.. .A
""- A suspended celllng system lncorporatlng
~ ~
..di
.A 'S..
'10..
"" ..4:
;.!S::~
_;J
~~§~~ ligh_~nlkª-11<;1 alr-li3ndllng _
9?mponents.lnto .a .unlfled whole.. .
'S.. .A
~ ~
~~~
.&
. . -~~~-·
- . · :.• r~--.··--- linear diffunr ~
4. A long, narrow dlffuserdeslgned to

'<~~
~/
1/.. . . disperse air through slots between the
panels of an lntegrated ceillng system. Al so
callea slot dlffuser.

~·~
luminous ceiling louver~d ceilíng
A sus~nded uillng of t~.~slucent pJr-els A susperJed ceíling of multlceUular louvers
fCf' diffusinq the llght frc-r, !umlnaires for shle!dlng the nght scurces mounted
mount.ed above it. aboYe rt.

31
(ERAMIC
Any of VArlous hard,lnittk:. noncorrosive.
and ~uctlve 11'14ttrbls formed l1y the
Ion le rondng of a met.aland anon meta f. as
l?r!d:, ~. and rl4tunlstone.

cu.amicware earthenware porcelaln enamel


Arty ofnrlous prc>ducts made by flrlng clay low·flred. opaque, nonvltreous cera mle A hard. vltreous, translucent cenmlc A vftreous, usuallyopaque, áecoratlve or
or similar Nttrf31s In a klln. as lnid:, tile, ware. material conslstlng essenttally of kaolln. protect!ve coatlng appllea l1y fusk)n to the
andpcncy. fek:lspar, and quartz. flred ata very hlgh surfau of metal. glass, or pottery.
stoneware tempera tu re.
High-flred. opaque. vltrifled un mle ware. porcelain enamel
china An opaque. gfassy coatlng bonded to ~~..JI
A translucent cera mle material, plsque· l1y fuslng ata hlgh tempera tu re. Al so wlled
flred ata hlgh temperature and glaze·flred vitreous enamel.
at31owertemperature.
lcaolin
A fine whlte clay used In the manufacture of
porcelaln and whlte portland cement. Also
callea china clay.

flrilli vitrify
The process of hardening or glazing cera mle To make aclay boayvttreous !lyflrlng ata
w¡¡ re by hatlng In 3 k!In toa speclfled specifled temperature.
temperWJ re.
ó
b

lurd·hrned --·········· ··· ··· ............ vftreo~


Are& at 3 h!gh temperature to near Resempllng glass. as In tnnsparency,
Yltrlflr..at:lon and havlng relatl.,.ely low hardness.11rlttleness,luster, or havlng low
aPsorptlon and high compresslve strength. or no poroslty. b

Ó-
glazé-fired
Ared to fu se 3 gtaze toa clay Dody.

50'ft·l:rumed -·--···--········-·--···· glaze


Flred at 3 low ttmperature and havlng Havlng a rnodente water aPsorptlon of A vltreous !ayer or coatlng fused to a e{¡y
relatlvely h~h aVsor-ptlon and low shghtly under 61. rod;y to color, decora te, wateiJ'roof. or
compresslve strength. strengthen tts surfau.
frit
A fu sed or partlally fu sed material that ts
ground to Introduce 3 solulile or unsta~.e
lngredlents lntc\glazes or enamels.

nonvitreous
Havlng a water apsorptlon greater than 71..

32
(ERAMIC

/ uramic tite
Any of varlcus flred clay tHes used for
na
surfaclng walls. floors. a countertops.
-· ,..---
- -
- ,..--- / glazed wall tile
Cera mle tHe hJving a rfonvltreous Pody and
·--·
a l?rlght. matte. or ceystalllne glaze. usea
---:
1
_
-·~
........
for surfacín~ interior W311s and llght·duty
floors.

e-;
--'

: 1 1 1 1 ¡ :

1 1 _1 1 r

/ ceramic mosaic ti le
Small cera mle tlle havlng a parcela in or
natural clay Dody, glazed for surfaclng walls
or unglaze.d for use on l:toth f!oors and walls.
and usually face- or fr.lcl:·mcunted on
trimmer sheets te fac~rtatc: handling and speed

"'""""'' ·l
Any of varlous speclalfy snaped cera mle

9
lnstai!Jtion.

tiles loe'"''"'"'"

-~·#··

.···:·-.... ~ .... ··· ...·····l ___ ... ---··


quarrytil~
Ungl3zed c,er;¡mlc floor ti!e havlng a 113tural
1- ........ cl4y body. Alsa called promenade tite.
·---~ .......- 1- - pavertlle
1- - Ungfazed cera mle ftoor Ule slmlf4r In

- -.,_ -NO --·


-· composltlon to ceramlc mosalc tlkl M
1
1-- thlcker and Lu~er In surfJu area.
r---
1-t-

~cy~·~ -~-~'·=··,-,~ ~
•<>
~ 1-t-
~ 1-t-
.

... .
1 1 1 ¡ 1 j
A eo~eá ~ set at the meeting af a floor Any of tht ceramlc or nonuramlc artlcles .LI __ LI T
and wall to prevent xcumuf4tion of dlrt deslgned te l1e afflxeá te or ln.smed In
and to facllltate cleanlng. tllewor+;, as tower 17ars. saap holders. and
the llke.

thlck·~et process thln·l7ed prou~


A tllesettlng proussln whlch cera mle tlle Atllesettlng processln whlch ceramlc tlle
ls apphed over- a portland cement mortar ls bandea toa contlnuous. stal?le !7acklng
l1ed ~" to 1Yzln. (19 to :3a mm) thld:. whlch wtth a thln coat of dl)'·set mortar,latex·
allows for mura te slopes aruf planes In the portland cement rnortar. ep<JY:t mortar. or
flnlshed wor+;. an org3nlc adheslve. '132 to 1/aln. (o.ato
32m m) thld:.
portbna ument mortar
Afleld mlx of port13nd cement-. sand, water. tite grout
and sometlmes hydrated lime. used for A cementltlous or reslnous mlx for fllllng
levellng or settlng ceramic tlle In the thlá· jolnts In cera mle tl!ework. - - - - - - - - - ,
set process.

l?ona con
A thln coatof mortJrfor rondlng cera mle
tlle te a 17ading.

33
(ERAMIC
't.Mlctur.al clay t.ile
A1-cllow ti~ of ftrea e!ay havlng parallel
c&s or ccres. used In ln!itdlng walls ana
~S.
,[.B
l..o3J-~rlng structural clay tlle sulta!11e
for m.a sonry walls not exposed to frost
xtbn. or In exposecJ masonry where
mstructura 1facing ti le
~~~!~s celluLar ¡,ulldlngu~tts
cf f1re.::l
e!ay, concrete, or gypsum. used for b-u:lding
wal!s, floors. ana roofs. orforf!reprxflng
steelwork.

Structural clay tlle havlng a glazed surface.


prottctea by a facing of 3ln. (76.2 mm) or na
used for faclng wa!ls a partlttons. esp. In
mo~ of stone. ¡,rlck. terra cotta. or other areas subject to heavy wear, molsture
mJsonry. problems. and strlct sanltatlon
requlremen ts.
"- LBX
L03d-~rlng structural cf3y tlle sultal71e FTS
for m.asonry waMs exposea to weatherlng or Structural faclng tlle sultable for e:xposecl
frost exterior and Interior masonry walls a na
partltlons where moderate absorptlon.
sllght va~~..!!!..f~~dlroenslans~ mlnor-
llefects In surfaceflnlsh ...and rnedlum color.
'!119~ ~ré ¡~~a~ié,
FTX
Smooth structural faclng Ule sultable for
exposed exterior and Interior masonry wa lis
na
a partltlons where low a_f??g.rp1lo.n ana
staln reslstance are requlred. and where a
hlgh degree of mechanlcal perfectlon.
mlnlmum variatlon In fau dlmenslons. and
narrow color range are Jesired.

~ terr.J~o;
A n.rd. flred eby, reddlsh-¡,rown In color
whel1 unglaztJ. used for archltectural
~s and ornaments, ti~ unlts. and
potttry.
~ ~rJiterr~ cott.t· f
!WJ-11urned. gfnea or unglazed terra
ccu.. ha na-moldea or machlne-extruded to
or~ as .a cer2mlc veneerfor wans orfor
~ntatlon.

"'";:':-;-:-__ :~:p..;.:...T=~=:.-­
,.. ~·;:t~!::.:-!;:"'>,¿- __ ,. .
·¡
-~
~
~~P.-J..

,..dck'"'J rammed~rth
A stlff mixture of cf3y, sana or other
Sun-drted ürlck made of e!ay and straw.
~!y 1/Std In countries wlth little aggr~ate, and water compres sed ana drie.d
ralnfan. · wlthln forms as a wall construct Ion. A!so
callea pisé. plsay. pisé de terre.
~-- ·--··~

-;
1-CHURCH.
A l?uilaing for pubolic
Ch~nity
Christian worship.
The ~. fuunded on the teachlngs
of Jesa:sChrist,Jncludlng theCathollc.
Pro~t. 3nJ ~tern Orthodox r*'~f
1•A se-micircular or polygonal projutlon of a
chu~ -
) ~ulkllng. usually vaulted and useá esp. at
basüka ___ _._________________________ _ ./ the sanctuaryoreast enJ of a church. Alsa.
An e~ Christian church. ./ apsls.
ch.arackrlzed l1y a long. rectangular /
..... ;· -~ 'L
.. trivUM,Y ,/

plan. J ~h colonnad~ nave lit by a The blshop's throne. occu¡¡yJng a recess or


cferest«y and coverea by a tlmbered apse In an e<~rly Christian church.
gable IQ)(, tMJ or four lower slde aisles.
a senücubr~ at the end. a __ ,.. ____ 117em~•

ru~311J often otherfeatures. as Atransverse open space separatlng. the


an atrt.n. a~. and small naveand Ule<~pseohn e.rlyChrlst13n
semlcá'cutar 3pse5 tennlnatlng the church, develcplf141nt() the transept of
aisles. later cruclform churches.
t;;inct'@ -~
~--~-'it----------------------------------------------------
T!iefmurtof an early Christian church. Ásac:ti-f(~ty place. as that part of a
funked or sumJU nde& l1y _drtiCóes:f church In whlch the princlp3f altarls placea.

b'~fi:~--------------------------------------- .,_ \ .. ,, ~tu-~j


The ~d ~tl of an 3trlum or clolster. ' Theta~leln <~Christian church upon whlch
the Eucharist, the sacrament celeüratlr'!J
t~~J¡~j~~~~in-~~Í;h·;;-~~-~~----------~~ ~v¡ij
The prlnclp3f or central part of a
Chrl5t's Last Supper.ls ce!eürated. A!so
cal~it'ta~:I
the atrltlm of "" early Christian baslllca. church, extendlng from the balaachin /
narthex to the cholr or chancel An omamet!1:41 C<Jnop:t of stcne or mart>J.e
and usuallyfunl:ed by aisles. permanently pl3ced CNer the altar In a
church. Also. baklachino. baklaquln. Also
~~~tklongltudinal dlvlsions
~~o--~_-,nl
callea ci17orium. -·····-·:
of a church. separa~ from the
nave by a rowofcolumns or
i
plers.

- f/s
, ~~;j---·····-··-·-··-····· ...... . ~m~\-····--·-·.----···---···-----~­
. The portied ~ore the nave of an early
Christl3n or 8yz3rrtlne church.
'ooer óf two ralsed runas
. from i'rhlchthe Gospels or
appropri3ted ta ~nftents. Eplstles were read or ch3nted ln
baptl5ttry ¡¡n earlyChrfstJ¡¡n church.
A partof a church ora sepa rate eson.arthex ··· t ~ .. \' (. ', Also. am!?on.
~In whlch Jnpttsm ls
An lnntr narthex when two are present.
administereJ. Also. ¡,aptístf)'.
exonarthex / e~·-~~{
ba¡r..J:5m A coverea wafk or outer narthex
A ~ntofinltbtlon lnta sltuated befare an lnner narthex.
Christbnlty. syml1o!lc of splrttual
~ner.Jtlon.Nrted l1y a ceremonial
lmmerslon or ~pllc4tlon of w¡¡ter.

font
A lr.isln. usu.ally of SW~e. holding the
water ll5eá In ira pUs m.
11 ·
¡

____ ...... --···--- -~------ ~nu

ffl( _// ·-,_ \_ j /


_•. / The sanctuary sp3ce surroondlng the altJr
of an ~stem chun:ñ.
dbconlcon
A sacrlsty In an e.~rfy Chrlstlan or E.aste:m
church. usuafri on the sollth skle of the
I;Jenu.

suristy
A room In a church where the sacrea
vessels and vestments are kept. Al so C3 lled
vestry.
prothesis • ·
Achapelln an E.astem Church where the
Eucharlstlc e~ts are prepared. uS<.:ally
on the north slde of the bema.

Icen
A representatlon of ¡¡ sacred Christian euara ___ ¡
p~. as Chrlst ora salnt or
angel. ~lcally palntea on a wood lconostasls -- A large apsldal extenslon of the Interior
su rf.a ce 31\d ftse!f vener<~ ted as De 1ng A scrun or partr..lon on which lcons are vol ume of a church. Also. exhedra.
sacred. esp. In the tradttlon of the placea. separating the bema from'the nave
Eas te m Church. of an E.astern church. Also, lconostas.

35
-------- --·¡tra~~
Th~ majortklnsverse p;¡rtof a cruciform
churc;h, crossln~ the maln axis ata ~ht
¡¡ngle lletweenthe n3Ve and cholr.
/5plr~--------
A tall. acutely
tapering pY1'3mldal
structure
sunnountlng a
steeple or tower.

Q!itpaiu'lé:- 7-. --- •.•• --- .. --· ---· ------- .J ~~lt¡


APe!! tower. usually one near 17ut not A tan omamental structure. usually
attached to th~ rody of a enalng In a splre and surmountlng the
tower of a church or other puullc
onTonaéilffij uul!dlng.
A Pul!7ous, cbrr.elike roof té\il~a'til\4
sharp po!nt. used esp. In
churc;h arc;h~ure to ccp,:J~:u¡x>la
tower.

:--~~lterY1 t 5~ve churchl


- A roofea promenade. esp. An lna~noos ~ndlnmn church of
one ~tendlng lnslde or the 12th and 13th un tu ríes, havi"i a
outslde ;;long the exterior tlmrerframe, pf3nk walls. a ~lered.
wall oh Pulldlng. stuply pltched roof. and few wlndows.
A anopled r~s for a
~~oriCon. lloft-t
' Ag2-llel)' or upper
leve! In a church or
han.

arcak ---------·---~--- --- -----··--i


r~pond ---·-·-·····--·-··-·--··---·-·-····--··--j lnurlaclng arcade
A senes of arches supporte« on plus or
Apler or p113ster pro.Jtctlf19 from awan as a An arcade, esp. a 111lnd one, composeá of
cofumns. support for an arch or lintel. esp. at the arches restlng on ¡¡!tema~ supports and
arcuate tennlnatlon of an arcade or colonna~. ovulapplng In series where they cross. Also
Curve& or arched hke a l:>ow: a t"~rm used In cafted l!tUrsecthlg arcade.
descn!l~ the arched orv;wlr;,yJ st-ructure
of .;¡ Romanesque church or Cothlc !?lindarcade
otheár3l :.lS dlstlngulsht<; , om the A series of arc~s supetimposed on ¡¡ waU
tra!le;¡teJ archltectur~ of "'' Egyptlan for decoratlon. Also alled arcaúlre.
hypost~ hall or Greek Dorlc l:emple. Also.
arcuauo.

36
tHURCH

~ cathédr2l f
~-s~--~-~-tr_o_m_~-ri-~-eof--a-----------~J~,·~-.:~~ The principal church of a d~. contalnlny
the l1ishop's throne called tht catfdra>;
roof. esp. one a!:>o.-e the crosslng of a
Goth\cchiiT"Cit ------
~------ ~

\·····-··-----·---~-~--~---~·

~-·chape!

¡
\ Asepa rately dedica ted pa rt of a ehu rch for
\ prlvate prayer, medltatlon, or small
chancel '.,rellglous servlces.
The space a11out the altar of a church
for the clergy ana cholr, often elevateJ
al1ove the nave ana separated from lt ·--···-···-
4
chevet
by aralhng orscreen. -·-··· ..•
The rounded east end of a Gothlc cathedral.
f ~~~lycarvedftqureofa hurrun or lncludlng the apse and ambulatory.
anlrrul esp. one Mth ¡¡n open mouth that ...• am~ulatory
serves as¡¡ spout arJ projects from a chantry An aisle enclrcling the end of the cholr or
gutter to throw ralnwaterclear of a A chape! enclowed for the saylng of chancel of a churcn. Also called
~uíiJirl.;!. ~--··----T deambul3tory.
Mas ses and prayers for the souls of
thefounders orof persons named by
them. ·----------~-~ •.
lapyrinth --------
A mazel~ pattem lnlald
the pavtment of a me~~rc:v·¡¡r.,.(~.
······-·· choir
church. The part of a church occupled by the slnqers
of a cholr, usually part ofthe chanul
retrochoir
A separate dlvlslon behlnd the cholror hiqh
altar of a 13rge church.

:··· udy clupel


~win.dow~ -------·-·------·---··-·---. ; A chape! dedlcated to the Vlrgln Mary.
AcfrcÜb;-wrr,Jow. usU3IIy ofstalned g!Jss ',
¡ usually located behírJ the h!gh altarof a
:and d.e.cor¡¡ted ~ trn;ery sym metrica 1
· cathedral at the extremlty of the apse.
¡¡ !:aoot P..e center.
high 2tbr
1
~~~lredbyhav1ng The maln altar of :a church.
p~.ents bl!W onto lts surface or by ·-···· p~Pyury
luvir~ v;1 rlous ~lile oxldes fu sed lnto lt The part of a church reserved for the
whík: lt1 J ll'XJften stat¿ officl3tl~ clergy.

e~
~ ;-----··------------------- j
An ~nclosed pl3ce. esp. the brJ
An ¡¡~ stmy In a eh u retween therch. surrourJI~ or beslde a~ral
n.H~ arches anJ ~ and
corresporJlng to the 5f3U between the •. -------- 5lype
va uftir.q Jr.d the roof of an aisle. / A covered passage. esp. onektween
the transeptand ch3pter house x a
cathedral. Al so. slip.
c!l.p-ur hou5e
The pl3ce where the chapter of a
cathedral or monastery muts, usually
a !?ufk!l~g attached to or ¡¡hall formlng

~;r~~-~~;~~r·;·~~~~~-.~-a---~~~;:~pon:hu~;,; part of the cathedra! or rnon2stery.


c!l.pter
!r.Jrl.;l pbce, esp. on~ rene:rth the maln floor chapel for penltents at the
An assembly of the mon(s In a
of¡¡ cnttreh. westendofsome rnedleval
monastery. or the rnemD-ers of a
En9llsh churches. Also. rt:llglous house or order.
. g4lllee porch.
rood ---···-·--····· ·---··-- --- · ------ ·----- -·------,--- -------7 . ·~---- paradise
A crucrf'tx symbo!izlng the cross on whlch ¡ An atrlum orclolster bc:skJe a church.
Chrlst w:1s cruclfled. esp. a large one set ·+
~ ·-·· cloister
;;Po-Y~~
of en-trance
a rre.J~vJI ,~~i~~~~~~~~i~~~
church.to the cholrorchancel ·~ garth . A covert:d walk havlng ;;n arcade or
Acourtya rd or quadrangle colon nade on one slde openlng onto a
rood ~un ~--······----- ... ----·- ene lo sed by a clolster. Also courtyard.
Ascru:~. often etlborately adorned and lf!1~~~m1r?j:( callea clolster garth.
~opulj· s-urmounted by a rood, separatlng
the eh a ~al or choir from the nave of a ~~~Í~~~~3f~~fl_J~i!E3±f::] alure
rnedie-;JI church. A walk or passage. as along a
cloíster or behlnd the parapets
of a castle. Also. allure.

37
COLOR-.
A phenomenon of light an.:l visu.al
perctptlon that m.ay ~e .:lesc.ribed in Munsell Syst-em
urms of an indivl.:lu.ars perctptíon of A system for speclfylng colors am nged lrlf
hue, satur;ation, and ~htness for thru orderfy sea les of unttorm vlsual steps
pale ~rllli.ant
objects, and hue, s.aturation, and Deslgnatir..g acolor Deslgnatlng a color
accordlng ta hu e, chroma, and value,
ln-ightness for light sources. developed In 1898 by A1!1ert H. Munsell fiue
havlng hi9h ~htness hav!ng hlgh llghtness
extendsln a rotary dlrect!on about a
and low sa";;Jratlon. and strong saturatlon.
central axis through a spectrum of flve
spectrum major and flve secondary hues. Va lue
The dlstributlon of energy emitted by a extends vertlcally dlrectlon from black at
~;:-~;\.·. r¡¡Jlant source. arra~ed In orderof the ~ottom through a seriesof gr?ys to
-~-r:
wavelengths. esp. the l?and of colors whlte at the top. Chroma extends r.ld!a f1y

'1>'~.¿>=··
proauced when sun!lght ls refracteJ and from the central axis at whlch saturatlon 1s
dlspersea ¡,y a prlsm. camprlslng red, zero. out to the strongest saturatlon
orange, ye!low, green,l?lue,lndlgo, and attalna¡,le for e<~ch color's hue andV3Iue.
v1olet.

1
hue
One of the three dlmenslons of color. the
propertyof ltght P-¡whlch thecolor of an
o!1ject ls classlfled as !1elng red, ye!low.
-,:.¡ green, or blue, oran lntermedl3te t>etween
any contlg uous pa Ir of these colors.

d.ark ./ deepJ j s.aturation


Dtstgnatl~..g • color Desi9nat1ng a color One of the thru dlmenslons of color. tne
h.ivfng low i<qhtness ar.d havlng low ltghtness and ' purlty orvlvláness of a hue. Also ca'led
IQw satura~n. and strong saturatlon. lnunsity.
rtflectlng ~!:i asman
~ chroma
mctlon of i.-.ciknt
tlgnt. The degree P:7 whlcn a color dlffers from a
gray of the same l~htne-ss or lnightness.
correspondlng to saturatlon ofthe
percelved color.
r~
1 1 ligh~s

,,.---· r~color
.LJ
~
The dlmenslon of color P:7 whlch an ol:>jut
appears to rt&ct more or less of the
lnck:!tnt light. V3rylng from Vlack to white
' :- The pucelved color of an o!1ject. k ...mnlrled f· · . ·j for surface colors and from pfack to
l1y the wavelengthsof the !tgnt ~~tea ~- ·. 1 colorless for tr.mspa rent volume colors.
from !ts surface after selectlve a~tlon
of O'tMr wavelengths of the lnc~ ltght. ~-------------- -~ :., -~·.::-- value
l .:'~~----~~::~ The degree [¡y whlcn a color appears to
gray S<:41e ~-'t·t {,?1 reflect more or less of the lncldent ~ht.
.'-.se. le of achrornatlc r>;.·y.;-·;,. :,. ':J correspondlng to ltghtness of the perulved
colors h.ivfng sever;¡l, - -• color.
usua~ ten, equal : brightness
grad..-tlons ranglng ~-- · The dlmenslon of a color whlch ls corre! ated
from ...-hite to !11.1ck. w!th lumlnance ana by whlch visual stlmull
are orderea contlnuously from very dlm to
~eJ~rption _:. very Pright. Pure whlte has the maxlmu m
Thea~ofcerbln wavelengt.hsof Prlghtness, and pure l1!acl: the mlnlmu m
t.'e 5ght klcident on a colore<l surbce. the Lnightness.
rerr..alnlng portlon !;>elng ~ or yeilow
transmltted..

~uVtractlve color
A cclor produced by mlxlng cyan, yeflow. ;and
rnagent.a plgments. each of which a~r"Ps
cer'bln wavelengths. AP3 la nced mlxtu re of
these colora~ or su~e prlmarles
theomlcally yle!ds l1lacl: ~ !t ¡¡~
;an wav~~~ <?f~s]~ IJg_l!:t.._

~itNecolor optlcal mlxing


A color produced l1y comblnlng llghts of ~·­ The merglng of juxt3posed dots or strol:es
green, and !:>fue wavelengths. These light or of pure colors when sun from a dlst.ínce to
add!tlve prlmarles contaln all the produce a hu e cften more lumlnous than
wave!engths neussary to produce a that avalla!11e from a prernlxed plg~nt.
~SS or ~!te !lght:

38
COLOR

cclorwheel
A circular se ale of the cclors of the
spectrum. showlng complementar-y co!ors
opposlte e3ch other. Al so called color
w•rm el re le.
D~s~natlng a calorlncllned taward or
dcminated by red, orange, or yello:-:?·

---- -----~-_------- secondary color


------ A color, as 0!"3nge, green. or vlolet, produced
by mlxlnf! two prlmary calors.
H"-c-T--'"- ------ 1 tertiary color
A color, as C>rown. produced by mlx!ng two
cool _____ j f •
secondary colors, ora second3ry color wlth
Des~natlng a cOOt-lncllned taward or one of lts constltuent prlmarles.
domlnated by green.l7lue. or vlolet.
- t

aclvandng color •. -. ____ ...... .


A wann calor that appears te move
tcw:~rd an obseNer. glvlng an llluslon
of space.
1
/~----- complement3rycolor
1
re~ingcplor ·-------------··-· / One of 3 palr of opposlng colors on 3 color
.f A cool color that appears te move wheel, percelved as completlr19 oren ha nclnf!
3WT:J from an o!7server, gMng an ea eh other.
muslon of space.
r .analogous cc!or
; One of two or three closely related colors

'-~- ...... -·--... __ .-----'--------------_________ l on a color whee!.


colar scheme
An arrangement or pattem of --------.... triad
colors conceived of as fonnlng an Acoml?ination of three colors formlng an
lntegrated whole. equllateral trlaf191e on a color wheel.
r 5plit ccmp!eme~ry
¡ J. combinatlon of onecalor aná the palr of
: colors adjolnlng lts complementar-y color on
\ _________ .. _-------- ________________ j a calor wheel.

------~ douuleccmplementary
Acombinatlon oftwo .an31ogous colors 3nd
the!r com p'ementary coklrs on a color
whee!.
r moncchroma~
! Havlng only one color or exhl!ntlng varylng
: lntensltles and values of a single hue.
- - - ~ - - - .... - ........ -- -~. ~-- - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _.J
tint ·- --------- -----"- ..... ---- ·-- ---
A relatively l~ht value of3 colqr, r polychromrt.lc
produced by addlng white to lt. ¡ Havlng or exhlbltlng .a varlety of colors.

cowr triangle
A triangular dl~r¡¡m developed by Faber
Bn-en to describe the rebtlonshlp between
---~tone
.a pure hue. wh~ .and Pllck. whtch combine
te y1eld second31)tlnts. tones, shades. and An lntermedlate va fue of a color
grays. All colors auy be suPjectlvely between a tlnt anda shade.
ccnu!ved as a mixture of the pS)'Chologlcal · gray
prirrurles- red.yellow. green, and blue- An achromatlc color between
plus the achronutlc palrof whlte and blacl:. whlte and black.
achromatic
sh3de Havlnf! no saturatlon and
A re la tlvely dar\: va fue of a color.
therefore no hue. as whlte. blacl:.
produud !7y 3ddlng black to lt.
or gray.

39
COLVMN
A rigld, reL1tively slender structural
memller deslgned primarily to
support axial compressive loads
applied at the memller ends.

pillar
An uprlght. relatlvely slender shili
or structure. usually of brick or
stone. used as a vulldlng support or
standing alone as a monument.

post -----------------·-------- ---


A stlff vertical support. esp. a
wooden column In tlmberframlng.

lluckling
The sudden laten! or torsool instJbillty
of a slender structl.Jral meml>er induced ;y
the actlon of acompress!ve loul. Buánng
can occur well vefore the yleld stress of tne
materia lis reached.

17uckling load
Theaxialloadat whi.ch a column ~insto
deflect latmlly an.á becornes unst4ble.
Under a b!Jctling lo3d. ; cdumn C31liiCt
gentriiU the lnf:enu{ forces ~ to
resto~ tts orlgln31/Jr.ar COfltiJtlon. ky
addltional loadlng f+'O!JiJ C3U5e tú c.?lvmn to
kflect further untJ cdápse oca;rs In k.ntifl§.
Most columnsln ¡nct~c¿ are~ to botlr
avshlng5tress:f~=PIA -¡ ,. -· ¡,ifu rc.rt.lo n com~ and be:ndirl§ dueto rnt;t~on in
materlal propcrt1e5. lnitál Cl'OO(t,Jr.zs In
1./ The critica! polnt at whlch a column.
_____________ t __ ' carrytng fts crltlcallrocl:llng load. may f3brlca~ or scme eccentrlclty if fo;¡J

etther !?uckle or rema In undeflected. The ;ppl/atJon. Thls benJin§ qfterr ca~ tne
column ls therefore In ast3te of neutral 3Ctu41 bucl:ilng ltnJ to ~ sltghtiy bwa- tlt.ln
equffi!?rlum. tire crit/C31 budiing lo4.1.
!.: ........ --·--------- critic.allluckllng load
· The maxlmum axlalloul th;~t C31'1
@!A theorttlcally~app~toa co!umn wlthout
causlng ft te buckle. The crttlcalb-.rlllng
lo3d for a column ls lrwersely proportlonal
ta the squ¡¡ re of lts effectlve length, an.á
dlrectly proportlorulf tctke lnOdulus of
elastlctty of tke ~~ anJ te the
mcment of lnertla of t:he cro:ss sectlon.
Al so C31leá Euler ~ WJ.

~--------------------+-----~---- ~le~~~~ -----------------------------------------------.


The ratloofthe effectlve length of a column
Í 5flort"'lumn to fts te.st radlus of gyratlon. -·- -• ---- · -·- L 1/¡:\-------------~ radiu5cfgyratWn
Athlct column su~ ta fallure l1y ~ The radial dls14nce from any axis te a polnt
j crush~ rather than l!y ~uckllng. The hlgher the s!enJemess mto. the lower ls
'
f ¡¡-;; <lt whlch the mass of a ~ cculd ~
: nllure occurs when the dlrect stress the crltJcílf stress th;t 1+111 C3use !Nckling. A
• from an axial load exceeds the
r =-.¡ 11A concentrated wtthout alterlng the moment
prlmary objealve ln-the Jeslgn tJf1 cdumn ls to of lnertla of the body abcM that axis. For a
compresslve strength of the material redua 1ts slenderness mto by mlnlmlzfng lts structural sectlon. the raalus of gyrat~on Is
m JI¡¡ !,.le In the cross sectlon. An effectJve length or ITUximlzing the radlus of equal to the SoqU3re I'OO't of the ~t of
ecc-entnc load, however. can produce gy¡¡tlon tJf1ts cross 5tet/on. the moment oflnertla and t:he art4.
kndl~ and result In an uneven stress
dlstriMion In the sectlon. The hlgher the radlus of~ of3
strvctural sectlon, the ~ res~st.;nt the
!-··-······-·------·-·-··-·-·-···----·-···· ~on 15 t.:1 /luckltng. il Jetmnlntng tk
long column cross-sectlof741sh;pe tJf:1 column, the
intermedia-u cclumn f. slender column subject to fallure !;>y objectlve 15 to provláe the ~ry radlus tJf
A co!umn havlng a mode of fallure buckHng rather than l1y crushing. gyratlon 2bout tk Jtffermt íiXes. For ;n
between that of a short column anda -- ·- ·---·· JS}mmetriC31 cross sect.Jon, bucl:fln§ w:11 Cend
IOn~ column. oft.en partly lnelastlc by t.:1 occur about the ~ a1is or In the
crushlng and partly ebstlc by dlrutlon tJf the leJ5t dlmenslon.
buckllng.

40
COLUMN

=
=
!
·--t-
1

. .
eccentricity ~nston\L ¡ ~~: compression
~ •mount !:>y which an axis
devi3tes from a~er pmllel ~
coml?i~c:lstresses
axis.
A set of tenslle ana compresslve stresses
P·delta effect -------···--------····-·····--- resultlng from the superposlt!on of axial
An aadltlo1131 moment ~In a ~ and !?enalng stresses ata cross sectlon of
st.-uctural mem~ as lts ~ltudll131 axis [ a structural memuer, actlng In t~ same
dev13tes from P.~ hne cf actlon of a dlrectlon and equal ;rt arry polnt to thelr
compresslv~ fw~. equal te the product of j algellralc su m.
the load and th~ rr.emPer dtfl.ectlon at any .
point.

~-~--- m~·thirc:l MJie --------------.


The proposltlon th3t a compressiv~ load '· -----~P ------;;-· ~;~otrnl•re> of '"Y ho-tal sectlac
shotJiá ~ locaW wtthln th~ mida le thlrd cf · ¡ ¡ · / of a calumn or wall wlthln whlch the
a horizontal sec':.ío!1 of a cofumn orwall ta - - - - - ~---·- ¡·~ -~----( / resulta~ of al! compresslve loads must
prevent tensfie stres~ frcm dev~!oplng In ~ : : / pass lf only compresslve stresses are to be
t,1e sectlon. ' ' / present In the sectlon. A ccmpresslve load

dl¡¡m~/-·
applk:d 17eyond thls area wlll cause tenslle

· •: ¡,/
stresses to develop In the sectlon. Also
called lcem area.
r-·©-----
;
effectlve ~gth
The distan ce re-t~n lrtflectlon points In •
........ ~
....... _
• 1

kem politt
' column sullject te l?uci:ll114- The effectlve --·-·¡ ,... A polnt on elther slde of the centroldal axis
of a horizontal column or wall sect!on
kmgth cf a column detennir.es lts crttlcal ¡. i deflnlng the llmlts of the kern area.
llud!Jng load. 'rVhen this port!oo cf a column
~..cides. the~~columnfJils.

