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Journal of Primary Educations

Dear Editor-in-chief

We would like to submit our manuscript for possible publications in your

esteemed journal, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. We strongly to
believe that this manuscript will significantly contribute the field of heat transfer
and fluid flows. In this papaer, we studied numerically the effect of geometrical
parameters of turbulators on laminar forced convections heat transfer in a
horizontal micro-scale backward-facing step. Different type and several
inclination angel of turbulators and wide range of Reynolds numbers were
investigated. The result of this article have been analyzed and optimized by
evaluating the thermal and hydrodynamic performance. More than 17 related
works from open literature, which have been published in your estemeed journal,
were cited in this manuscript as relevant previous works. The main goal of this
manuscript has not yet received any attention byprevious researchers in the field.

Article Title: keywords


 Wings have the superiority in heat transfer enhancement compared to the

 Rectangular VGs enhance the heat transfer greater than delta VGs types.
 The effect of VGs on the heat transfer persists to 20 times of the stepped
wall length.
 JF increases with Re number up to 180, and a step decrease is behind this
 Best heat transfer and lower pressure drop is with RWVG at attack angel
of 70.

Kalimat kurang dari 85 huruf.

Conflict of interest statement

We confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this
publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that
could have influenced its outcome. We also confirm that the manuscript has been
rad and approved by all named authors and there are no other person who
statisfied the criteria fo authorship but are not listed. We further confirm that the
order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us.

We confirm that we have given due consideration to the protection of intelectual

property associated with this work and that there are no impediments to
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property. In so doing we confirm that we have followed the regulations of our
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We further confirm that any aspect of the work convered in this manuscript that
has involved either experimental animals or human patients has been conducted
with the ethical approval of all relevant bodies and that such approvals are
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