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# Use hollow prism to (i) study the variation of

## refractive index with concentration of sugar solution

(ii) compare the refractive indices for different
liquids like methanol, water, Ethanol.

## AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:

After conducting this experiment students will understand
1) measurement technique of refractive index of liquid
2) variation of refractive index with concentration,
3) probable application of it.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
A hollow prism; spirit level; spectrometer;sugar; water; methanol; ethanol.

## THEORY: The refractive index of prism is given by

where µ is the refractive index, A is the angle of prism and Dm is the angle of minimum
deviation. (Derive and understand above formula).
Refractive index is actually measurement o refraction or bending of light at the interface of two
mediums of diff densities, diff materials have diff densities , Diff materials have diff refreactive
index, which means they refract light in diff proportions.

OBSERVATIONS
20 division of main scale = 10
10 1
1 division of main scale = =
20 2

## And No. of divisions on Vernier Scale (VS) = 30

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑀𝑆 10 1
Vernier Const (VC) = = = = 0.017
𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑜𝑛 𝑉𝑆 20×30 60

## Table 1. Observation for angle of Prism

2𝐴
No. Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II 2A Mean A= 2
of MS VS Total MS VS Total =R1-R2 2A
obs (R1) (R2)
1 VER I 125.0 9 125.150 246.0 8 246.130 120.980 121.250 60.630
VER II -55.0 14 -55.230 66.0 12 66.200 121.430
2 VER I 124.5 27 124.550 245.5 19 245.820 120.870
VER II -55.5 28 -55.970 65.5 17 65.780 121.750
3 VER I 124.5 11 124.680 245.5 15 245.750 121.070
VER II -55.5 6 -55.600 65.5 17 65.780 121.380
Table 2.

## No Concentratio Vernie Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1 Mea

. of n r MS V Total MS V Total -R2 n
obs S (R1) S (R2) DM
1 20% VER I 149. 16 149.27 178. 20 178.33 29.060
0 0 0
VER II 329. 12 329.20 358. 14 358.33 29.030
0 0 0
2 VER I 149. 20 145.33 168. 20 168.40 23.070
0 0 0
VER II 325. 21 325.35 348. 20 348.33 22.980
0 0 0
3 VER I 127. 21 127.35 151. 9 151.15 23.800
0 0 0
VER II 307. 10 307.70 331. 2 313.03 23.860
0 0
1 10% VER I 125. 11 125.18 149. 12 149.37 24.190
0 0 0 0
VER II 305. 05 305.08 329. 15 329.25 24.170
0 0 0 0
2 VER I 117. 20 117.33 141. 26 141.43 24.100
0 0 0
VER II 297. 10 297.17 321. 21 321.35 24.180
0 0 0 0
3 VER I 122. 14 122.23 146. 15 146.25 24.020
0 0 0 0
VER II 302. 5 302.08 326. 22 326.37 24.250
0 0 0
1 5% VER I 133. 22 133.37 156. 24 156.40 23.034
0 4 0 8
VER II 313. 21 313.35 336. 11 336.18 22.830
0 7 0 7
2 VER I 124. 02 124.63 147. 04 147.06 23.054
0 4 0 8
VER II 304. 24 304.40 327. 27 327.45 23.031
0 8 0 9
3 VER I 134. 05 134.49 157. 15 157.22 22.762
0 3 0 5
VER II 314. 02 314.40 337. 10 337.17 22.140
0 8 0 0
1 2.5% VER I 131. 22 131.08 153. 15 153.22 22.425
0 5 0 5
VER II 314. 24 314.03 336. 27 336.45 21.094
0 4 0 9
2 VER I 125. 21 125.37 147. 04 147.06 22.724
0 4 0 8
VER II 305. 29 305.40 328. 11 328.18 21.796
0 8 0 7
3 VER I 131. 11 131.35 153. 09 153.15 22.847
0 7 0 3
VER II 310. 01 310.49 336. 20 333.34 21.432
0 3 0 0
1 0% VER I 89.5 24 89.687 147. 07 111.11 21.517
0 9
VER II 269. 01 269.15 291. 02 291.03 21.517
5 7 0 4
2 VER I 5.5 24 5.908 28.5 22 28.874 22.966
VER II 185. 10 185.17 208. 10 208.17 23.000
0 0 0 0
3 VER I 148. 25 148.92 171. 15 171.75 22.830
5 5 5 5
VER II 328. 29 328.99 350. 28 350.47 21.47
5 3 0 6

## No. of obs Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1- Mean

MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM
(R1) (R2)
1 VER I 107.0 22 107.374 131.0 07 131.119 23.745
VER II 287.0 15 287.255 311.0 05 311.085 23.830
2 VER I 124.0 18 124.306 147.0 08 147.136 22.830
VER II 304.0 15 304.255 327.0 18 327.306 23.051
3 VER I 140.0 26 140.442 165.0 25 165.425 24.983
VER II 320.0 19 320.323 345.0 20 345.340 25.017
Table3 observation for minimum deviation of Methanol

## No. of obs Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1- Mean

MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM
(R1) (R2)
1 VER I 166 20 166.340 192 10 192.170 25.830
VER II 346 10 346.170 12 17 12.289 26.119
2 VER I 155 13 155.221 181 09 181.153 25.932
VER II 335 28 335.476 1 01 1.017 25.541
3 VER I 155 15 155.225 181 20 181.340 26.115
VER II 335 08 335.136 1 22 1.374 26.228

CALCULATION
Mean Angle of prism (A) = 60.630
Minimum deviation for 20% Concentration of sugar solution (D) = 25.300
Refractive index of 20% Concentration of sugar solution is

µ20% =

(60.630+25.300)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.682
2
= 60.630 = = 1.350
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.505
2

µ10% =

(60.630+23.4163)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.674
2
= 60.630 = = 1.337
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2
µ5% =

(60.630+22.907)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.666
2
= 60.630 = = 1.321
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

µ2.5% =

(60.630+22.280)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.662
2
= 60.630 = = 1.311
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

µ0% =

(60.630+22.0024)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.660
2
= 60.630 = = 1.308
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

Now,
Minimum deviation for ethanol ((Dm) = 23.909
Refractive index of Ethanol is
µmethanol =

(60.630+23.909)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.672
2
= 60.630 = = 1.334
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2
Now,
Minimum deviation for methanol ((Dm) = 25.962
Refractive index of Ethanol is
µethanol =

(60.630+25.962)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.685
2
= 60.630 = = 1.360
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

## A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 25.300, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

25.300 25.300
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00876
Error Analysis for 10% Concentration of Sugar Solution

## Here, µ = 1.337 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 24.163, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

24.163 24.163
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00858

## Here, µ = 1.321 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.907, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.907 22.907
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00839

## Here, µ = 1.311 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.280, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.280 22.280
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00831

## Here, µ = 1.308 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.024, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.024 22.024
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00828

## Here, µ = 1.334 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 23.909, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

23.909 23.909
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00855

## A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 25.962, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

25.962 25.962
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00886

## Relation between Refractive index and concentrations

Let x be concentration of solution and y be the refractive index,
their relation can be represented as y = mx+c---1)
X Y Xy X2
0.200 1.359 0.2718 0.04000
0.100 1.337 0.1337 0.10000
0.050 1.321 0.06605 0.002500
0.025 1.311 0.3277 0.000625
0.000 1.308 0 0
∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑥 = 0.636 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 0.504325 ∑ 𝑥 2 = 0.053125

## Taking Sum over eqn 1

∑ 𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 + 𝑛𝑐 − −2)

## Multiplying Eqn 1 by x and taking sum

∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 2 + 𝐶 ∑ 𝑥 − − − − − 3)

## Solving above equations 2 and 3 using table,

+
6.636 = 𝑀 × 0.053125 𝐶 × 0.375

0.053125 0.375

Again,

## 0.5043255 = 𝑀 × 0.053125 + 𝐶 × 0.375

M = 0.504325−0.375𝐶 ------5)
0.053125

Solving, 4 and 5,
C = 1.240
M= 0.7377

## Hence eqn 1 becomes, y = 0.7377x+1.240

X Y Y = mx+c Y=yab-ycalc Y2
0.200 1.359 1.387 0.028 0.000784
0.100 1.337 1.313 0.024 0.000576
0.050 1.321 1.276 0.045` 0.002025
0.025 1.311 1.258 0.053 0.002809
0.000 1.308 1.240 0.068 0.004624
∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑦 2 = 0.010818

## Std. error in slope,

𝑛 ∑ 𝑦2 5 0.010818
∆ m = √𝑛−2 2 = √3 5×0.053125−0.140625
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥)

= 3.79×10-1

SE in intercept,

∑ 𝑦2 ∑ 𝑥2 0.010818 0.053125
∆ m = √ 𝑛−2 2 = √
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥) 3 5×0.053125−0.140625

= 3.914×10-2

RESULTS

Hence the variation of refractive index with Concentration of Sugar solution was studied. Also,
the refractive index of Ethanol and methanol was measured. Thus from experiment we found