\ / 1
9---+ \
1
_,
11
\ ~¡
1 lí)
1 c:i
J
t-..!
-.J
e
.....:
_,
e
C\i
1
1
1
1
,,¡
"..
J
1 11 1
¡_Ji ...... ...J 1
1 1 1
~ 1

fixtJ pinntJ ftxtJ¡


1
. -~ k=0.7 _____ ¡ k=1.0 k=2.0
P&/4
í ,,
1 ¡1
effectlve length Dctar 11
¡1
Acoefftclent ~ modlfylng t~ actual 11
~ of a column acccrdlr.g ta lts end 11
c:cMtlons In arder te determine lts 11
1 1
effxtlve len!fth. Fixing rot.1 enas of alofl~ 11
1 1
column reduces lts effutNe length !:>y h.;:f 1 1
J.,d increases rts load·carl)ing capaclty by 1 1
1 1
/
a 8ctor of 4.
l.aurallmcing - _________ _c.·· unl?racea length
The uraclng of a column or other The dlstance iletween the polnts at whlch a
compresslon rr.~mPtr to reduce lts structural meml7er ls !n-aced agalnst
effectlve lenqth.L3teral uraclng ls most buáling In a dlrectlon normal to ltslength
effectlve when the braclng pattern occurs
In more than e~ e plane.

41
CONCRETE
Art ;~rtfficúlstcnelike building material
nude l7y mixlrl~ cementana various rutural cement
A naturally occurrlng clayey nmest<Jne
mineral ~tts with sufficient
whlch. when calclnea and ftnely pufvertzed.
water te cause the cement toseta na produces a hydraullc cement.
17ind the entire 11'1355.
pczzol.-in
A slllceous materl<JI, as fly ¡¡sh, that reacts
chemlcally wlth sl.aked lime In the presence
of molsture to forma slow-hardenlng
cement. named after a natural cement frcm
Pozzuoll. an anclent Roman tawn near
Vesuvius. Also. pczzolona. pcnuoi3 na.

siliceous
Contalnlng sil le• ora sllicate..

fly ash
Flne partlcles of ash recovered from the
waste gases of ;¡¡ sollcl-fuel fu mace .

.
t.a...__._._ ... ._ ... e . e •..• ~~.A . • . • _. . . . . . . . . . . . •. A ...... e . .._ • • _._. .... e, t..•-·~ e. e e.l of:.A..L• • ...t...• .___. . • • A , 1t A • ..4L4t. a ti O A.._..__;¡¡ G 41 tt .9 Q 1t o._

,.,---t portland cement ------~ TyPe 1: narm.l


A calclne.d ll'1lxtu re of e!ay ana ¡ Ahydraullc cement 1113de f;ly ~urnlng a Aportland ceme~Tt used for general
1~ file !y pulverlzed and used as ¡ mixture of clay and limes tone In a constructlon, h3vln~ none of the
an lng~ In concrete and mortar. l rotary klln aná pulver!zlng the resu!tlng dlstlngulshlng qua!Jt.les of the other types. - ...
The term ls rnquently used lncorrectly ¡ cllnker lnto a veryflne powdef, named
TyPe 11: moQerrt.e
force~ · for lts resem~lance toa llmestone
! quarried on the lsle of Portland, Aportland cement havlng a reduced
conte~Ttof trlc31cium alumlnate. makln~ lt
England.
i more reslstarrt to su~ and causlng lt
tnc.lcium sirle& ---·-·--···-----1 hydraulic cement to ~ less ~ of hydr¡¡tlon: use.:l In
Aco~constltutlng¡¡rout half ¡ Cement capa~le of settlng and gener¡¡l constructlon whm reslstanr...e to
the voilr.e of pa1tind ceme!Tt and ¡ hardenlng f;ly a reac-tlon with water. rnode~ su lb te actlon ls re;:¡ulred or
~for;he h.rdenlng or early where heat l?ulk:lup can~ damaglng, asin

't~~~·
pln 111 ~th of the cerne!Tt. the constroctlon of brge p1ers aná ht4"71
1 retalnlng walls.
J"gJciunuflic& •······ · ·· ·· · ·- · ·······t
A~ W!Stltutlng aDo<.ft one· ¡ T~lll: hlghe.atiystrength ~ ....... .
quarttr of ~ volume of ~ nd : A veryflnely ground portl3nd cement h¡v¡ng
ument aná rtSpOMSIUie for the aglng · an lncre.15eá content of trlc31clum sl~.
or long-ttm g3ln in s~th of the .. :,.-· . .\';\:·~-- m
causlng lttocure ter anJ galn strength
U'lnerlt. ?.:~~ ....- ~-- earller than nonnal portbnd cement: uS&i
when the earfy l"ee!10'r'31 of fonnworl: ls
tricJlcium JlumfJUt.e·----··---...1 tkslrtá, or In cold-~ther constructlon to
A~ constltutlng a!:'Out one- redL'Ce the time rea.uired for protect~on
tenth of ~ volume of ¡x>rtland from low t.empmtilres.
~ aná responslU!e for the lnltlal
settl~ oc die cement. TyPe IV: low ht3t
A portland cemerrt having ;¡ reduced
content of tr!Galclum sltlc::ate •nd an
.-~- · ·- -~ R.3w m2terlafs ccn51~ of com/1inatlons of lncrtased contentof dlcalclum 511\cate .
.... ---;~-::--¡ ~ne. clay. shzfe, oystersheRs. sHica cat/$111! lt to genmte less ht-.at of
~ ·· · S311J. ~/ron ore. hydmlon than normal portbnd cernent:
~ :/,• blendeJ.
l?>wmzUMs;ueg!WI'JtopowJermJ
·
used In ;he constructlon of masslve
~ structures. as gl?ilty dams.
l
where a brge 17uildup In heat can~
damaglng.
r 8umfng in~ rotey kJ1n c/rAngeS r.lW mixture Trpe V: sulfate ~sting su!DU actlon
jlnto cemerrt dlnker. Aportland cement havlng a reduced An expanslve rt3Ctlan occuní114 when the
clinker content of trlcalclum alumlnate.lessenlng cement lltJtrlx of concrete or ~r CO!T1es
Afused mass of lncomlnlst1171e 1113tter the need for gypsum. a sulfate norrnally In cont.act wtth sutf~ dlssolved In grouna
resultlng from heatlng In a klln or the aádea to cement to retard lts settlng tllr.e: water or In soll.
c.tlcine llumlng of coa!. used whm resist4nce to severe sulfate ~ ... & .."' . . .

To hea~a s;P5tance toa hlgh actlon ls re;:¡ulred.


temperatare M wlthout me!tlng or Gypsum ls addeJ to cflnk~ to air-entrainlng pcrtl.1nd cement entralned .alr
fusl114 r.o«iveoffvolatlle matterorto
cause~~ rtáuctlon.
---?, AType l fype ll or Type 111 portland ceme.rrt
to whlch a sman qU3ntlty of an air·
entr.lnlng agent has ~een lntergrouna
durfng manufacture: deslgnat.ed l1y the
Mlcroscoplc. spnerbl alr lni!IV!es. tYFIIy
0.004 to 0.041n. (0.1 to 1.0 mrrT} In ~meter.
lntentlonally ~In a concrete or ...
mortar mlx ~ an.~t~T!ral.nln:g ag·e~t~: ~: :·
sufflx A. as Type lA. Type IIA,or Type lilA.
white portland cement
A portbnd cement produced from raw
_mat.erialslow In lron oxlae and mangan~
oxide. the su~stances that glve concrete
Cflnkerlsgroundlnto ./ .;:· tts gr¡¡y color: uS&i In precast concrete
portf3nd cement. ··-· ". . .{:-:. work and In the mJI:i~g of temzzo. stur..co.
L< .... and ti le grout.

4l
CONCRETE

fine aggregate
Aggregate conslstlng of sand havlng a
part!Gie s!ze smaller than lf41n. (6.4
mm): sptclf. the portian of aggregate
that wlll pass through a 3/a In. (9.5 mm)
sleve, almost entlrely through a No. 4
{4.8 mm) sleve, and be predomlnantly
retalned on a No. 200 (74~ sleve.
coarse aggregate ~--gz-,.¡.¡
..._--'~-----
Aggregate conslstlng of crushed ~-~-~-"""~
stone, grave!, or 111ast·fumace slag .~~.~~---
·~ ~~
havlng apartlcle slze larger than t¡4 In.
~~,~~--·
(6.4 mm): speclf. the portien of
aggregate th3t ls retalned on a No. 4
t"+';.;--~ -~~

,1~rh~;,1
{4.8 mm) sleve. The maxlmum s!ze of
coarse aggr1:9ate In relnforced
concrete lsllmlted by the slze of the
sectlon and the spaclng of the
relnforclng 11ars.
.c.JL&~; (J 1 fJ 11 111_. d.l t} B O. ¡a~-·-·· ....... .1 ' ....... '' ..
·:'· ~

mixing Wlter graded aggregate . admixture


The WJtu used In a concrete or Aggr1:9ate havlng a partlcle·size Any substance other than cement. 'r'r-ater.
rnortJrmix.excluslvecf any dlstrlbutlon ch3racterlzed by unlform or aggregate. added toa concre'"..e o.-
abs~ D-¡ the aggregate and gradlng. Graded aggregate requlres the mortar mlx to alter lts properties or those
free of such h3rmfulsubstances least amount of cement paste to fill ofthe hardened product. Also caile.::l
as or~pnic materiJl cl3y. and the volds and surround the particles. additlve.
salts. WJterfrt for dr!nking ls
genenlty accepta~le.
particle-size distril7ution o air·entraining agent
The range of partlcle slzes In a granular
An admlxture that dlsperses er:trained
material. expressed elther as the
alr In a concrete or mortar mtx to
cumulatlve percentage l1y welght of
lncrease work3!1illty, lmprove
partlcles smaller or larger than a
reslstance of the cured prod•"ct ta the
speGifled sleve openlng, oras the
cracking lnduced byfree·tha;~ 'Y'= les or
peruntage by weight of the partlcles the scallng caused by delcing
that range 11etween speclfled sleve
chemlcals. and In larger amcu~~s. te
openlngs. produu lightweight lnsulatln9
uniform grading concrete.
,., partlcle·slze dlstrl~utlon In whlch
o~ acceleratcr
aggregate partlcles vary unlformly An admlxture that h3stens t.'e sectlng
from fineta coarse wtthout a
and strength deve!opment of a
preponkrance of any one slze or group
concrete. mortar. or plaste:- r.-fx.
of s!zes.
o retaraer
An admlxture that slows the settlng of
aconcrete. mort3r, or plaster ~ix In
order to allow more time for pl3c:ng ar.d
worl:lng the mlx. -

o surnce-active .agent
1~ htweiglrt concrete structur4tllightweigltt concrete e.xpankd shale An admlxture for reduclng the surface
Concrc-'"~ Nde wt?l ~regate Concm.e rnade wtth strong ligtrtwelght A strong llghtwelght agg~ate tenslcn of the mbdng water m~
of low $p'Xl& gr.Mty and aggr"e43~. as expanded sh:~le or slate, oUtalned by the exfollatlon of clay or concrete mlx. thereby facllltating the
~nlng less than 110rn14l havlng a unlt weight from 85 ta 115 pcf shale. Al so called txpanded clay. wettl119 and penetratlng actlc., of the
conc~ wh!Gh fus 3 unit welght {1.362 ta 1,840 k~/ m3) and compresslve
expanded slau wate; or alálng.ln the emulsrfying and
of about 1:0 pcf (2.400 ko/ m3). strength comparable ta that of normal dlsperslcn of ather addltlves in tM mlx.
concrete. A strong lightwelght aggregate
obtalned by the exfollatlcn of slate. Also called surfactarrt.

exfoiLrtion o water-reduclng agent


The sphttlng or swelllng of certaln An admlxture for reauctng the 3mount
mlnerals into a scaly aggregate wnen of mbdng water requlred for the de síred
heated. worl:abUlty of a concrete or m~..3 r mlx.
lowerlng the water·cement rat~ In
thls manner generally results In
lncreased str.,ngth. Also called
insullting concrete perlite superpla stlclur.
lightwelght concrete h3vlng 3 unlt A volean le glass ex pandea by heat to
welght of less than 60 pcf (960 kg/ m3) form l!ghtweight, spherlcal partlcles. o coloring agent
and low thermal conductlvlty. rnade used as nonstructuralllghtweight A plg ment or dye added to a cor.c re te
with llghtwelght aggregate, as periite. aggregate andas loose-flll thermal mlx to alter or controllts color.
or with a foamlng agent or gas·formlng lnsulation. Also. pe.arllte.
chemical that lnfuses the mix with a
vermiculite
homogeneous cellular structure.
Mica expanded by heat lnto ver¡ llght.
wormllke threads. used as
nonstructurallightwelght aggregate
andas loose-ftll thermallnsulatlon.

43
r[
/CONCRETE¡
mix~lgn 7%-15% -· -- cement ccrttent
The rnost economlcalselectlon and The quantlty of cement per unlt vol ume cf
proport!onlng of cement. water. ana c.ement concrete or mortar mlx. preferably
~teta p~concrete or mortar expresse.d In pounds per cublc yard Put
Nvlllg tM requlred propertles of oft.en st3ted In sacls of cement per cublc
worbl711lty, strcngth. duraDII!ty. and yard ofmlx.
w¡~htness.
: water 16%-21%··-· watercontent
Aham'5law water-ce~entratio - .. ----·-- .. ~ Thequantltyofwater per unlt volurre of
A ~w postulatl~ that. wlth glven concrete The ratio of mfxl"!l water to cement In a unlt concrete or mortar mlx. preferably
m4teri3ls, curlng. and testlng condltlons. vol ume of concrete or mort3r mlx. air 1%-.3% expresse.d In pounds per cublc yard but
w compresslve strcngth of concrete ls preferably expressed ITy welght as adecimal oft.en stated In ga llons per cublc ya rd of
üwrSely propot11oiul ta the ratio of water fractlon but often stated In gallons of mfx.
te ument: developeJ by DA Al7rams In 1919 water per 94-117. sack of cement. The water-
from experiments at lewls lnstltute In cement railieantrots the strength.
Chica~. dura billty. and watertlghtness of hardened fine aggregate 25%-.30%
concrete.

.31%-51%

ccnsistency
sack The re13tlve a!:>ftlty of freshly mlxed
Amea su re of port!and concrete or rnortar to flow. usually
cement: 94 117. In the ___ ,, ...... _..... A meas ureJ by the2!l!m p ~~ for con ere:t.c
87.51!7.1n Canad3,112117. ~~~.!.t4- and by the~ .te:st _fpr g_rqu_~r m~r­
8ritafn, and 50 l:g In Conslsttncy deperulsla rgely on the
gallons of W3ter per 53ck of cement
countres uslng the metrlc proportlon of~nt pastet.o;~gg~ate In
system. f.lso cai~J l:oag. ambc.
~lump~5t ------------------------------------1 work.ability
A mc-...hod for detennlnlng the conslstency slultlp The rei3tlve e35e wlth whlch freshly mlxed
aná worl:abilityoffreshly mlxed concrete~ A measure ofthe conslstency and concrete or mortar can Pe: hand!e<i, pfaced
me¡¡Sl.J~ tke slump of ¡¡test speclmen. wori::a~lllty of freshly mlxed concrete, In fonr1W9rk. comp~ and flnlshed.
expres~ as the vertical setthng,ln lnches. Worb~illty depenas partly on the wmr·
of a speclmen after lt has !leen placed In a cement ratio anJ partly on the gradlng of
slur11p cone, tamped In a prescrl!7ed manner, the aggregate In a mlx.
and the cone ls l!fted. - - - - - - -
/plastlc mix
A concrete or mortar mlx that ftows
slugglshly wlthout segregatlng and ls
readlly mokled.

"' dry mix


A concrete or mort.ar mlx contalnlng llttle
slumpcone ----··---- -------.---- ... ·- ---- -···----- water or too moch ~g~ In relatlon t.o
An open-~nmcated cone of the other components and hav!ng llttte or
sh~metal_t21=:( mm} high, witn no slump. A!so C4!1ed stHf mfx..
¡¡ Va5"tÍameter In 203 mm) and
wet mlx
a top dbmeter 41n. mm}. used
A concrete or mort3r mlx hJv!ng a rel3tlvely
t.o moYa spectmenor freshly mlxe.d
hlgh water content and runny conslstency.
concrtte for the slump test. yleldl~ a product that ls low In strength.
dura!nlity, and watertlghtness.

~ mpresslon test
A test for determlnlng the compresslve
s~ of aco~ 17atch. uslng a
hyd,..unc press te measurethe maxlmum

·.·--~~
lo¡¡cf atestcyllndercan support In axial
compressfon ~ore fracturl~.
.. --:: .: ·~·-:_ ---:·:_.¡ _.--
~5tcyl!nder ·---- ----- ··- ------ ···---- ----- -.=~-,---+----!.-'=<!:.i..-t->-......_ ce re test
A cynnder of concrete A compresslon test of a cyllnder cut from a
6 In. {152 mm) In dlameter and hardened concrete structure. usually ~
t21n. (~mm) hlgh. cast from a means of a core drlll.
represent;~tlve 17atcn ande ured In
alaPor-atoryorln thefleld under
controlled cond.ltfons.
CONCRETE

fonn Uner -------------- · · -------- ·· ··-- -- · -----...- --- - .-- spre.adtr formwork
Mata-131 for lln~ the lnskle fa ce of a · A brau. usually of wooJ, for spacing The ttmporary structure ~ulred to
form. sper;bl!y sek:cttd te lmpa rt a and k~plng wall or footlng forms suppcrt oewfy pbced concrete.lnduding
siT"IOOth cr p«erned flnlsh to the apart. Also callea spacer. th~ forms andan necessary supportl~
concrete sur-t<u. rnembers.l7r3cing. and hardware.
fe~$eagetlt form
Arry of Y.lrlous m.a_terlJ!s, as oll or Boardlng or sheetlng of wood, meta l.
sillcoot. fa- preven ti~ the bondlng of --·-- wale pi3stlc. or ftberglass for contalning and
concrete te a surf3ce. Also called A horizontal timber or steel be am for glvln~ a deslred shape to newly placea
pa~ awnpound. relnfon:;in~ various vertical members. concrete untiltt sets and galns sufficlent
as In formwori: or she--"t plllng. or for strength te be self-supportlng.
bulkhead ------···--·-···---------·------ · retalnlng earth at the edgeof an
A partltbl closJng the end of a form or emlr.lr.l::nent. A!so callea l.n-e.ast
pr~en~ tM passage of newly place timl.>er. ranger, waler.
concrete rt a construct!Of1 jolnt. /
···;tro ng ¡,ack
keyw"Zf ----------------- ----· Avertlcal support for allgnlng and
A lo11g ltucinJI ~roove or eh annel \ refnfon:;lng wales. Also called
fonnea 111 a coocrete fOOUn~ or ather \ 1 stlffitact
memrer ~has set. proMing a \
s~r-resistlng key for newly placea
conc~

yoke
A cl4m~ devlce for l:eeping column form tie
f011r1s or the tops of wall forms from A :r.etal t!e for ~:up:ng wall forms from
spreadi~ unJer the fluid pressure of
spreaalng underthefluicl pressureof newly
newly pbce& concrete. ~-: pl3ced concrete.

ru~tian strip
A strip of wood or other material att3ched
to the lnslde face of a form to produce a
groove In the surface of aconcrete rneml>er.

Sonawbe-.:
Tradern;ut for a ~nd of cylindrlc31 column form
ITI3M ofccm~. resln-lmpregna~d paper.

e fu ir
A devlce fur supportlng and holding steel
reínfOfUIIIent In proper posrt!on befare and
durlng thc: pladn~ of concrete.
high ciuir ,___ _ __
A ~n cgfursupportlrlg top ~rs In a
conc~beamorsb!l.

bolsur - - - - - - - - - - - . . .
A~ chairforsupportln~ and spaclng
rottom m in a concrete beam or slab.

clim~"ifurm
Aform M can~ r.~l-sed vertlcally for
succee.d~ llfts of concrete durlnf! the
constructlon of a mult!sto.-y building.
lift ~--- -· ------- -·-------. ------ .. --
The M~htof a qU3ntlty of concrete
placed In a form ¡¡tone tlme.

slipform •····· ···-·--· -·----·-·-· flying form


A form th4t can be moved slowly and A lar~ form that can be moved by a Cr3ne.
contlnuously as concrete ls belng placed used in constructlng the concre~ floors
durlng the constroctlon of a concrete and roofs of multistcry fluildings.
pavement Of" t>ultdlng.

45
C:ONCRETE

~st·in-pbce concrete ./ timeofhaul


Ccncrete &eposltcd. fonr.ed. eured. and The perlod from flrst contact lletwun
flnlshed In lts flnal posltlon as part of a mlxlng water and cement f.o completlon of
strocture. Also called ~st-fn-sltu dlscharge of the freshly mixed concrete
concr-eU. from a. truck mixer.
re.ady-mixed concrete
Concrete mlxe.:l ata lr.ltch plant for dellvery
by 3n ~ltat.ortruck f.o a constructlon slte.
shrink·mixed concrete
Concrete part!JIIy mlxea ata lr.ltch plant

. .....
.and then mlxed more completely In 3 truck
mixer en rouu toa canstructlon si~.
" ~· . . ... -
! transit-míxed concrete
Concrete dry !latched at aliatcn plant and
agltator iruclc mlxed In a truá mixer en route to 3
Atruck equlpped wlth a rotatlng drum to constructlon slte.
prevent segrt9tlon or loss of plastlctty of
the ready-mlxed concrete !leing del!vered to
aconstructlon slte.
plaument : tn.Jclcmixtr
The process of deposltl~ and consolidatlng • Atruck equlpped wlth a rotatlng drum 3nd
fi-eshly mlxed concrete In a form or In the •
a separare watertank for mlxl"!l concrete
flnal posltlon where lt ls to harden. en route toa constructlon slte.
·~ i
concrete mixer
Amachlne havl"!l a revolvlng drum.
often mot.or-drlven, for mlxlng cement.
aggregate. and water to produce
airect pLlcement concrete. pneunutic placement
The arscharglng.of freshly mlxed concrete buggy The de!lvery of concrete. slurry, or plister
dlrectly lnto a fonn from a concrete mixer. A cart, often motor·arlven, for by a pipeline or hose f.o the polnt of
~uggy. or crane !lucl:et. transportlng heavy materials. 35 placemerrt on 3 constnJctlon slte, etther In
freshly mlxed concrete. for short 3 plast!c state for deposltlng ln place orfor
freefalt dlstances ata constructlon slte. spraylng. or l n3 dry state wtth water aaaed
The desunt of freshly mlxed concrete In f.o 3t t:he nozzle from whlch lt Is sprayed.
a for:n wtthout the ald of a drop chute.
GunéU
Al~ntwetght concrete constructlon
drop chuU: ......... ----·-·--··-- ....... -- conslstlng of a mixture of cernen t. sa nJ or
Achute for co~lnlng and dlrectlr.ª a crushed slag. 3nd water. pumped thro~h a
falling stream of freshly mlxed concrete so
hose and sprayeJ at hlgh veloclty over
35 not to cause segr~tlon.
relnforument untll the deslred thld:ness fs
chute re3ched. Alsocalled shotcrete.
An lncSned trough or tubefor conveylng
free-fuwlng materlals toa lower leve! !1y
gravíty.

consolwtion SC9regation
The proc.ess of elimina~ volds other titan The separatlon of coarse aggre~te from
entralne.d alr wlthln newfy placed concrete the mortar or of water from the other
aruf ensu!ÍIIf close conbct of the concrete lng redlents of freshly mlxed con erete.
wlth fonn surfaces and em!ledded resuftlng from excesslve horlzont31
relnf~. movement or free fall of the mlx. orfrcm
overvlmtlon after placement.
5tr.ltlfication
The separatlon of an excesslveiy wet or
overvl!lr;ateá concrete mlx lnto horizontal
layers wlth lncre<~slngly llghter material
mlgratlng toward the top. 9

bluding
rodding
vibration _______ j The emergen ce of excess mlxlng water on
Consclldatlon of newly pbced concrete !1y
the surface of newly placed concre~.
the repe3ted lnsertlorrs and wtthdrawals of Consolldatlon of newly placed concrete by
ca used l1y settlement of solids wlthln the
a rod. the moderately high-frequency osclllatlons
mass. Also callea waUT- g.1ln.
of avii:Jrator.
vi~rator
laitance
A mili:y deposlt cantalnlng cementara
An electrlc or pneumatlc osclllatlng too! for
agltatlng and consolldatlng newly placed
3ggregate fines on the surface of new
concrete. c.a used?¡ the !lleedlng of exuss
concrete.
mlxlng water. ovenYon:lng of the mix. or
lmproper flnishln1.

46
CONCRETE

finl,hlng .~---dar+¡ architectural concrete


The process of kwellng. smoothlng. / A long wooden or metalstr3ightedqe Ex~ concrete work requlrlng speclal
compactlng. ancl tre3tlng a newly placed for smoothlng .a fresh concrete surface ca re In the selectlon of rnaterlals, formlng.
concrete surface ta produce the deslred _lmmedlately after screedlng. placlng. anJ flnlshlng to acqulre the deslred
texture anJ appe3rance. appearance.

·¡ screeJ ----------------------------- -·
A wooclen or metal stralghtedge drawn a
over a newly placea concrete sla b to brlng it
to proper leve!.
s<::reeJ ·----------·------· ........ ----··"
A flrmly esta!Tlished grade strip or edge
form servlng as a gulcle for making a true
levelsurface on a newly placea concrete
sla!T. ~éton brut
Concrete left In lts natural state after
1
flcat ~----·-------·-·--·· ·-- ----------------- -......-~...-./:>?..·-""""'""' formwork ls removed. esp. when the
A fu~ tool for spreadlng and smoothlng a concrete surface reflects -the texture.
fresh concrete. stucco. or plaster surface. Jolnts. and fasteners of 3 !?oord form.
.,_ 17ull float
A float havlll{lalarge. fut blade attached
toa!onghandle. L-·-·-------\

flaatfinish ·--- ····-------


Aflne·~ured flnlsh obtalned by
smoothir.q a fresh C0!1Crete. plls:er.
or stucco surfau with a wood fl..,•"-
trowel ---·-·----------------------·---- ., exposed agg~ finlsh
Arry of varlous fut·bl3ded hand tools for \ A decor.ltlve flnlsh produced !Ty
.appJ:ting, spreadl119. wor\:1119. or smoothlng \ sandi:7!3stlng. etchlng wlth an acld, or
plastlc material, as con-crete, mcrtar. ana ' scrul7t:>lng a concrete surface after the
pi35W. lnr-tl:al set In arder ta remove the outer
!ayer of cement paste ancl expose the
powertrowd ------------- ·------ aggregate.
A porta !k machlne having steel trowels
mounted on radialarms that rot.1te about a ,
vertbl shaft to smooth, compact. and • ~

;;d:~:::::;,~,~ ----<~ .
rocmdlngthe~sofafreshconcretesla!1 trowdfin1sh- -----·-· -
·· ....

aslt ~lns to set. A den~. smooth finisn obtalned -;y


.
~ >.~~>~- ..
wor(I~ a fresh concrete or pbster
P"'ement s.aw surfau 11ith a steel trowel.
~wírl finish bu~hhammered finlsh
A whe.el-mounted. rotary power s.aw
A text<.~red finish given ta a fresh plaster A coarse·textured flnlsh o!Ttalned !;ry
equtppeá with a sllk:.on-carbiJe or diamond
or ccr~rete surface by trowellng with a fr3cturlng 3 concrete or stone surface
ln.1Je for cuttlng a control jolnt In a
hardened concrete slab.... ---- ... ----- .... clrcul3~. overlapping matlon. wr-th a power·drlven hammer havlng a
rectangular he.ad wtth a ccrrugated.
semtea, or toothed face.

&et ~--------------- ---------------------, honeycoml:7


The assumptton of ~ ~Id or hard state by i Vvlás on a formed COilcrete surface.
concrete, rnortar. pfasw. or g!ue dueto a ! cause.:! !Ty segreg.atlon durlng placement
physbl orchemlcal ch.ange. 1 or ":; lnsufflclerrt consolldatlon.
UDDDDCJD-
cure -----------------------------o--------·------···---------------·-------·----» 'pa!ling
To malntaln ntwly plxtd concrete or The chlppl"9 or sc311ng of a hardened
rnort.r at the requlred tempera tu re and CC11Crete or masonry surface ca usea !Ty
humldlty fur the flrst seven days followlng freeze·thaw cycles or the applkatton of
placement, castlng. or flnlshlng toen su re de'.ci119 salts. Alsa called sc.11lng.
satlsfactory hydratlon of the cementltlous
-- crazing
matertals and proper hardenlng. Numerous halrllne cracks occurrlng In the

L~~: •: {{L2úi±J k-~


hut of hydratíon surface of a newly hardened COIICrete ·
The heat ~enerated by the process of slab as a result of rapld drylng shrlnkage.
hycfr;¡tlon. as durlng the settlng and curlng
drying shrink.age
of .a concrete mlx.
A reductlon In vol ume of concrete.
hydratlon mortar, or plaster ca used by afoss of
Thc process In whk;h a substance combines molsture.
chemk;ally wlth water. as that occurrlng
'etting shrink3ge
when cement ls mixtd r~lth water_
A reductlon In vol ume of concrete prior to
lts final set. ca used by hydratlon of the
cement paste_

47
CONSTRUCTION
The art, science, or 11usiness
ofbu~ai~.- -------------·-- .. ------------------ ........................
¡ --· -------------- licen5ed
L~afly cerUflecl l7y a govemmental
or other constltuted ;~uthorlty to

~
archétect e~ineer
A person who engages In the A persan tralned. skllfed. or engage In a lroslness or professlon.
professlon of archltecture, usuafly professlo1131fy cnga~ed In any of Also. reglstered.
rl
tralned and experlenced In the H varlous ~ranches of englneerlng, as
deslgn and constructlon of structural mechan leal. or
vulldlngs. e!e.ctrical eng!neerlng.
ownu 1
A persan or org:anlzJt!on h¿vlr.~ T
t~ ~al right or tltle toa plece of rL- ¡ í~~~ita~t-------------:
~.115~ the archltect's " · · ·
ctlent and pa~ to the owner-
: l A person or org3nizJtlon hlred to :
archi1ect agrmnent.
r----------1 glveprofesslonalorexpertadvlce l
1 l rtgJrdl~ a speclflc aspect of a :
1 11 1 p~ject.
._ as acoustlcs or llghtlng. _J1
____________________
1

r~p~--~---------1
.,J..
contractor ellbco ntracto r lnsurance
1 A person ororganlz3tlon that The lnsurlng of property.llfe. or one's
ApersooorLJf9nlz2tlonM 1 A person or orga nlz2tlon that
1 lnves~ In and d.mlops the 1 contracts to provlde the materlafs H contracts wfth a general person agalnst loss or harm arlslng In
t potattalltles of real esta~ esp. : and perforn1 the wori: for a contractor to provlde a portian of speclf\ed contlngencles In conslderatlon of
1 by Wtlatlng anJ lmplementl~ 1 constructlon project ata spcc!f!ed the wori: on a constroction a payment proportlonate to the rlsl::
1 ~~ projectsforownershíp. : tlme and rate. project. lnvolved.

L~~~t:~~~------J y general contrutor


A person ororg3nlzation that
contracts dlrectly wlth an owner
¡·· .. ---.. :------~----·-· HJving
l;londea
a monetary commitment set
lendi119 institution to manage and supervise a aslde to ensure that alf ovllgatlons
T~ lnstltutlon. usuafly a constructlon project. lncludlng the set forth in a contract are fuffllled.
ccmll"erclaf P. ni:. provldlng the wori: perfOI'lTied l7y
~-tefm fl~l~. for a sul;>contractors.
~Ion project.
1

construction manager
A person ororganlz3tlon that
contracts with an owner to advise
on and coordina te all pha~ of a
lluik:llng prqect. from evafuatlng
the constructlon cost and
feaslDility of deslgn de:clslons to
m.anaglng the t;.lddíng. award, and
constrvctlon pliases of the
project.

design·l1uikf Architect
Of or pertalnlng toan amngement
1
1 under whlch a person or
1 organlzatlon contracts dlrectly
1
1
1
wlth an owner to deslgn and Subcontractor
1 constnJGt a ~ildlng or project.
r ---------L---------,
1 specu!ñwe ~uilkr 1 turn·lcey Subcontractor
~ A~ ororganlzJtlon that : Of or pertalnlng toan amngement
1 kv~ arJ constrocts !1uí[di~gs l under which a persan or
1 for sut>sequent s;~le or fea se. 1 organlzatlon des!gns and Subcontractor
L -------------------- J constructs a lnJIIdlng for sale or
tease when ready for occupancy.

48
CONSTRUCTION
lhe process of building.
from site preparatlon through
erectíon, assembly,
and finishing operations.

topout
To lnstall the highest structural member In
· a constructlon or complete the uppermost
course In a masonry wall.

falsework
The tempera ry fra mewori: for
supportlng a structure unáer
constructlon that ls not yet capable
of supportlng ttseff.

scaffota
A temporary structure or platform for
supporting worl:ers and matertalsat a
helght above the ftooror grounJ áurlng the
constructlon or repalrof a building. Also
callea staging.

fe.-~sil:lility study 1 ;
A detalfed lnvest!g3tlon anJ analysls ;
conaucf"..eJ todetermlne thefll13nctal. !

