© BIOLOGY 2060 LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A.
IMHOLTZ) BLOOD P1 OF 5
Blood is a fluid connective tissue consisting of cells suspended in a liquid fibrous matrix. The cells are a.k.a. formed elements and the liquid matrix is known as plasma. The formed elements consist of erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets. If blood is centrifuged, it divides into 3 portions: (1) Plasma makes up roughly 55%; (2) Packed RBCs make up roughly 45%; and (3) the buffy layer (containing WBCs and platelets) makes up <1%. The % of blood consisting of packed RBCs is known as the hematocrit. Blood’s color ranges from scarlet (oxygen-rich) to dark red (oxygen poor). Its viscosity is 5x that of water, due primarily to the presence of formed elements. Blood pH normally ranges from 7.35-7.45 (slightly alkaline). Blood temperature is typically 100°F. Typical blood volume is 4-5 L for females and 56 L for males. Blood has 3 main distribution functions: (1) It carries O2 (from lungs) and nutrients (from GI tract and body stores) to all cells; (2) It carries wastes from all cells to elimination sites (lungs for CO2; kidneys for nitrogenous wastes); and (3) It carries hormones (chemical signals) from endocrine organs to target tissues. Blood has 3 main regulatory functions: (1) It regulates body T° by absorbing and distributing heat; (2) It maintains body pH by virtue of its many buffers; and (3) It maintains adequate fluid volume in the body. Blood has 2 main protective functions: (1) It prevents blood loss by initiating clotting mechanisms in response to blood vessel damage; and (2) It prevents infection via WBCs and plasma immune proteins. Blood plasma is about 55% of blood volume. 90% of plasma is water. Water acts as a solvent and suspending medium. Solutes dissolved in plasma include: plasma proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, respiratory gases, hormones and wastes. Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein (60%). The liver produces it and its primary function is to maintain plasma osmotic pressure. It also acts as a buffer and is involved in the transport of steroids and bilirubin. Globulins are another major type of plasma protein. Many are produced in the liver and act as transport proteins for lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins. Other globulins, known as antibodies are produced during the immune response. Plasma also contains clotting proteins. Most are produced in the liver. Two important examples are prothrombin and fibrinogen. Plasma contains nutrients –absorbed from the GI tract or body reserves and distributed throughout the body. Examples include amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, triglycerides, vitamins, and cholesterol. Plasma also contains electrolytes (ions, such as Ca2+, Na+, and K+, etc.), respiratory gases (dissolved CO2, O2, and N2), wastes (byproducts of cell metabolism, e.g., urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine, and lactic acid), buffers (chemicals that function to prevent fluctuations in plasma pH), and hormones (chemical messengers such as insulin or epinephrine).
RBCs typically comprise 45% of blood and there are normally 4-6 million RBCs per L of blood. they are membranous bags stuffed with hemoglobin proteins. If blood O2 content . O2 delivery to the kidney could change due to RBC count. iron is stored as ferritin or hemosiderin. capillaries. transferrin. A small amount is also dissolved in plasma. proximal humeri. EPO stimulates RBC synthesis to. Its nucleus and organelles are discarded while Hb stores are built up to tremendous levels. Hemoglobin is contained in abundance within RBCs. All blood cells arise from a hemopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast). sternum. They also play a minor role in CO2 transport. The remainder of the heme is converted into a pigment called bilirubin. About 20% of blood’s CO2 is transported by combining with Hb’s amino acids. which are released from the macrophage into the blood stream for reuse elsewhere. Hb is made up of a protein (globin) bound to red heme pigments. Hb binds O2 and is then oxyhemoglobin. Hb is broken down into its globin and heme portions. bilirubin is metabolized by resident bacteria producing metabolites that are ultimately excreted in the feces and urine. In the intestine. Hb releases O2 and is then deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin. lung disease.” They account for far less than 1% of total blood volume. In lungs. After formation an RBC travels thru the circulatory system (arteries. known as macrophages. Iron is removed from heme and then transported to the liver by a plasma protein. in the spleen. They are anucleate and lack organelles.© BIOLOGY 2060 LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. Too few RBCs compromises O2 transport. altitude. each with their own heme. IMHOLTZ) BLOOD P2 OF 5
