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parallel forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. This is illustrated

in figure 5.3 in which both forces combine to turn the steering wheel to the right.

3. Concurrent force system, when all the forces meet at the some point.

There are a number of anatomical examples of this type of force system,

for example the sternal and clavicular heads of pectoralis major.

4. General force system, when all the forces actimg are in the same pale but

cannot be convered by the previous categories.

Compotition of forces

In real life many forces may be acting on the human body simultaneously.

Sometimes it necessary to know the final effect as all the force acting together.

This process of finding the resultant is cal.. the composition of force. This can be

express bu using the equation :

𝑅 = → + → + →…+ →

𝐹1 𝐹2 𝐹3 𝐹𝑛

= ∑ →

𝐹

When R mean the resultant

→ means a force (the arrow over the .. ler indicates a vector quatity)

𝐹

∑ means ‘the sum of’

When the sum of all the force acting of body equals zero, the force system is said

to equilibrim. Here all the forces balance other out and no change in place or

position the body occurs. When the sum of all the forces doesn’t zero, motion

occurs.

Force analysis

When analysing force system. Two basic .. are used. They are algebraic and the

methods. The linear force system, being plest to analyse, will be used to

illustration method, as seen in the example of .. pulling on a rope (fig 5.5)

Here A pulls with a force of 60 lbs wt pulls with a force of 80 lbs weight. Algel..

the resultant can be obtained by simple addition, taking into account the ‘sign’ –

whether plus or minus- of the amounts. In the case, both the forces are directed

to the right, therefor by convention these forces can be given a positive ‘+’ sign.

To solve the present problem :

60 lbs wt + 80 lbs wt = 140 lbs wt

Therefore, the resultant force equals 140 lbs wt to the right.

[GAMBAR]

Now consider the example illustrated in figure 5.6. if A still pulls with a force of 60

lbs weight, and B with a force of 80 lbs weight, the resultant is quite different. As

A is pulling with a force of 60 lbs weight to the left, this quantity is now given a

negative sign.

Therefore the reultant of this particular linear force system is :

-60 lbs wt + 80 lbs wt = 20 lbs wt

The resultant, 20 lbs wt, has a positive sign, therefore the man pulling to the right

wins!

[GAMBAR]

This same example can be solved graphically, using vectors. A scle is decided

upon, for example 1⁄2 inch = 40 lbs w. Vectors representing the two forces

involved in the tug-o-war are drawn, the convention being to place the ‘tail’of the

following vector, B, at the tip of the arrowhead of the preceding vector, A.

The resultant is found by drawing a line from the tail of thhe first vector to the

head of the final vector. The resultant is the sadhed arrow in figure 5.7. this now

gives the direction of the resultant which in this case is to the right. To find the

magnitude of the resultant, this same line is also measured and reconverted using

the scale 1⁄2 “ = 40 lbs wt. in the case, as the length of the vector is 1⁄4 ”, the

magnitude of the resultant is 20 lbs wt;

If two or more forces act at the same point, forming an angle with each other,

some modifications have to be made to the basic algebraic summtion of the

forces involved will not produce the resultant. A number of methods can be used

to solve this problem.

1. The parallelogram method is used when only two forces are applied to

the same point simultaneously. In figure 5.8 the action of the anterior

and posterior fibries of deltoid illustrates this situation.

After a scale is decided upon, vector A, representing the force produced

by the anterior deltoid, are drawn to scale from the same point. In this

case the point represents the deltoid insertion. Both arrows are directed

away from this point.

The other two sides of the parallelogram are now constructed. A line is

then drawn from the point representing the deltoid insertion to the

opposite corner of the parallelogram. This line indicates the magnitude

and direction of the resultant force.

2. The triangle method is also used when two force are involved. Here

vector A is drawn to scale and its original direction. Vector P is then

drawn to scale and following its original direction. The resultant vector,

R, is found by joining the tail of the first vector to the head of the last.

As seen in figure 5.8 both these methods give the same solution.

[GAMBAR]

Where more than two vectors are involved in a concurrent force system

the triangle method can be extended. Here vectors are placed end to

end in the manner already described. The resultant is found by joining

the tail of the first vector to the head of the last. This is termed the

polygon method of force analysis.

3. The trigonometic method can be used if the value of the angle between

the vectors of forces A and P is known. This method gives an algebraic

solution.

Suppose the angle between the anterior and posterior fibres of deltoid

is 𝜃 (theta), as shown in figure 5.8a.

The resultants is found usimg the following equation :

R = √𝑃2 + 𝐴1 − 2𝑃𝐴 cos 𝜃

Where R is the resultant

P is the length of vector P

A is the length of vector A

side adjacent

cos 𝜃 is the raelationship

hypotenuse

(its value may ve found by consulting the relevant

mathematical table)

√is the square root

A special situation occurs if the angle between two concurrent forces is 90°. The

phytagoras theorem is used to find the resultant.

[GAMBAR]

In the right-angled triangle ABC

(𝐴𝐶)2 = 𝐴𝐵2 + 𝐵𝐶 2 . AC is the hypotenuse the square of the hypotenuse is

equal to .. of the squares on the other two sides.

Now suppose two force P and Q act angles to each other (fig. 5.11)

[GAMBAR]

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