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Use hollow prism to (i) study the variation of

refractive index with concentration of sugar solution


(ii) compare the refractive indices for different
liquids like methanol, water, Ethanol.

AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:


After conducting this experiment students will understand
1) measurement technique of refractive index of liquid
2) variation of refractive index with concentration,
3) probable application of it.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
A hollow prism; spirit level; spectrometer;sugar; water; methanol; ethanol.

THEORY: The refractive index of prism is given by

where µ is the refractive index, A is the angle of prism and Dm is the angle of minimum
deviation. (Derive and understand above formula).
Refractive index is actually measurement o refraction or bending of light at the interface of two
mediums of diff densities, diff materials have diff densities , Diff materials have diff refreactive
index, which means they refract light in diff proportions.

OBSERVATIONS
20 division of main scale = 10
10 1
1 division of main scale = =
20 2

And No. of divisions on Vernier Scale (VS) = 30


𝑉𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑀𝑆 10 1
Vernier Const (VC) = = = = 0.017
𝑛𝑜.𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑜𝑛 𝑉𝑆 20×30 60

Table 1. Observation for angle of Prism


2𝐴
No. Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II 2A Mean A= 2
of MS VS Total MS VS Total =R1-R2 2A
obs (R1) (R2)
1 VER I 125.0 9 125.150 246.0 8 246.130 120.980 121.250 60.630
VER II -55.0 14 -55.230 66.0 12 66.200 121.430
2 VER I 124.5 27 124.550 245.5 19 245.820 120.870
VER II -55.5 28 -55.970 65.5 17 65.780 121.750
3 VER I 124.5 11 124.680 245.5 15 245.750 121.070
VER II -55.5 6 -55.600 65.5 17 65.780 121.380
Table 2.

No Concentratio Vernie Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1 Mea


. of n r MS V Total MS V Total -R2 n
obs S (R1) S (R2) DM
1 20% VER I 149. 16 149.27 178. 20 178.33 29.060
0 0 0
VER II 329. 12 329.20 358. 14 358.33 29.030
0 0 0
2 VER I 149. 20 145.33 168. 20 168.40 23.070
0 0 0
VER II 325. 21 325.35 348. 20 348.33 22.980
0 0 0
3 VER I 127. 21 127.35 151. 9 151.15 23.800
0 0 0
VER II 307. 10 307.70 331. 2 313.03 23.860
0 0
1 10% VER I 125. 11 125.18 149. 12 149.37 24.190
0 0 0 0
VER II 305. 05 305.08 329. 15 329.25 24.170
0 0 0 0
2 VER I 117. 20 117.33 141. 26 141.43 24.100
0 0 0
VER II 297. 10 297.17 321. 21 321.35 24.180
0 0 0 0
3 VER I 122. 14 122.23 146. 15 146.25 24.020
0 0 0 0
VER II 302. 5 302.08 326. 22 326.37 24.250
0 0 0
1 5% VER I 133. 22 133.37 156. 24 156.40 23.034
0 4 0 8
VER II 313. 21 313.35 336. 11 336.18 22.830
0 7 0 7
2 VER I 124. 02 124.63 147. 04 147.06 23.054
0 4 0 8
VER II 304. 24 304.40 327. 27 327.45 23.031
0 8 0 9
3 VER I 134. 05 134.49 157. 15 157.22 22.762
0 3 0 5
VER II 314. 02 314.40 337. 10 337.17 22.140
0 8 0 0
1 2.5% VER I 131. 22 131.08 153. 15 153.22 22.425
0 5 0 5
VER II 314. 24 314.03 336. 27 336.45 21.094
0 4 0 9
2 VER I 125. 21 125.37 147. 04 147.06 22.724
0 4 0 8
VER II 305. 29 305.40 328. 11 328.18 21.796
0 8 0 7
3 VER I 131. 11 131.35 153. 09 153.15 22.847
0 7 0 3
VER II 310. 01 310.49 336. 20 333.34 21.432
0 3 0 0
1 0% VER I 89.5 24 89.687 147. 07 111.11 21.517
0 9
VER II 269. 01 269.15 291. 02 291.03 21.517
5 7 0 4
2 VER I 5.5 24 5.908 28.5 22 28.874 22.966
VER II 185. 10 185.17 208. 10 208.17 23.000
0 0 0 0
3 VER I 148. 25 148.92 171. 15 171.75 22.830
5 5 5 5
VER II 328. 29 328.99 350. 28 350.47 21.47
5 3 0 6

Table3 observation for minimum deviation of Ethanol

No. of obs Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1- Mean


MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM
(R1) (R2)
1 VER I 107.0 22 107.374 131.0 07 131.119 23.745
VER II 287.0 15 287.255 311.0 05 311.085 23.830
2 VER I 124.0 18 124.306 147.0 08 147.136 22.830
VER II 304.0 15 304.255 327.0 18 327.306 23.051
3 VER I 140.0 26 140.442 165.0 25 165.425 24.983
VER II 320.0 19 320.323 345.0 20 345.340 25.017
Table3 observation for minimum deviation of Methanol

