Introduction to 

SPSS Statistics 17

Kathy Fletcher, Technical Support Services WVU Office of Information Technology kathy.fletcher@mail.wvu.edu 293-8769

System requirements  for SPSS Statistics Base 17.0 for Windows®   Operating System   Microsoft® Windows XP (32‐bit versions) or Vista® (32‐bit or 64‐bit versions)   Hardware   Intel® or AMD x86 processor running at 1GHz or higher   Memory: 512MB RAM; 1GB recommended   Minimum free drive space: 450MB   CD‐ROM drive   Super VGA (800x600) or a higher‐resolution monitor   Software   Web browser: Internet Explorer 6 or above  

‐ 1 ‐ 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
  STARTING SPSS .................................................................................................................................... 3  DATA EDITOR ....................................................................................................................................... 4  DEFINE VARIABLES  ......................................................................................................................................... 4  . ACTIVITY 2: CREATE A SMALL DATA SET ............................................................................................................ 5  OPEN AN SPSS DATA FILE (PREVIOUSLY SAVED) .................................................................................................. 6  IMPORT AN EXCEL WORKSHEET ........................................................................................................................ 7  IMPORT ASCII TEXT  ....................................................................................................................................... 8  . SAVE YOUR DATA ........................................................................................................................................... 9  LABELLING VARIABLES  .................................................................................................................................... 9  . MISSING DATA ............................................................................................................................................ 10  VALUE LABELS ............................................................................................................................................. 11  MERGING DATA FILES ........................................................................................................................ 12  ADDING MORE OBSERVATIONS FROM ANOTHER FILE ......................................................................................... 12  ADD NEW VARIABLES FROM ANOTHER FILE ...................................................................................................... 14  COMPUTE NEW VARIABLES ........................................................................................................................... 15  DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS .................................................................................................................... 16  Analyze > Reports > Case Summaries .................................................................................................. 16  Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies .................................................................................... 18  Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Descriptives .................................................................................... 19  Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs ........................................................................................ 20  INFERENTIAL STATISTICS .................................................................................................................... 21  OUTPUT VIEWER ................................................................................................................................ 22  SPSS STATISTICS 17 MENUS................................................................................................................ 23  SPSS STATISTICS 17 TOOLBARS  .......................................................................................................... 24  . DATA EDITOR STANDARD TOOLBAR ................................................................................................................ 24  OUTPUT VIEWER STANDARD TOOLBAR ............................................................................................................ 24 

Open an existing data source You can click next to "Don’t show this dialog in the future" to force SPSS to skip this opening gambit.STARTING SPSS  When you first start up SPSS. You will now see the SPSS Statistics Data Editor screen: Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 3  . select "Type in data" and click on OK. For our first workshop activity today. you will see: Most of the time you will probably choose to • or to • Open another type of file.

you can: define variables and enter data into this window open a previously saved SPSS data file open an Excel spreadsheet to import data import an ASCII text file to use as data DEFINE VARIABLES         1.DATA EDITOR  At this point. 5. Specify the number of characters or digits in this dialog or in the appropriate columns when you return to the rows of variable information. 2. Go to the View menu and select Variables or click on the Variable View tab at the bottom of the screen. 6. In the Type column. change the variable type by clicking on the … button. give each variable a name. 4. 3. You can also create a label for this variable and change other default settings. 4  . In each row. Click on OK when you are finished with this variable.

Repeat these steps for each variable you plan to enter. Choose a location and enter a file name.7. age. Create at least two numeric variables. For example: lname. 7. ACTIVITY 2: CREATE A SMALL DATA SET  1. Create at least one string variable 3. 2. Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 5  . Click on the Save button or choose File > Save from the menu. fname. salary. You will see: 6. 5. 4. Click on the Save button. Switch back to Data View and enter a few rows of data. Create 4-6 variables of your choice.

3. 6  . You will see results of the saving summarized in the output window: OPEN AN SPSS DATA FILE (PREVIOUSLY SAVED)  1. Click on the Open button. 5. Go to the File menu and select Open > Data. 2. You will see the data appear in the Data Editor window and more information about the variables under the Variable View tab. Change the location in the "Look in" box to the subdirectory where your file is. 4. Select the file.8.