=:::::;;:;!;:ofa 1 ~ 1

.......... {> ...................... ~ ..................... ·~· ................... .


viddin9 notice to procee;l erect certifica-te ofoccupanq
l"he compt:Utlve process of offerlng t.J Awrltten communtcatlon lssued by an To construct !;y the ralslng, posltlonlng. A c:locument lssued by a Í1ullá1~ offlctal
perform the wari: described In 3 contract owner authorlzlng 3 contractor to proceed flttlng together. and fastenlng of materials certffylng that all ora destgnated portlon
for a speclfied su m. wlth the wor\: and establlshlng the date of or parts. of a bulldlng compites wtth the provlslons of
commencement of the wori:. ----------------- the building code, and pennlttlng occupancy
award for lts designa tea ~-
A fornt31 auevtance of a bid ora l:>uilding permit
negotta ted propos..l Awrltten alJthorizatlan to p.-oceeJ wtth posUiccupancy tnluation
constructlon of 2 !nJik:lln~ project In The process of d~noslng the technlcal.
ccn-tn~ct accordance wlth approved c:Jr¡¡wfn~s and functlonaland 11eh2vlonl aspects of a
A ~ally enforuable agtUment. usual !y In speclflcatlons,lssuec:l by the local. completed l:>ultdlng In or~er to accumulate
wrltten form, between ~ or more part!es govemment agency havlngjurlsd1Gtlon after lnformatlon for future programmlng anJ
todo or not todo somethlng speclfled. pt.:ns have been ftled and revleweá. deslgn actlvltles.

buildi"9 offsciJI
A person des4¡nated by a govemmerrtal
authorlty to adm lnlster anc:l enforce the
provlslons of a t>ullding code.

Q ~ Design ~ _ _ ______. _ _ _ _--+--


fast-track ......................................................... ; .................... i:............... +····--··-----------~-----··---- Occupancy·--···}
Of or pertatnlng to project scheduflng In : : : l
which the des4¡n aná constructk)n phases 1 1 ' ór-----------,
of317Uitdlngprojectoverl3ptocompress 1 : Constructlonphase4- ·
t.he total time requlred for completlon. 1 /

1 Constr~tion phase 3 Óc-·========---------_j


CPM 1
1
1

1
Crltlcal Path Method; a method for
Constructíon ph3se 2 óc=---------__,
p!3nnlng. schedullng, and managlng a
1
project. comblnlng all relevant lnformatlon 1
lnto a flow chart. lncludln~ the optlmum
sequen ce and duratlon of actlvltles. the
Construction phase 1 O.__________ _j

relatlve slgnificance of ea eh event. aná the


coordlnatlon requlred for time !y completlon
cf the project

49
(ONSTRUCTION
The manner in wfllch ruterials are
ordered, assemlkd, 3M united into cantract documents
J wnole, as fr.am~ coostruction.
The !eq;l documents comprislng a
constructton contnct.lncludlng the owner-
contractor agreement. corulltlons of the
'ysttm' 17uildi~ prefa1:1ricm fabrícate
contr.ut. and the constructlon drawlngs
A constnsctlon prcuss U5ln9 a hlgh d~ree í o fabrlcate or manufacture ueforehand. í o construct l7y assembllng diverse and
and s~iflcatlons for the project,lncludlng
of pref.l!nic4tlon In t1le nunufacture of esp.ln starulardized unlts or components usually standardlzed parts.
all addenda. modifk:atlons. and any athcr
starulardfztd unlts orcomponents to speed for qulá asseml71y and erectlon.
ltems stlpulated as belng speclfically
a-s~ml71y arul ~:rectlon of alnJIIdlng. Also
lncluded.
cailed lndustriallud ln.útding.
ccnstruction documents
panel The ccnstructlon drawlngs and
A pref;¡Dric¡W sectlon fX a floor. wall. speciflcatlons setting forth In detall the
ce:n114- or roof. h4ndled as a single unlt In f't<\Uírements for the constructton of a
the assem~ and erectlon of a l;lullding. pro.Ject.
,.,n4wich p~ __________,
'Pecíf~eaticns
Astnsctural p3nel CQ1S!stlng of a core of The p3rtofthecontract documents
ret.Uvei)'~mterial~ Petween conslstlng of a detalled descriptlon of the
two sheru fX a h~h-st~ materi31, technlc31 nature of the materl41s,
~rally res¡¡ftlng In a htgh stlffness-to- starulards, ana quallty of executlon of the
wtight ratio. · wtrl to ~e placed ui'!Jer contract.
we,5ed-5kin panel --------~~~-­ uniform ~ysum
Astructural p3nel cooslstlng of plyw~ A foi'TT13t developed !;¡y the Constructlon
fac!ngs gl~ to lum!ler stringers. used as SpecH'Icatlons lnstltute for coordlnatlng
fk.cr. roof. or w;~ll mem!.?er $1.ibject to spectflcatlons, flllng of technlcal data and
t>endlng. The plywood bclngs and strlngers procluct litera tu re. and const<uction ccst
act as a ~rb of 1-beams l'tlth the plywood accountlng. organlzed lnto 16 dlvlslons
resfstlng ~~ all of the M!dlng stresses. l7ased on an lnterre!atlonshlp of material.
Cross l?r;¡c~ rruy 1;-ep{ac.edto support the traJe, or functlon. Al so callea
edges of the skln 3nd to ldp dlstri!?ute Masterformat.
ccnc.entrne.d loads.
....... OMsion 1 Gene,.¡/ Req,uirements
Otl'f5ion2 ~

Olrislon 3 c.mcrete
Olrision4 ~ry


·..
. ··1 Oirlslotl5
Oirlslon 6
Met...ls
Wooa' & P145tJcs
·. 0/rision 7 TherrtLll & Molsture ProtectJ:;n
OlrisiOf'l~ Doors & Wíndows
modulu~n
f'lwr.nfng ai'IJ des lgn atl ~!Zing prefa !nicateJ Otl'f5Ion9 Flnishes
ll"()(lyles or rrodubrcoord!natlon for ea~
of ~ flexl!?Jeam~nt, orvarle ...<-.~~----·" Dlrislon 10 Spec13/tles
rX use. ··. Dlri51on 11 Equlpmetrt
module ·-----------·-- · ---·-·-. -···-·-- 01115/on 12 Fumishíngs
Arty In a ~ of standardlzea, frequently
itTterc!tange.a~ components usedln Dlris/cln 13 5ped31 Constroction
ass.e:n~ untts of .tff~ slze, .-=:-..r:; . . . . . . ·· Oirlslon 14 Ccrweyfnf Sysu~
~y. orfunalon.
-..
. --- ·· .
Oirlslon 15 lkcJuniaf
modular coordiut~Yn -···-·-·- -----
Cornbtl~ t!le dlmenslons of a structure Otrlslon 16 Bectnc41
2nd Pie untt slzes rX 1t.s cocnponents,
~ wlth ~ akl of a pbnnlng grid !r.ised ... _.- .. -- performanu 'peciñcation
on a +Jnch or100-lt'll1cu111cal module. A speclflcatlon that stipulates how a
particular component or system must
perform wlthout gMng the means to be
employed to achlcve the n:sults.
c:f~riptfve 'pecification
A spectftcatlon that stlpulates the ex.1ct
qll3nt/tles ¡¡ntf c¡uahtles of !!13terlals to be
na
fumlshed a how they ¡¡reto t>e asseml.>led
In a constructlon.
reference ~pecification
A speclflc¡¡tlon that refers toa st<lndard
spectflc.atlon to lndlcate the propertles
deslred In .a ~terlal orcomponent and the
methods of t.estlng requlred to
substantl3te the performanu of products.
lift-,Llb co~ion tilt-up construction
A technlq~ of constr~lng multlstory A method ofcastlng relnfor~ concrete proprietary specification
!7ulldings In ...mich aA horizontal sl¡¡bs are -wall panels on slte In 3 horizontal posltlon. A speclflc3tlon th.at stlpulates tht use of
C3St 't grourul b-ef 2nd. wncn eured. are then tlltlng them up lnto thelr flnal posltlon. specH'Ic products. systems. or processes
ralsed lnta posltlon ¡,.y hydraullc Jacks. wlthout provlslon for substltutlon.

50
) CONSTRUCTI ON

~uildmg code nonccmbustilrle construction protected noncombustible construction type


Acode regubtln~ the deslgn. Constructlon havlng a structure of construction A classtflcatlon of a!rul!dln~·s constructlon
constructlon.afteratlon. and repalr of steel concrete or masonry. and walls. Noncombustlble constructlon havlng a accordln~ to the ftrc: reslstancc: of lts major
l>u~. aJortea and enforced by a local floors anda roof of noncom!lustl!lle structure and majar components wlth flre· cornponents: structural frame. exterior
go;emnent~ncyto protect the pu!llic materlals. reslstanu ratln~s at leastequal to those 17earlng and nonrearlng walls,lnterlor
mety. hea~ and welfare. speclfled lrj the approprlate authorlt!es. 17earlng walls. floors and cellln~s. roofs. and
enclosures of ftre exlts and vertical shafts.
AbuiiJ~ UJJe general/y ~5t3b/ishes unprotected noncombustible Whlle each ofthe model codes differs In the
mfrrimmr stmbrds for materlals and construction detalled requlrements foreach
methcJs ofCMStroctíon, specifications for Nancombustible constructlon havln~ no constructlon type. they all llmit the area
s~anJffrtszfety. and other flre·reslstance requlrements except for and helght of a bull&n~ accordlng to
~!mftents Wstd on tire trpe of f1re walls and enclosures offtre exlts and constructlon, type and In tended occupancy.
const:ruálon aJ the occupancy ofa Al so callea construction cl3ss.
budJ~oftm rslng stanJards ~blisheJ
by tk kleric411 Socletyfqr T~ anJ
M~ (AS1\f). t}¡¿ American N3t!ona/
St3nhJs ~(ANSI}. anJ varlous ) .· ..':
tecJrnica/ soc1et1es anJ traJe as50cbtlons. ; o ,_···:

nwdefcc&e
A !7u~ cod!: developea l1y an ;. ~

organlutlon af states. professlona 1


socletses. and tr.lde assoclatlons for
adoptlcc1 by local communlttes.
BOCA N.rtioa.al Building Code
A !rultdlng cruedeveloped and pubnshed comuustíble constructi.on ordinary construction
by the 6ulldl~Offlcl31s and Coáe Any constructlon that does not fuffill A C0!15tructlon typc: havlng noncombustible
Adm!n!strators lntematlon31.1nc. the requlrements for noncornbustl!rle roertorwallsand an lnterlorstructure
(BOCAl and ~ prlm3 rily In the constrJctlon. whally or partly of llght wood framln~.
n~U.S.
protected ordinary construction -··· ---~
Unifonn 6uiidi"9 Coae Ordln;~ry constructlon havlng a structure
A !ru~ cruedeveloped and published and major components wlth ftre·reslstance
by the llllte~al Conference of mlngs at least e<tual to those specffled lrj
6~ Offlcbls (teso~ and use-d tM approprlate authorltles.
prlmrt¡ In t&ecentr.rl and western u.s. unprottcted ordinary construction
Standard 5ut1ding Code Ordlnary constructlon havln~ no flre-
A!riiMng GaJe developea and pubnshed resistance requlrementsforthe Interior
bytheSouthem Building Coáe structure except for flre walls and
Corrfereru (s6cc). and used prlmarlly In er.closures offlre exlts and vertical shafts.
the ~heastern U.S.

ener~codt:
A !ruii.:Ang cruethat sets mlnlmum
sbndards forenergy conservatlon and
the ercgy-efflclent deslgn of vulldlngs.

~"' 'Witn D~alrilitie-s Act


Al1 ~ of ~ss that vecame l3w In ~ vy·ti mlrer co nstructio n
1992.. estaDI!shln~ deslgn stancl3rds and A C0!15tructlon type havl~ noncombustible
reqt.'ltel"lent.sforall!rulldlngs except ~ walls andan Interior structure of

sl~mlly resldences to ensure thelr tlmPc:rs ~nd decklng of specffled mlnlmum


~llty by the physlCJlly Jls.ab!ed. sizes. Also calleá mili constructlon.

zoning ordlnance
An orcilgnce regulatln~ the dMslon of
13 nd llTto rones. 2s to restdct the helght,
17ul. ~. J:ld use of vulk:llng s. and
1
the prorislcn af any 311Gillary facilities. as
pari:~a prlnclpal lnstrument In the ~~-~
lm~ of a master plan. Also
called z:onln§ co.U.
light wood frame construction protected ligfrt: wood frame \
r~ecovenant Aconstructlon type havlng a frameworl: constructlon ··················-----~
A CO'r'eltlnt lriÜ!a c13use that restrlcts of wood rnemDer-5 not meeting the ltght wood frame constructlon havlng a
the ~ of arty party to lt, as an requlrements for heavy·timi:>er structure and majorcomponents wlth flre-
agreementamng property owners constructlon. reslstance ratln~ at leastequal tothose
s~ tbc use to whlch a property specifted l1y the approprlate au.thorlt~s.
can l7e pvt: racbl and religlous
restrictlons are legally unenforce-able. unprotected li9ht wooa frame
construction
noncmrfonn~ Llght wood frame constructlon havlng no
Of or pertaln~ toa material. type of fire·resistance requlrements except for fire
constrlletloo. or occupancy or use no t walls and enclosures of flre exlts and
comp~ wlth the requlrements set vertical shafts.
forth !11 a !ruKdlnq code.

ValrUilee
An offlct¡l pemt todo somethlnq
norm;¡llyfo~n lrj regulatloos. esp.lrj
Dulldl~ In a ""Y or for a purpose normally
fort>idden l1y a building code or zonlng
ordlnance.

51
DESIGN
The cre.-ition .and organiz.atlon of
form.al elemento in a wori: of art .
.! teriit-i
íhe ~pe and struct.ure of somethlng as
dlstlngulsWfrom lts Silbstaru or
materl3l ·

,shape·
The outflne or surface conflguratlon of ¡¡
partlcularform or figure. Whlle form w.sUJIIy
refers to the principie that glves uni~y te a
whole. and often lncluks asense of :n3ss
or vol ume, shape suggests an outhne w..h
some emphasls on the e11clased are;¡~
mass.

!textürt . · 7 visualttXture ¡ tactite texture .


. The visual ana esp. tactile o.uallty of a Theapparent textllrc of a surface resulting The ph)-$1c3l dlmér.slonal structure of a.
surface, apart from its. color or fonn. from the comuinatloo and interre!.atlon of surfa.ce. aprt from lts color or form..
colors and tonal values.

:J ~~~
Oforpertallllr¡g ta shapes and forms havlng
1~13r contcurs wnlál appear to
resem!?let:f-~of~ plants or anlmals.

'~-~ ce-·--:;;>
Of or pertalnlng to shapes and forms not
~ng natural oractual o!?jects.
Also.~~nal;··:• ~!
~- .. ········-··· ....................... .
Of or perblnlngta shapes ana forms whlch
·····~
resem!?le oremplcythe simple rectHinear or
cu~r dements of geometry.
í~j~
~-----------------------,
,?a~--- ..................... .. symPc!l.-~---'
Of or perblnlng ta shapes and forms
an lntellectual aná affectlve content
~ solely on
havlng

t.helr lntrlnslc llnes.


--+X •

Something th3t st;a nás for or represents
somethlng e~ D-¡ •ssoclatlon.
resemP!.nce. or ~n. derivlng tts
cofors. and relatlonshlp ta one another. me:anlng chlefiy from thc structure In whlch
lt3ppe3rs.
1

~~ ~~~ ~ flgu:-t h3v!ng a~nvenUof13!


¡ meanlng and used pbce of a word or
~--------,~~-----___J· . phr:a~ ta acomplex _ exprtss
ln
notlon.

\ ~~r!1f::d artJcubtion
A unlfled compostlon of two-dlmenslonal 1A metllCJOfrbnr.er ofJolntlng th3t rnJtes
shapes or Rlru-dlrnenslonal volumes, esp. the unlted parts c~Qr, dlstlnct, and pr~ise
one 1:hat ftls or gffi the lmpresslon of In relatlon ta e3eh other. ...
w~ht. dcnsfty, and !?u l.
, ~ddi1::i~e -:- .............. · · ........ · .J
Charactúlzed or producea by aaaltlon.
accumulatlon. or unltlng, often resultinq in
a new ldentlty.
sulrtractive ~--- ............... ..
Characterlzed or produced by remml cf ~
part or portlon wlthout destroylng a ~se ~. ~ \ ·~..../ -.. · ....... ·_·_-[JJ_':-.
f~~~~~~:~ ;.
of the whole. ·--J~\~:%~~~:\OJ.- ...... .
..

52
~DESIGN

form:
The manner of arm.._3in~ and coorana ting
the parts of a compcsitíon so as as kJ
produce a coherent im~e.

; orga~~tiorJ
. Tfle system3ttc arrar.ging of
interdependent or coordlnated par;.s lnto a
caherent unlty or functlonlng who~

An lnatvldual. minute. or subordina te


¡nrt of ~ who!e.
structure ,
Th~o-rganiffikm of e~ments or pa-;s In a
.a • camplex system as dcmtnated try tee
general eh aracter of the whole.

'.
¡ ....
.. .111 1111 •• 111 •

----------------------~
j taturé
The c~ractaistlc structure glven to
a surfJCe or 5u~tance try the stze.
s!up~. ~rranqement. and prcportlons
a' the parts.
. f4!níc .
DI
1parti: :j
The liaslc se heme or ccncept for a n
archltectural destgn. represented b] a
dlagram.
diagj.¡¡m •
Adrawl~. nat necesSJrlly
representatlonal. that outllnes, exp3ins. or
clartftes the arrangernent and relatlci1S of
the pa rts of a whole.

prttem ·
f e~rBrl.fr~t
corn_
. te
Jlrrang n~ v1 parts ore mer¡ts lr. :.o
An ~rtlstlc or decorative destgn. esp. proper proportlon or relatlon so as t.J fcrm
ene h¡¡ving 3 cruracterlstlc a unlfled whole.
arran~ement and consldere.d as a un! t.
of whkh an lde3 can be glven by a
fragrr.ent.

'L_____ -------------

53
~ ~~" prfncf¡tle: brder lurmony
A fundarrental aná CDtnprehenslve concept A CDndítlon of ~ical harmonlous. or The orderly. pleasing. or C0!1gruent
of visual ~ptlon for structurlng a n comprchensible ma~ement In whlch each amngement of the elements or pa~s i!1 an
aesthetlc CDmpositlon. element of a group ls properiy dlsposed wlth artJstlc who le.
reference to other elements and to lts
l'epCS6 :
purpose.
~rmony In the amngement of parts or
co!ors that ls restfu 1 ta the eye.

unity · 'caherent

The state or quanty of Peing combined into 1 i lc.:3iCJIIy or ;>esthet~ally ordered or
one,astheorderl~ofelements In an lnU.grated ta afford comprchenslon cr
artlstlc li'Oii: tlut coostltutes a 1 recognitlon.
harmonlous whole or promotes a slngleness
of effect..

DDD
DDD
DDD
·¡ ll~_!nJty;é,~
The stateO'rquanty of being ldentlcal.
hOIT'IOgtl1eous. or regular.
1~
.'-·----
t ·
1.

1 \
1

:
___ ..: pro:dmity

1
Ne3rness.)n place. order. or relat10n
"

·• homogeneeu ,
Unlfonn In strucRire throughout or
composed of paru that are all of the
canUnuity '
sa me ~tu re or k!M.
The state or qualtty of belnq contlnuoi.!S, as
~~~::l a nne. ~e. or dlrectlon.
Unlformly or evenly formed or arra ngeá.
ai~~
Amngement In or adjustment acccrdi,,~ ta
~ motOtony a straiqht nne.
The state or ~~Uiity of lacl:lng varlety.

,.. callage
¡ An artistlc ccmpositlon of often
dlverse ele:nalts In ~n til:tly or
un~pect.ed juxta posítbn.
~- .--------...;-=-=·=···=··=··.;;.;.··~····.!- kmrchy l
The st.Jte or 'l,l141hty of havlng varled or 1 ¡ · Asystemofeiementsr.Jnl:ed.classlf.e.d.
d'IV~ forms. types. ore ha rae terlstics. j 1
and organfztd one 3DOYe ¡¡nother. acwrdin~
to ímportance or s~nlf\c¡¡nu.
·~·
Stress or promlnence gíven toan
elcmalt of a CO«lposltlon by means of
corrt.rast, anomaly. or coonterpolnt.

l~~:~i
opposttlon or juxtapos(tlon of
dlssinlbr eltments In a wori: of a rt to
lntens/fy each M1ent's propertles and
proóuce a more dynamlc
expres5íveness.

ino~aty '
A~Ion from the normal or 0 §DDDDD
1
000
t:xpected form. order, or arrangement. -··~ OOD O
'nt DDITTIDD ' cantndlctlon
~ Njor Idea. essentlal pa rt, or DODOODO The state orcoodltlon of beln~ opposed.
satlentfeatureofa narratlveor U_ i DUDO lnconslstent. or lc.:Jically lnwngruous.
concept.
~llllUrpolnt .: .. -.-· .. ·-··-··-········ .. :
s.alient Aparallel M contrastlng element
' WQS
Promlnent or consplcuous. or theme 1n a narTJtlve or concept.
A s~ate Of utw dlsorder or CDnfuslon. •

54
;DESIGN-'

11 ~~ri4m ..J.F~~~ liabnce 1


A stJ~cfrestorl:ra!ance · Thé.pleáslng or harmonlous arrangement or
p.a-,....~ contr.~stlng proportlon of parts or e!ements In a deslgn
~~-,:;s cr opposlng forces.

i., equipcise ¡
o li
D or composltlon.

An e..JUJI dlstribution of
weig;:, rd:ltlonshlp. or
fcxus.

~ce~~-$
A co,¡n~lanclng welght
orfw~

i...-.+.1-c:i:~:¿¡! ,r r3(1bl&ymmetryj~--- .... -............ .


U Symmetry resultlng from the
arrangemen ~ of similar.
radlatlng parts al7out a center
j polntorcentraf axis.

'~~ -.r.i5oh~metryi;
A stralght hne to whlch • An lrri39l113ry hne al>Out whlch a
elements In a composltlon ~ure. body. or composltlon ls
are referred for symmetrlcal.
measurement or symmetry. 1

----------··t ~~!/j
t~ilf The actor prócess of repeatlng formal
rr.e au ~l.?r-3 wnlch elements or motlfsln adeslgn.
rr.ovi~F"JÍII~Or~c
rd~tothe
1t ts di recu.d../

Y'~~ concmnatiort
A prócessorchange ta~lng place by A series of llnked or lnterconnected things
kgm:s orthroogh a series of gradual or events.
successlve stJges.

55
. PE$l~N :
fro~. ' eul')'thm1 ;
; The coiny•••-e. proper. or h3rmonlous Ha rmony of proportiOif or rr.Ovement.
re!Jtlon of DI" part to anather orto the ...-\
whole wltk respea to lrt'gnltude. quanuty.
ordegree.

A¡¡¡=@ 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21...


f proportlca_ : \
The equallty retwun two ratlos In . Vr, V2. 2/3, 3/s, 5/a, 8/Í3 ...
whlch the flrst of the four terms
divldea P:,r ~ second equals the thlrd Fibonacci se~ ·
d1videJ P:,r tile fou rth. The unendlng sequen ce of numbers where
the flrst two terms are 1and 1. and each
l golden~Jtj succeedlng term ls the su m of the_ two
Apro~~n the two dlmensions l.mm~lately precedlng. Also callea
of a p!Jne figure or the two dlvfslons of a
~cd ~uance. 1
nne.ln whlch die ratio of the smaller to Uie
l.lrger 1s the same as the ratio of the la rger harmonrc ~- ~-
to the wholc:J ratio of approxlmately 0.618 A series In whlch the terms are In harmonlc
to 1.000. Also c.lbf gpkler, ~~{~
~ ..;_. .;. '
proqresslon.

1, '1.3. ~. ~. ~
harmonic ·progress!on
Asequence of numbers the reclprocals of
nhích forman arlthmetlc progresslon.

A B '-...

-~>(
•• · # ; · · \•

.
B

~le -.L ..................................... ..


Acertaln pnlf'Oftlon.ate slze. extent. or
degret:, us¡glyJ~ed In relatlon toso me
st.íindard orpolntof reference.

ltutlu n~ale
The slze or proportlon of a 17ullding
elc:r.c:ntor space. oran artlcle of
flnlture, rel.ltlve to the structural or
ñmctlonal dlmenslons of the human
~-----~-

. .0
mech.anfcal sc.ale visUJI sea le
The slze or proportlon of somethlng relative The slze or proportlon a building element
toan accepted standard of measurement. appears to have relatlve to other elements
or components of ~nown or assumed slze.

56
fDES.IGN
~gonomics

11
Art applled scleilce concemed wtth the
eha ruterlstlcs of people that netd to Pe:
consldered In the deslgn of devlces anJ
systemsln order that people an.:l thlngs w!ll
lnteract effectlvely and safely. Also called
~uman engfnurfn4. ·
1

1
------ 1• a~r~~ll1~
· The measurémbrt and study of t~ slze and
1 proportlonsofthe human rody.
~~uctunl ~sion
Any Ofthe-dimeñs!Oñsofthe numan body
and lt s ¡rarts.
R:~~km~?n\~ br characterlstics
to nonhuman things or 11elngs.
rfunctioM &ímen5íon -'-------- --- ·-- --------~~
Any of the dlmenslons determinea by bodlly l
posltlon ana movement. as reach. stride. or fl /_
elea ranu.. j:
,: ' J
:¡ ..._x
~--- ... _

¡,~fiti
The corresponaence f:1etween the slze and
posture af a human body anda !nJi!dlng
e!emcnt ~ artlcle of fumi~re.

~-·'
The abltfty~ frudom, or
1
permisslon to approach.
en ter. or use.

jv,.~
Of or ~ini~ t0 spaces. frolk:ll~s. and
facntt:es fully accesslf:11e and usaf:1te by all
~le.lncludl~
h:mdlc3ppd
the physically
fl-·······-------.. _____ _
P~'.!J~Jf -
Thé Sfuay·bf the sym!Jollc and
communicatlve role of the spat.!al
separatlon lndlvldU31s malntJJn In varlous
socl31 and lnter-personal sltU3t.,ns, alld
how the n3ture ana kgru of th!s spattal
arrangement re!Jtes toenvlronmental arld
~ .. -- ··. cultural factors.
r

·-/~~ 1
]r;-- .
-----~-.'. .J ~- ~ : ._ -, >

~"
territoriJlity pe~113lspace ~
The pat tern of ~hav!or assoc!ated wlth The vari3!71e and subjectlve dlst.ance at
defining and defer1ding a terrltory or whlch ooe person fe-els comfcrtable tall:lng
doma in rr __ ,_
to 3~~her. Also cal!ed ~t dlstance. :

57
l DESIGN
-~ig_ll"
ro conulve, cootfio.'e, or devise the form and
structure al a bulldlng or other
constru~
ccntrive-
Toform In an artlstlc or lngenlous manner.
1Jesfgn f~' ·; -~.:
A purposefll act1vtty almed at devlslng a íofonn.ln themlnd ~ newcomtlln3tlons or
plan for chafl!lng an exlstlng sltuatlon lnto appllcatlons of exlstlng Ideas or principies.
a future preferreá state. esp. the cycncal.
Itera Uve process c.omprlslng the followlng
phases. •· · ···· ··· ·· ·· ·· · · ·· ·· · ··· ··· ·· ._,...in-H:-13-.-tiC-.n--.=...="'----., ~~¡tp;e~~~-;----~
PfO~S . IJi:ntifying 3problem ;nJ tts. social. .an.alysis
Asystemailc seres of actlons or economlc, and physlcal ~xt. 5ep3ratlng of a whole lnto its constl:uent
operatlons le;ading or dlrected to a parts or elements. esp. as a method of
partlcu~rc:ti studylng tke nature of the whole and
determlnlng lts essentl31 fe;;tures ana thelr
¡ph.ts:e;- ~ . relatlons.
'A partlcubrsta~ In a process of change or
áeve~ ~~yn,i;h~ls J
•• Comulniñg of separate. oft.en dlve~ pa rts

}~~"lfor so.'llng a pro171em. as a


.:~·~f~·~
/
statement~ forth the context.
condltlons. requlrements. and ") ~in~ €
o~jectlves for a c:lts~n project. The pattern of change. ~rowth, or

t:::::~:::~::M~OO'
deslgn project wtthln a speclfled devetop;:
time. Also. tharttte. ío wor* out. ex pan d. or reaiiU the
capal7lllttes or possltlllitles of so asto tlrlng
gradua lly toa fuller or more aáva nceJ or
effectlve state.
,tnodifyl
Tochange the form, charactu. cr
~!
qu;¡ntJes of In ort:klr to glv~ a new
orientatlon to orto serve a new end..
~icwttd an implem~ sofutlon
In use~ tk 5p«ified goaJs and J refine¡
crft.erü.. · í o Jmprove or elaborate ln order ~
make more fine or precise.

g~
~,~~,\
.~ inflectío n '
· At.eñd.añgle,orslm!larchangeln the
shape ofa conftguratlon, ~ meons of
o
n whlch a changeofrelatlor.shlp to some
! feeduack context or conartlon ls lndlc3W.
To ensure~ fulf!nmentof by means , EV31u3tlve lnfont13tlon a~out an 3Ctlon or
traMformatlcn-,
of a áefinite pbn or proceaure. process promptlng a return toa
íhe process Oftha~glng In form or
precedlng phase for afteratlon or
correction.
structure through a series of dlscw~
permutatlons and manlpu~tlons In
~pon seto a speclflc context or set of
condltlons wlthouta loss of Jdentlty or
~l&iitlon
concept.
Slmulztlng. testlng, and mod;{y(ng

~[g]@@
~ble :lternn:Jves aCCC~rJirig ~
speclffeJ goafs and crlterla.

l COIIIlll~; ··········-----........

To express.canvey. or lnterchange Ideas,


,~¿- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .---¡
~:
To chooSefrom a numl?er of aftematlves ~
~~
ío ascetUln or assess the slgnlflc3nce.
elnt~:
Tii cri3td li:eness or model of someth lng
lnfonnatloll. or ~ 111:~ by wrftlng, speaklng, funess or preference. worth, or qu.lltyof. usuarly by C3reful antlclpated for testlng and evaluatbn.
or t$1~ ~ common system of slgns or ~ judgment ~ appralsal and stuáy.
symrols.esp.ln~ way that ls clearly and : , ..;_ .. -~~,.¡ ~ modd :
Tñe meritar au!llty to percetv" dlstlnctlons, · A'mThfiture representatlon, usu.a ny
~~"'
readlly understood.
.. comprehend relatlonshlps. or Jlstlngulsh uullt to scale. to show the appearance
, f"'PP'M al'ternatlves. A standard, rule, or principie on wh:Ch a
or constructlon of somethlng.
The off~ of a p!a n for conslderatlon, judgment or declslon may ~e uased.
acceptara. or .actlon. function: J dmlnti ¡moclc~up : • ·
' An .Ss~~. glven. or otherwlse
• The natural or proper actlon for whlch A M·slziJmodelof 3 ~lk:llng or-
somethln~ ls deslgned. used, or exlsts. structure, bullt accura~ly tose ale for
de~rmlndd bct or proposltlon from
whiGh concluslons may l?e drawn or study. testlng. or teachlng.
~purpo~
• The reason for whlch somethlng exlsts declslons made. .U5t
or ls done. made, or used. ;'fosu!1jéct a system or process to such
condltlons or operatlons as wlll!ead to
jameniFy, a crltlcal evaluatlon of a!:rllltles or-
Arry featui'e that provkles or IIJ.Creases performance ;¡nd subsequent
comfort. convenlence. or pleasúre.

,1,¿.
.,..,.
i economy .-
· ~refut. t~rifty, and efflclent use and
acceptance or rejectlon.

management of resources.

58
fDESIGN
~ .• ! fa~ 1 crutivity
The f#Gulty or power of The play of the mind through which 'fi$cns , The abillty'tO transcend trad!tlonal
compre~ lnferrlng. or thlnkln~ are summoned. esp. mental invent:cr.s that Ideas. pattems. or relatlonshlps and te
In'" orderly,r~ttonJI way. are whlmslcal. playful. and lnitlate meanlngful new kleas. forms. or
o }-o ) o~-~) characterlstlcally removed from re4nty. lnterpretatlons.
---
,origiral~i
The creatlve ablllty to Imagine or
express In an lndependent and
Individual manner.

·:t yt0~">8
"" ·roreg3rd·aiíJ.:Ie;:~ orconupt as The actor power of antlcipatl~
'~~pt
h~~ some fmn of o~tlve that whlch wfll or may cometo t>e. A·mtallma~e or formulatlon of what
~llty outslde of the mind. somethlng ls orought to be, esp. an
1 ~~~ Idea general!zed from partlcula r
~~~} Th-e facurty-ofset:ing thingsln their
char3cterlstlcs or lnstances.
ío ~ni mate orpermeate wlth a tnJe relatlons or of evaluatlng
~rtk:ular fonn, sut>stance. thelr relatlve signrflcance. áes~n conceyt
qUJilty. Of" dlstlnctlon. Aconcept for tlleform. strocture, and
vieW~t fea tu res of a building or otr.er
~a&~~; A part'Jcular manner or mode constructlon. represented gr3phlcally
'To a'ir~ theefforts or attention of locl:ing at or regardin~ by diagr3ms. plans. or other drawlngs.
of. something.
he~: ··_ .. · asp~) ~~
.. ro~andhoidfastby A way In which a thíng may ~ An un.::kirlylng org3nlzatlonal pattern
lnfluer~a or power. vlewed or re<Jarded. orstructurefor a deslgn.