Red blood cells are small (7. and proximal femurs. controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis requires iron and vitamin B12.5m diam. Hemoglobin carrying CO2 is known as carbaminohemoglobin. The lack of a nucleus and organelles precludes replication or self-repair. or CV disease.). Globin consists of four polypeptide chains (2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains). erythropoietin (EPO). the kidneys release EPO. biconcave discs. Basically. liver. it will have become old and/or damaged. A kidney hormone. pelvis. while too many RBCs cause a detrimental in blood viscosity. Bilirubin is released from the macrophage and transported to the liver by albumin. Thus. Adult red marrow is found in ribs. increased aerobic activity. It occurs in red bone marrow. WBCs are the only formed elements with nuclei and normal organelles – thus they’re the only “true cells. RBC formation is erythropoiesis. Their primary function is O2 transport. The globin is reduced to amino acids. and veins) and after about 120d. The liver then modifies bilirubin and secretes it into the small intestine as part of bile. vertebrae. RBC # and this blood O2 content. each Hb can transport four O2 molecules. It reversibly binds and releases O2. In tissues. During erythropoiesis. Blood cell formation is known as hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis. The biconcave shape gives them a lot of surface area (good for O2 entry/exit) and increased flexibility (good for squeezing thru tight capillaries). The # of RBCs in blood is remarkably constant and maintained via negative feedback. The Hb within the phagocytosed RBC will be broken down and partially recycled and partially excreted. a hemocytoblast divides and differentiates. They help protect the body from
. In the liver. and red bone marrow. Old/damaged RBCs are engulfed by scavenger cells. Each heme contains one Fe atom that can reversibly bind one O2 molecule.
but only a relatively small # in the blood. Most are found w/i lymphatic tissues (e. round. All are spherical. They’re the same size as neutrophils and have bilobed nuclei. They contain fine lilac colored granules that take up both acidic and basic dyes.e. and cancerous cells.© BIOLOGY 2060 LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. monocytes. and urinary tracts. Monocytes comprise 3-8% of the circ. Neutrophil count increases during acute bacterial infections. killing it. Granulocytes include neutrophils. There are trillions of lymphocytes in the body. They take up basic dyes. They’re also capable of following chemical cues released by pathogens. tonsils. Like RBCs. Neutrophils are the most numerous circulating WBC. T lymphocytes defend against virus-infected and tumor cells. lymph nodes. A main function is attacking parasitic worms. and stain specifically with Wright’s stain. and control and manage the immune response. or activated WBCs. damaged cells.. They are 1-2x the size of an RBC and have a lifespan of hrs to yrs. which produce antibodies..000 per L of blood. and basophils. WBC pop. Eosinophils make up 2-4% of the circ. They contain pale blue cytoplasm and a dark U or kidney-
. toxins. respiratory. eosinophils. They constitute 50-70% of the circulating WBC population. have lobed nuclei. There are 2 main types of lymphocytes. Agranulocytes lack stainable granules. lymph nodes. They’ll gather around a worm and release enzymes from their granules onto its surface. eosinophils. and the nucleus can consist of 3-6 lobes . WBCs are formed in red bone marrow from hemocytoblasts. purple nuclei taking up most of the cell volume. digestive. and basophils. and appendix) and within the loose connective tissue that underlies the reproductive. B lymphocytes differentiate into plasma cells. Both are released during inflammation. WBC pop. WBC pop. They’re the largest leukocyte – up to 3x the size of an RBC. IMHOLTZ) BLOOD P3 OF 5
pathogens. They have a lifespan of several months.g. Only a small fraction of the body’s total WBCs are found in the blood at any one time. They take up acidic dyes. spleen. WBCs are divided into 2 large classes: granulocytes and agranulocytes. This is known as positive chemotaxis. They also lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytosing the immune complexes involved in allergy attacks. Their granules contain the vasodilator histamine as well as the anticoagulant heparin. Granulocytes contain membrane-bound granules that are stained with a dye known as Wright’s stain. Lymphocytes comprise 30% of the circ.g. which cause their granules to turn reddish orange. They perform Diapedesis (i. The mnemonic “never let monkeys eat bananas” specifies the 5 types in order of abundance.. They have a lifespan of 8-12d. There are 5 types of WBCs: neutrophils. They use the blood to travel from place to place.b/c of this. Most are in lymphatic organs (e. larger than RBCs. WBC pop. They are capable of flowing thru the tissue spaces with an amoeboid-like motion. Basophils make up <1% of the circ. they are often said to be polymorphonuclear. Their normal range is 5000-10. leave the blood stream) and enter connective or lymphatic tissue where they mount an immune response. spleen). They can live for up to several days. They have large. They’re 2x the size of RBCs and have a lifespan of 6hrs to a few days. which cause their granules to turn a dark purple. Agranulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) lack any visible granules b/c they do not take up Wright’s stain. lymphocytes.
