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A special type of parallel force system is called a force couple.

In this case the

parallel forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. This is illustrated
in figure 5.3 in which both forces combine to turn the steering wheel to the right.
3. Concurrent force system, when all the forces meet at the some point.
There are a number of anatomical examples of this type of force system,
for example the sternal and clavicular heads of pectoralis major.
4. General force system, when all the forces actimg are in the same pale but
cannot be convered by the previous categories.

Compotition of forces
In real life many forces may be acting on the human body simultaneously.
Sometimes it necessary to know the final effect as all the force acting together.
This process of finding the resultant is cal.. the composition of force. This can be
express bu using the equation :
𝑅 = → + → + →…+ →
𝐹1 𝐹2 𝐹3 𝐹𝑛
= ∑ →
When R mean the resultant
→ means a force (the arrow over the .. ler indicates a vector quatity)
∑ means ‘the sum of’
When the sum of all the force acting of body equals zero, the force system is said
to equilibrim. Here all the forces balance other out and no change in place or
position the body occurs. When the sum of all the forces doesn’t zero, motion

Force analysis
When analysing force system. Two basic .. are used. They are algebraic and the
methods. The linear force system, being plest to analyse, will be used to
illustration method, as seen in the example of .. pulling on a rope (fig 5.5)
Here A pulls with a force of 60 lbs wt pulls with a force of 80 lbs weight. Algel..
the resultant can be obtained by simple addition, taking into account the ‘sign’ –
whether plus or minus- of the amounts. In the case, both the forces are directed
to the right, therefor by convention these forces can be given a positive ‘+’ sign.
To solve the present problem :
60 lbs wt + 80 lbs wt = 140 lbs wt
Therefore, the resultant force equals 140 lbs wt to the right.
Now consider the example illustrated in figure 5.6. if A still pulls with a force of 60
lbs weight, and B with a force of 80 lbs weight, the resultant is quite different. As
A is pulling with a force of 60 lbs weight to the left, this quantity is now given a
negative sign.
Therefore the reultant of this particular linear force system is :
-60 lbs wt + 80 lbs wt = 20 lbs wt
The resultant, 20 lbs wt, has a positive sign, therefore the man pulling to the right
This same example can be solved graphically, using vectors. A scle is decided
upon, for example 1⁄2 inch = 40 lbs w. Vectors representing the two forces
involved in the tug-o-war are drawn, the convention being to place the ‘tail’of the
following vector, B, at the tip of the arrowhead of the preceding vector, A.
The resultant is found by drawing a line from the tail of thhe first vector to the
head of the final vector. The resultant is the sadhed arrow in figure 5.7. this now
gives the direction of the resultant which in this case is to the right. To find the
magnitude of the resultant, this same line is also measured and reconverted using
the scale 1⁄2 “ = 40 lbs wt. in the case, as the length of the vector is 1⁄4 ”, the
magnitude of the resultant is 20 lbs wt;

Force analysis of concurrent force system

If two or more forces act at the same point, forming an angle with each other,
some modifications have to be made to the basic algebraic summtion of the
forces involved will not produce the resultant. A number of methods can be used
to solve this problem.
1. The parallelogram method is used when only two forces are applied to
the same point simultaneously. In figure 5.8 the action of the anterior
and posterior fibries of deltoid illustrates this situation.
After a scale is decided upon, vector A, representing the force produced
by the anterior deltoid, are drawn to scale from the same point. In this
case the point represents the deltoid insertion. Both arrows are directed
away from this point.
The other two sides of the parallelogram are now constructed. A line is
then drawn from the point representing the deltoid insertion to the
opposite corner of the parallelogram. This line indicates the magnitude
and direction of the resultant force.
2. The triangle method is also used when two force are involved. Here
vector A is drawn to scale and its original direction. Vector P is then
drawn to scale and following its original direction. The resultant vector,
R, is found by joining the tail of the first vector to the head of the last.
As seen in figure 5.8 both these methods give the same solution.
Where more than two vectors are involved in a concurrent force system
the triangle method can be extended. Here vectors are placed end to
end in the manner already described. The resultant is found by joining
the tail of the first vector to the head of the last. This is termed the
polygon method of force analysis.
3. The trigonometic method can be used if the value of the angle between
the vectors of forces A and P is known. This method gives an algebraic
Suppose the angle between the anterior and posterior fibres of deltoid
is 𝜃 (theta), as shown in figure 5.8a.
The resultants is found usimg the following equation :
R = √𝑃2 + 𝐴1 − 2𝑃𝐴 cos 𝜃
Where R is the resultant
P is the length of vector P
A is the length of vector A
side adjacent
cos 𝜃 is the raelationship
(its value may ve found by consulting the relevant
mathematical table)
√is the square root

Concurrent force acting at 90°

A special situation occurs if the angle between two concurrent forces is 90°. The
phytagoras theorem is used to find the resultant.
In the right-angled triangle ABC
(𝐴𝐶)2 = 𝐴𝐵2 + 𝐵𝐶 2 . AC is the hypotenuse the square of the hypotenuse is
equal to .. of the squares on the other two sides.
Now suppose two force P and Q act angles to each other (fig. 5.11)