--~~---:- ... proja,


The orlglr1JI se heme for a áe~n
~pnctlu ·,-- - - - « T - - - - - - - - - ~r)'. presenteclln the form of a sl::etch
.A.ctu.>!~nu or appllcatlon of A~tract thought or specula~\cr. outllntng 1ts spectflc char¡cter. to be
principies. asdlstlngulshed from theory. resulting In a system of assumF~~s developeá In detall in la ter studles.
or principies used In analyzlng.
; l"e<ll · ~ ! explalning. or prealctlng phenorr~.a.
~vfng ot>~e. ve;r\fuble. and lndependent
ros~. 35 op~ to t>elng arttfk:lal or
arld prc~ orfolloweá 35 the b-3:-ts
of 2Ctlon.
~ph!J.r;
M Óbject; actlvtty. or Idea used in p!Jce =~ cr.eatlve processes. esp.

T
Hlusory. ci anather to s~gest alií:eness as appl1ed to ti1e statlng anJ soiution
1
. al?~~ ~..ween them. of proD!ems that lnvolves free use of
1
'~hl~-wtthout rderenu to ~phor and anJ!ogy In Informal
! concr~ re:~llty ora p;;rtlcular aflllogY ; . lnterchange withln a small group of
lnstanu. A simllarity In sorne partlculars dlverse lndlvkluals.
~ween thlngs otherwlse dlsslmilar.
e_ri~"fp~ ~tf.. aloglcallnferencdrased on the ~ , '
Afur\dJ'mental and comprehensJ-.e ;..,., ¡$$Umptlon that lf two thlngs are /lY'~ ··:· ·_
tn.Jth, or assumptlon gc-yerníng x-;~. k!IOWT'Itoi1t:alíktlnsomeres¡:uts. ··--_\/ .--.-- .. '
proudure, or amngement.

-~1
~ lY :=~facultyofknowlng wlthoot evldent r3tlonal thought and
lnference.

~[1[][1]
*Á iiú• ofthlngs r'e!J3rdeJ as formlng a 15~~,
grotJp by~ of common attrlbutes or ~tlonorreftectlon on a subject
ehar.~Ct.erls1lcs. or Idea, resultln~ In a concluslon
lnferred from lncomplete or
are~-------------------------------- --E®--
;,_\)¡, orlg~~ ex pattem on whlch all ~
. e lnconcluslve evldence.

thl~s oftM ~me klrul are coplea or based. . .am~utty


The state o'7quality of belng
~-~i susceptlble to uncerta!nty of meanlng
•· Arépro:J'uctlooofan()(iglnal. ~ or multlple lnterpretatlon.
~ prototype : ~ ~renaipity
An ~rly and typlcal exampk: that exhltltts An apt!tuáefor maklng deslrable and
the esse~l fe:~ tu res of a class or ~roup ¡ m.odef unexpu-tecl dlscoverles by accldent.
anJ on whlch bter staqes are based or '
eJ. An mmpk: servlng 35 3 patte~~ ~klent,
jlld.; for lmltat!on or emulatlon In tf:e A fortultous clrcumstance. quJ!ity. or
creatlon of somethlng. charac~rlstlc

59
DOME
Avau!W structure h.aving a
circular plan and usually the form
cf a portian of • spnert, so .-~--- ........... - meridiana! line
constnJcW 25 ta exert an equal ./ A CU!lleJ hM áescrl¡,lng a vertical
thrust in all directklns. ./ sect:lon M thro~h the axis of a
rotatlort31 surface.
r-----·---······ ..... hoop nne
: AcirculAr llne descril71ng a horizontal
' sect!on cut perpendicular to the axis
of a rotationalsurface.
··semicircular dome
Adome havlng theform of a
hemisp~re.

/ ... rr;ll$ltlon from merldiofl31 to hoop


.-- forces OCCIJr5 atan angle offrom 45"to
6Q' from the vertical axis for most load
conditions.
/
hoop forc-e ·~·-·----- ...... -·-·---·-----(_::_'
Aforce actlng along a hoop Une of a
dome structure, perpendlcu lar to
meridional forces. Hoop forces, whlch
rtstr3in the out·of·plane movement
of the meridlonalstrlps In the shell of
a dome. art compresslve In the upper
zone ana ~sife In the lower zone.
meridional force ~-- ---- --· --- ...... -
A force acting along a merldlonalllne
of adome structure, always
compresslve underfull vertical
loadlng.

~ucerdcme
A~~ the form of a segment of a
~.ll'ftlllts.cent.er lid Pelcw the
spnnglng 11M Asaucer dome ls partlcul.a rly
uu u
sa~sltlve te budhng ul'oderan ~.emalloaa.

f
/r·· ;,e~~io~~~ng
i the l7ase of a áome te
contaln the outward ccmponents of
¡ the rr.eridlonal forces. In aconcrete
_: dome, th!s Mng ls thlckened and
f rtinforu.d te ~ndle the ~nding great circle
stresses causea by the differlng The clrcle of greatest
--f--'0,.---<>----74i-t-- elastlc deformations of the ring and dbmeter that can ~e
shell drawn on a spnere.

radi.aldome 5chwedler dome ~ttiudome geodeslc dome


A dome !1ui!t wtth stul or tlml:>er trusses A steel dome havlng memt,Jers whlch follow · Astul dome structure having meml1ers A stul dome havlng members which follow
amn~ In a radl;IIII".Jnner and connected the llnes of latit<Jde and longitude, anda whlch follow the clrcles of latltude, and two tnrte principal sets of grtat circles
ty polygon.ol rlngs at various he!ghts. thlrd set of dla~nals completlng the sets of dlagonals repl.aclng the llnes of lntersectlng at ~ subdMdir.g the dome
trlangulat!on. longitude and forming a series of lsosceles surface lnto a series of ~uilateral spherical
triangles. trlanqles.

60
DOME

:----------------------------- ·----- ----------------- -- ... ------------ ·-- ----- -----------···· -----~ oculu'f
-{ A dJrc~iaropentng. esp. one at the crown of
adame.

,...___:hb~
: \ ..._,--.,~e>•' ·' 'l
: Asúperstructure crowntng a roof or áome semidomeJ
havtng open or wlnáowed walls to let In ltght HJH' a dome formed by a vertical sectlon.
anáatr. as (}(era semlclrcular apse.

'cupou cul·de-four ;
Altght structure on a dome or roof. servlng A semtdome or'quarter-sphere vault. as
as a l:>elfry,lantern. or belvedere. 0<1er an apse or nlc he.

lt.1ml1our-
'The vertiCal part of a cupola.

pendentiv6 ~
A spherlcal trlangle formtng the transltlon
__ ..~---11rrterdome . from the circular plan of a dome to the
poly~onal p1an oflts supportlng structure.
./ The space betJeen the lnner and outer
¡;,( shells of adome.
'\
}-l~arne 1
,· A dormer wlndow In a roof or splre.

~)
------ ·--------,lunette ¡
\ ---=::::------ An area In the plane of a wall framed by
\L, · an arch or vault. containlng a wlndow.
palntlng, or sculpture.
'-- ·----- Whfsperlng gallery \
J. space or gallerJ l?eneath a dome or \ pe~tttive dome ~
i il vault In whtch low sounds produced · Asphertcal dome formed by removfng four
1 at any of certaln polnts are clearly ~gments so that 1t merges wfth lts
audible at certaln other dista nt pendentlves ana slts on " square plan.

/'
:;¡¿__ ' '! ~UIIU;rt ~)
L

· An arch or corl:>ellng !7uilt across the upper


lnslde comer of a square tower to support
the slde of a superlmposed octagonal
structure.

band.age .:..
A strap. rlng. orchaln placed around a
structure to secure and hold lts parts
together. as around the sprlnglng of a
dome.

61
DOOR
A hinged, sliding, or folding l,?arrier
of wooa, ~l or glass for opening ~~~:..:...:..:..:....:...::..:...:.;;~...:..:....:+;.' •.
and c!osing m entranu toa .r.---...="".... IJI!ilí~~---r_,;:~ .......
single-acting door
building. room, or c.1binet. A door hung on hl~es that permit lt to
swl~ In one dlrectlon only.
SWÍf\1Í11g t:foor
A OOo1" ~ turns on hlnges or pivots aDt?ut
_______ .. double-actlng door
a vertical~ whcn pushed or pulled. A door hung on hlnges that permlt tt to
swlng In elther dlrectlon from a closed
posltlon.
double doors
¡, A palr of doors hung ln the sarne doorframe.
•',:..,._ _______ leaf
· A hlnged or sl!dlng sectlon of a dOOr or
shutter.

:
.. ·.·
..... :. r;:===:¡;:==::::::;;~ . -.- active leaf
,.- The !eaf of a palr of t:lou!:>fe cloors to whlch
··• !1alanced door /
/
the latchlng or locklng mechanlsm ls
Ap!voted doorthat ls part!ally attached. Also callea openfng lea f.
coun"...erlr,¡l3nced foreasler openlng and .... ·.. lnactive leaf
closl~~g. The leaf of a palr of dou!:>te cloors to whlch
a!IU)m.rt:ic door the strlke pláte ls fas tened to recelve the
A door that opens automatlcally at the laten or bolt ofthe active !e3f. usual!yflxed
apprcach of a person or automo!:>lle. In a c!osed posltlon by !:>o!ts at tM top and
_ ¡- - - · - - - - !:>ottom ofthe door. A!so callea standing
pivoteá door dooropener leaf.
AXcr ~nie4 on and swln~ln~ .about on a A mech3n!sm that automatlcally opens a
door l'r'hen actuated by 3 radio
...-·-·· astragal
un~roroff~ plvot. .asdlstln~ulshed
transmltter. e!ectrlc eye, or other device. / A mo!dlng att.ached to one or botJJ meeting
from one hung on hlnges.
stlles of a palr of dou!71e doors to prevent
drafts or the passage of ll~ht. nolse, or

-v-···-~
smol:e.
mulllon
A slender vertical mem!1oer dividlng the
openlng for 3 p•lr of doul7te doors.
foY"tngdoor l:rifolddoor sometlmes remova171e to permlt the
A door lriúl hl~ ~ns that can be A fok:llng door that divides lntc two ¡mts,
p3ssage of large ®jects. •·-;.-
~ 1'\¡t ~alnst one another when the lnner k:af of each p3rt !1oelng hung from ,..
~ an overhead track and the outer l~af .·
' li!i
;,
¡ pl•oted ~t the jamb.
~ ucord1on door ;
/
/
;
/
/ ....
' .

.''
/
:./ ' ....,',,
L-----LI.J,..L.Ju..u.w;;¡¡ii.w.' A multlleafed door that ls hung fro:n an , /

r
overhead track and opens by foldl~ back In ,'
\.

the manner of an accordlon. '


1
¡f-·-··-r-j
1 : 1
i
¡ ¡. ¡·-----·-·
1 : 1
- pocket door
1 Adoorthat slides lntcand outof 3
: 1
1 • 1 recessln a doorway wa!l
5li&n9 t:loor ¡
Adoor ~ opm tes or moves V.,. stldlng
on" tnGt. usu¡¡lly ¡nra~l te¡¡ wall. 1 l
1
1
: ___ J~
:
1
1
1
1i

rolling doof' ---~- revolvlng door


A ~se doorconslstlng of hortz.ontal. An entrance aoorforexcludlng dr.oft.s from
~~ metal sbts gulded V.,. a track ----------- ----------~-·
---------------- ---------'1 __ . : the Interior of a 17ulldlng, COrl$lstlng of four
on eitherslcfe,~lng V.,.colllng 3bout¡¡n lea ves set In the form of a cross 3 nd
~ «vm ~ the head of the door rotatlng abouta central vertbl plvot
~ wlthln a cyllndrlc311y shapedvestl!:>uk:.
Some revolv!ngdoors automatlc31lyfold
l:r.lck !n the dlrectlon of ~ress when
DDD pressure ls 3ppll&f, provldlng aleg41
passageway on roth sk:les ofJhe door plvot.
DDD ....... ~ wlng
DDD One of the !ea ves of 3 dou!:>le or revofvlng
door.
DDD r .... -------~ sweep
i The flexlllle weatherstrlpplng along the
edges of a revo!vlng door.
ovuhe.;d door alr curta in
A !arge door constructed of one or severa! A stream of compres sed alr dlrected
!ea ves. openlng V.,. swlnglng or rolllng up toa downward across a doorway so asto forma
horizontal posltlon above the dooropenlng. shleld t;{l exclude drafts.

62
DOOR
rough opening - - - - - - - - . . . ¡:-~-:~~~~~:" .-:-c-~-C':-'.c~--:-7:=.:7:~ doorframe
An openlng In a walllnto whlch a ,- · _-__ -:·:_~·-,·_·.,-,¡. Theframe of a doonYay, conslsting of
doorframe orwlndow frame ls fitted. two jambs anda head or lintel
jJmb
Etther of the vertlca 1sldes of an -:J- head
archway. doorway, or wlndow opening. :J The uppermost memi;1erof a doorframe
~---+-4--- ca sed opening _::.::1 or wl ndow f ra me.
.". doorles.s openlng flnlshed with
trlmwort. · --~-· doorjamb
- ·: Elther of the two sldepleces cf a
·~------------~-~----~-------------------- :_::j doorframe.
-·¡_
,::1 stop
:_~1 The projectlng part of a doorframe
·_ -_.¡ agalnst whlch a door clases. AtSo calle,1
1 :-:~ doorstap.
r-="-'--'-.J..I..o~~--;

pl3 nted 5tc p


casing ------------L--<. Astop fonned l7y attachlng amoldlng
The flnlshea, often aecoratlve to a doorfra me or wl ndow fra me.
framewori: around a door or wlndow
openlng, esp. we portlon parallel to the ral711eteJ stop
surroundlng surface and at ~ht Astop formed Integrally l7y ara bbet-ln
angles to the Jam!ls. i
1. a doorframe or wlndow frame.
1

SUPcaSÍI\9 i blankjlmb
A rough casing for a doorway or wlndow 1
Adoorjamb havlng no stops. nor

!.
openlng. prepared t-o receive hardware.

buc~ --------··-··-·--
Asubframe of wood or metal set In a
partltlon to support the flnlsh frame of
a door or wlndow. A!so ca lled door
11uá. roogh 1.7uck.
--~- sill
The hortzontal member beneath a door
or wlndow openlng.

door c!e4r3nce - - - ---------~.


The cle3r;;~nce requlrea t-o prevent \ _ _,~
~~~~¡ ~~~~-------- --------- ~~~~~ doorN¡¡y, coverlng the joint
between twc floorlng maurl31s or
lnnJlng Detween a door and tts

~~~?i;:::.~;-;.\ ~:
the fau of the locl: stlle. usually an
11

. : -'-------------
\ ./
.~------ saddle
provldlr.g weather protectlon atan
exterior door.

A ralsed plece offtoorlng between the


lnchnatlan of 1/a In. (32 mm) for ea eh 2 ./ j3ml15 of a doorway. t-o whlch a door ftts
In. (51rnm) of door thláness, allowing closely so ast-o prevent tts blndlng
Ú1~ door to swlng free of the door when oper.ed.
framt:.

~e:=~~-,-~,~~~.~~~;~-.-~---------··--·-----·------
sectlan of woodwori: dlrutly aboYe a
mam¡
do<xway.
üa11~m ---------------------- ---- .------------- fanligh-t
A crossp!ece separatlng a doorway A sem!clrcular or semlelllptlcal wlndow
from a wlndow orfanllght above tt. over a doorway or another wlndow.

üan,cmwindow --------------~--­
A wlndow above the transo mofa
doorway. Also callea transom. · -- 'kleli9h-t
tr~nsom ll~ht. A wlndow at the slde of a door or
another wlndaw. Also calle.::! wfnglight
revt411 -----------------------·
The part of aJamb of a wlndow or door
openlng that ls vlslule between the
outer wallsurface aná the wlndow or 5play
A surface that makes an ol¡lique angle
cioor frame.
wlth another, as where a wlndow or
swncheon dooropenlng wldens from the frame
~ toward the fa ce of the wa 11.
The reveal of a wlndow or door open:ng 1

from the frame to the lnnerface of the ;¡


wall. Also. eswnson. scunch~n ~U ===

Venetian door
A doorway havlng a form similar t-o that of a
Palladlan window.

63
DOOR

paneled tfoor ----- ----· p3nel


A doori!Jvlng aframework of sutes. ralls, A distinc;t ~~ or dlvlsbn of a
anJ ~ muntlns. fllled with panels wall c.elll~. or door, recessed
of a;hlnlla' materUt below or ralsed a!::>ove the general
leve! orenclosea by 3 frame.
r¡¡a ~ --- stile
Arry of varlous horizontal mem!1ers Ar.y of varlous :: pright mem!1ers
framlng pantls. as In a system of .- fr;;ming panels. ;;sIn a system of
panehng, a paneb:l door, window ,/ ~u panel!ng. a pane!ed door, wíndow

::~~e~~~~~~~:-~--------
The uppermost r.1il connectlng the
_ // j
sash. ora ches~ vf drawers.

hi~stile
The stile of a clocr l1y which lt ls
stlk:s c:i a pa~ door or winJow 1. hung. Alsccalltd hanglng stile.
53$1t. ~oc...=~~="-'=-==="
locl: stíle
loclcrail ---------------------------- 1------- The stile of adcvr that eloses
The r;ril of a doo- that meets the

--D
against thefr;¡r.-.e ofthe openlng.
shuttln4 stlle ñ the levtl of the A!so c:allea shlltting stile.
~ muting 5tile ~-J
11ottom raíl ------------------------- Or~ ofthe a!n.Jtt.l~.-3
stlles In apalr
The lowest rall connectlng the of dou !:>le doors.
stlles of 3 pa~ door or willdow ¡
sa$1t.

vísícn light storm door


Asmallli.aht In the upper An outer or supplemerr-...;;y
portlon cf a door gl3zed wlth door. usua!ly glazed. for
clear gtass for vlew~-~9- protectlng an entr;;~nce :XNr
from dr;;~fts. driving r.1in. cr
severe we3ther.

screen door
A.1 exterior door hav in g r-ooJ
or ;¡¡luminum sU !es aná r.lils
that hola a wireor pl;¡¡s-;l::
:nesh to .íidmit air 17Ut exc!u~

D in~s.

french door louvertd door louver --------~ ccmf,i~n door


A &oor havlng rectangular giJss A door having a !ouvered openlng An ope-nlng fltW 'r'lith sL1ntlng. An exterior door ltavlng a frame
panes extenang throughout its for the passage or clrculatlon of flxed or rncv¡¡~ slats to admit alr lnto which arfferent types of
lengt.h. and oft:en hung In paírs. alr. Also c;.;¡¡lled ullnd door. !1ut exclude 1'31n and snow orto panels can D-e in~rtea. as a screen
AlsoCJIIed ca~mentdoor. pi"O'Me prlvacy. Also,louvre. for S!Jmmer or stonn sash for
wlnter.

D
gla~docr Dutchdoor ~.-tttn door Jil1 door
A door of heat·strengthened or A dcordlvlded horizontally so that A door const~.ed of vertlca 1 A door hlnged ~be f!ush with the
~pered glass. ~«lth or wlthout the upper or !ower part can !1e roards hekl to~her Dy wall on elther skk and treated so
ra lis ex sU les. use-á prima rlly as an opened or closed separ3~1y. hcrizo:lcal lr.itter.s and asto D-e lndisu;-ni!k wnen cbsed.
entrance door. dlagor.al !:>raclng. Al so. glu door.

64
DOOR

aajll5table doorframe flush door


A Joorfr¡¡me havl~ a spllt fiad and j:Jmbs A dóor havl~ smooth-surfaced faces.
for lnstJI13tlo111n varlous w;¡U thld::nesses.
-- core
Awooden constructlon. as In a daor,
formlng a llacklng for fa ce veneers.
crossbanding
The plywood or hard!loard veneer
lmmedlately ~eath the fa ce veneers of a
flush aoor. Al so, CI"OSSPand.
docrskin
Asurface veneer of plywood. hardboard.
p13stlc 13mlnate, or medlum denslty overlay,
bonded to the crossbandlng or core of a
flushdoor.

prehung docr sclia-ccre door hollow-ccre door


Adoor hu~ In a aoorfume More Awood flush aoor havlng a Awood flush door havlng aframeworl:: of
lttstal13tlon In a wall sometllr.es preflníshecl solla core of staved stlles and ralls encastng an expanded throat
artd prefltted wtth all necessJry hardware lum!1er, partlclt: board. ora honeycom!l core of corrugated fl!1er!1oard l"he openlng between
ana casi~ ~m. mineral composltlon. ora grld of lnterlocklng horizontal a the l?ackbends of a
vertical wood strlps. metal áaorframe.

acoustícal door
A door h.;vlng ¡¡ sound-&e.ldening
cor-e. ~sketed ~a long ~
t....t' an.::l sldes. andan auto~rutic
drop ~1 along the bo«om. A!so
canea soond-ínsul.rtl~ docr.
backbend ·/,.,.
The fa ce at the oUter
edgeof a metal
doorframe that retums
to the wall surface.

hollowmetalfr;,ame
u~mein door A doorframe havlng 3 head andj3mDs
Adoor having astructural formed from a si~ le plece of metal.
wood core cl3d with hollow m~l door
galvanlze.d sh~ metal. A door luving fa ce sheets of llght-gauge
steei Por.ded toa ste.el channel frame.
relnforced wtth channels, a kraft
honeycom¡, structure. ora rigld p~stlc­
foamcore.
- - - - krlockdownfume flu5hfrarM
A met3! doorframe r----- A ma.l c:loorfra me des~ nea to be
composed ofthree or more L------ lnstalled durl~ the construttlon of a
~~s for assem!lly In the masonry or stud wan.

··-·- we!de.dframe
A met31 doorframe th.stls
complete !y set up and
welded at t~ factory.
cutQff :rto p
A stop having a closed end that
termlnates ame th~ f!oor ltne
3 45•or9Q•angle. Alsocalled
hospital stop. sanltary
stop.
=lli. aryw;,all frame
A knockdown frame hav!ng a dcuble-return
backbend for tnstallatlon after a dr)W311
partltlon ls flnlshed.

~ ..
\.,' ,

J
groute.:f fr;,ame
A metal doorframe comp!etely fll~ wlth.
jamb anchor ___ ./ .
.
plas ter or mortar for structu ral rigldlty
Arr¡ of various metal ~lus for ¡¡nd lncreased flre reslstance.
.
securlng thejarnbof¡¡
doorirame to ~ masonry. s~l
stJ.Jd. or wood stud wall i
anch.or !?ase anchor !!pat ~--; double egre!ltS frame
Ar.y of var'<:•o5 :neta! devlas for A metal clip or devlce for A protect!ve llnlng. A metal cloorframe preparecl to recelve a
t>ir.a'l~ ore p3rt of a strucklre to securing tne !1-ase of a usually of stalnless palr of slngle-actlng doors that swlng In
arcther. doorframe to the f.oor. scul. at the !1a~ of a opposlte dtrectlons.
doorfrar!'1(:.

65
DRAWING
The art, process, or technique of
representi119 an o11ject, scene, or
ldeJ b)' meJns of lines on a surface.
PfKCEIYlNG
freehana drawing IMAGINIHG
technique -t..
A method or procedure for The art. process. or techniqut: of drawing 1
1
accompllshl~ a deslrea al mor tas~. as ~ hand wtthout the alá of dr.tftlng 1

that c:mpbyed l1y an artlst showlng a lnstruments or mechan leal devlces, esp.
h!gh ~ru of sl::ill or command of for tht: representatlon of perceptlons or
fundament3ls. the vlsualiz3tlon of ideas. DRAWING _,:_(-
~-------lZ_' ,{'
ccntour drawing line \ ~ - \-
Tht: techniqut: of drawing lines to represent A thin, continuous ITI3r\: made on ~ \
the contours of a suDject, wfthout shadlng surfau with a pencil, pe:1. or ~rush';.?s
or rnoddi~ of form. disUngulsht:d from sha di~ or color:\

ccntour outline ,
The outnne of a two-dimenslonal shapt: or A fine describing the outer boundary ofa_
lx>unding ~es of ll three-dlmenslonal f\j ure or object. ·.
form.
profile
An out!lne of a form or structure seen or
represerrted from the side.

gesture drawing
The technique of draw!ng a single or multlple
llnes freely and quldly as a subject ls
scanned and percepUoos ofvolume. rn.oss.
movement. and significant details 3 re
c~s-contour arawi~ projected onto the drawlng surf3Ct:. In
The technique of drawt114 Mnes to contrast to con tour drawlng. gesture
representa ~ of cuts across the drawlng general !y p~s from the whole
surf3Ct: of ll fonn rnher than,tts edges. to the p3 rts.
~- f /
__ g~
A rrc.-em..~ of the b M. arm. ha d. f.lce. or
?t~=:F==;~:=:.¡;t':::;:- body th.ít expresses an Idea. oplnlon. or
·-' c:motlon.

movement
The effect or lllusion of motlon conveyea by
the re!atlonship el. structural elements In a
(l~::::::;:~~;::;:=:~~~-deslgn or composltlon.
regulating line -
AOne drawn to meas ure or express
3~.gnrrent. SC3le. or proportlon.

trace
A line l~htly drawn to record ali~nment
or ~rasureiT'.errt.

sluair19
The r:ndering of l!ght and dark v¡¡luesln ~
dr;¡¡~ to Cre3te the Uluslon of three-
dlmenslonal!ty. re~ llght arJ sha.1ow.
or glye the effect of color..
h.ttching
Sh3dlng composed of flne "ncs drawn In
clase proxlmlty.
~sh.ttchin9
Shadl114 composed of two or more series of
lnters.xtl ng pa ralle! nnes.

~nüuling
Shadlng by means of a networ\: of random.
multldlrectlonalllnes.

stippling .
Sh3dlng by means of dots, small spots. or
short strol: es.

modeling key
The technique of rendtrlng the llluslon The domlnant tonal value of 3 drawlng or
of volume. depth. or solldity on a two- palntlng.
dlmenslonil S<Jrface l7y shadlng.

grisaille high-key low-key


MonochroiT'.J tic paintlng In shades of Havir-3 chtefly ll~ht tones with llttle Havlng eh iefty dart ten es wlth
gray to produce a three-dlmenslonal contr.sst. nttle contras t.
effect.

66
DRAWING

design drawing
Any ofthe drawlngs mac::ie to ald in the
,kttch visuallzatlon. exploratlon. and evaluation of
A simply or hJstiyexecuted drawlng or a concept in the design process.
palrrtlllg rep~ the essentlal
ftatures of an ~ or scene without the
detJils. often IlUde as a prellmlna ry study.

stuay
A drawing executed asan educatíonal
e~rcise, productd as a prelímina r¡ toa
final worl:. or maJe to record ol?servatlons.
Scmetlmes referm:l toas a referential
dr.1wing.
conceptíon
A d~wing of so~lng Chat dces not yet
exfst.

drm
Apreliminar¡ $1\~ of a deslg n or plan.
esp. ooe subject to revlslon.
es.quisse
A s,l:etch showl~ the general feJtures of a
deslgn or plan.

épure
Aflllt-sc;¡le, ~ drawlng done Of1 a wa/1.
f'oao.orother~sumce. from whtch are
~ the pattans forvarlous tlulldlng
elar.ents. presentation drawing
Any of a set of desfgn drawings made to
cartean artlculate and communlcate a desfgn
A fll~-sca~dra~ of a motifOf"des~n. to concept or pro posa!, as for exhlbitlon,
~ :nnsfmed In preparatlon f.x a fresco. review, or publlcatlon.
II10S.Oic, ort3~try.

renderi~
Adnwing. f'Sp. a pers~ive. of a frollding
Of'" íntu\ol" spau.artlstlcalfy delíneatln~
rr.o~ ~ruls. shades ¡¡nJ shadows: usua lfy
done for tM pu~ of presen tat!on and
~u.;slan.

?~~

·" 1.6) ~~~~~,'¿:¡"·


mass
A unlfl.ed area of ltght. shade, or color
that deflnes shape orform In general
.
•(
~:)
rh"~~.,'.•
!p
~ ó'ci;),~~~
~( .~~ ~,,
outhne rathu than in detall. ·, / V'
passage
An area. sectlon. or detall of a wori:, esp.
·.,,
,\.\ J ..
M~/
?fE.~
¡-_- /Áh_
,//~
wlth respect to lts qualltles of vígnette
execut\cfl. Adrawlng that ls shaded off gradual/y lnto
the surroundtng paper so asto le ave no
deflnlte fine at the border.
trom~roeil analyti~ue
Adrawl~ cr palntlng In whích objects are An elevat\oll drawtng of a facade, surrounded by
rendered In extremely fine detall to a dewrattve arrangement of drawlngs of
emphas!ze the Hluslor e' tactíle 3·j sp3tial lmportant detalls ancf some¡;lmes a p13 n or
quantles sectlon of the facJde.

67
DRAWING
draftlng
Drawlng done wlth the ald of such
lnstruments as T-squares, trlangles.
compasses. ana sea les, esp. for the
sys~tlc representatlon aná
dimensional speclflcatlon of archltectural
and e~lneerlng structures. Also callea
muhanlcaf drawlng.
0

gríd
A rectangular system of llnes and
coordlnates servlng as 3 reference for
kx:atlng ana re1u1Jtlng the elements of a
o17jectline plan.
A salid llne representlng a con tour of an
oi>ject.

dJshed llne --------~=---+---+-!


A ln-oken hne conslstl~ of short, closely
spaced strokes. used esp. to represent
object nnes that are hldden or removed
from vlew.

dotUd line ---------H+-trii===--if':;;i---l


A !n-cien llne conslstln!J of a series of
closefy spaced &ots, sometlmes used In
place of a dashed llne.

con5truction drawings
The portlon of the contnct doc umen ts
cellUrline snowl~ in ucurate graphlc or plctorlal
A lm*en hne conststlng of relatJvely long fonn the ~lgn,lccatlon, dlmenslon5. and
se.gments separated by Sln!Jie dashes or relatlonshlps ofthe elements of a projxt.
dots. used to represent the axis of a A!so C311ed cont.nct drawings, wori:fng
sym metrlca 1element or composltlon. 1
dr.twíf14S.
~~
An emrossln!J stamp used l1y a llcensed
archltect, englneer. or other deslgn
professlo113f on Wltract drawlngs ana
speclflcatlons to show evldence of
~lstratlan In thc: statc: wMre the work ls
to ~ perfonTltJ.

( /~~
-.. ~ -

exten~ion fine
A hne e:xtendi"!J from an edge or fe.~ tu re of
an o~. te whlch a dlmenslon hne ls
drawn.

·. crowfoot 17re3kline dime~lon fine j


AV-shaped mark.the apexofwhlch ls a A¡,roi:en Une conslstlng of relatlvefy long A fine tennlnated l1y arrows. snort stashes.
reference polnt. segments Jolned by short zigzag strokes. or dots. lnalc3tlng the extent or mag nltude
· useJ to cut off a portlon of a drawlng. of 3 part or thc: whole. anda long whlch
leader measuremc:nts are scaleá and lndlcated.
Ashort llne leadlng the eye from a note or
dlmenslon te a reference polnt. hne. or 3rea.

68
DRAWING
~riptive ,ecmetry project.ion
The tnrory of Mlng project1ons of three- The process or technique of representlng a
dlmtnSlonal o~ on a p~ne surface In thru-dlmenslonal ot>ject by projectlng an
arder te deduce fhelr geometrlc propmles 1ts point.s by stí.llght ilnes. elther parallel
and re!atlonshys. or ccnverglng. toa picture pfane.

orthcgraphic project.ion
Amethod of projectlon In whlch a three-
dimetlslonal '*Ject ls represented by
projectlng llnes perpe11d1cul.3r toa pie tu re
pbne. Also callea orthogonal projectlon.

·· ...... plan
-.. ~. An orthographlc projectlon of the top or
., sectlon of an o~ect or 5truct<Jre on 3
-.. ·-~·
horlz.oa't31 p!ane. usually drawn to sea le.

[XI 1
1
Also calle.d plan v!ew.
floor p!an
A plan of 3 room. sulte. or entlre floor of a
1 l:>uilding as sun from above after a
1 horlzon't31 sectlon ls elit and tne upper
¡- portian remored. typlc.:lfly shcwing the for:n
·-----~1in9 and arrangement of interior spaces and
-.
----~
their encloslng walls, windows. and doors.
.... _
rrltected pl.1a
A pt. n of a room as seen from al>ove M ---
hZffng its celhllf 5ijrf3ces and e!e~ts
proj«ted dowr.ard upon tt so that what
would appear to1he rlght whc1 se.en from
~ appears 011 the plan te the left. A!so poché
calbi ~ cefll~ plln. Thewalls, columns. and other soflds of a
l::tulldl~ that are cut !na ftoor plan or
sectlon drawlng. tndlcaw.J usl!afly In l:>laá
mmi~pbn or by hatchlng.
A r-Un showlng che pattem, elements. and
CC!UieCtlons of die: structur.JI frame for a
fu;lr or roof of ~ bulldlng, usl~ a system of
symrols and draftlng nnewort

c.ontcurline -----------+~---+---:

An l~lnary h~.Jolnlngpolnts of equal


*'n tlon oo a s.bce. or lts
rep~rrtztlon 011 a topographic pun or
map.

c.ontc~l~------------~~~~~~~~~~~~t
The d!fferenu la e!evatlon represente.d by
e;;ch contour llneon a top::graphlc plan or
~p.

gradí~ p~n rocfpl.1n


A~ n showlng ~ propose.d flnlsh A plan showlng the top vlew of a !7ulkllng.
contours and emtlons cf the groona esp. the form of lts roof.
surfau of., conwuctlon si~

~ite plan
narth arrow
A plan showlng the form.locatlon._ana
A gr;¡phlc symbd ~ on plans and maps to
orlentat:lon of a l::tuikling or group of
In dlc ate the dlrect!on of north.
PUildtngs on a slte. USU3fly lncfudlng the
~ale dlmenslons. ccntours. landSC3plng and
A proportloo determ!nlng the relatlonshlp other 5!9ntflcant features of the plot. Al :;o
of a representat:!Cn to that ~len lt called plot plan.
represents.
graphic ecale area plan
A gr;¡duate.d hneor l:>ar lndlcatlng the A plan showlng the principal elements of a
propor-tlon ~a represetrt.atlon and deslgn proj~t In the wlder ccntext of lts
. ' . surrounalng en'{iron~ent.
thJt whlch tt ~nts ·~· __
·. -- __:.~---·1..-

69
DRAWING

&tetio!t longftudin415Utían
An orthogr3phic projectlon of an object or An orthcqraphlc projectlon of ;¡ sectlon
structure aslt wookl appear if cut through made by cuttlr11 through the bngest ax!s of
by an lntu~ plane to show lts an ol1ject.
ln~l conflguratlon. usually drawn to
SQ~

eros' S<":ction
An ort~r3phlc projectlon of a sectlon
rruk !;y cuttl~ transversely. esp. at rlght
angles to the ion9 axis of an object. Also
callea tnns'f'erse section.

sectíon line )
A cent.erllne termlnatlng In a perpend'ICul4r
~rnent wlth an arrow. used to Indica te
whue a sectlon ls cut In a plan or elevaticn
v!ew and the dlrectlon In whlch the sectlon
ls to be vleweá.

opfic¡ue $eCtíon
An orthographlc projectlon of a sectton
maJe l7y cutt.lng wlth a plane that ls neither
para llel nor perpend1cular to the long axis cf
an object.