prothrombin activator (PTA) is formed. Monocytes leave the bloodstream to become macrophages – cells specialized in phagocytosis of foreign particles and debris. Hemostasis is the set of processes that stop bleeding and help heal damaged blood vessel walls. This vessel diameter. Platelets are activated when the tearing of a blood vessel wall exposes the collagen that underlies the vessel’s endothelium (i. and is stimulated by a hormone called thrombopoietin. activated platelets release chemicals that: enhance vascular spasm. platelet plug formation.) of extremely large bone marrow cells (megakaryocytes) that are derived from hemocytoblasts. In response to vessel damage.
. which inhibits platelet aggregation. There are typically 150.000-400. are involved in coagulation. Thrombin converts the insoluble plasma protein fibrinogen into the insoluble fibrin. Platelet formation (thrombopoiesis) occurs in the red marrow.© BIOLOGY 2060 LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. Platelets live for about 10-12d.. During vascular spasm. The pile of aggregated platelets is a platelet plug and provides a temporary seal to the break in the vessel wall. They help form blood clots and temporary patches (platelet plugs) for torn blood vessels. Lymphocytes can also be produced w/i lymphatic tissues. which will blood loss and local blood pressure (thus facilitating patching and repair. Coagulation is a complicated multi-step process that results in the formation of a sturdy clot that seals the tear until repairs are complete. Platelets are fragments (2-4 m diam. However. IMHOLTZ) BLOOD P4 OF 5
shaped nucleus. PTA converts the inactive plasma protein prothrombin into the active thrombin. WBCs. begins with hemocytoblasts. blood vessel damage sets off a chain of events whereby the procoagulants dominate and coagulation occurs. and coagulation. RBCs. and facilitate the activation and aggregation of more platelets at the injury site (a +feedback process). It primarily occurs within the red marrow.000 platelets per L of blood. its simple squamous epithelial lining). The platelet plug is restricted to the injury site b/c intact endothelial cells release the chemical prostacyclin. Blood contains chemicals known as procoagulants (which initiate and stimulate the formation of a blood clot) and chemicals known as anticoagulants (which inhibit and impede the formation of a blood clot). and plasma are trapped w/i the fibrin mesh. When vessels are intact.e. damaged vessels release chemicals that cause the smooth muscle in their walls to contract. Fibrin molecules then link to one another and form a meshwork of strands on the platelet plug. It consists of 3 events: vascular spasm. Platelets contain membrane-bound granules filled with chemicals involved in blood clotting. This is a blood clot. The stem cell for all WBCs is the hemocytoblast. Aggregated. the anticoagulants “win” and clotting does not occur. WBC synthesis is known as leukopoiesis. Activated platelets then aggregate at the injury site.
Vitamin K is required for their synthesis. Another plasma protein. The intrinsic path begins in response to the release of certain chemicals by damaged blood vessel cells. Multiple clotting factors are involved in the coagulation process. The extrinsic path begins when blood is exposed to a chemical released by damaged tissue cells outside the blood vessel.
. This makes it slower than the extrinsic path. but it allows for amplification. plasminogen. is involved in fibrinolysis – the breakdown of the clot.© BIOLOGY 2060 LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. clot retraction will occur. Platelets contain actin and myosin. Plasmin digests fibrin once repairs have taken place. compacting the clot and pulling the edges of the torn vessel together (facilitating repair). They contract. IMHOLTZ) BLOOD P5 OF 5
There are 2 pathways by which PTA is formed: extrinsic and intrinsic. both pathways typically occur in response to the same event. Plasminogen is converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator. Coagulation can be promoted by roughened vessel lining. The contraction squeezes serum (plasma minus clotting factors) from the clot. Meanwhile the vessel begins healing. Having 2 pathways allows for PTA to be formed quickly (extrinsic) as well as in large amounts (intrinsic). pooling of blood w/i blood vessels can result in the activation of clotting factors and the initiation of the coagulation process. Also. PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) stimulate smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to rebuild the vessel wall. which yields tremendous amounts of PTA. Clots are restricted from growing too large by the removal of clotting factors as well as the presence of normal anticoagulant chemicals. which can attract and activate platelets. Many of these are formed in the liver. Once the clot has formed. The extrinsic path has few steps and thus PTA can be formed quickly. Calcium is also required for coagulation. In the body. The intrinsic path has many steps.