No. of obs Vernier Readings of Face I Readings of Face II DM=R1- Mean


MS VS Total MS VS Total R2 DM
(R1) (R2)
1 VER I 166 20 166.340 192 10 192.170 25.830
VER II 346 10 346.170 12 17 12.289 26.119
2 VER I 155 13 155.221 181 09 181.153 25.932
VER II 335 28 335.476 1 01 1.017 25.541
3 VER I 155 15 155.225 181 20 181.340 26.115
VER II 335 08 335.136 1 22 1.374 26.228

CALCULATION
Mean Angle of prism (A) = 60.630
Minimum deviation for 20% Concentration of sugar solution (D) = 25.300
Refractive index of 20% Concentration of sugar solution is

µ20% =

(60.630+25.300)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.682
2
= 60.630 = = 1.350
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.505
2

µ10% =

(60.630+23.4163)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.674
2
= 60.630 = = 1.337
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2
µ5% =

(60.630+22.907)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.666
2
= 60.630 = = 1.321
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

µ2.5% =

(60.630+22.280)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.662
2
= 60.630 = = 1.311
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

µ0% =

(60.630+22.0024)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.660
2
= 60.630 = = 1.308
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

Now,
Minimum deviation for ethanol ((Dm) = 23.909
Refractive index of Ethanol is
µmethanol =

(60.630+23.909)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.672
2
= 60.630 = = 1.334
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2
Now,
Minimum deviation for methanol ((Dm) = 25.962
Refractive index of Ethanol is
µethanol =

(60.630+25.962)
𝑆𝑖𝑛 0.685
2
= 60.630 = = 1.360
𝑠𝑖𝑛 0.504
2

Error Analysis for 20% Concentrated of Sugar Solution

A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 25.300, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

25.300 25.300
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00876
Error Analysis for 10% Concentration of Sugar Solution

Here, µ = 1.337 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 24.163, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

24.163 24.163
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00858

Error Analysis for 5% Concentration of Sugar Solution

Here, µ = 1.321 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.907, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.907 22.907
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00839

Error Analysis for 2.5% Concentration of Sugar Solution

Here, µ = 1.311 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.280, ∆Dm = 0.017


Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.280 22.280
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00831

Error Analysis for 0% Concentration of Sugar Solution

Here, µ = 1.308 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 22.024, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

22.024 22.024
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00828

Error Analysis for for refractive index of ethanol

Here, µ = 1.334 , A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 23.909, ∆Dm = 0.017


Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴]2 + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

23.909 23.909
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 60.630 ) 0.017] + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00855

Error Analysis for Refractive index of Ethanol

A = 60.630, ∆A = 0.017, Dm= 25.962, ∆Dm = 0.017

Dm Dm
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝐴+
2 2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 𝐴 ) ∆𝐴] + ( 𝐴 ) ∆Dm]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛2 2sin
2 2

25.962 25.962
𝑆𝑖𝑛 𝐶𝑜𝑠 60.630+
2 2
∆ µ = ±√[( 2 60.630 ) 0.017]2 + ( 60.630 ) 0.017]2
2𝑆𝑖𝑛 2sin
2 2
∆ µ = ±0.00886

Relation between Refractive index and concentrations


Let x be concentration of solution and y be the refractive index,
their relation can be represented as y = mx+c---1)
X Y Xy X2
0.200 1.359 0.2718 0.04000
0.100 1.337 0.1337 0.10000
0.050 1.321 0.06605 0.002500
0.025 1.311 0.3277 0.000625
0.000 1.308 0 0
∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑥 = 0.636 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 0.504325 ∑ 𝑥 2 = 0.053125

Taking Sum over eqn 1

∑ 𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 + 𝑛𝑐 − −2)

Multiplying Eqn 1 by x and taking sum

∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 𝑚 ∑ 𝑥 2 + 𝐶 ∑ 𝑥 − − − − − 3)

Solving above equations 2 and 3 using table,


+
6.636 = 𝑀 × 0.053125 𝐶 × 0.375

m = 0.504325−0.375𝐶 = 6.636−5𝐶 ---4)


0.053125 0.375

Again,

0.5043255 = 𝑀 × 0.053125 + 𝐶 × 0.375

M = 0.504325−0.375𝐶 ------5)
0.053125

Solving, 4 and 5,
C = 1.240
M= 0.7377

Hence eqn 1 becomes, y = 0.7377x+1.240


X Y Y = mx+c Y=yab-ycalc Y2
0.200 1.359 1.387 0.028 0.000784
0.100 1.337 1.313 0.024 0.000576
0.050 1.321 1.276 0.045` 0.002025
0.025 1.311 1.258 0.053 0.002809
0.000 1.308 1.240 0.068 0.004624
∑ 𝑥 = 0.375 ∑ 𝑦 2 = 0.010818

Std. error in slope,


𝑛 ∑ 𝑦2 5 0.010818
∆ m = √𝑛−2 2 = √3 5×0.053125−0.140625
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥)

= 3.79×10-1

SE in intercept,

∑ 𝑦2 ∑ 𝑥2 0.010818 0.053125
∆ m = √ 𝑛−2 2 = √
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥) 3 5×0.053125−0.140625

= 3.914×10-2

RESULTS

Hence the variation of refractive index with Concentration of Sugar solution was studied. Also,
the refractive index of Ethanol and methanol was measured. Thus from experiment we found