~00
e!entWn
An ort.hogr¡¡phlc projectlon Of an object or
. shades ana shadows
The casting and rendering of shades and
\~~ relief
An apparent projectlon from a flat
struct<Jre oo ¡¡vertical plcture p!ane shadows. esp. In orthograph!c v!ews. to bael:ground dueto contras t. cre¡¡tlng t~.e
p3r3tld to one of lts sldes. usually drawn to convey li9ht, surface. form, and depth. illuslon of three dlmenslons.
SC3~
shade ----.. ·-------------------·----.. ·---- r-·lccal celar
The parts of a salid that recelve no ll9ht \ The natural color of a part~ul4r o9ject <~S it
~u~ they are tangent to or wmea \ woukl a~r In whlte tlght.
away from a theorctlcallight 50\lrGe.
shadow
AdarHigurecast upon a surface !;y an
opaque body lnterceptlng the rays from
a theorctlcall!ght source.

70
DRAWING

p.1r.1line drawi~ .axonametrlc projecticn


Arry ofv.ri:les slnglc-vk:w drawlnqs The orthographlc projectlon of a three-
chm~ by pmllellnes dlmenslonal object lncflned ta the plcture
rtmaln~ pmllel te e3Cb other pf.:¡ne In such a w;;y that its three principal
rather th.a~~ converging ~In linear ;~xes are foreshortened.
perspective.
3xonometríc
A parallne drawlng of an axonome~ric
projectlon. havlng al! fines parallel to the
thru principal axes drawn te sea le but
diagonal and cur.red llnes disterted.

ph.tntcm dímetric projection ísametric is-ometrk: projectíon


A part of ¡¡ dr-Jwlr.g th.at ls made An axonometrlc projectlon of a three- Apa~Mne draw'.~ cf an lsometric An axcnametrlc proje<;tlon of a thru-
tn!ls¡menUv permlt dimenslortal object incnned to the plcture prdp:;tlon. h.avi~.j ;¡illlnes pml!el tathe dimenslonal object havfng its princlp31
represe!Tt~ of detJ lls otherwise plane In such a way that two of lts principal principal axes .:l.":lt<~n te true leryth at the faces equally lncDned to the p!cture pi. ne
hldden fromrlew. axes are t"qually foreshortened and the sa;r.e sea le. so that lts three principal axes are equally
thlrd appears fonqer or shorter titan the foreshortenect.
othertwo.
trimetric projecticn
An axonometric project!on of a
three-dlmensian31 object lncflned to
the plcture plane In such a way that
afl th clpal axes 're
fo ata a·· en

exploded wiew
A drawlng th¡t shows the Individual o!11ique projection
parts of a woctureorcoostructlon A method of projectlon In whlch a thre.e-
sepal"3'tdy M lná~ thelr proper dlmenslonal ol1ject, havlng one princi?JI face
rrutlonships ta eacb other and te para lid to the plcture pf3M.ls.ceprestr~td
the whole. AJso ca!W ~naed t;-¡ projtctlng parallel llnes at sorne aryle
view. other th3n 90°to the plcture plane.

phantcm line cavalier drawing cal7inet drawing o!11íque


A brol:en anc consistir.~ of re la tively A parallne drawlng of an obllque projectlon. A paranne dra.,..'~ :f an oblique projectlon. A parallne drawlnq of an obllque projectlc;1.
lor19 ~rno1ts separa~ by two havlng the recedlng lines perpendicular ta h3Yirtg allllnes pra'lel to the plcture plaM havlnq all nnes and faces parallel to th.e
short dJs~or dots. useJ to the plcture plan e drawn to the same sea le drawn to exact SCJie, and the recedlng llnes plcture pl;¡ne drawn te exact sea le. and al!
representa property llne. ¡¡n as the llnes paralfel to the plcture plane. perperdicular te j,e plcture pl3re reduced reuáln~ nnes perpendlcul;¡rto the plcture
altematlve posltlcn of a part of an to ha:f sea le. pl3ne shoW!lat any convenlent angle otnl!r
object. or the relatív~ po9t!Dn of a n th3n 90~ sometlrT'es at a red ucea se ale te
¡¡~ntpJrt. offset the appearance of dlstort!on.

71
DRAWING
persputive pictorial space continuity of outJine
lvry afV2_rious ~hniques for representlng The illuslon of spau or ~pth deplcW on a A t:echnlque for rep~tlng depth or
t.h.ru-Jtmenslonal objects and ~tlal two-dlmenslonalsurf3u by varlous graphlc dlstance by emphastzlr.g the contlnulty of
rtbtlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonalsurfau means. as aerlal perspect!ve, contlnuity of t.ie cont:our of a shape percelved as l:leing In
front and conceaNng a part of another
¡'.outlln~o.r_v_~~a~~~~-~--~~~ -~
as they mlght appear to the eye.
Pehlnd lt.
; ... - ~ ~ 1--····-· .......... ~patUI eáge
An edge of an object or surface sepa ratea
! .... .
from lts bacl::ground by"" lnú:rraf of space,
aenneated by a tnlder flr.e or by a sha
contrast In va fue or texture.
.

~1 perspective
ij

A~hnlque for renderlng depth or dlstance


by mutlng the hue. tone. aná d!stlnctness
'•
vertlcallocn:lon
~ o;".~.,
:¡;~:::.:~
~

A ~hnique for representlng depth or


dlstance by placlng dlst.nt ol:ljects h~her
~ize pmpective
.4. ~hnique for representlng depth or
dlst;;ance by reduclng the slze af objects
Uxture p~pectlve
A~hnique for representlng depth or
dlstance by gradU31fy lncreaslng the
af objects percelved as recedlng from the In the plcture pl3ne than otjects ~ed pcrutved as recedlng from the plcture denslty of the texture of a sumce
plcture'pl3ne. Alsa called atm.ospheric ;a:; belng closer. pl:lne. perce!ved as recedlng from the plctore
perspectlve. plan e.

linear perspective
A mathematlcal system for representlng
three·dlmenslonal ol:ljects and spatlal
re!atlonshlps on a two-dlmenslonal surfau
!1y rneans of perspect!ve projectlon.
~pectJve proFtlon
A mhoc:l of projectlon In which a three·
dlrnenslonal objtct ls rtp~nu.d by
projectlng an lts polnts toa p!cture p13ne r - picture plane
by stralght llnes converglng atan j An lmaglnary transparent pl3ne. coexlsttnt
~rlfy flxed polnt represelitl ng the eye 1 wft:h the drawlng surface, on whlch the
of 'the vlewer. ¡ 1m3~ af a three-dlmenslonal o!7je.ct ls
! project.eJ.In hnear perspectlve. arry Une or
~;:~~~~-th~-~~-~~-~---.~~~~~~~~~ plane colnck:ltnt wlth the plcture pl3nec•n

,. _
tke c.entr2l axis cf and the plcture
vlslon 1 l>e drawn to exact sea le.

!!'btionpoint -.--···············-....
pbne
A hne.arperspectlve.
flxt.dInpolnt la space representlng a
slng~eye dthevlewerln hnear
~~~~~~~~~i,~J~~~ii~~§~~=J /
/
,: Ap?lnttowardwhlchnudlngp.araliellines
vanishing pcínt In llne;;r perspecUve,
•ppeartcconver~
located at the polnt where a slghtllr.e

perspectlve. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ •/ plólne. set af Unes lnursects the


plcture tcthe
paral!el
horizon llne
A hr.e re¡msentlng the lntersectlon af the
plcture pJ¡¡ne anda horizontal plane through
the eye cf the vlewer In h~r perspectlve.

ground llne
A horizontal Une representlng the
lrrt-ersectlon of the ground pbne and the
plcture p13ne In linear pe:rspect~e. Alsa
called J.,asallne.
-- ground plane
A horizontal pl3ne af reference from whtch
vert1c.1l measurements can~ taken In
linear perspectlve, usually the ~ane .
supportlng the object deplcted or on whlch
the vlewer stands.
cene of vi~ Ion -4
The fleld cf vlslon r2dlatlng outward from central.1xf~ of vl~ion
the eye of the vlewer In hnear pers pectlve, The sl9htllne lndlcatlr.g the dlrectlon In
deflnedby slghtllnes formlng a 15°to :30° whlch the vlewer lslooklng In linear
ang!e wft~ the central axis af vtslon. The . perspectlve, perpendicular to the plcture
cone of vlslon serves as a gulde In p!a~e.
tktennlnlng wh;;at c.;¡n ~ drawn In hne;~r
perspective wfthout the appearance of
dlstcrtlon.

72
DRAWING
ccnvergence faraffclfines perpendicul3r t<J the fmlfd fines p;u-allei t<J the picturt peNpectlve
The ap¡ment movemertt of p<~rallelllnes plcture púne tt{lfappe3r t<J ~nverge at pf3ntrtt.Jin thelroritntation andWi/1 A drawlng of the perspect!ve projectlon of
toward a ccmmon v.nlshlng polrtt as they the centerofvlslon. ... _ ..... nct appear t<J con~gt. an o!?ject or scene, characttr!zed chlef!y ~
reude, usea In linear ~IYe to convey
an Hklsloo of space ana depth.
1 I
convergence and foreshortenln!J.

__ ) ____ _ ¡--·--········ foreshortening


TMapparentcontractlon ordlstortlan of a
represented fine or shape that ls not
para fiel to the plcture plane, conveying an
illuslon of exte~slon or projectlon In space.
diagonal vanishing point
A V3nfshlrtg polnt for a set of horizontal
hnes recedlng at 3 45°~1e to the plcture
plane In hnear pe~ Also callea
diagonal polnt,dlst.ance polnt. --··---

one·polnt per5pective
A hnear perspectlveof a rectangular o!:lject
or volume h.ovlng a principal fa ce paral!el
.·• far;¡UeJ fines rislng upw3rd as they wlth the plcture plane, so that vertical fines
/ ~Wilfzppeart<JCOtTVerge ·
para fiel to the plcture plane remaln vertlc31.
/ sornewhert ~ the horlzon fine. horizontal fines parallel to the plcture pl3ne
_. -- -· van~hlng trace remaln horizontal.and horlzontalllnes
A llne along whlch al! sets of recedlng perpendk:ular to the plcture plane appe3r
_,c..~.c__~--/---l---f---1---'~---=~+-~~-~-.:>..:_J · to ccnverge at the cerrter of vistan.
par¡¡llelflnes lyfng In the same or parallel
planes wltl appear to converge In linear
perspectlve. faraflef fines whích art hcrizontaf M not
pe~dicufar t<J the p~ pf3ne WiU appe3r
rneasuring point t<J ~rrw:rge somewh~ en t.~ e horizon line.
A V3nlshlng polnt for a set of pmllelllnes
used In transferrlng scaied measurements isocephalic
the plcture pl3ne to llnes recediM!J In Havlng the heads of all figures at
linear !ve.·---\ approxlmately the same level Al so.
~phalor

~-~
V l.
two·point perspeaive
A hnear perspectlve of a rectangular o!:lject
or volurne havl114 two principal faces obllque
;o the pk:ture pi3M. so th3t vertical nn~
parallel to the plcture pbne rema in vrn\c31
and two horlzo1Ttal sets of pmliellines
o!7ilque to the plcture plane appear to
C011'r'erge at two vanlshi~ polnts, one to
the left ana the other to the rl!Jht.
diJg<1naf •·- ··· · -·-· · --------··· ---- ...
A stralght Une connectlng two .
nol'l3dj3cen·t ang 1.es of a rectangle, used \
1n supdlvldl~ a wr.ole tnto ·
propor...lonate parts or multlplying a
·.·-~~le untt of ~surement or space..

a n.3 morpho,ls
A dlston:eJ lma~ that
m
appe3rs In n.oturalformonly
when 'r'leweJ ata ~~l.an!Jie
or reflecteJ from a curvea
rnlrror.
horizon fine
graphic three-point p~pectlve
Of or rdatlng to plctorial A linear perspcettve of 3 rectangular object
representatlon. esp. that whlch or vol ume havlng all principal faces o~nque
depfcts In a clear and dfectlve to the plcture plane. so th.ot the thr~
rnannu. View 3t ashallow prlnclp<~l sets of parallel nnes appear to
angle from this polnt converge at three dlfferent vanlshir.~
points.

73
ELECTRICITY
The sciena dealing with the physical
~ gt!iof two or more cells connected
pheno~ arising from the 3
, .
existena and interactlon of electric
together to produce electric curren t.
charges.
cell

1
e!ectric wrge electro motive force A device for convertlng chemlcal into
Tht lntrli!SW; property of m..tter giving rise The energy per unlt charge availaPie for electrlc energy. usually conslstlng of a
t.a an electr1; pnenomena. occurrlng in two converslon from a chemical. mechan leal. or receptacle wlth electrodes In an
forms arl1!tnn1y given posltlve and negative other form of energy lllto e!ectrlcal energy. . electrolyte. Al so callea dectric cell.
na
algepraic ~ns a rr.easured in coulombs. or vice versa. In a converslon devlce 35 a / galv3nic cell. voltalc cell.
Opposite ~rges attract while li~e charges ba ttery. genera ter, or motor. Ab!?r.: emf •........•. 1
repef each otner.
potential difference
j electrolyte
¡ A nonmetalllc conducting medium In whlch
coulomu
The 5I unitofelectrlc charge, ¡:qual to the
qua ntlty of electriclty tra nsferred across 3
woductor lo¡ a current of one ampe re In one
The voltage difference Petween two polnts
that rtpresents the wort lnvolved In the
transfer of a unlt ch3rge from one polrrt to
theother.
y current ls carrled l:1y the movement of lons.
electrode
A conductor through which a current
seconct ADW.: e potential 1 enters or le.aves a nonmetalllc medlum.
The worl: r"e<\Uirea to move a unltch3rge anode
from a rtference polnt to a aeslgnated
polnt. ~ .. -··---------¡ ( The negatlve terminal of a prlmary cell or
storage battery.

+-······· . . , The
cathode
positlve terminal of a prlmary cell or
storage battery.
/
voltage L... circuit ·--·/
f'otenU31 difference or electromotlve force The complete path of an electric
expressed in votts: analogous to pressure in current, lncludlng the source of electrlc
water flow. energy.
volt series····-··· .. --- .. ··-·--· ........... ..
The SI unlt of potentlal dlfference and An •rrangennentofcomponents ln a:1
elecWmot!ve force. defined as the electrlc clrcuit In whlch the sa me
1
alfference of electrlc potenUal petween two current flows through each component
!. po!nts of a conductor carrylng a con~;,t in tu m wlthout !lranching.
1
f.ow: curnnt
curren't of one ampere. when the power
disslp-ted between the points ls ¡:qua! to
parallel ......... _.... _.- .... ·- ........... .
An amngennent of components in an
¡ one watt. AbPr~ V
electrlc clrcult in whlch all poslt!ve
tennlnals are ccnnected to one
conductor and ¡¡ll negatlve termlnals
are connected to ¡¡ second conductor,
the same voltage relng applied to each
componen t.

W= VxA
---r-
power ...._l current ··---· ~ resist.1nce ~- .. · __ ; resistivity
The proáua of potentl31 difference aná The rate of flow of electric charge In a The opposltlon of a conductor te the The reslstance per unlt length of a
CUíl"ellt 1!1 J direct·current clrcult. In an circult per unlt time. mea su red In amperes. ftow of current, causlng some of the sul7st3nce wlth a unlt cross·sectlon.al are a.
alternatln§ c:urrent clrcult, power 15 equal electrlc ener~ to ~ transfonned lnto Also callea speci& resistan~.
t.o t1le ~ of the effectlve voltage. the More the l'l3tln gf eJectrlctty w.l5 fufly heat and usually measureJ in ohms.
~.lt ~s3Ssumed th;ta Jlrtet
A¡,h.:R ccnductMty
effectlve C~~m:nt. ana the cosine of the
a~rmrt floweJ fi-orll; pos1t1ve po1nt ~a A measureofthe allllltyof 3 sul7stance to
p~se af14le retwetn current ana voltage.
neg3tlve one. Thls conventlon fs stlf/ useJ tren ohm conduct electric current. equal to the
wrtt though eiectrons flow In the opposlte directlcn, The SI unlt of electrical reslstance. reciproca! of the reslst!vlty of the
The SI unlto{ po-,.,.er, equal to one joule per from n~tiY~ t.3 posltlve. equal to the resistance of a conductor sul7st.ance. Also callea specific
~ortothe power ~ !ly a In whlch a potent131 alfference of one conductance.
am~e
current of 011e ¡¡ mpere flowíng across a volt produces 3 current of one ampe re.
The paslc 5I unlt of electrlc current,
potentlal ctfference of one volt. APiir~ W Symbol:n
¡:quivalent toa flow of one coulom~ per
~e second or te the steady currerrt producea Ohm's law .... ·---····-------· ............... - f =VfR
An amountof power. esp. tlle power !ly one vott applled across a reslstance of The law that forany clrcult the e!ectrlc
requirea too~ an e!ectrical aevlce or one ohm. All!n-.: A current ls dlrectly proportlonal to the
appll3nce, expressed In watts. voltage and lnversely proportlonal to
amperage the reslstance.
lcilowatt The strengtll of an electrlc current
A Uf1it ofpower. equal to 1.000 watts. Abl7r.: meas urea or expressed in amperes: Joule's law
lcW analogous to the rate of water ftow. The principie that the rate of
productlon of heat by adirect current
leí low:rtt--M ur ls dlrectly proportlonal to the
A unlt ofene-rgy. equal to the energy resistance of the clrcult and to the
tr.;nsferrea or expenkd f;.¡ one kllowatt in squa re of the current.
one hour: acommon unlt of electric power
conS~Jmptlon. A!m~ kWh

74
ELECTRICITY

~ner.rtcr
A rnJChlne th~ converts mechanlcal ~ ~dtreawm~
An electrlc current flowlng In one dlrection
e~rgy lnto electrbl enertr:J. ~ . only and havlng a magnltude th3t does not
~. time vary or vartes only sltghtly. Abbr.: DC
alttrtutcr
A generator for produclng atternatlng
curren t. - alternating current
r--------------------1 An electrlc current that reverses directio~
electric motor _________, - 1
A machine that converts electric power i i at i-egularly recurríng lntervals. havlnq a
magnltude that varíes In a sinusoidal
In to mecha nlcal energy. l l manner. Al:rbr.: AC
arnuture ------------·-··------t··--- ----- -· ·
1
l1 vott-ampere
The maln cum:nt-canyfng wlndlng of a ¡_ .· 1
A untt ofelectrlc measurement, equal to
;:::::~7nhd~~d. L~---~~-.::-~
... .-·
~--- -------- _j r-------------------, the product of one volt and one amper e.
1 1 equlvalent to one watt f~ dlrect·current
17r~h ·---------~--------------------- core ----------------··--·----------+- l systems anda unlt of apparent power fcr
A~ or carron conductor serving A mass of !ron or atherferrous 1 ....
1 alternatlng-current systems. Abbr.: VA
materlalln an electromagnet,lnauctton 1
ta malntaln electrlc contact !?etween 1
flxed ana maYing elelnents In a motor or col1. ortransformer. servlng to k-- transformer
gen era t.?r. concentrate and lntenstfy the l An e!ectrlc devlce conslsting of two or more
rnagnetlc ftekf resultlng from a current
In asurroundlng col l. l l wlndlngs wound on the sarne core. wnlch
f¿==::3HH-:-~~ employs the principie of mutuallnductlon to
coil ------------· ___________ .. -- ... ----r·· convert vartltlons of altematlng current in
A conductor wound In a splral form to i 1 a primary circutt lnto vartltlons cf voltage
Introduce lnductance lnto a clrcuit. L__________________J and current In a secondary c.lrcuit.
step-up transformer
A transfornner having fewer turns in the
prlmary wínaing than In the secondary.
high-voltage
OperateJ on, powere& by, or
transmlttlng high voltage.
¡ , su!lstation
An auxlllary powerstatlon where
e!ectrlcal current ls converted. as
senl~ to transformlow voltage to hígh
voltaqe.
from DC to AC, ~ where voltage ls
~rviu
The supplyi~ of uUiitles. as water. gas. and
~~lty.l'el\ulre& or demandeJ by the (
1'¡
_,- .......
s""..epped up cr clown.
step-down transformer
A transformer havlng a greater num~r of
tums In the prlmary wlnJlng than In the
seccndary, servlng to transform high
pu~llc..
voltaqe to low volta9e.
línedrop
The decreaS<:In voltage l:>etween two line volt.1ge
polnts 011 a power !ine, usually cause.:! The voltage supplled P:f a power Mne.
by res!st311ce or leabge alone the llne. measureá at the polrrt of use.
service ce nd uctor
Any of severa! conductors extendlng from 3
!113in power Une or transformer to the
~,..,;~ entranucond!ICWr __ .... ____________ _

The portlon of a servu conducr.or


··.J service equlpmerrt of a l:>ulkllng.
~~~a~~~~servu }- ·- ·..... ser1ice drop
la~ral to the serke equlpmerrt of a __ -=--=-===-=-=-=--=-.;.:--------:!! The overhead p~lon of servlce conductors
l:>uik:fl~. L _--=--e;.-::.-=--=-""""'==""""=-=-~-- extendlng from the nearest utilíty pele toa
-- building.
W<il'tt-hour meter ---------
A meter for rne;tS~ a na ··----- ~rviu l.rteral
recordlng the c¡uartmy of The un.de~~nd portJon of servlce
eb=trlc power consumed wlth conauctars extend!Mjj from a maln power
rtSpect to ume. rr-=-=.=----=--- line ~ ~rrsformer to ¡¡ l:>ulk:flng.
---------------~-
r- -~ --------------------l
! tr.lnsfonMrvault l 5w!Uhg~r room
1 A flre-:rated 1'00111 houslng a 1 A room contalnlng tM servlce f~der
1 1 1
1 ~nsfof'lnerandauxlharyequlpment 1 equlpment for a large bulk:flng. A'ny of the conductors extendlng
1
: for a 13rge building. usually locateJ on """r.l',J.. ~r~fu equipment from the servlce equlpment to
graJe ~!lelow~roun.:l and ventila tea V1 varlous dlstriWtlon polrrts In a
dlrectly to the outskfe alr.
:L ___________________ _¡l ¡ i The equlprr.ent r.ecessary f~
controlllng. meterlng. and protectl~ l:lulkllng.
1 the electrlc power supply toa bullcllng.
1 locateJ nearthe entran ce ofthe
1
¡ servlce conductors and usually
1 conslstl~ of a maln dlsconnect switch
¡
stand by genaator
L._J: __
- ,--,
l and secondary swltches. fu ses. and
clrcult breakers.
A generator for provldlng emergency 1
power durlng a power outage. Al so 1
c:JI!ed emergency generator. 1 switchl->oard unit substation
1 A freestandlng enclosure houslng a
1 One ora group of panels on whlch are
unínterru¡rtíule power supply 1 mounted swltches. overcurrent dlsconnect switch. a stq¡-down
¡
An emer9ency system deslgned to 1 devlces. meterlng lnstruments. and transformer, and swltchgear for a
provkfe power automatlcally and !:>uses for controlllng and protectíng a number of electrlc c.lrcults.
1
lnstantaneously upon fallure of the 1 number of electrlc clrcults. Als-o cal!ed
nomul pawer supply. 1 swiUhgear.
1
1

L ______________________
1
~
1

75
ELECTRICilY

pluse :-~ live


1M fractlona 1pa rt of a per1od or cycle i E!ectrically connecte.d toa
thro~h whlch tlme hasadv;¡nced, .------------------------------__,+- souru ofvoltage. or
measured from a speclflea rtference electrlc~lly chJrged so ;¡s to
polnt and oft.en expressed asan angle. hJve ,;¡ pot.tntlal dlfferent frcrn
thJt of ~rth. Also. hot.
dead
Not electrlcally conr.ected to
a so urce of voltage.
ground --- ···--·--·········--·· ··•·• --\ ~-neutral
A conductlng connectlon ~tween 3n \ Not electrically char~ed. l
etectrlc clrcult or devlce and the earth \ ~-----~----~--~---~-~~~~~~--~-+---~--+~

or other polnt of zero potentlal 9 fauft


A loc:ll failure In the lnsulatlon
one le or contlnulty of a conductor.
or In the functlonlng of an
120Y electrlcal system.

slngle-phase ------·-----L-................ ..1 three-phase - ..1 short circult


Of or pertalnlng to 3 clrcult energlzed Of or pertalnlng ta a coml:llnatlon An abnorm31. usually
by an alternatlng current wlth one of three cln::ults energlzeá !1y accklental conditlon of low
phase or wlth phases dlfferlng ~ 180°. altematlng current.S or voltages reslstance Detween two
dlfferlng In phase ¡,y one thlrd of a polnts In an electrlc cln::ult,
two-phase cycleor120~
result1ng In 3 flow of excess
Of or pertalnlng toa clrcult energlzed current. Alsa called short.
by two 31ternatlng currents or
voltages dlfferlng In phase ~ oM r .. ·f.;~ shock
quarter of 3 cycle or 90~ :' 1- devlce containlng a strip The muscular spasms ca usea
"" l'lire of fusible metal ¡,y an electric current passlng
;-.r; melts under the heat through the body.
r.Auced ¡,y exuss
1
/ cs;ent, therei?y ~
-----i---1 l:-.cTUptlng the clrcult. .,
serviuswitch ----·-···-----------r--
.- -- 1 plug~
Themalndlsconr.ectforÜ!e 1 ---. ---.J -1 / r
l rnwlem~l A fu se hooslng • fus/'cfe link In a porcelaln
entlre ~al system of a l ;
: :
¡ ¡
1
1 .A-.')'ofvarious metal cupfltt.ed w!th a threadeJ rr.etall:rase.
rulldlng.exceptfor,;¡ny : ¡ . : / 1 i!...')'shavlngarr~' cartnage fu5e
emergcncy power systems. ¡ L.._ --- J../ 1 p;;:rt velow :3000 F
(:'7C), used as sotdu
~--
~ A fuse havlng a one-Ume or renewable
1 r- -·---! 1
;;-J in various safety ., fuslvle llnl: encJos.ed man lnsulatlng flber
1 i : !
1 ¡ ¡ ¡ ~4'~.Aisocanea .... _ tu k
1 ¡ : 1 f~si~e alloy. ,.--- knife-!?lak fuse
1 ¡- _j' 1
1 :.. - l ./ A ca~ fu se havlng ;¡ nlet31 vlade at
1
-- __ ...;._ -- .....;. ______ ~
1 i each end for maklng cont.act wlth the
fus1!71e link wtthln.

time-deliy~
~a=rd on whlch are rnounted the r:== --=--=-- =·-= : -..-=.====-·='""'·""·"'1 Afuse that klays openlng to allow ¡¡ short·
swtt:chts. fu ses. ,;¡nd clrcult 1: ¡ term ovedcad to pass. ;¡s when startlng a
P-reakersforcontrolllngand ¡i ~_j_ motor.
protectlng a numverofslmll.fr : .,
~nclt clrcults,lnstalled In a l!: ;
~--:r- 1
.
calrlnetandACCeSsiP!efrom the 1; · ¡¡ . • \ grouná fault
frontonly.Aisocalted 1¡ ~ ,-·:¡-··-·~ Cll""Curtm.ker -~ Arnomen~ry. usiJ311y acclkntal. grounál~
pandP~rd. -=========4=~'¡ ~;-¡¡-- A $olitch that automatlcally lnttml~ an of a conductlng wlre. ·
1! --:,-- ~.rlc clrcult te prevent exuss current
17us ..... ---·-· ·-··- ......... · -· ····· ·····tr·· :¡ fr..-, damaglng apparaws In the clrcult or ground-fault inturupter
Aheao.-y conductor, usua lly In the 1¡ ~-·_.J_ ~ causlng a tire. Aclrcult ln'eaker r.ay l7e A clrcult !lreaker M SC~SeS currents
fonn of a solkl ccpper V.r, used 1~ ¡1 rec·~ and rtused wtt:10ut ~t ca usea by groond fa ults anJ
for collectlng. carrylng. and ![ ,.....-..----+---- of ry camponents. A!so caltea ~w. lnstantaneoosly shuts off ~r Pefore
álstrihtlng brge eltctric ¡; :1 damageorlnjuryc¡¡n oc.cur.Al*r.: §ti¡
currents. Also calted 11usl7ar. f! :J
rl ---+·'--------------------------
1:
grounded conductor-........... . ..... JJ ....
Any conductor of an electrica 1 Ji
¡¡
system IITUntlanally conn~ ¡:
ta a ground connectlon. Ji . "".;..__---.:,-----------..---------r------
li .,

L~:==:~~~=~~~~~:~-:J -- ---r---------- ---¡


grounding e!ectrode ground wire ~---; ¡
A ccnductor. as a metalground Acanductorconneck.ulectrlc : @ [3
rod, ground pla~. or cotd·water equlpment ora clrcu:t io aground L____ J
pi~. flrmly em~dded In the earth connec~.Aisocarlid ~f'oundlng
to est3171ish a ground connectlon. conductor.

76
ELECTRICITY

lightni~ rod --------·-·-··-·················-·············-. load


Any of severa! conductlng rods lnstJI!ed at \ The power dellvered l1y a generator or
the tep of a structare anJ grounded te \ transformer. or the power consumed by an
dlvert 1\ghtlllng aw;r¡ from the structure. \ appll3nu or devlce.
Also ca 1\ed .alr Urlnin3 L \
\ ccnnecUd load
llghtning 2mster The total load on an elearlcal system or
Adevlce fDf" p~ng electnc ea_ulpment clrcult lf al! connected apparatus and
from dJmage l1y llglrtnlng orother hlgh· equlpment ane energlzed slmult.aneausly.
voltage currerrts. uslng spari: gaps to carry
the CUtTellt to tM 91JUnd wtthout f73SSing maximum demand
throogh the dev!ce.. The greatest load dellvereJ toan electrlcal
system or clrcult over a spectfled lnterval
5pari: gJp oftlme. ·
Aspace Petwee/1 two termlzt:lls or
tl.ectrodes. across wh\ch ad!scharge of c:femana fKtor
electrlctty may pass ata prescr!beJ The ratio of the maxlmum demand to the
volt.age. cannected load of an electrlcal system,
used In estlmatlng the requlrtd capaclty of
the system to account for the prolr.Jirillty
that only a portian of the connected load
may !le applled at any time.
díversityfactor
The ratio of the su mof the maxlmum
demands on the varlous parts of an
electrical system to the maxlmum demand
on the whole.
loac:fflctor
Dr3nch circuit The ratio of the average load on an
The portlofl of an electr!cal electr\cal system over a speclflc perlocl of
system extenalng from the tlme to the pe<~ k load oa:urrlng In that
ftn.al ove re urrent devlce perlod.
protectl~ a clrcult te ti--e
Otitlets saveJ l1y the clrcult.

g!neral purpo:se circuit


A17ranch clrcuft that supplles current toa
numller of outlets for llghtlng and
appl13nces.

applian~ circuit
A !?ranch clrcutt that supplles current te
one or ITIOT'e outlets speclflcally in tended
for appll3nces.

lndlvk:hul c!rr,uit
A 17ranch clrcult that supp!les current ooly
te a slng~ plece of elxtrk:a! equlpmerrt.

distrilnrtlon panel
A pa nd for als;r!Wtlng power to other
panels or te rrctor-s aná other heavy
pc-wer·consum!nqlcads. law-voltage
Of or pertalnlng toa clrcult In whlch
atternatlng curreot ~elcw 50 votts ls
suppl!ed l1y a step·dcwn transformer from
the normal nr.e volt.age. useJ In resldenttal
systems to c.ontro1 doom:lls, lntercoms.
heatlng and coollng systems. and rerr-o<..e
lightlng flxtures. Low·vcrtage clrcui:s :Jo
not requine a protectlve raceway.

Tl
ELECTRICITY

~l7!e wire conduct.?r


A single lnsulated conauctoror a bouna or A pnable metallic strand ora twlsted or A substance. !:>ody. or devlce that ev--nducts
sheathed coml71naUon of conductors woven assembly of such strands. often he at. sou nd. or electrlc lty.
lnsulated from one another. lnsulated wlth ad!electrlc materlaland
used as a conductor of electrlclty. -~
o~rmored cal71e
Electric ca !k conslstlng of two or more .· insulator
· A material that ls a peor conductor cf
lnsulateJ conductors protected by a
flexible, hellcally wound metal wrapplng. electrlclty. used for separatlnq or
supportlng conductors to prevent tr.e
Also called 6X ca!Jie.
undeslred flow of curren t.
mineral-insulated ca171e
~reakdown volt.age
Electrlc caule conslstlng of a tu17ular
The mlnlmum applled voltage at whi.ch a
copper she<~th con'blnlng one or more
cond~rs em~ In a hlghly
glven lnsulator 11real:s down and permits
current to pass.
compressed.lnsulatlng refractory mineral
nonmebllk: s~ c.a171e
dielectric strength
Electrlc ca !?le conslstlng of two or more The maxlmum voltage trut can be applled to
lnsulated conduct«s enclosed In a
a given materi31 without ca uslng 1t to !n-e;;l:
nonmet.lllc, molsturc-reslstant. flame-
down. usually expressed in volts or l::í!ovot<-..s
retardant she<~th. Alsocalled Romex per unlt of thlcl:ness.
c.abfe. dielectric
A nonconductlng substance.
coawl ca171e
A ca!?ldortransmlttlng h~h-frequency
telephone, digital. or televlslon slgnals.
junction box
conslstlng of an lnsulated conductlng tu17e
An enclosure for houslng and protectlng
encloslng an lnsulated conductlng core.
electrlc wlres or cables that are joine.d
shielded ca171e together In connectlng or branchin~ ~lecw
An electrlc ca!J!e enclosed wlthln a meta lile clrcuits.
sheath In ort:ler to reduce the effects of .-····-- knockout
extern.l electrlc or magnetlc ftelds. ..- A panel in a casing or box that can re.adlly
be removed. as by punchinq. hammerir~. ex
cuttlng. to provide an openlng lnto the
Interior.
con&uit
A ~!:le. pipe. or c:luct for enclosln~ and ('-'-T------='1!{() grommet
A rul,?ber or p!astlc washer lnserted in a hoie
protect:1ng ~lectrlc wlres or ca171e. In a metal part to prevent grounding cf ;¡
ri9id metal conduit ~-········-·--· ······-· ··· wlre passlng through the hole.
Heary-wafled. tulnllar steel condult Jolned

Q)"
. lxlshing
l1y scieWing dlrectly lnto <~ threaded hu u -/ An lnsulatlng and protectlve llning for one
wlth loclnuts an..f l7ushln3s.
cood@xs pmlog thmogh' ha<.
=~.:b~~:::d~J~j~i~di;;''-í...___________¿t
compresslon or setscrew cou pllngs. AI7Pr.:
EMf

~!~~!~~;:~m~~-~-~~~-~~:···-··~
used for connectlons te motvrs or other An enclosed runway for houslng conductors
vilmltlng equlpment. Also called Grunfield orca171es.
condult.
P\lsduct
A rlgld metal houslng for a group of !7\Jses
lnsulated from ea eh other and the
t::flclosure. Also callea lxlsway.

racewJy
Ach.anne! expresslyt:leslgned to hola and
protect ~ wlres and cal71es. .....-
&urface rxew.ay - ......... _____ /
Ara~ t:leslg ned for ex posea
lnstallatlon In dry, nonhazardous.
noncori'OSN~ locatlons.

multl-outlet assem171y
Asurface-mounted r.tteeway deslgned to
house the elect.rlcal wlres for a clrcult anda
series of receptacles.

underfloor raceway cabletray


A raceway suftable for lnstallatlon under a An open metal framewon for supportln~
ftoor. often used In offlu 11ulldings to allcw lnsulaW electrlcal conductors.
for the flexlule placement of power. signa l.
and telephone ou~!ets. .

78
ELECTRI(ITY

Jir switch -:--· bup!Jte swiU:h


A switch 111 whlch tM lnterruptlon \ A protectiYe plate surrourtdin~ an electrlc Adevlu for making. t>reaklng. or alrectlng
of a clrcult occurs In air. \\, out!et or li.ght swi"~h. an electrlc current.

knife switch .._ __ -----.-----------. taggle switch


Aform of air switch In whlch a '·,, A switch In whlch a lever or knob, movlng
hi~~ copper Pb~ ls placed '·- """"""""". ~~ throuqh a smallarc. causes the contacts to
!?etwxñ two co~tact enps. open ore lose an electrlc clrcult.

float switch
A switch controHd by a conductor
fuatl~ In a llquki

mercury switch
An es~lally ¡¡uiet Sl'fl'tch that
opens :md clcses anelectrlc
clrcult by shlftlng a sea lea !:'lass
tu~ of mercury so as to uncover
or CCJVtr the conUcts.
___¿:;:.-~--- three-way switch
key'witch ~~: ~! ! A slngle-pole. dou!ne-throw swttch used In
Aswitch operaW D!lly by ~ conjunctlon wlth another to controlllghts
""&-+------------H:
:

! '¡

~;~;i~=:,~;---------------] o ~
from two locatlons.

d
r-----~-..._--!--1 1
1

-'"-----------·[_ __, four-wayswitch


./ : A switch used In conjunctlon wlth two
electríc llght wlthout appreclabiy i U 1 / three-way switch esto controlliqhts from
.affe.ctin.; spatlal dlstributlon. Also 1 1 r -- , three locatlons.
cal!~ dimmer switch. ~------------~¡,
rheostat '
Aresisto!" for ~ulatinq a current
by me:ans of varbt>\e reslstances.

kncl7-.and-tu~ wiring outlet


An ob-solete wlrlng system conslstl~ of A pointon a wlrlng system at whlch
sln.g~.lnsu!ated conductors secur~ to and current ls taken to supply an electric
suppor'..eá on porcd;lln knobs .and tu bes. devlce or apparatus.
loe m ----- ---- outlet11ox
A flexible. nonrnetallic. flre-reslstant tubinq Ajunctlon box deslqned Úl facilita te
for conductor.; In l:n.ob-and-tube wlrlnq. connectlng an electric devlce or
receptacte to a wlrlng system.
---· convenience outlet
An outlet usually mounted on a wall and
houslng one or more receptacles for
-~ portat>!elampsorappllances.
·,,,.... ___ . --·-------· receptacle
Afemale ftttlng connectd toa power
supply and equlpped to recelve a plug.
Also callea socket.

leul cord grounding outlet


A flexl~ insubtd conductor for Asma~l. flexlt>fe. insilitd c.a~ie fitted An outlet havlng an acldltlonal contact
ekctr.c411y connectnj an app;~ra tus to wlth a plug to conr.xt a port.#~ !amp for a groond connectlon.
.anotller orto :.1 clrcult. orap(:>ncetoa ~..acle. \________ plug
p~n wire nlit A m.ale fitting for making an efectrlcal
A short. fbtble corlductor used In Aplas>J.c connec".....-vcontainln~ a connectlon toa clrcuit by lnsertlon in a
COI'tnectln~ a statlor.ery terminal wlth a threaud metal fttt!~ for scr~.,..ing rueptacle.
termlr\41 ha vi~ 3 n~d ranqe of onto the lntertwl~ ~ds of t"'o or
mot!on. more CCflductors. grounding plug
A plug havlng a t>lade for a ground

@
Urmil131 connector connectlon. J,

A condxtlve dement or devlce for Any cf m!ous de-.'a·s for joini~~ t110 or
-~ polarized
estabr,shing an electric connection to more ccnductors .,..;:hout a pe~J~ent
Deslgnea so that a plug and receptacle
an appar.Jtus. splice
can flt together In only one way.

79
ELEVATOR
A m~ pLotfonn or cage for 17ulkhe3d
c..rryir.g passengers or freight from A roxllke structure on a roof provtdlng
~ levei of a úuil4ing te anothu. access toa stalrwen oran eleva ter shaft.

rrrt penthou~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~-- control panel


1:3 ritlsh tern1 f or elevator. A structure houslng elevator machlnery on A panel contalnl114 swltches. huttons. and
the roof of ¡¡ hulk:llng. otner equlpment for regulatlng electr!cal
pa,~r elct'rt.or devlces.
An emt.or exclusive !y fcr tne use of
passer..ps. top car cle.arance hoistlng machinery
The vertical distan ce from the top of an The machlnery for ralslng and lowering an
fre~ht elct'ator el.evator c..r to the nearest overhead elevator car, ccnslstlng of a motor·
An etev..t.orforcarT)'ing r.e3Y)'C.argo. obstructlon when the car platform ls generator set, tractlon machlne, speed
on whtch t.~ operator arJ the perso~s wtth the top !andlng. governor. hrake. drive shaft. drlvlng sheave,
neu554ry for unloadlng arld loadlng
the fre!ght are permftttj to ride.
1 na
a gears,tf use d.
¡ drlving :~!tuve
duml7wafter A whee! or dlsl: wlth a groovecl rlm, used as a
A snuU elomtor for cor.veying food, pul!eyfor holstlng.
dlshes. or other m¡tai¡¡ !s Detween
tM floors of ¡¡ lluJIJing. idle 5heave
A pulleyfor tlghtenlng and guldlng the
flan~ hofstw¡¡y ------------------------------ -----------_.....-+----;t-~--HI~ holstlng cahles of an elevator system. Also
Arowofebiit-ors In a hk3h-~ Avertical enclose<l space for the travel of calle& deflector she3ve.
17ul1dln~ con-trolled by accmmon ene or more e!evators. A!so called eleva-ter
operatlng syst.em .and respondlng toa shaft. machine pea m
slng~ e¡~ llutton. One ohhe heavy steel f,eams supportlng
the holstlng machlnery for an elevator.

-~ hof5ting cable
One of the wlre ca Pies or ropes used for
ralslng and lowerl ng an elevator car.

guider<~il
... ·----- -- 141nding ..,._- ------------------------, One of the vertlcal steel traás ccntrolllng
The portien of ~ floor adjacent to ~n ¡ thetravel of .an elevator car or
elemor holstway. usea for the recelvlng ! counterwelqht.
and dlscharge of passengers orfrelght.

traveling cal71e
One of the e!ectrlc cables connectlng an
elevat<:lr ~rsafety ·----------------------- elevator car toa flxeá electrlcal outlet In
A mechan leal Mvlce for slowtng aown and the holstway.
stopplng an e!evator c¡r In the event of
~ ·----------·-------------------- ou:sslvc: ~ orfree t. R. actuate.d by a
The v~l a!Stance tnr~ !ly an
govemor and clamplng the guk:le l'llls by a
~tal- Qr from the bwes t ta the
weaglng actlon.
n~kest !ar.dings oft'-' no!stway. Al~
Q/bltnvd.

hoi$tW¡¡y door ---------------------------------------


A door ~ween ~ holstway and an elevator
landlng, no1"11141fly closed except when an
e!Mtor car ls stoppea at the landlng. counterwelght
A welght halancl119 ar.other welght, as the
rectangularcast-lron ulocks mounted In .a
steel frame to courtt-erí1alance the load
placea on the holstlng machlne !ly an
elevatorcar.
e!ectl'lc elevrt-c r
~.n
ebr3tor system conslstlng of a llmlt5wltch
Qr ~ ls II'IOUntedon gulde rails,
A switch that automatlcally cuts off
supporteJ !ly holstlng ~f.rles. and current toan electric motor when an object
M-.-en by eb;tric holstlng m-.::hlnery.

l
moved hy tt. asan eleva ter car, has passed
Also cal!eá tnctJon elevrtcr. aglven polnt.

elevator plt -------- ----····-----------------·-----·---------- buffer


The portlon of ~ holstway extendlng from
the level of the lowest landlng to the floor A plston or sprlng dcvlce for a!lsorulng the
of the holstway. lmpact of a descendlng elevator car or
counterwelght at tneextreme lower llmlt of
trave!.
L.~ l>o-ttom carck.-ir~nce
The vertical dlstance from the floor of an
elmtor plt to the lowest part of an
eleva torear pl~tform when the car rests on
fully compres sed buffers.

80
ELEVATOR

eleva ter car


The foacl-carrylng unlt of an e!e-r.~'Y.
conslstlng of a car frame, platform. M~ht
tnetal enclosure, and door or 93 te. •
---- carframe
The structural steel frame of an emtcr
car te whlch are attached the pbtfor.n,
gutde shoes. elevatorcar safety. holsting
cables. and contrcl equlpment.

--·-·- ---~-~-~~·.:·::~-r . -, ~ ~~:.:sually


.- !
over the entranu to 3 n
e!evator on each floorof a multistory
' building. that signJls the apprcJcn of :."'e
e!evator.
i
_. i.. -···· annunciator
A slgnallng apparatus in an elev;¡ tor w• cr
at alanalng thatdisplays a vlsuJI tr.dlcatlo11
of ftoor lanaJngs.
machlne room
Aroom housl119 tht holstlng --... c.311 17uttcn
machlnerj'. control equtpmcmt, ~ A push ltutton for requestlng ¡¡,; el~J;.c-r.
and $haves for r.alslng ana
. ~· door intei'Uk
loweri"'J an ~car.
A saf~ lbice for preventlng the
operatlon of an ele1ator car unle:s:; the
hclstway doorls lcd::ed In the clost.d
posftlon.

e
door cont.1ct
Asaf~ dev!ce for prevenUng t~.e
oper.~tlon of an eleva te-r car unless its Ó.X1'
or ga~ ls fully el~. Al so cal!eJ gJ~
contact.
hydraulic elevator
An elevator system conslstlng of a car
supportea by aplston that ls moved by or
moves agalnst a fluid under pressure.
[.
~-·--4---
L .• .J

... coml7plate
/ The tootheJ portlon of the th res hold plate
: at roth enás of an escJiater or mcvlng warl::.
·. des!9ned te mesh wlth the grooved surface ~at.tor
\ of the movl119 steps or treadway. A power-drlven stalrway conslst!ng of
steps attached toa ccntlnuously
clrcu!atlng bett. uSt<i for JT\0111119
passengers up and dcrYn between fl.ocrs.
Also cal!ed mOYing stalrcase. movír1.3
stalrway.

moving sidewalk
A power-driYen. continuously movíng
surf;~ce. slmi!Jr toa conveyor belt. usd ':;r
inclined Hft carrylng pedestrlans horlzontally cr akJq
A chalr or p!Jtform mounkd on a steel low Inclines.
gutde ral! and drlven by an electric motor.
people mover
used for ralslng or lowerlng a person or Any of varlous forms cf mass transi~. as
goods along a stalrway. Alsocal!ed stalr movlng sk:lewal~s or autom3ud drtv~s
IIft. vehlcles. used for shuttllng people are"~
alrports or In congesW urban areas
~ FAS:U~I~G
H~dingtogether or unitl~ two or
mere parts or members. as by 4d 6d 8d IOd 12d 16d 20d -· ...• penny
d.tm~ with .a mechanic.ol fastener. The deslqnateJ length af a nail. from
ry ronding with .an adhesive. or l1y IV2' 2' 2V2' :3' 4'
twopenny to slxtypenny. Symbol: d
weldíng or solderi~. ?XJmm 51mm 64mm 76mm 83mm 102mm

r..1il shank
f, stni!ht. slender piece af metal havlng The stralght. narrow part of a nail cr bolt.
~ ena polnted ana the other enlarged and between the head 3nd the polnt.
f~ for hammerl~ lnto wood or other
b<Jildl~ mterlals as a fastener. '
eightpenny naíl
A na1121f21nches (64 mm) long.
six-t:unpenny nail
A nall :31/2lnches (89 mm) long.

cl.lt naif spike


A ~d Ull~ a tapering rectangular shank A heavy n.all forf.astenlng together he3VJ'
Mtlt a Wunt polnt. mac:le 11:; cuttlng from a tlm!lers.4to 141n. (102 to356 mm) long a~.d
rclleJ sheet af !ron or steel proportlonally thláer than a common nall

wireun driftl1olt
A ~rt mc:le 11:; cuttl~ and shaplng a plece n===========::bt> A splke h.avlng a round shanl:. driven into
cf round or etnptlcal wire. predrllled hales to fasten heai'J' tlrr. bers
together. Also callea driftpin.
ccmmonnan
A n;¡Qigvtn~ a slender shank. a flat hea.d.
anJ a ~monJ polnt.
o_u!l~!!~ll~'~'----------------~~ staple
A U-shaped plece of metal or heal)' wlre
wlth polnted ends. driven lnto a surface to
~uf(
secure sheet material orto hold a hasp. pln.
An;ad having a ft¡¡t heaJ ana ashank more
~th4n a ccmmon nail of the same il '" rr" or bolt.

~ currug.rted fastener
Afastener ccnslstlng of a plece af
~~rua corrugated sheet stul wlth one W.VJ' eaqe
An;a•~uvtng a small canJea 1hea d an.:l a e'""'' sharpeneJ. for unltlng two p!eces of wood.
s!gnl; ~ ~ than a ccmmon nail af
as In a mlterJolnt. Also cafted wiggle nail
~ sa111e le:n§th. used In flnlsh wori: In whiGh
;U head mzy rema In v!slble.

fici:shing nail
Arta•bvi114 a slentlershank anda s:nall. o'."'"
~~:-"-----'-'-------··-...=;¡¡;.J;;> round point
An acute. con leal polnt on a nall or spi(e
~pea head that 1$ dr!ven sllghtly
~the surf3u and CCf~ wlth putty or ~Ul; ; -·:¡;¡,¡;,¡; ; :.:-.·~· ·-~ -~~~ díamond point
An acute. pyramldal point on a nail or spil:e.
thelk
Pnd ~. _ ·.·. -~·.. ~---=2J chisdpoint
A polnt on a nall or spike formed l1y two fut
A ~flnlshlng ruil. lnclln---.,d sldes meeting ata sharp angk:.
doub(c-~ded na il
A113• used In ~J1dlng te-mpcr3 ry
~res. as scaffoldlng and formwort.
R!l/111!1 ·¡ jlll'~'~·~~·!«¡ - ............... face·nail
~a~ on tts shanl: to prevent it
To fas-:.tn l7y naillng perpendicular to thP.
an
fn:m ~~ drlven In the way a-nd to le<lve tace of the wo~.
the he3d free for pumng. A!so called fonn r·· .. _........ _ toen.1il .
n.111. suffold n.ai1. To secure bY nalll~ ov~uely to the
cc~ruii surfaces ~einqjolned. Alwnate na lis m;¡y
A~ na M~ng a fi!Md or be drlven at opposlte angles t<J prcl't'lde
~ shank aná a dbrnond polnt for
lncreaseJ holding power.
haiWieli~ lrTto concrete or masonry./<Jso 1....................................... end·n.ait
olblnu SON')' !U il. To fas ten l7y rulll~ lnto theend af a board.
flooring na n ~~~~ parallel to the grain af the wood. End-na iling
A oHorf;astenlng floor roards. havl~ a
s.nal con~l ~a, a mechanically def01111ed ~------------·-------------· ~:=~"'"•'-'•"tcwlthdcaw.l.
shant. anda !lluntdbmond polnt. To s.xure l7y nalli~ In such a way that
~hankruil nallheads are not vlsl!71e on the face af the
Ao• hM~ a series of concentrlc gi'OOI'es a""'' l¡;¡·ihHu]l!ljHik/tJ.í:IUJ,Ii!lrl"ii!~
worl::. • .

:~-=:5_~.~--- ~:;l.,k
on ~ s~nk for lncreased holding power.

roofing nan a """'d sl.lghtf¡ bolow tho sorlau


Arg¡ h3Ying a lraliled. thre3ded, or cement· ~~--======= wltha nallset.
coated shanl: anda ~ro 3d. fut head for
óstenlng shlng~ or the lil:e. ~ ~ - ............... ~!i:ure a nall or screw In posltlon l7y
drW$Crew
AM4l fastener h:avi~ a he!lGally threaaeJ
~JI!4\!ii#Tiljil~
namng strip
Astrip of wood or other pa rtly yleldlng
hammerlng down the protrudlng polnt. 1
shac thatcan be drlven with a hammer and material attached toa hard surface. as of
reli"Oied wtth a screw driver. ~lso callea steel or concrete. so that oujects may be
sáewn.1íl. fas tened to the surface. 1l
1
f
82.
l
J FASTENING ,

screw
A metal fastener hav!ng a tapered, helk:ally
threaded shank anda slotted had.
designed to !:>e dr!ven lnto wood or the like
by turnlng. as with a screwdrlver.