2. 3.IMPORT AN EXCEL WORKSHEET  Ideally. You will see the data appear in the Data Editor window. 5. 4.xls) files. Go to the File menu and select Open > Data. Click on OK. 1. You may want to insert or edit them in the Excel file ahead of time. You may need to modify some of the variable definitions (Variable View) Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 7  . You might get prompted about the variable names: 6. 7. Change the location in the "Look in" box to the subdirectory where your file is. Change the "Files of type" selection to look for Excel (*. Select the file. the worksheet should have the variable names in the first row.

specify the delimiter: comma. tab. 8. When you are done.IMPORT ASCII TEXT  1. For Delimited data. Step 2: • • Select Delimited if the data are separated by blanks. 9. The last question will allow you to save all of these decisions in a file for future use. especially if your text file did not include a row of names. 6. Find the file and open it as if it were any other type of file. 5. 8  . 7. semicolon. Select Fixed Width if each data item is always in the same column locations. space. tabs. 3. etc. A Text Import Wizard will start. Step 1: choose "No" to the question about predefined format and click on Next 4. click on the Finish button. Click on each variable column in the Data Preview to switch from one to the other. Change the variable names. Change the data format type for each variable as necessary. or commas. Go to the File menu and select Read Text Data 2.

Click on the Save button after you have specified all needed information. LABELLING VARIABLES  The easiest way to add a label for a variable is to switch to Variable View. the command works like a Save As command and you will be asked to supply a location and name for the file.sav extension on the file. SPSS will add a . The first time you save an untitled file. go to the File menu and select Save. In the Label column next to each field.SAVE YOUR DATA  To save the current contents of the Data Editor window to an SPSS saved data file. By default. enter the text string you desire: Another way is to use the Data > Variable Properties dialog: You will see these labels used in the output instead of the variable names when you run procedures such as Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Descriptives: You will see the label listed as an attribute when you examine the codebook Analyze > Reports > Codebook: Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 9  .

Certain procedures will treat all missing numbers the same. Click on it: For numeric data. If you need to. you can recode missing values to the system missing value or to an interpolated value. a person neglected or refused to answer a question. the response is not applicable based on the response to a previous question (e. are you employed? y/n … 2. does your job include benefits? y/n). if you do know the various reasons why a number is missing. Sometimes a researcher wants to account for this data differently and be able to distinguish or account for the various reasons for the missing item.MISSING DATA  Sometimes data is not available for a variety of reasons: the measuring instrument failed. For string data. When you are done. the easiest thing to do is to leave that cell blank in the data entry sheet or in Excel. Click in the appropriate cell in the Missing column. you might want to consider entering a code for it. you can enter 3 discrete values or a range plus 1 optional discrete value. Blank data will still be set to the System Missing value (will appear as a period in the datasheet.g. A button with 3 dots will appear to the right of the word "None". you can look at the frequencies to tabulate the reasons. click on OK. If you do not need to account for the reason. 1. However. The easiest way to designate missing data is under Variable View. 10  . you are restricted to a maximum of 3 discrete values – the "range" option will be greyed out and unavailable.

When you are done.VALUE LABELS  Sometimes you want to associate a text string with your numeric data – for instance. you may have entered 1 for "blue" and 2 for "red". click on OK. Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 11  . Enter a value and a label. You can return here in the future and change value labels or remove them. Click on the … button. Click on the Add button. The easiest way to create or modify value labels is under the Variable View tab: Click in the appropriate cell under the Value column.

If there is the same variable in the two files but with different names. 12  . you can click on the variable from the external file and then click on the Rename button. click on the purple arrow button pointing to the right to include it in the new merged data set. then choose Data > Merge Files > Add Cases Choose to merge two currently open datasets or browse to find a saved external data file: Click on Continue If a variable in the first active file is not part of the second file.MERGING DATA FILES  ADDING MORE OBSERVATIONS FROM ANOTHER FILE  If you wish to combine two data files with the same variables but different cases. Supply the new name and click on the Continue button.

After all variable selections and pairs have been made. Your active file now includes data from the other file.Whether or not you rename the variable. Click on the second variable name so both names are now selected. then perform a File > Save As command to save this current active dataset with a new name. 4. click on OK. the second file selected will have 1's. Click on the Pair button in the middle. you can manually pair variables that you know match even though they might have different names: 1. The first file that was open will have 0's for the values. If you wish the original active file to remain the same as before you started. Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 13  . Hold down your Ctrl key 3. You can choose to create a new variable that will tell you which original data file the cases came from. Click on one variable on the left 2.

3. You can choose to create a variable that tells which file the cases came from if you selected both files provide cases: 14  .sav file. 2. Click on Browse to select the file (or select the open dataset).ADD NEW VARIABLES FROM ANOTHER FILE  If the two data files have the same cases but include different variables. Click on the Continue button. choose Data > Merge Files > Add Variables Choose between an open dataset and an external SPSS . Match Merge: 1. Click on the purple arrow pointing in to the Key Variables box 5. Decide if you want unmatched cases from both files. Check the box to match cases. Click on the variable name from the list of Excluded Variables 4.

