Hollow Prism MSC physics practical.

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Hollow Prism MSC physics practical.

© All Rights Reserved

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(ii) compare the refractive indices for different

liquids like methanol, water, Ethanol.

After conducting this experiment students will understand

1) measurement technique of refractive index of liquid

2) variation of refractive index with concentration,

3) probable application of it.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

A hollow prism; spirit level; spectrometer;sugar; water; methanol; ethanol.

where µ is the refractive index, A is the angle of prism and Dm is the angle of minimum

deviation. (Derive and understand above formula).

Refractive index is actually measurement o refraction or bending of light at the interface of two

mediums of diff densities, diff materials have diff densities , Diff materials have diff refreactive

index, which means they refract light in diff proportions.

OBSERVATIONS

20 division of main scale = 10

10 1

1 division of main scale = =

20 2

𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑀𝑆 10 1

Vernier Const (VC) = = = = 0.017

𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑜𝑛 𝑉𝑆 20×30 60

2𝐴

No. Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II 2A Mean A= 2

of MS VS Total MS VS Total =R1-R2 2A

obs (R1) (R2)

1 VER I 125.0 9 125.150 246.0 8 246.130 120.980 121.250 60.630

VER II -55.0 14 -55.230 66.0 12 66.200 121.430

2 VER I 124.5 27 124.550 245.5 19 245.820 120.870

VER II -55.5 28 -55.970 65.5 17 65.780 121.750

3 VER I 124.5 11 124.680 245.5 15 245.750 121.070

VER II -55.5 6 -55.600 65.5 17 65.780 121.380

Table 2.

. of n r MS V Total MS V Total -R2 n

obs S (R1) S (R2) DM

1 20% VER I 149. 16 149.27 178. 20 178.33 29.060

0 0 0

VER II 329. 12 329.20 358. 14 358.33 29.030

0 0 0

2 VER I 149. 20 145.33 168. 20 168.40 23.070

0 0 0

VER II 325. 21 325.35 348. 20 348.33 22.980

0 0 0

3 VER I 127. 21 127.35 151. 9 151.15 23.800

0 0 0

VER II 307. 10 307.70 331. 2 313.03 23.860

0 0

1 10% VER I 125. 11 125.18 149. 12 149.37 24.190

0 0 0 0

VER II 305. 05 305.08 329. 15 329.25 24.170

0 0 0 0

2 VER I 117. 20 117.33 141. 26 141.43 24.100

0 0 0

VER II 297. 10 297.17 321. 21 321.35 24.180

0 0 0 0

3 VER I 122. 14 122.23 146. 15 146.25 24.020

0 0 0 0

VER II 302. 5 302.08 326. 22 326.37 24.250

0 0 0

1 5% VER I 133. 22 133.37 156. 24 156.40 23.034

0 4 0 8

VER II 313. 21 313.35 336. 11 336.18 22.830

0 7 0 7

2 VER I 124. 02 124.63 147. 04 147.06 23.054

0 4 0 8

VER II 304. 24 304.40 327. 27 327.45 23.031

0 8 0 9

3 VER I 134. 05 134.49 157. 15 157.22 22.762

0 3 0 5

VER II 314. 02 314.40 337. 10 337.17 22.140

0 8 0 0

1 2.5% VER I 131. 22 131.08 153. 15 153.22 22.425

0 5 0 5

VER II 314. 24 314.03 336. 27 336.45 21.094

0 4 0 9

2 VER I 125. 21 125.37 147. 04 147.06 22.724

0 4 0 8

VER II 305. 29 305.40 328. 11 328.18 21.796

0 8 0 7

3 VER I 131. 11 131.35 153. 09 153.15 22.847

0 7 0 3

VER II 310. 01 310.49 336. 20 333.34 21.432

0 3 0 0

1 0% VER I 89.5 24 89.687 147. 07 111.11 21.517

0 9

VER II 269. 01 269.15 291. 02 291.03 21.517

5 7 0 4

2 VER I 5.5 24 5.908 28.5 22 28.874 22.966

VER II 185. 10 185.17 208. 10 208.17 23.000

0 0 0 0

3 VER I 148. 25 148.92 171. 15 171.75 22.830

5 5 5 5

VER II 328. 29 328.99 350. 28 350.47 21.47

5 3 0 6

MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM

(R1) (R2)

1 VER I 107.0 22 107.374 131.0 07 131.119 23.745

VER II 287.0 15 287.255 311.0 05 311.085 23.830

2 VER I 124.0 18 124.306 147.0 08 147.136 22.830

VER II 304.0 15 304.255 327.0 18 327.306 23.051

3 VER I 140.0 26 140.442 165.0 25 165.425 24.983

VER II 320.0 19 320.323 345.0 20 345.340 25.017

Table3 observation for minimum deviation of Methanol

MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM

(R1) (R2)

1 VER I 166 20 166.340 192 10 192.170 25.830

VER II 346 10 346.170 12 17 12.289 26.119

2 VER I 155 13 155.221 181 09 181.153 25.932

VER II 335 28 335.476 1 01 1.017 25.541

3 VER I 155 15 155.225 181 20 181.340 26.115

VER II 335 08 335.136 1 22 1.374 26.228

CALCULATION

Mean Angle of prism (A) = 60.630

Minimum deviation for 20% Concentration of sugar solution (D) = 25.300

Refractive index of 20% Concentration of sugar solution is

µ20% =

(60.630+25.300)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.682

2

= 60.630 = = 1.350

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.505

2

µ10% =

(60.630+23.4163)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.674

2

= 60.630 = = 1.337

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

µ5% =

(60.630+22.907)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.666

2

= 60.630 = = 1.321

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

µ2.5% =

(60.630+22.280)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.662

2

= 60.630 = = 1.311

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

µ0% =

(60.630+22.0024)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.660

2

= 60.630 = = 1.308

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

Now,

Minimum deviation for ethanol ((Dm) = 23.909

Refractive index of Ethanol is

µmethanol =

(60.630+23.909)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.672

2

= 60.630 = = 1.334

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

Now,

Minimum deviation for methanol ((Dm) = 25.962

Refractive index of Ethanol is

µethanol =

(60.630+25.962)

𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.685

2

= 60.630 = = 1.360

𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504

2

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

25.300 25.300

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00876

Error Analysis for 10% Concentration of Sugar Solution

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

24.163 24.163

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00858

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

22.907 22.907

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00839

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

22.280 22.280

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00831

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

22.024 22.024

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00828

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

23.909 23.909

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00855

Dm Dm

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+

2 2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin

2 2

25.962 25.962

𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+

2 2

∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2

2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin

2 2

∆ µ = ±0.00886

Let x be concentration of solution and y be the refractive index,

their relation can be represented as y = mx+c---1)

X Y Xy X2

0.200 1.359 0.2718 0.04000

0.100 1.337 0.1337 0.10000

0.050 1.321 0.06605 0.002500

0.025 1.311 0.3277 0.000625

0.000 1.308 0 0

∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑥 = 0.636 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 0.504325 ∑ 𝑥 2 = 0.053125

∑ 𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 + 𝑛𝑐 − −2)

∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 2 + 𝐶 ∑ 𝑥 − − − − − 3)

+

6.636 = 𝑀 × 0.053125 𝐶 × 0.375

0.053125 0.375

Again,

M = 0.504325−0.375𝐶 ------5)

0.053125

Solving, 4 and 5,

C = 1.240

M= 0.7377

X Y Y = mx+c Y=yab-ycalc Y2

0.200 1.359 1.387 0.028 0.000784

0.100 1.337 1.313 0.024 0.000576

0.050 1.321 1.276 0.045` 0.002025

0.025 1.311 1.258 0.053 0.002809

0.000 1.308 1.240 0.068 0.004624

∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑦 2 = 0.010818

𝑛 ∑ 𝑦2 5 0.010818

∆ m = √𝑛−2 2 = √3 5×0.053125−0.140625

𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥)

= 3.79×10-1

SE in intercept,

∑ 𝑦2 ∑ 𝑥2 0.010818 0.053125

∆ m = √ 𝑛−2 2 = √

𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥) 3 5×0.053125−0.140625

= 3.914×10-2

RESULTS

Hence the variation of refractive index with Concentration of Sugar solution was studied. Also,

the refractive index of Ethanol and methanol was measured. Thus from experiment we found

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