thread ------------------------------ wood screw


The hellcal or splral rldge of a A screw havlng a slotted head anda
saew. nut. or ~t- threaded polnt that perm!tslt t:o form its
own !Tl3tlng threads when driven into wood
pitch --------------------------------1 with a screwdr!ver.
The dlstance l:>etween two _
corresponcl~ polnts on adjacent =~=======~~~ self-tapping screw
threads of a screw. nut. or bolt. Í Acoarse-threaded screw desígned to tap
lts correspondlng female thread as 1t ls
drlven. A!so called tapplng screw.
lag screw
~~~~~u·p~~~~;~~-------------~- -~ A heavy. coarse-threaded screw havl ng a
square or hexagonal head driven by a
drllled hole so that the head of ~~ wrench, used In areas lnaccesslbie to the
screworJ;,oltwflllleflush wlth or ~~'-~-- placement of a nut or where an
below the surface. ..:..:::-."-~
"'~~ exceptlcnally long bolt would be needed to
pitothole ~--------------------­ penetra te 3 jolnt fully. Also called coa eh
Aguldlng hale for a naif or screw, or screw.lag Polt.
for drllll~ a brger-slze hole. machine screw
tap
Ametal fastener used with a nut or driven
To cut screw threads lnto an lnto a tapped hale. having a straight,
openlng. threaded shank anda slctted or Philllps
head for tumlng wlth 3 screwdr!ver.
strip
To te3ror darruge the threads on capscrew
a bottorscrewbyapplylng too Ametal fastener for machlne pa:-ts. havlng
much foru. a stralght. threaded shank held ry threads
tapped In the hole lnto which lt is screwed.

~
sheet-metal screw
A coarse·threaded screw for fastenlng
sheet metal and other thln material.

K~~~~ e setscrew
Ascrew, oft;en wlthout a head, threaded
through a hole In one part tlght~ upon or
lnto anotherpart to prevent re!atlve
futl~ad - ·------------- movement.
A screw head havlng a flat upper surface thumvscrew
2nd a conlcal bearlng surface.
e Ascrew havlng a flattened, knur.ed head
designed te M tumed by the thumb and
ov;¡J head ·---------- foreflnger.
A saew head havlng a shallow. spherlcal
sha~ wlth a conlcal!1earlng surface. screweye
A screw havlng aring-shaped head.

slotted he3d
A screw head havlng a single slot. drlven by
a flat-tlpped screwdrlver.

panhe.ad ·-·----------- -·------·--· Phillips he.ad


A screw or rlvet head havlng a cyllndrlcal Ascrew head havlng two partlal slots
shapt: wlth a rounded shoulder. crosslng at ~ht angles. driVen by~a Philllps
screwdrlver.

fillisterhead ----·- Allen head


A cyllndrical screw head havlng a slightly Ascrew head havlng an axial hexagonal
domed upper surface anda flat bearing recess. driven by an Allen wrench.
surface.

17~1ehead · ----------- -- securlty he.ad


A screw head havlng a flat uppe~ A screw head deslgned to reslst remOTa!
surfJce andan underslde shaped fil:e wlth a flat-tlpped or Philllps screwdrlver.
the bdl of a bugle.

83
FASTENING"

~lt square he.ad


A thre3ded metal pln or rod, usu3lly Abolt or screw head havlng a squa re sha pe . >-· ~u~ u.< re or r.ex.J1onJI rre:.JI bloc.!:
h3vlng a head at onc end. des~ned to deslgned to re tumed wlth 3 wrench. • perfor.Jttd wi:h a thread!d r.ole to f-:
be Inserte& through hales In assemPied ..- _.. around ar.J se-cure a bolt cr screw
~-· neck
p3rt5 and secured f¡y a matlng nut.
i Thc part on the shank of 3 bolt next to . . ~cKn~
: the he ad. esp. when 1t has aspe<:lal for;!J- .· · ~ A nut specl31~ c.onstructed to prO'Y"Üe

©
. extra frlction f.Jetween rtself anda s.:rew or
carriage 11oft
> bcrt.
A bolt h3vlng a rounded head. 3 fut beJring
surfau, anda squarc shouk:Jer for . C.1Steluted nut
pmentlng rotatlon, usea
where the he3d A nut having r:M131 slits onlts outer f;;ce to
may ~ lnaccesslble durlng t!ghtenlng. ;allow a lod;lng pln or wíre to be ln~r-..eJ in
Fi----1 ~ ·
O ~Uii-.~-____-;=.:...-JI!E~~·m,oll!li~~~~,~-,
bcth the nut and 3 hole in rts bol t. Ats.J
machine 17oft
A bolt havlng afut ~rlng surface anda
squarc or hexagonal he3d for tumlng wlth a
_ n :~:stle nut.
wrtneh.
hex head
· ·,
\l:J/ A nut 1-!Jvlng a hexa9onal Da se .1nd .< ;:lcrr.ed
tcp to cmer the threaded er.d of a s.:rew.
A boft or screw head h3vlng a hexagonal ',, Also CJIIed ac.om nut.
mea wlth a wrench.
~:~, ~:;~ ~=
sha pe deslgned to be tu

'•, ,'·,','- - .,_ ~


• ¡J two fbt pn>joctlng
prov!Je a grlp for tlghttnlng wtth thc thumb
Wt

and foreflnger. Also called thumlmut.

)--¡;)-·· .~~~ted
~!§i~~~=~h=~~~,-~:~d ct------<~
d1s( of metal rubt>er. or
u ---- - ----
~ plastlc. used urkrthe he;Jd ofa nut or bolt
or ata jolnt to c!.stributt p-ressure. prevent
A~lroJk>entlntheshapeofaU3nd _,fi) m? leJI:3<3e. or rerie1e frictton.

threaded at t3ch end.


·-,·-- .... ___
.. ·--.,___

· &W ~kwasher
A washer speci.<lly constructed to p~ent

~=~-~;;;;~~;J;;;~~----~ a nut from stuk!ng loose.

@~

lolJ-lndicm~ washer

rci:~~~::.i:~~
arms.
--- - - -~TTYl_
~--
.:··..
A W3Sher havlng small projectlons which are.
~ressfvely futtened as a rolt l5
~htened. thqa p

rott.
retwe.en
tr.e he-3d or nut
an.J the washer lndlc3tlng t:he talslorl ¡, the

t.urn!?u<:kle -···-·······-·········· ......


A~ link or ~ lnternally thread~ 3t ccun+...erllore
euh end. usea forcoupling and tlghteni~ To Incras-e t:he d~meter of a portioo cf the
two p.arts. as the threaded ends of two ~ gt h of 3 drl 1!ed ho te to recelv e the he;;~ d
rods or stays. or nut cf a rolt or screw.

exp.an,lon 17oft ..... end dist.anu


An anchor 11o1t havl~ a spnt C3s!ng that :· •.
The dlst3nce ~een tñe end of a ~
expands mechanically to engage the stdes
.and the center of the ~rest bolt !~ole.
of a hole drilled In -nusonry or concrett. .
Mclly ----··------------·--··---·---···-···----~
:... ........ ···-· ·-·· edgt d15t.an.ce
The dlst3nce from the ~e of atlmbe:- •r.d
rrackmari: for a Pr.lnd of expanslon rolt the center of tl-.e ne<~rest bolt ho~
h2vl~ • spllt. sleevelll:e shea th threadeJ so
th.t wmlng the bolt draws the ends of the
s~th together and spreads the sldes to
cnga~ a hole drltbiln m3sonry orthc lnner
surf3u of a hol!ow wall.
exp.an,lon 'hiekf --- ·------ ····· ---- · · ·· ·· ·· ······-- ····
A lt3d or pbstlc sme lnserted lnto a
predrllled ho~ and expanc!ed ~ drlvlng 3 lewi5 ~lt
rolt orscrew lnto lt. Also cal~d expanslon An anchor bolt 1-!Jvlng a ~-shapea end
sleeve. .around whlch coocrm or le3d ts pourt.J UJ
togglel1olt·· .. ························· .. ···· -~ hola lt.
An anchor bolt havlng two hlnged wlngs fox~lt
that elose agalnst a sprlng when p3sslng An anchor bolt I-!Jvln!J3 split tnd to re:c.e:vc
through apredrilled hole and open as they a foxtall wedg.e as 1t ls scrtwed lnto a Hlr.d
emerge to engagc the lnner surf3ce of a hale.
hollow wan.
FASTENING
.--------·------------------ --- :.... framin9 anchor
tuo.ger /. i Any of varlous sheet-metal connectors for
A,~ of varous IHhap&i ~1 lrrackets for / jolnlng llght wood framlng meml?ers, uslng
Soi¡~l"'§ ~ end of a beam.jolst. purlin.
/ speclal na lis whlch are loaded lateral !y
or t.-us5 Jt a §lrder or wa 11. w supported rather than In wlthdrawal.
~ tnnsfers tts react1on to the
~~r t:hrough ~rlng.l>ut load transfer
t.:; ':!-.es~ member ls through shear
m ';'e~ rti!lls securlng the hanger. :. .--- --------- --------·· hurrlcane anchor
A framlng anchar for tylng a rafter or truss
toa wall plate and securlng 1t agalnst
lateral and upllftlng wlnd and seis mle
.. -· l -~l
forces. Also called hurrlcane tle.
/ ! ------·---------- jolstanchor
/ ~ ¡ A metal tle strap for securlng the jolsts of
a floor or roof dlaphrag mtoa concrete or
/ ~ rnasonry wall In arder to transmtt lateral
1 ..,.,... / ' wlnGI or seis mle forces .
1 ' / / •. ·· .. --- floor anchor
A metal tle strap for restralnlng a floor of a
llght wood frame structure agalnst
1 . upllftlng wlnGI or selsmlc forces.
'
~illanchor
A framlng anchor for securlng a slll plate to
~msm-~! a concrete slav or foundatlon wall.
ALrsll3ped M4ll1r3cket for anchorlng a
t'~~ ~~~~toa concre~ support.
hok:laown
A metal devtce for restralnlng a wood frame
postcap -------------------------/ structure agalnst upllftlng wlnd or selsm!c
AV-shaped r.et3l ~rxket for securlng a forces. conslstlng of a sttffened steel angle
e~ :.e..~~~ toa supportlng post. Also 11oftea ~a wall stud and secured by a
Q~~t.~a~C3p. threaded rod toa concretefounJatlon.
_.... ---------
pmu~ ---- .. -.
ALl--shiped ~ ~ket for supportlng ~ ··.
~~.a .;r.c~ a ~ber post to lts va~ or <>-.
f cw.: ~.d:it!oo. A!so c;¡fle.d cohmm 17a se. ·.. ·..

~j -----------------·----------- tim17er connector


ACJ1rnár'd pm ftttlng snug!y lnto hales A metal rlng. plate. or grld for transferring
b Poo ~ pieces to prevent thelr shear ~etween the faces of two tJml:>er
s-hr?Ú"l!! cr to • • them. Also called mem!?ess. used wfth asingle bolt that
dcw-d p1rt. serves to restraln and clamp the asseml:lly
~her. llm!?er connectors are more
~pbte efflclent than 11olts or lag screws used
A >~·rret;~l pbte punche.d to produce ,. a!one slnce they enlarge the area of woocl
• cesdy ~§lid of protrodlng teeth. over whlch a load ls dlstn!luted.
t::d ~s ¡¡ sp&ce pbte In the IT13nufacture
C"P.;frtwood~

spiU grlJ
A f1.r. or ~ et~rv&i grld of spikes for
~~ havytwt~. he!á In place l7y ¡¡
:;;.'""!l~ Pdt. ~ re-su~jolnt 1-s
~.Jrrt :o locsenlng dueto vlbratlon.
1::-:p..ct. 2nd~ lateral loods.

- s~r p~te '·, ~plit·rlng


Atlm~r cannector conslstlng of a round A tlmber connectorconslstlng of a metal
plate of mallea171e lron lnserted lnto a rlng lnserted lnto correspondlng grooves
ccrrespondlng groove, flush wlth the face cut lnto the faces of the Jolnlng memvers
of a tJmDer, and held In place l7y a single and held In place l7y a single l:lolt. The
l>olt. Shear plates are used In vac~·to- tongue-and-groove spht In the rlng pennlts
lr.:lck palrs to develop shear reslstance In lt todefonn slightly under loadlng and
demounta!lle wood-to-wood connectlons. malnt31n Vc:arlng at afl surfaces. whlle the
or slr19!y In a wood-to-metal connectlon. l:leveled cross sectlon ea ses ln~rtlon and
en sures a tlght-flttlng Joln t after the rlnq
ls fulfy seated In the groo-.--es.
FASTENING
$0!kr braze weld gas we!áing
To unlte two pJeus of ~~ !1:1 Tounite two pleces of metal !.>y To unlte orfuse two pieces of metal by Any of ¡¡ group of weldlng pr~sses
.applylng .any of vañous nooferrous applylng 3nyofvarlous nonferrous heattng ana allowlng t.~e met:Jis to f.cw utliiZing the he3t produced !:>y the
solders. usUJ!ly .a ~In-~ .al1ey, ata sak:!ers. usually acopper-zlnc alloy. at together, sametlmes 11-ith pressure arJ the coml:>ustlon of a oxygen anda fu el gas, as
tempmture 1:-elow MO'f (427't}. a temperature aDove 800'f (427't}. addltlon of an Interme-dia te or fllltr rr.etal. acetylel1e.

solder are we!ding


Any of varlous fusiV!e albys applled In
a mol ten state to the jolrrt t>etween
two metal parts to unlte them
withoot he3ting the parts to tne
melttng poln~ Tht JI10iten saláer flows
filler metal
The metal that ls added durlng a
weldtng. lmzing. or soláerlng
process. navlng a meltlng polnt
l Any of agroup of weldlng processes
utinzlng the heat of an are l:>etwee-n an
electrode Jnd ~he b3se metal.
-----··are
A sustalned luminous discharge of
tnto aJolnt !1y capllt.ary mractton. either approxlmatelythe same as or
electrlclty across a gap In;; c!rcuit or
~:~:rJhatofth• motal• Ud~ •• c~+f:?Wff~((., between two e!ectrodes. A!so callea
electric are.
_.,.._"'-<'c-~""""".,._~~.....,.""""-""-"""'11-".JJ..,,,¡,r,',','; ·. ···,:~. .....,,_ · --- ----· shie!Jed met.al are weldi~
::.""---:-""':-;t~--.;:o::~"'"----.::<:~~"""____,~ A method of .are weldlng using a
consurnal:>le metal electrode that
. , reJa ses an lnert gasto form .a shleld
aroond the are. Thls shleld protects
filletwekl 11ase metal .~J the wek:l are¡¡ from oxygen anJ nltrogen
A wek:f wtth .a trl.angular cross íhe principal met:Jl to !:>e welded. A contlnuous deposlt of fused
In the ¡¡Ir that wouk:l e;¡ use ra ptd
se.ctlon jotntng t~ surt.ces that l:>razed. soldered. or cut, as metal. Alsa cal!ed wek:l ~d.
oxid3tlon of the flquld metal
meet tn an Interior riqht angle. ------ dtstlngulshed from filler metal.
welding rod -· inert-gas shielaed .are wetái119
A wire or rod of filler ~retal used A method of are weldlng In wh~n the
.--------- toe in gas-wek:!ing and !mzing welá ¡¡rea ls shle!de.:f !lytM corrtlnuO\Js
./ Thejunctton l:>etween the processes. and In thcse arc- flow of an lnert gas from an externa!
o
/ 11ase metal and the fa ce of a welálng processes In i'l'hlch the sauret. the filler metall:>eing $Upprled
// welá. electrode does not fJmish the
filler metal
JI by 3 consuma!ne metal electrode or !:>y
a separa te weiJ1 ng rod.
--· root
lap wdd
A wek:l rrude along the sea ms of
The polntat whlch the 17acl:
or l:>ottom of a weld muts
tM In se meta l.
flux
A sulistance, as ros in. 3ppl!ed to.
1-- · - flllX·CC~ are weldift9
A method of are weldlng uslng a tu trufar
remove oxldes from ;:-Id prevent stul e!ectrode conta lnlng ,¡¡ core of
two overiapplng p1et:es of metal
_ _ __:___:__ _ _ _ _ ___,._....,.,.~_,.,__,___,""--",___,-=-_,- thro.rt further cx!datlon of IT'.et.al vaporlzlng flux that forms a g;;~s
'' ••, The dlstance from the root of surfaus to l7e Jolned ~ wek:llng, shle!J •round the wek:l area
·,, _.,/ a we!Gf to the f.lce of the !:>ase Draztng. or salderlng. _
~' ... ..,.,'¡ metal submergea are welding
A method of are weldlng In which the
Pvttweld weld area ls shk!!de.:f by a ¡,{¡n~et of
A weiJ bttween two p~s of fusl~. gl'3nular metal that n-.elts to
11'1ebl ~uu.l ~- form ¡¡ ~ of protectl\' e sla ~ Tl~
;... filler :Metal may !;le supplltd !.>y ;a
pJrtbl·pen~.rtlon weld full·penetratio nweld puddle weld ----------------- t-'-\l
consum;~ble dectrode or by 3 separa te
AMt weld h~ .a depth less A ~tt 1~d having a depth A weld made 11:; trumlng a hale In h~~i::::::.:=~~"'"'"'"".,.....,r
weldl~ rod.
th.an ~ thickness of the sma l!er equal to the thickness of th~ a p!ece of sheet metal and ftlllng
of ~ two meriers being .Jolned. smaller of the two meml1ers wlth a small pool of molten re-si't-.1 nc.e welding
l:>elng jolned. rretal. Any of ¡¡ group of welding processes
f ----""'-:----·--- ----¡
utlrizlr'g the heat generated by resist4nce
! ·~-. ' to tbe passage of 3 dectnc current.

61ng1Hevel weL:f double·ilevel wekl 6ingle-vu weld aouule-vu weld -groove weld
A ~roove wela 1ft wfllch the A groove wek:lln whlch the A groove wek:lln whlch the edge Agi"'Ot'e weld In whk;h P-.e edge A wek:l made In a preformed lndent<~tlon
~ofoneal7utt~ ll"oe!T1Per edge of one abut"tlng meml>er of each abuttlng mem~ ls of ea eh .ab-vttlng memw ls retween two alnittlng p~eces of IT'<:t.tl.
1s ~ from one stde. lsl:>eveled from !1oth sldes. l:>eveled from the same stde. Develed from both sk:ks.

rmt .. ... pneumrtic riveter


Ametal pln havlng a ht.ad at one A pneumztlc hammer used
end, ~~Sed for unlttng two or more wlth a riret set to form the
plat:es !ly passlng the shanl: seccnd head of a rivet.
thro~h a hok:ln exh plece and
hamrrering down the p!atn ena to rivet~
forma ~d head. A tool f01' shaplng the
second 1-.ead of a rivet.

drift del !y explosive rivet


A rounJ, taperlng plece of metal for Atoo! for recefvlng and nalding the A rivet for ajolnt 3CCesslble from or-e
enlarglng or angnlng holes to recelve head of a rlve't whlle the other end ls slde on!y. havlng an explosive·filleJ
rlvets or 11olts. Alsa callea drlftpln. 17elng headed. shank th;¡t ls detona tea !.>y striking t.he
head with a hammer to expand tt.e
aligning punch shan~ on the far slde of the hale.
Adrift for l:>rlnging holes In line to
receive 3 rlvet or bolt.

86
FIREPLACE
Pannet A framed opening made in a
A core:r for ;an open flrepl3ce. or ¡¡ chimney to hold an open fire.
cowl hood. or wlnd capto lncrease

[;;i~f~;~~,;;;··········~r
chímney ...------ chimney cap
Avertl<:al.lncom~stl!l!e structure / A ralsed cover for a chimney, usually
contalnlng a ftue through whlch the / In the form of a sla b or cornlce.
smoke and gase5 of a flre or
fu mace are carrled off to the /,/ ....'·(-x-- chi_mney pot .
velitliJtor. · / / ·--,, AcyHndrlcalplpeofearthenwareor
out51de and by means of whlch a
5park arres ter- .. ----- ------- draft ls created. esp. the part of ¡ _./t metal, fltted on top of a chlmney to
A devlce. ccnslstlng of wlrt: netting su eh a structurt: that rlses a!love 1 , / / j lncrease draft and disperse smcle.

or ~ lixe. used to stop or deflect a roof. / _-(


,< 1
sparts or emDer-s thrown from an . r; 1

op~ flrepiJce or chlmney.


smokestaá "~~'--"""-' 1 1
1

~ ! ;
1

Apipe for the e5eape of the smoke 1 i


or gases of com!lustlon.
prefa~rícrted flue ·-------- -----------
Amet¡l vetrt: forfuel--flrtd draft
equlpment. assemúlea from factory- A curretTt of alr In any enclosea
IT13de parts. space. asln a room, c;hhnney. or
stove, caused by the dlfference In
temperature or pressure.
smoke dome ----------------------- ,..,.---r--.flue lining
The smol::e chamber coverinq of a downdraft [piiiiíiiii~~ A smooth-surfaced untt of heat-
prefabricateá metal flrepiJce untt. A downward current of alr In a reslsta lit flre e!ay or nghtwefght
cnlmney or flue. often C3rrylng concrete. h3vlng a ~uare.
hood ---- ------------------------· smoke wtth lt. rectangul3r. or oval sectlon. used for
A metal cover or canop:t for a linlng the flue of a chlmney.
store. flreplace. chímney. or
ventilJtcr.
;...c;:--'"'r'"'-,-_,..._,__ fire screen flue pargeting
A screen placea In front of a An Incombustible passage or A smooth ~nlng of mortar or pla s ter
fireplace to prevent sparl:s or
_ em!lers from enterlrg the room.
d•Ct loe smokA"'Y· for 3 chimney flue. Alsc. parget.

~runt.el m;mteltree c;himney mast drili


A~strvctlon fr.lmin4 the Astor.e or wooden lintel CNer 3 A partof a cnlmney orflrep13ce A devfce for regulatlng the current of
openlng of .a flrepbce and usually flreplace openl~. ora that projects out from 3 wall. alrln a stov~ orflrepl:lce.
cove:rlr.q partofthechlmney masonry arch used In place of usually lnsk:le a~lkllng.
b-re;ast In a <kcor3tlve IT\3nne:r. sucn a lintel. damper
A!so cal!e.d m.1nUlplece. chimney arch A mov3b'e piJte for regui3tlng the
An arch over a flreplace openlny. draft In a firepl:lce. stove. or fuma ce.
supportlng tne breas t.
sm(ikt eha mber
-===============+==++==============::::;Ichimney 17ar An enlarged area Petween the throJt
1
A steel lintel for carrylng the of a flreplace and the flue of a
1
1 masonry above tM flrep13Ce chlmney.
1 openlng. Also calleá ca muer bar.
1
/~"""-
'
- - --------\'. tumlng llar. --- --..---..., smoke shelf
/1 \\ Aledge at the bottom of a smoke
~ ~\,, chimney cheek ch3ml>er. so made asto deffect or
Thc sldes of a flrepl;;ce opening break the downdrafts from the
supportlng the mantel. chlmney.
throzt
The narrow openlf19 ~ 3
flreplace anJ lts flue or smoke
chaml>er. often closed wtr.h a damper.

hearth fireuox
The floor of a flreplace. usually of
The chamrercontalnlng the flre of a
!lrld:. tlle. or stone. aften extendlng
flrep13ce.
a short dlst3nce lnto a room.

uack hearth trlmmer arch


The partofthe hearth ls --... , " An aren. usually of brlcl: an41n the-
contalned wlthln the flreplace form of naff of a segmerrt.11 arch.
ltself. A!so called lnner hearth. l>etween 3 chlmney anda header In a
floor structure to support a hearth.
front hearth
The part of the hearth that ashpit
projects lnto tne room. Al so callea A receptacle In the bottom of a
outuhearth. flreplace or flreDax for the collectlon
and remOY31 of ashes.

ashpit door
i~lenook A cast·ll"()(l door prOYlding access to
A comer or rwol: nar 3 13 rge. open an ashpit for removlng ashes. orto¡¡
flr~place_ usuJI!y provlded ...-lth chlmney fcr rernovlng scor.
seJting ¡\lso callea chímney corner

87
FIRE SAFElY
The mea sures taken to prevent flre hazard
fire or minimiu the loss of life or Any condltlon that lncreases the
likellhood of aflre. o~structs access
property resutting from a fire. to ftreflghtlng equlpment. or del3ys
lncludíng limiting fire loads and the egress of occupants In the event
hazards, confining the spread of offlre.
fire wíth flre-reslstant
fire load
constructlon. the use of fire The amount of com~ustlble material In
detection and extinguishing a ~ulldlng. meas ured In pounds per
systems. the establishment of square foot of ftoor are a.
adequate firefighting services.
com¡,usti¡,le
ana the tralning of building Of or pertalnlng toa material capable ó------· .. ·············--·····--·--······--········---············-····----···}
occupants in fire safety and time
of lgnltlng and bumlng.
evacuation procedures.
~nition point flash point
The lowest temperature at whlch a The lowest tempera tu ro at whlch a
substanu wlll undergo spontaneous combustl!:ne llquk:l wlll glve off suffic~nt
com¡,ustlan and contlnue to bu m wlthout vapor to lgnlte momentarlly when ex~
#dditlona 1appl1c3 tlo nof éxte rna 1hea t. toflame.
flre-rated tunnelte5t
Notmg or pe~lnlng toa material.
asseml>!y, or constructlon havlng aflre-
1200 ¡ A test measuring the time lt takes for .a
controfled fla me to sproad across tne bce
reslstanu ratlng requlred by lts use.Also. of a test speclmen. tne amount of fue! the
fire-f"eSistlve. 1000 ~¡--;---+::;;~-;.--...;--.:......._---;_--;._-..; material contrlbutes to the flre. and t.f:e
denstty·of the smoke developed by the ftre.
flre-reslsunce ratlng A!so callea SU!ner tunnel test.
The time In hours a material or assem~ly can
re~ Ul wlthstand exposure Ul flre flame-spread ratlng
wlthout collapslng. c:feveloplng any openlngs A ratlng of how qulály a flre can spre:acl
whlch ~nnlt the passage of fla me or hot along the surface of an lnterlorflnlsh
~ases. or exceedlng a speclfled temperature materiaL R.ecl oak floorlng has a flame-
on the slde aw;¡yfrom the flre, determlned spre:.Jd ratlng of 100 whl!e a cement-
by S\lbjectl~ a full-sl:ze speclmen to asbestos board has a ratlng of o.
~res accordlng toa standard
fud-GcntriPutian ratíng
tlrne-temperature curve. --·----·-·-·--·····-··--
A ratlng of the amount of combustl~
su!lstances an lnterlorf!nlsh materbi c.sn
contrl!nlte toa flre.

¡-------¡ smoke-developed rati~


A ratlng of the amount of smo(e an lnter'.or
o -~--1,_,,:'_1 flnlsh IT'.aterial can produce when 1t lnJrns.
o
u~;ho,, ~,~_,i/!
2 Materlals havlng a smol:e-clevelo~ rat:~
6 8 a!?ove450 are not permltteJ to be~
lnslde lnlildlngs.

f:? ·~+~:.
•.
·:~
,.
.•• ~ •• ~ .. : .•!•'".6.":... •.•

.-

metallath anJ plaster

..

::.
~

D ·.:

.... • ..
1

IJ
'pray·on flreproofing
A mixture of mineral fl~rs antfan lnorganlc
~lnder, applled by alr pressure wlth a spray
gun to provlde a thermal varrler Ul htl3t tne
ofa ftre.
fireprooñng intumescent palnt l~ukJ·filled column
Any of varlous materfals. as concrete, A coatlng th.at. when exposed to the heat of Ahollow structural·steel column fllled
gypsum. or mineral flber, used In maklng a a flre. swells to forma thlcl: lnsulatlng layer wlth water to !ncrease lts flre reslstance.
structlJral memver or system reslstant to of lnert gas l?u¡,l?les that retards flame tf exposeJ Ul flame. the water al?sor!1s
dam~e or destructlon by flre. spread and comvustlon. heat. rlses by convectlon to remove the
heat. and ls repfaced wlth coo!er water
from a stcrage tank ora clty watu maln.

88
...:¿·

FIRE SAFETY

firezoM fire separation fire area firewall


Azone oh- ctty wlthln wh lch cutaln Anyfloor, wall, or roof-celllng constructlon An ;¡re;a of al>uíldlng ~nc!osed by flre- A wallluvfng the requlred flre-
constructlon ~~re prohl~lted havlng the requlred flre-reslstance ratlng rated constructloil capal:>le of conflnlng reslstance ratlng to prevent the
~useofflrehaurds present In the to confine the spread of flre. the spre-aa of flre. spread of ftre from one partof a
zone. occupancyseparation ___________ "_______ _.., '=========~
~Jitaing to <~nother, extendlng from the
1 foundJticxl toa parapet above the roof
fire~reak A vertical or horizontal constructlon \Ll ¡arlef hav!ng an openlngs restrlcted toa
An open sp;¡uestabllshed to prevent havlng the requlred flre-reslstance ratlng
certaln percentage of the wall length
the spread of tire from a l>ulldlng. a to prevent the spread of flre from one and protected by a self-claslng or
group of Duildl~. ex an area of a clty occupancy to anotherln a mixed-
autorr.3tlc·clos1ng flre assembly. Exh
to another. occupancy !7ulldlng.
portlon of a building sepa ratea Dy one
aístance separatlon or mere flre walls rruy ~ C<>llsklered .a
1M separatlon requlred Petween an ~parate !7ulldl~ when calculatlng the
exterior wall of a uulldlng anda property floor area and helght allowed !7y a
nne, the center hne of an adjacent street 17Ulla'lr~ code.~
or public space, or the exterior wall of an
adjacent 17Ulldlng. all measured at right
angles to theexterlorwall. -1

drntstop
A flre-rated parlltlon dlvkll119 an
enclc5ed attlc space of com!nJstl~le
constructlon, or the concea led space
l?etween a ~d ceillng anda wood-
fr-3 me ftoor at.ove.

fire assemlny ~-------···· ---· ·-·· ···------ protected opening ----------- 0 ---------
The asseml>!y of a flre Joor. flre wlndow. An openlng In a wall, floor, or roof-
or flre damper.lndudif19 all requlrea celllng constructlon that ls fltted
h.:1rdware. anchorage. frames. and si lis. wlth a flre assemlily havlng the
~lf-clo,lrw ñre ,~m'-lv ---------,
3 requlred flre-reslstance ratlng for
'"':ll ""J " lts locatlon and use.
A ftrt asseaW!y ~t 15 nonnally kept In ··.,
a elos&:! posltiOII anJ 15 equlppeJ wtth -----~~-"'
an '?~ devfce to lnsure closl119
¡¡rJ latchl~ 3-fter h:Mng !leen openea
for use.
.ILrtcm.rtk-closi~ fi~ a5sembly ----
Aftre assem!nythat may remaln In an
~ posltlon and wm e!ese
¡¡ utomatlcally if su!:>jected to an
~se In temperature or actuated by
¡¡smo(e~.

UL la Pe! -----·----·-----------··-····· ------ ·--.., fire door


A l3!7el afflxeá to lii7Ulldlng maUrl31, -. A door ~bly.lncludlng all requ~
component. or devlce w!th the h.ardw.lre,anchorage, frames and sllls.
authorlz.lltlon of Underwrtters' h.avf119 the requlred flre-reslstance
Lat>ora-tones.lnc..lnd'.catlft9 that th~ ratlng for 1ts loc:rtlon and US<l.
product (a) has ll ratlng vased on
performance tests of such product.s; (17) fire wi l'ldcw

~~-
ls from a productlon lot fotmd !7y A wlndow ~~ly.lncludlft9 all
e>:Jmlttrtlon to ~ maae from rnaterials requlred hardware. anchorage, frarne-s
and by ~ses essentla!ly lderrtlcal to and sl!ls. luvfng the requlred ftre-
those of representatlv~ products whlch res!st;ru mlng for ttslocatlon an.:l

~ · ~:1.::~
u~.
have ~ subjected to appropnate flre,

:)~-~.r.
electrlcal hazard, or oth~ tests for
safety; and (e) 15 su!:>j«t to the to opemtom..tlc311y
reexamlnatlon servlce of UL

lal?e!ed ~::.~~:;:':~n..':::"""
> -

Of or pertalnlng toa !7ulldlng material or


as~muly havlng a flre-reslstance ratlng
certtfled by Underwrlters' La roratones.
========= -· ~ .· fired4mpu
Adamp!rthatclosesanalrduct
w

autorrut!cJIIy In the event of flre to


lnc. or other recognlzed test!ng restrlct the passage of flre arlefsmo(e,
J;¡~oratory. requlre.:l whae a duct pene-trates a ftre
wan. flre-rated shaft. orother flre
separa~n.

/ fusi!k línl:
A hrk r.-3~ of a fuslulc metal. When
exposeJ ~ the heat of a flre. the nn~
mel:s ;¡,..j cau~s a flre door. fin:
darnpe~. cr the ll~e toe lose.

89
FIRE SAFElY
flre-2L1rm system sprinkler 'ystem
An electrlcal system lnstalled In a Apparatus for autornatlcally extlngulshing
l?uildln4 to automatlcally sound an flres In a llulk:ling. conslstlng of asystem of
alarm when actu3teá l7y a flre- pipes In or 11elow the ulllngs. connect.ed to
tktectlon system. a sultallle watu supply. and supptled wlth
va !ves or sprlnklu heaas maJe to open
ñre-~nsymm automatlcally ata certain tempenture.
Asystem of thermostats or other
approved sensors for detectlnq the sprinklered
preStllce af flre and autol113tk:ally Of or pertalning to ¡¡ !1ulldlng or building
s~nall~ an abrm. area that has or ls protected by a properly
malntained sprinkler system.
5moke deUctor
An ek:ctronlc flre abrm that ls st~rinkler he.ad
actlva'ted l,7y the presence of smoke. A'nozzle In a sprinkler system for dlspcrslng
a stream or spray of water, usually
controllea by a fusible linl: that rr.elts ata
predetennlned temperature.

automatia fire-extlnguishing 5ystem


A system of devlces and equlpment whlch
automatlcally detects a flre and discharges
an approveJ flre-extlngulshlng agent onto
or In the area of a flre.
standpi~ .
A w;¡ter pipe extendlng vertical !y wet·plpe system
th1'01J:9h a ~lkflng to supplyflre hoses A sprinkler system contalnlng w.;t.er at
at every floor. sufficlent pressurtl t<:J provlde .an
lmmedlate, contlnoous disch3rge throuqh
wets~ndpipe ----···-----·--·-------- --····--- sprlnkler heads that opert automatlcally In
AstantJpipe corrtalnlng water under the event of flre.
pressurt: a~ fmed wlth flre hoses for
emergency use l7y l?ulldlng occupants. dry-plpe system
A sprlnkler system contalni"!'J pressurlzed
dry5tlndpfpe --------------·---- alr th3t ls rele3scJ whtn a sprinl::!er head
Asbndplpe corrt21nlng no water a~ opens In tht event af f!re, allow!~ water to
used V,t the flre tlepart~ to cannect flow throu~h the plplng a~ out the openeá
flre hoses toa flre hydr.urt or pu mper nozzle. Dry·plpe systern5 are used wh~
truct:. tM plplng ls sulject to freezlng.
preactlon system
/-·fire pump i
Adry-plpe sprlnl:lu system through whlch
water flow ls controlled by a 1'31ve cperated
A pump th3t provides the /
rea_ulred waur pressure In
l1y flre-detectlon devlces mor~ serl$ltlve
th~n those In th~ sprinller heads. Preactlon
a standpipe or sprink!er 1
systcms ~re used when an accidental
system when the pressu~e
dlscharge wou!d damage valual71e m_¡¡Urials.
In W system drops ~low.
a preselect:M 1'31ue. del u~ S)"tem
chxt v3/ve ··• •.
A sprinkler system hav!ng sprinkler heads
open at;¡¡fl times, throogh whlch ~flow
ls controlled l1y a vatve operated D-¡ a heat-.
smoke-. orflame-sensl~ .:kvlce.

siamese
Aplpe fitting lnsblled e~ to the
ground on the exterior af a building.
provldlng two or more connectlons cbs5A fire
through whlch the flre department A flre lnvolvlng ordinary comllustil.>le
can pump water toa standplpe or materlals. as wood, pa ~ :md cloth. on
sprink!er system. whlch the quenchlng or coollng effect af
water ls of prlmary lmportance.
clas5 6fire
A flre lnvolvlng flammaH~ llqulds. as
gasollne, oll and grease. whlch.must ~e
W3Urmafrl _¡ extlngulshed l1y excludl119 alr and lnh IPltlng
the relea se of com17usUble vapors.
class Cfire
Aflre lnvolvlng llve electrk:31 equipment.
whlch requlres a n0f1conductlng
extlngulshlng medlum.
fire extlnguisher cb" Dfire
A portab!e apparatus for puttlng out a A flre lnvolvlng certaln combustible rr.etals.
small fln by ejectlng pressurized water or as magneslum or sodlum, whlch re.tuires a
speclal chemlcals. classifled accordlng to nonreactlve, heat·absortnng extlngulshlng
the type of flre lt fs able to extingulsh. medium.

90
FIRE SAFETY

me.1ns of~ress
A contlnuous path of travel from any poínt
In a bulkllng to the outskle at ground leve!.

exitaccess ha r1ul nta 1exit exit


That portlen of a mcans of egress that A passage through or around a wall An enclosed and protected path of escape
k:ads toan exlt. BuiL::Ilng coáes spectfy ccnstructed as re<:¡ulred fcr an for the occupants of aúuiL::IIng In the event
tne maxlmum dlstance of travel toan occu pancy separatlon, protectea by an of fire.leadlng from an exlt access toan
exit and the mlnimum distance between ¡¡¡¡t,..omatlc·c!osing flre door, and leadin~ exlt discharge.
exits when two or more are requlred. ~--. tJ an area of refuge In the same úuildin~
01C11 approximately the same leve! In
aa_pcerrt bultdlng. -·:

-- smokeproofenclosure
The encloslng of anexlt sta lrw3y by wa lis of
flre-~lstlve constructlon, accessl~ by a
vestlúule or by an open exterior balcony. 3nd
venUI3ted by natural or mechan leal rneans
to nmrt the penetrnlon of smoke and heat.
Bulkling codes usually requlreon~: or more
well
of the exlt stalrways for 3 hlgh-rlse úulldlng
A shaft for ¡¡fr. ogh t. stalrs. oran
f7e protected by a smáeproof ene !asure.
elevator. extendlng vertically th
the floors of a ~uilding. -- exit 5t.airway
A stalrway feading toan exlt passageway,
an extt court. or puúllc way. enclosed by
fire-reslstlve constructlon wlth self·closlng
exit ~rrú!or _..: flre do«s th3t swing In the dlrectlon of exJt
A¡rassageway servlng as a requlred &., travei.
enclosed by walls of flre·reslstlve
exit light constroctlon. Building codes hmlt the exterior exit balcony
A1 ntumlnated slg:~ldenttfylng a
length of dead-end corrklors. A landlng or porch projectlng from the wa!l
required o:lt. , of a úul1dlng and sm-lng as a re<:¡ulred
emerger.cy líghting
exit daor 1 rneans of egress.
A door provldlng access toa means of
A flghtill!J s~ d.esigned to ñre~pe
egress. swlnglng In the dlrectian of ex1t
SIJpply the alumlnatlon requlred for An ex1t stalrway down an ootsfd~: wall of a
travel and usually e<:¡ulpped wlth 3 panic
SJfe 1:9res5 from a I:Tullding In the úuila'lng, 'constructed to the same
lnr.
event of a pcwer failure. sta:-tdJrds asan interior exlt stalrway.

··• exterior exft


exit passageway An exrt c:loor opening directly toan ex!t
Ameans of egress cor.nectlng a re<tulreJ court or publlc way.
extt or extt court with a publlc way. having
noopenlngs other than requlred exlts ;¡rJ
ene~ by flre-reslstlve constnlctlon as
requlred for the walls, fuors. and celllng cf
the !nllkllng served. '·---.

occupant lo•á
The cota! number of persons that may
occupy a l!viL::IIng orportlon thereof at
any one t!tne, ktermlned by dlvfdlng
the floor area ass4¡ned toa particular
use by the square feet peroccupant
permltted In that use. Building codes
use occuparrt load to e:stabllsh the
requlred number ar!d wldth of exlts for
3 b<J'L::I!ng.

91
FLOOR
The leve!, !?ase surface of a room or
hall upon which one stands or walks.

..
t~-~~~~~----:·~--~~~~···:=~~- :.=~--~:-~ =-::,·-~~.:/. :7
1 r;r:::.:·~ ~.:::-:~:.::.:::=~-t:.:.:.::::.r~:::.:c_-_7'"l
~ i! : ¡
¡ ~ . :
: j

flni5h floor
The wearlng sumce of 2 floor. usu.Hiy bkf
CNer 2 sulrlloor. Also. f'Wshtd floOf'.

~u~~~ 2·;,:;~-fu;;,~~~~t¡;~·--------~~==:Jiilillllil~~
~aras. ptywood. or other structu ral
sne.thln~ bkf over and ftxe.d to the floor
jolsts. A sulrl\:lor 1s often used as a wol'i¡ln~
platfonn ~ ~n and maya !so
actas a struc"tur31 dlaph~m to tra nsfer
bunlloaás to ~rwalls. Also callea
~una &or.I'O\Ifh fiMo.

f'loor framil\9
The act. process. or rnanna- of constructlng
the structural frame rX 2 fuer. ------------_::>· rimjolst
...,__-:...--.-...'" _./ Ajolstseton t<Jpofthe sllland formlng the
jo¡,t ----------·---------------·---------- ·· perlmeter of a wood-framed fuor. Also
Aey of a~ of s1T131, para! !el ~ams for · c¡¡lled he3der.
supportlni floors. cetnngs. orfbt roofs.

huaer ... -- ,
Afram~ member~andsupportlng J
the enJs ofJolsts. stu&s. or raft:ers, so as ,: ··--·lmdglng
totransfert:kew~httc paralleljolsts. _/ An arrangement of !H-aces or 171octlng
studs. or rafters. // 17etween jolsts or rafters to prevent thelr
tritnmer ~------- -- · rotatlon or lateral álsplacement, esp. when
thelr depth-to-wktth ratio exceeds 6.
A~m.jolst. or rafter supportlng one end
Brk:lglng may not ~ requlrtd when ~ ends
of a heakr ¡¡t the edge of an openlng In a
of the meml1ers are flxed agalnst rotatlon
floor or roof frame.
_,, and thelr edges are heL:IIn Une by
suWiooring orsheathlng.
~ílpiece -------
A rela-tl\lely short !leam.jolst, or rafter solla bnaglng
supported by a wall at one end and by a Brldglng conslstlng of short roa ras fixed
hea~r at the other. Also called stringer. vertlcafly !letwun floor or roof jolsts.
cro,17rldging
Brldglng composed of álagonallm!ces set In
palrs Pe'tween floor or roof jolsts.
FtOOR

i1e3ITI fiQ deck


Matmal as m350111)' or concrete. for fllllng The structuralsurface to wh!ch flooring or
the sp;1C.e$ t;.a wten Jolsts or !;>ea ms 1nor on rooflng ls applled.
top of a m350111)' wall. stlffenlng the
memrers. and provldl~ In crea sed flre .. ----· decking
reslst.ra:. Also.l:>e.1m filling. ~------ __ _ Self-supportlng unlts of wood. metal. or
concrete capable of spannlng beams.jolsts.
beam pccket---·------------------- rafters. or purllns and servlng as a base for
An openlng In the vertical fa ce of a --- ftoorlng or rooflng.
structunl !TlaT1Per to receive a beam.

An angul3rcut at the end of ajolst or beam


whe~ tt enters a masonry wall. allowlng the
mem!1er to faH wfthout damaglng the wall h'
Jt lrorns through somewhere along lts
le~th.
----·---

~-------~~....,....,.--"?"--o-'·c::..···_··_,·-....,.·--- · ·· ---- metal decking


Sheet steel strengthened for use as floor
or roof aeáfng by coiJ·rolllng ¡¡ series of
riusorflutes lnto tt. and usually galvanlz.ed
forcorroslon ~lstance. The spanning
capaPillty of metal deálng depends on the
thlclness of the steelsheet and the depth
of the corrugatlons.

·-.
·• •. shear stuá
1, steel pln wekled to t.he topftange of a
1
steel ream or glrder .and em~ In a
form dukíng composiU decklng .,./ concrete slab so ;;s to cause the beam and
~1 deó:Ing servl~ as permanent Metal deál~ servlng .as permanent the concrete to actas a structural unlt.
fonnworl: for .a relnforced concrete sla b formwork and tenslle relnforcement for a
und ~ stlb c;an support ltseff. concr~ slau ron<:W to tt by a deformed or
dovetall rlb pattern.
-------------------,

,/

.ICOU~Ü duking cellular decklng ........ ....-··


Metal ~ing ccntainlng glass flber Metal decklng manufactured (7y weldfng a
~n the perfor3ted wel1s of rlbbed corru~aW steel sheet toa flat steel
kcl::lng Of" in the perforaW ce lis of cellular sheet, formlng a series of raceways for
tkcl:lng. used as a sound-al1sorbing celllng. electrical wlres and c. bies. • ·

floor panels support.ed on adjustable


pedestals or strlngers to allow free access
to the space beneath. Also called ralsd
floOf"lng sysU!11.

93
FLOOR

ñn~h floori~
M4terl31 u~ for the ~ríng surface of a
fCJOr. as ~ rdwood, temzza. or floor Ule.

woodfloori~
Anl$h ~in the fonn of woocl strips.
p!J nks. or ¡,ioás.

strip floorin9 ·-····--· ·- --·-·-- -··-·-·····


Fboring composed of ~. narrow wood
s~'ips. usu~ltf s!Je· and cnd·matche.:i

~~~;~cl-~r¡·~~;·······--··---~.
hollow·uackea
·,. , , Ofor pertalnlng. toa wood or stone

·ll¡
t.~anstripftoorl~usu~lyslde-and ~ plece h3vlng a I;Jack face hollowed
~J-m3tched. out so that lt can flt more tlg htly
agalnst an irregular surface.
---

m
. pal"l\uet sleeper ·-----------------
Afloor composed ofshort strlps or u!ocks Anyofa numberofwooden strlps lak:l
of wood formlng a pa~m. sometlmes wlth upon aconcrete slai;J to provlcle a means
· . lnlays of other woocls or other materlals. of attaching a subftoor or floorlng.
par'luetry solía blockflooring -------·--------------
Mosalc wori: of wood used for ftoors and long-wearlng flcoring composed of sond
wood l:llocks set in adheslve with thelr

11
graln orlented vertlcally.

IIIIJ
l7lock floorir.g
FWíng composed of square units
pr----4ssem!kd at tht: mili aná usual !y
unit block
A floorlng ~lod made l;!y jolnlng short
len~ths of strip flooring edgewise.
laminated ~loclc
A flooriM!JI7lock made by bonding three or
more wood vcnxrs wlth a molsture-
slat171ock
A f1oorlng blocl m~e l;!y assemblln!J
narrow slats orflngers of hardwood lnto
ms t.311ed w!th n-gstlc CJ~er a wood usually ~ued on two adjolnlng sk:les reslstant adheslve. usually tongued on two larger unlts.
S;; bf\::or or cor.crete sb !;J. and grooved on the other two to ensure opposlng sk:les and groovea on the other
proper allgnmertt In settlng. two to ensure propt:r altgnment In settlng.

ru'tic terrazz.o
A ur.iformly texturt:d terrazzo flnlsh
producea by l'r.lshlng the matrix prior
~~~ij~~~~~~~-
~
eand-cu5hlon urraz:zo
A terrazzo system for controlllng cradln~
to smtng so.astoexposetht:chlps. when structural movement ls expectea.
1'<-hit;h are not ground. conslstlng of a terr.¡zzo topping lnstallecl
over a relnforced mortar utiderbed that ls
Pallad~n.1
separated from tht: sulrfloor by an isolatk>n
A rrosalc temzzo flnlsh consistlng of
meml:lrane anda thln !ayer of san d.
cut or frac~rtd marV!e slal:1s set !1y
h3 d in the deslrcá pattern, wlth
smilu chips Mlng the spaus
~t .. ecn.

94
FLOOR

linoltum resilie nt flooring


A reslllen t floor coverlng formed ry Any of varlous floor coverlnqs capa !M of
eo;aUn4 l?urbporcanvas wtth heatec.f sprlnglng baá ta the original fonn after
l!nS«J oil powdered con:. 3M rosln, Pt:lng Pt:nt or compressed. avallable In
3nd addln4 p~gma~ts ta achleve the elther tl!e or sheet form and set In mas tic
deslrtd colors 3nd patterns. Llnoleum CNer a suttable underlayment.
shoold P<: used only on a suUfloor
suspended al:oove grade. floor covering
Material. esp. a nonfabrlc material as v!nyl
vinylsheet or cera mle tile, used to cover a flcor.
A resllient floor coverlng composea
prlnclpaiy of polyr'lny! chlcrlde In
comblnatlon wtth mineral flllers.
p~ment.s. and 3 fiber. fett. or foam
l:raálng.

vinylt&
A resilient floor tíle ccmposed
prl nclp3 ~ of pol:yvl ny! eh lo rlde 1n
combltUtlon wtth mineral flllers and
p4Jments.
corku'le
A resll!ent floor tlle composed of
granulated corl: anJ synthetlc resln
blnclers, flnlshed wtth a protectlve coat Any ofvarlous pasty substances used as a
of wax ora film of clear polyvlnyf sealant. adheslve. or protectlve coatlng.
chlorlde. Cor\: tlk: shoukl Pe: used only
011 3 suWioor Stlspendea above grade.
underl3yment
A material. as plywood or hardboard.laid
rul?l?ertile CNer a subfloor to provlde a smooth, even
A resillent floor Ule composea of base for resilient flooring. carpet, or other
natural or synthetlc rubber wlth nonstructural flooring.
mineral fillers.

carpet
Aheavy WCNen, knlttec.f, needle-tufted. or
l!~~~~!!~~~!!~~!![!~~~~!!!!!!!!!!~~~!!!!~!!~!![!!~!!!!!!~!!!f!f!! felted falnic forcoverlng a floor.

~;~~~~~s~~-~~~~~-~~~-----rl ~ ~mw----. f~upngnttuftsofyarnformlngtne


pi~w~ht 1 111
~ avera~ we!ghtof pile yam In a
~rpct. sbted ln oonus per lnterweavlng the backlng a na pi le ~ surface of a carpet or fabrlc.
5qU3t"e yard. yarnsonaloont _ _____ ... .. ---·--------. - loop p1'1e
p~~ity tufUa carpet ·-·- · -- ·----- ------ -~ A carpet texturecreated by weaving.
The welg ht of pile ya m per unlt Carpet maae by mechanlcafly \ tufting. orknlttlng the plleyarn lnto
volumeof c.rpet. stated In ounces stltchlng plk: ya m thrwgh a ·.. lcops.
per cublc yard. prlmary fabrlc backlng and bonded · ·; .
wlth latex toa secondary backing. cut p1le

§i~;~~i~~~(686 ¡¡¡¡~~
A carpet texture crea tea ry cuttlng
knit~C3rpet ·········--··-------lrmiWI·-
· ·· · -. eachloopofplleyam.produclngarange
Carpet made by kloplng the of textures from Informal shags to
bad:lng. stltchlng, and pi le yams short. dense velvets.
w!th thru sets af needfes. ~---..._.."·-~'---":L-...;=--...10

gauge --··--··--··-------·-----·-----··~ ~
The spacln~ of~s across the fuslon-uondeaC3rpet ·--··--·----.g~JB~ \ -
wldth of • tufted or knltted Carpet made ry heat-fuslng face
carp-e-t. expressea In fr.lctlons of yarns ta a vlnyl úacking supported ·
an i1ch. by other materlals. ' ---. uacklng
Thefounaatlon material securlng the
fluW carpet --····------·----·~umm:n~mflll[jj¡untnnnrymmm plteyamsafa carpetand provlding lt
Carpet made by propelllng short .ru!lll.l!lll!!.JUL.B!lill~ wtth stlffness. strength. anJ
stra nas of pi le flber dimensional stablllty.
electrostatlcally agalnstan ~~ ~·
adhesive-coated backlng. ·-- _--- carpet pad
A pad of cellular rubberorfeltec.f animal
neeaJepunchelf carpet •- -· -- ··- -~
-~ . ha ir, CNer whlch carpet ls lnstalle.:J ta
Carpet made ry punchlng carpet ~ lncrease reslllence.lmprove dltr3blltty.
flPt:rs back and forth through a ;;::-..----"'= and reduce lmpact sound transmlss!on.
wCNen polypropylene sheet with ~ Al so cafled carpet cushlon.

liiil-
Íla rbed needles ta form a felted
fiPt:rmat.

A floorlngtlle
carpet tlle made of carpetlng
material.

95
FORCE
An influence on a body produclng or

'~~
tending to produce a change In shape
ormovem~.

vector .. ·- wmn.,.fo.u•
A'luantlty posses51r.g lmh magnltude and ---. ~ '-· ' Concu11't1'Tt forces n¡vlng the same ~~~ of
dlrtet~on. ~ ~ an arrow whose __ _ ' ~- actlon. ~vector su mof whlch ls the
length ls proportlon41 to the magnltude ~------- '·-..... ''- '~ algt:PralcsumoftheiT13gnltudesofthe
na
a whose oñentatlon In space represents '' · forces, ~ctlng ator.q the sa~ hne of actlon.
th e di rect Ion.
líne of actio1l ·------------- ----------------
A llne of lndeflnlt.e length of whlch a force
··-
-•..,. ' )1 wp!Jn.ar forus
Forces <;hato~ ln a single plane.
..... wncurrent fu rus
vector ls a ~~nent. Aforce actlng on a
rigkl rody rruy ~ !"e9rdea as actlng Forces hav1ng nnes of actlon lntef5ect~ at
anywherc aloatt lts llne of ~Ion wlthout a wmmoo polnt, tM vector su mof wftlch
alterlng ther;mmal effectofthefo~:-------·- ---- · · -. C3n bt fOI.Jnd D:t appfylng the para'llelogram
bw.
component6 of J force ·-------- -·-··------. Q¡¡::===k======::::i}
Two or II'IOre conaJrrtnt forces lnto which a
s!n9le forc:e Ni 11c resolved and hav!ng a
na effect 011 a rigkl rody ettu!valent to that - parallel.ogram Ltw
of the lnltlal force. For conven lence In The proposltlon that the vector su mof two
structural anafysls, these are usually the concu rrent forces can be descr-ibed by the
rect3ngular orCarUslan components of dlagor\31 of a pmllelogram havlng adjaunt
skles whlch represent the two force
the lnltlal forre.
vectors ~~~ Jddea.
·-.• vector sum
A slngle vector equ~lent to and produclng
~- the sa~ dfect on a Dody as the
appllc~ oftwoor more glven vector.;.
Also cafled resultan-t.
moment --------------- .. ·• tri.1 ng le method
The tendency of a force to produce rotatlon Agraphlc technlque forflndlng the vector
of a rody a~ apo1rrt or Dne, equa fin sum of t1'I'O concurrent forces ~ dls~ng
Ngnltude to the product of the force and one force YeCtor par¡¡ l1el to ltself untll f1;s
the momentann and actlngln a clockwJse bU coincides l't'lt:k the he3a of the other
or counterclocbise dlrectlol!. anJ completl~ ?le tnangle wlth 2 vecb'
mornentcenter -----------------------. that represents the resuft3 nt force.
The polnt atwhich Úle axis of a moment •· polygon method
~ the r'a ne of th:: forces causlng Agraphic technJ.que for flnálng the vector
the mornent. su mofa copla114r system of sevml
momentar111 ..:-----------------------------· concurren-t fotUS !;y anwlng to sea le each
T'he perpendicular dlstance from the hne of force vector In sucusslon. wlth the tall of
actlon of aforce to the polnt orh~ arout each at the head of the one precedlng tt.
wftlch a 1n0rne;rt OCClJrs. Aiso calleá force na
a com p!etlng ~ polygon wlth 2 vector
tnat ~nts the resuft3nt force.
*"'"· extendlng from ~ ~tl of the flrst to the
head af -;h~ !ast Yoctar.

couple --------------------------··· ········;


Aforce syst.21 of t:wo equal, parallef forces ;
~1119 In~ dlrectlons 21\J tendlng to :
produce robtlon M not tr.lnslatlon. The
momentof a couple ls equalln n12gnltudeto
the product of one of the forces and the r- center of grMty
perpena!cular disbnce between the two The polnt .at whlch the entlre we!ght of a
Pody m.ay ~ c.::;~ wncentrated so
forces.. ----
---~ M,lf su~ a1 ~ls polrrt. the rody
wou!d l't!Nin In equlllbrium In arry posltlon:
colncldent l't'lth Úle unte~" of mass In a
unlform gmttJtlondll f\eld. Aforce whose
nne of act1on passes th~h the center of
gravlty of a body affects only lts

- translatlonal equl!IDrium; the !:>ody remalns


In rot.~tlonJI equli!Drlum.
_.. -· ~ ---- --- center of
----
nu''
The polnt at wnlch the entln?mass Of a
{111111 ~)·-------· parallelforc~s
--~-- ~ ....i\ Pody m.ay ~ consldered concentraua such
that the II"'Imtnt arout any llne tnrough the
Nonconcurrentforces havlng parallelllnes polnt ls uro.
of actlon.
centro Id
nonca ncurrent forces The centa- of aore:- or two-dl~nslonal
Forces ha-rlng ltnes of actton that do not figure, a!:>out whlch the su mof the
lntersect ata common polnt, the vector dlsplacements of ;¡ll polnts In the Agure ls
su m of whlch ls a sl~le force that would 1 - - - - - - ..... - - - - - - - 1 z.ero.
cause th~ same translatton and rotatlon of
a rody as the set of original forces.

96
FORCE
1 Newto~'s first law cf moticn


The physlcallaw that a body remalns at
rest or In motlon wlth a constarrt
ve!octty unless an externa! force acts
on the 11oJY.Alsocal!eJiawoflnertia.

tn n5Lrt.ic n
~ tmiforin rnotlon of a l7ody In astrai9ht line.
wttnaut rot3tlon or angular dlsp!aument.

. fij ~
roUtlon
Lh..
Q
1

The c!rcui.Y rnotlon of a Dody about an axis.

1 -----·---·-·---------·-·-·- equiliurium
lever •. ---------------- -----· -- ----·-- 1
......... --·-----+---------------1 A state of ~afanu or rest resultlng
from the equal actlon of opposlng
A ri._;iJ element that plvots about a
forces. For a rigld boay to re In

·ru:t
fulcn;m to e:xert ¡¡ pressure or sustaln
equlhlnium. two condltlons are
a ~ht ata seconJ polnt by a force
necessary._
app!"~ ata third.
Flrst. the vector su m of all forces
fulcrum ·-------- actlng on tt must ~ual zero, ensurlng
í:M,~wtc =px Q- (7x3) + (lxO)- {lxO) =O
The pcint Of" support about wh le h a 1 translatlonal equllllnium:

+"!'=:_-=,--l:-F.-~---,r-=-3-+_1 4.- =_0;_Í:_F._hcrlz. s¡;~


b'ert<Jrns.. :í:Fx= O::í:F;t= O;:í:Fz= O.
Second, the algemlc su mof al!
~lunial ad~ntage ___ ,., = O moments of the fortes arout any polnt
The mio of output force ta the Input or Une must equal zero, ensurlng
force applltd toa ~hanlsm.
~
rotatlonal equlll!mum:
l:M =o.
~
~ l ~wton's,~orullawcfmotion
The physle3llaw that the sum of the
forces actln~ on a body ls equ3l to the

llllllLlllt F
product of the mass ofthe body and
the acceleratton proJuced by the force.
wlth motlan In the dlrectlon of the
resultantcf the forces.

force (F) = 111355 (m) x ¡cceJ~tlon (¡)


m:í/Ss (m)= F/~ = weiglrt (w)l gr;¡vft4tlon¡lforce (1)

3 ~wton'' thlrd bw of motion


The physlcaf law th3t for every force
actlng on 3 body, the l;oody exerts a
meclunlcs
force havlng equal magnltude and the
The !:>r.ilnch of physlcs that d&lls opposlte dlrectton along the same hne
wtth ~ effects of forces on Dodles of actlon as the original force. Also
or rrt4terbl systems. comprised of
caneJ the law of .Jctlon and r!actloñ.
st.otlc s and dyn3 mles.
st.lücs
The ~nch of mechanlcs that deals .1pplied force
wlth :~ rei3tlons offOf"ces An externa! force actlng dlrectly on a
prcJvdrtg ~ullibrium among bocJies body.
or m...~l systems. reactive force
An externa( force generated by the
~mies
The h~.ch of mech;~nlcs that deals actlon of ene ~ody on another.
'Nith :~~ mot!on and e.qulllbrlum of
bod:CS cr mJ~rtll systems under
the ~c<:'<J<I of fcrus.

97
FORTIFICATION
A defensive milit3ry work
coostructed for the purpose of
strer.gthening a position.
.-~- ~ally port
/ A gateway In a forUflcatlon permrttln~ 4
t.rge number of tro:Jps to move npla'!y from
the besleged posltlon 3nd attacl:: the
beslegers.

ca se m.rt.e
A vault or ch3 mber In a rampart. i13vlng
embrasures for .artllkry.

------- ---------------- curta!n


¡,astlon -------·-··----------------------1-;IIB.!!l.,.tll t~=:::;:!;:~ An encloslng wall connutlng two lr.istlons
Aprojectlt14 part of a rampart or other
fort!fbtlon, typlc.ally formlng an Irregular
pentagan attached at the lr.lse to the m.aln
L ortowers.
/-------·· ..... gorge
WO!i:. .. / The rear ~ss.Jgeway lnto a bastiOfl or
/.· slmllaroutwon.

/ --·· terreplein
/ The top pl3tform or horizontal sumce of ;¡
rampart where guns are mounted.

--·----- funlc
The part of a llast!on that extends from the
curta in to theface .
.... ··---.. shculder
Theangle be-tween the facc and t:he funl: of
.a lr.lstlon.
·--t;au
Elther of *'e two outer s!des that fonn tM
1"2Velin sallent angle of a l:>astlort.
A V-sha~ outwori: outslde the m.aln
dttch of a fortress. coverlng the
worts ~ two lr.lstlons.
outwort esc.1rp
A ll'linor kfenslve posltlon T'~ lnner slope or wall of the dltch
esb1711sr.ed ¡,eyanJ a 1113In fort~ syn·otmding a rampart. Also
~ CJiled scarp. - ............... ~,..
... --··· parapet
~be~ ~unterscarp ------- Adefensl\ie w¡¡ 11 or elevauan of ea rU-1 or
A slo~ ex-"..en.:ilng downward In front rr~ exterior slope or wall of the stone prot.ectlng sokl~rs from enemy flre.
of a fortlfbtlon In such a way that lt d'r-..ch surroundlng arampart. ---7 cardon
Pnf19S ad-m~clng enemy sold!ers lnto í Aprojectlng course of stoncs belcw the
the most ¡:irect Une of fire ..... \

1 parapetofa rampart.
·,
·.
l :r:=
----- .... __ Perm
A~ ~n the exterior slope of a
~ moat of a forttf\c;Jtlort.

.._______ J .....- .• ~:J:~~lnr*mentof~rth~asa


fortlflc.rtlon around a~ and USlQI!y
surmount.ed by a par¡¡ pe-t.
.··-------· motU
/ Astup mound of earth 5\/rrounáe.d ~a dltch
and sunnounted l1y a t:lm!:>er stocbJe and
tower.

----· 11~11ey
Theouter ~11 of a castle or the caurtyard
enclosed j,y lt.

motte and !?ailey _...--------· palfsade


A Norman ~stle ofthe 10th through 12th ---- Afence of pales set fli"'T11y in th~ ground for
Ul'lturies, conslstlng of a motte pl3ced
enclosure or defense.
wlthln a llai!ey. pale
A polnted sUd: or stal:~.

98
FORTI FICATI ON
ktep castle
The lnnermast and strongest A fortlfled group of lrolkflngs usual !y
structure or tower of a medieval domlnatlng the surroundlng country and
turret -------------------- cast~. used as¡¡ place of resldence, held Pj' a prlnce or nol:>le In feudal times.
esp. In times of stege. Al so callea
chapel
A s1Tl3n towa-forming part of a Asubordina te or prfvate place of citad el
donjcn. ~--------··:
~rger stroctu"e, frequerrtly worshlp or prayer wlthln a larger Afortress In a commandlng positlon In or
~lnnlng somedlstance above the complex. neara clty. used In the control ofthe
ground. A!so ofleJ tcurdk. '· lnhabltants and In defense during atta á or
llarüun slege.
Asm.all o.'~119lng turret on a
wan or tower. often ata comer or
1\eJ r ¡¡ g; t.e<,qy.

'::)" Y'"'f'·-t:·~:=:::::-::.::::.:.:.:===='' ·- • ward


An open space withln or
PoWtr
A laáy's ¡n+n~ chamt>er In a lletweenthe walls of a castle.
111e d1en r ca stle.
·------- ---- barbican
~tem -------------- An outwork on the approach toa castre
A SIT13II re;ordoororg;te toa fort or towil. esp. a watchtower at the gate
orcast!e. or drawlmdge. A!so. 11ar-Pacan.
necessarium ------- --·- ----- --· enceinte
The privy of a medieval castle1 Afortlfled wall enclrchng a
or 1!1()11<b~. Also calleJ / castle or town. or the place so
garderot:>e. ' encfased.

l:rratüu ------------i·--------.,
A te mpon ry l'IOOden fortif'.ca t!o n '
In med"~evalardrltecture. erected battlement
at the top of a JrJII durlng :;¡ sleqe. Aparapet havlng a regular alterr13tlon
of merlons and crenels. orlglnally for
ehe min-de- ronde defense lrot later used as a decoratlve
A cootlnoous 9"!li'r.lY prov!dl~ a motlf. Also called eml1.att:lement.
Jne3ns of comnmlotlon Pehina
thc: rampart ofa forUfled w;¡IL ·-·: .------------ rnerlcn
./ One of the solla parts lletween the
:' crenels of a ~attlemerrt.
:------- CreMI
· of the open spaces alternatlng
with the merfons of a battlement.

'~. machícolation ~mbr~~ure


A pro~ng gallery or parapet at An openlng, as;;¡ loophole or crenel.
the t.op of a cast!e wall. thro!J9h whlch mlsslles may De
suppcrted by comled arches
and havlng openlngs In tht: floor
thro!J9h whlch stones. molten
le3d. or rolhng oU cculd !:>e cast
rr + l _____ _--· loophole
dlscharged.

A snt311 or 113rrow openl~ In a wall of


;;¡ fortlflcatlon for the dlscharge of
upon ¡¡n enemy l:>eneath.
mlsslles.
eyelet
A small aperture In the wall ofa
medieval castle used as 3 wlndow or
loophoie. Also. oinet, oyelet.

dr~~ridge
A lnid9e that can !le ralsed,let áown.
drawn ask:lc te prevent access orto
passage Derle:ith lt.

portculli~
A strong grating of lron or tlmt>er
hung CNer the gateway of a
fortH'Ied place In such a way ~at
lt couk:l De lowereá qulckly to
dungeon moat '
prevent passage.
A d.ui:. ~..en undergroor.d prison A 11road. áeep áftch. usually fllled wlth
or ufl. as In¡¡ Jneálev-31 castle. water. surrounálng the rampart of a
fortlfled town. fortress. or castle as
oubliett.e ------------ protectlon agalnst assault.
A~~ :Ln~ havlnq an
Opallr":J CJr1"; !n theuiOng. through
l'lhlch pri50"ers were droppd

99
FOUNDATION
The lowest dt.ision of a building or
other constructJon. partly or wholly
~elow the sur-bu of the groun&,
designed to support and anchorthe D !
superstructure and transmit lts
loads directfy w the earth. !
_l
¡
1'
l l
1 1

f·--····-----········J"~': :::::::::·~~
1
""' ~--... "'t_ ·- nonuniform 9J{{ prtssure
.,........
CjuseJ by útml forr:es

shallow fourubtlon ~-- passive e.arth pre-ssure · .. she:Jrr~st.;ncc provided


A found1t:k:m system placea álrectly Pelow íhe horizontJI compcnent of by frictlon Utwun footJngs
the lowest pa~ ci .a sul:lstructure aná reslstance devdope.á by a sollmass ;ndsot1
tnnsfming building loads dlrectly to the agaln5t the horizontal movement of a
supportln~ soll!ly v~l pressure. vertlc.al5truct.Jre throogh the soll

utive e.arth pressure


The horlzontJI component of pressure
th.at a soll ~55 exerts on a vertical
rrolnlng stroct.ure.

a
so pressure ;~llowa~le be.-aring pressure
The actual pressure tlevelopeá between The maxlmum untt pressure 3 foundatlon ls
~ ------·-----------------·--·-·; .a footlng and the supportlng 5011 mass. pennltteá to 1m~ vertlcallyor 13ter.;1ly
The gr.oá-.131 5ul:ls1Jlng of .a structure as the i equal t~ the quotlent of the magnltuáe on a supportl~ soii!T13ss. Allowal7le ~ring
soll ~ 1ts found.atlon con~l!dates , _ J._____________ -t
of the forces u-a nsmftteá and the area pressu res for va ro01.1 s sol! cla55iflc3tlons
urJerlo;¡¿¡n~
are conservatlve v¡¡lues permltted ~
censo IWtion bulldl~ codes In the absence of
The gradu:;;l reáuctlon In the volurne of a soll ~hnlcal lnvestlg3tlon ana testlng of
mass ~ltJ"f from the .;ppllcatlon of a the $0tl. Also CJlbi .JIIowal,fe 11earing
~t.ilneá lo4d andan lncrease In capacfty. allcwabk $C/l pressure.
~stress.

prlm3 ry col150lldrtlon
A reáuctlon In vvlurne of .a soll mass under
the .;ctlon ~.a susblned load. due chlefly
to 2 squeal~ out of waterfrom the volds
l't"ft!lln the ~~U SS .anJ .a tr.nsfer of the load
from the soll .mer ~ the ~~~ sollds. Atso
called ¡nirtury compresslon. • A =ccnt:3ct ;ru cf f~
5ec.orWry~n ~l~{q}=PIA
A reductlon In volurne of 2 soll mass under
the actlon of .a SIIStalned load. due chlefly
to at!ustr.ent d the Interna! structure of
the sollmass alter ~t of the load has
been tnnsferTCJ from the soll water to the
sollsotld:s. r·· frost.line
1 The maxlmum depth at whlch sollls froun
i~rost per.et<ates the ground.
differenrul sat!eme~ frost he<~ve
The rel¡t¡ve 11101/ement of dlfferent parts of An upltft In scl C3useá tr_y the freezl~ of
a structure caused by uneven settlement Interna! molsture.
or fa Hure of lts fou!Wt01.

100
FOUNDATION
found3tiot wall ~---- ---- ______________ .. .,_ sp~d footlng
A wan OCGU~ pelow the floor nearest -••• __ Aconcrete footlng extended l. tera lly to
grade. des~ t:o support and anchor the ··-,_ distrft>ute the foun,btlon load CNer a wtde
superstnJ<;t¡rre. ······.""'::.i="4Eff~=------- enough area that the allow3Pie ~arlng
capactty of the supportl~ sollls not
exceeded.
ground sl#
Aconcrete sb!:> placea CNer a dense or
compacted 173se and supported dlrectly by
the ground, ii:SlJally relnforce.d with welded
wiref3!1rlc en grld of relnforclng l.rars to
control anya'3ci:lng ca used by drylng ~~~~ : :!3 -- aitJc.¡¡{ 5tCtion assumed for she3r
s-hrlnbge or~l stres~-~eparate or "" ~ -
- ~~ p.mchlng she3r
Integral f~s are required for heavy or ~ ,.'@
concentrat:ed lcads. Over prolllem solls. the ~~
sla ¡, must t;.c, deslgned as a nut or raft ~
foondatloo. N:so called slab on grade. ~-----.l::ii':U"~==-fl
lia~course
A 13yerofcaarsegranular ~rlals placea
and compactt.d on undisturbed soll or
prepared fJO ~ prevent the c.pillary rlse of
motsture toa concrete ground sla!:>. -------------------- -----·--- ___________ ;
r---------·------ -------------------- ~j[ro<itig:
./ Th; ~itt~~~s ~pread footlng of a
su b-str3tucn · founáatlon wall
Somethlng tn.lt underlles or serves as a
!rase or fourWtlon. Also CJI!ed su!1strate. --- ~-fOOl[$~
Asingfe!Pit31tfoot1ng supporUng a
freestandln!J column or pler.

.--------- tonti~t¡()'@f~:{,;'
/ A reíiTfoffiJ wncretefooung extended te
/ support ¡¡ rowofcolumns.

,r- 9~~1\!1'
/ A relrrforcéd concrete 11eam sup~/19 a
·· superstructure at or neargrouna leYel an.d
tnnsfem~ the lo3a ~Jsa~~ footl~s.
pié:rs. or plles. Also caltJd~~~o;
... -~.' :r~-

.~---· 'Co~fc#Jng~~::
•· AreiÍTforCeJ c:Onc~ footlng for a
~~~19~-~.·., perlll"eter column or foundatlon W3 n
ArefnforUJ éOncrete footlng connected er:unded t:o support ¡¡n lntercr cclumn
Py a tle ream to .mother footln~ In order k::3J.
to balancean asymmetr!GallylmpJSed ro ¡wiJ rot'4tion or Jlffermtial ~
load.asat the penmeterof a t>ulldlng stte.
COfTt:JnuoiJs mJ anttlever ~;re
Also called strap foothtg.
p-oporttoneJ t<1 gen~ uniform >:J~
~Sin

raft m.lt
A rr.at provk:llng afootlng on yleldlng soll A th~. slaP!i:e footlng of relnfO!U-d
usually for an entlre pulkllng. placed so that concrete supportlng 3 numDer of columi\S or
the we~htofthe dlspl;~ced soll exceeds the ;¡n entlre !1ulldl~.
welght of the construction.

nl>Ped mrt
A ITI3t foundatlon relnforced by;¡ gf.d of -
ribs abc>."e or Pelow the sial> .
. -_.:.t .... _

flcatíng found3tion gril!age ullu!armat


A foundatlon ~In y!eldin~ soil. havlng for Aframeworl: of crosslng ~eams for A composl~ structure of relnforceJ
tts foot!ng 3 r1ft placed du-p enoogh that spreadlng heavy loads over large areas. coocre~ slaPs and l.raStment wails Slr>'·,~
the weLjht of ~excava tea soills equal to Also called grld as a mat foundatlon.
or grea ~r th.M the wdght of the
ccnstruction s-upported

101
FOUNDATION

dupfou~n
Afou~sy.;tem t:hJt extends do_w_!l .
th~h un~171e 5011 ta transfer uulldlng
k:laJs ta a nn appropr!ate 17earing anvil
stntum ~ klow ~ superstructure. The component of a plle h.ammer.
pilefourWtion located just llelow the ra m, that
A systtm ofpks. pl1e c.1ps. and t!e ueams transfers the drivlng force to the plle
fcr tnnsferrfftg uulkllng loads dcwn toa head.
suit.al;>le ~ str.~tum, used esp. when cushion
t.he soil rNSS Jirectly llelow the
Acap for protectlng a pllehead as
con~ 1s not suitaule for the dlrect
well as the pi !e hammer durlf11 a
Pe3~of~s. arlvlng operat!on. Also ca!led
cushlon llloá. cushlon head.

pile driver
~ring stntum batterpile drive band A machlne for drlvlng pites, usually
A~motsonorrockon whlch a A pite drlven ata speclfled angle A steel ~ana enGin;llng composed of a ta 11 fra meworl:
footl114 ~ or ta wfllch a lrolldlng ta the vertical In oraerto the healf of a tlmrer pite supportlng rnachlnery for llftlng a piJe
load 1s tn~ l7y a plle or calsson. prov!Je rtslstance ag3lnst to prevent lt from In posltlon Uefo~ arM~. a drlvi~
lateral forces. spllttlng when drlven. hammer, and vertical ralls or le2ds
Also call&:l pite ring. for guldlng the hamrner.
pite
A ~ sltná:r column of wood, steel. or
reinforced Qlfterete, drtven or
hammered~ically lnto the earth to
f0rn1 part of a foundatlon system.
end-~e.a"-9 pile ---------ft-:'!!1
A p~ ~g princlpally on the
~"!1 reslsbnu of soll or rock tirnber pile
~neath lts ilot for support. The Alog driven usually as a frlctlon pi le. often
SUITIXI~ soil lt1355 (rovldes 3 fttted wlth a steel shoe anda drive lnnd to
~ree ofbea-alsta~lltyforthe long prevent lt frorn spi!Wng or shatterlng.
~ 11eml;>a. Also c311td ·---. shoe
point-l>~ pile. The h.ard. polrUd or rounded footof a
plle or calsson for pterclng unaeriylng
~!low3Lole pt'le loa~
The NXlnlt1 axb! .anJ bteralloads soil. Alsocalltd drive &hoe.
pennfU.eJ on a pi le. .as c:fettrmlned by 3 e!\ H ~~. precast cOncrete pile
~;unlc plefonnub,a st3tlc load ~ V A prec3st, oftet1 prestressed concrete
test. x a ,:ct.echnlcal fnvestlgatlon of , /
thc found31lon soll ·· \.•
•.
column, havlng a round. s-tuare. or polygooal
sectlon and sametlme.s an open core. drivp
pile ~ity ____ ... -·· lnto the eart.h by a plle driver untll rt meets
the requlrea reslstanct.
The Jevl¡tlol of ;1 pi le from lts plan
wtloo orfrom the vertQI, resultlng
In a reductkr! of 1ts allowabte load. pipe p~ •·---:-·----------- H·pi!e -- .. ccmpo'IU pi!e
pileto~e
A havy st:eel pipe drlven wlth the lower end A steel H-sectlon driven as a plle, A plle construct.ed of two materia ls. as a
fr.e P'l1l'llUed devl3tlon of a plle from etther open or closed by a heavy steel plate sometlmes encasea In concrete toa polnt tlmper plle havl~ a concrete upper Sé1Ctlon
the v~ for whlch a reductlon In or polnt and fllled wlth concrete. An open- relow the water table to prevent corros Ion. to prevent the portlon ofthe pite auove the
a~Pie klad 15 nct rea¡ulred.
eruW pipe pite ~ulres lnspectlon anJ H·sectlons can be wekb:f ~ether In the water taPie from deterloratl~.
ex.ciVatlon l:>efore 17elng fllled wlth concrete. drivln9 process to form arry length cf plle.

~wn~ ----------------~
A plle de pOlling princlp.ally on the
frictlon;¡l resl:stanu of surroundlng
:'IN ~:!.~=~~
,.·. ~
b>•h"h tho
allowable axr.lload on a plle can be

:_ -_;~_,·_-,1 ~~;;:::~~:
~ rth for Slip'f'<rt

,Üft frictiHI
The frY;tlol JevetopeJ ltetween the
~ of a pfe .and the son lnto whlch
the pilt ls ;;..en, •mlted by the
~Ion el soM to the plle sldes and load on a single pite. usually a fractlon of the
the sharstrength of the surrounding ~;:.: i load requlr~to reach a yleld polnt, a polnt
SOíiii13SS. ;::· .. 1 of reslstanu, ora polntcf refusal
~frictSon . :\;:;: ·~: _ 1_... point of re,~nu .
An ~1 bad on 3 plle resultlng ·: ::::·: f~' . The polnt at whlch a plle load ca uses a
from ~ of fln. whlch tenas to ·..J. sptclfled net St'tttement after Dcing applled
d~ the pie down~rd lnto the soll. : ¡''--."_ contlnuously for aspeclfled perlad of tlme.
1
' ~ ",\..
~ 1 ·~ polnt of re(u.,af
\ 1 The polnt at whlch no addltlonal settlemerrt
\, 1 t3kts place after a plle has reen loaded
-------·~·\ contlnuously for a speclfled perlod of tlme.
\ yield polnt
The polnt at wfllch an lncrease In pite load
'-.. --- isobar prod~ a dlsproportlonate lncrease In
A fine connectln~ points of equal pressure. settlement.

102
FOUNDATION.

······-- --- pile cap -------·····-··---··· ... ,__ _


A relnforceJ concrete slab Cf mat
Jalnl~ the heacls of a cluster of plles w ;::
1
dlstrlbute the load from a cclumn or ;.-
grade Pe<~ mequally amOf\4 tr.e pites.

tiell~m

ro:ol