4. 3. Go to the Transform menu and select Compute Variable 2.COMPUTE NEW VARIABLES  1. Create a numeric expression by choosing functions and variables and by entering or selecting numbers and symbols. Click on the If… button if you wish the computation to occur only for some cases Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 15  . Give the Target variable a name. Click on the Type & Label button to verify or change the new variable's characteristics. 5.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS  ANALYZE > REPORTS > CASE SUMMARIES Select a variable from the list on the left and click on the purple arrow button to move its name to the right (or double click on the variable name). You can select one or more grouping variables. You can choose to not display the actual cases or you can limit how many cases are displayed. Click on the Statistics button to request additional information to be displayed. 16  . SPSS is going to summarize those variables listed in the variables box on the right. Repeat for additional variables. Select a desired statistic from the list on the left and click on the purple arrow (or double click) Click on Continue to return to the previous dialog.

Click on OK to generate the report. Click on Continue to return to the previous dialog. Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 17  .Click on the Options button to control the appearance of the output.

Charts. Repeat for additional variables. 18  . and/or Format buttons to request additional results or to control the output appearance. Click on Continue to return to the previous dialog. Click on the Statistics. Select a variable from the list on the left and click on the arrow button to move its name to the right.ANALYZE > DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS > FREQUENCIES Use this for categorical data when you want 1-way frequencies and percentages. SPSS is going to summarize those variables listed in the box on the right.

Click on Continue to return to the Descriptives dialog. If you want something other than the default results. You select variables by clicking on their names on the left and then clicking on the arrow button in the middle.Click on OK when you are ready to generate the Frequencies report. Results will look something like: ANALYZE > DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS > DESCRIPTIVES Use this when you have continuous variables. click on the Options button. Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 19  .

Specify a row variable and a column variable.Click on OK to run the descriptives report. Click on the Statistics button if you want Chi Squares or other statistics computed. Descriptives Results look something like: ANALYZE > DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS > CROSSTABS Use this procedure when you want to look at 2-way frequencies of your categorical data. Click on the Cells button if you want to display percentages. Click on OK when you are ready to generate your results. expected cell counts. or other information in addition to frequency counts. 20  .

Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 21  . Specify one or more dependent test variables for the top right box. Specify one grouping variable. Do not use this test when you have a pre-test / post-test situation. Ideally it should just have 2 values (you inflate your error rate if you keep repeating this test for pairs of groups B use 1-way ANOVA if you have several groups).INFERENTIAL STATISTICS  Analyze > Compare Means > Independent-Samples T Test Use this test when you have 2 independent samples and want to compare the means. Click on the Define Groups button and specify the valid values for this grouping variable.

More recent results appear at the bottom. To see the list of its objects under a procedure. double click on on the text box and type. To change text on the right. click on the procedure name on the left and press the Delete key. click on the . with a thin black indicator box and a red arrow. you will automatically be taken to the SPSS Output Viewer. double click on the Notes object name listed beneath a procedure. you will see a list of various procedures with their subordinate objects. To rename an item on the left. In the left frame.sign to the left of its name. To see the associated notes for a procedure. click in the box and type. 22  . To delete a portion of your results. To collapse a procedure. You can use this left frame to navigate to previous results: click on the object name on the left and it will appear in the frame on the right. click on the + sign to the left of its name.OUTPUT VIEWER  When you run procedures from the Analyze or Graphs menu.

SPSS STATISTICS 17 MENUS    Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 23  .

Autoscript Run Script Save Print Preview Dialog Recall Go to Data Go to Variable Use Variable Sets Select Last Output Create / Edit Autoscript Designate Window You can hide or view toolbars or choose to display larger buttons: View > Toolbars > Customize The View menu also allows you to select a different fontwhether or not to display grid lines whether or not to display value labels. 24  .SPSS STATISTICS 17 TOOLBARS  DATA EDITOR STANDARD TOOLBAR  Go to Variable Insert Variable Weight Cases Value Labels Show All Variables Open Print Undo / Redo Find Save Dialog Recall Go to Case Variables Insert Case Split File Select Cases Use Variable Sets Spell Check OUTPUT VIEWER STANDARD TOOLBAR  Open Print Export Undo / Redo Go to Case Variables Show All Variables Assoc. and whether or not to display the status bar.

Intro to SPSS Statistics 17    Page 25  .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful