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Bond,

 Anchorage,  and  
Development  Length  
What  would  happen  if  there  was  no  bond  
between  concrete  and  steel?  
Why  do  steel  bars  tend  to  debond?  
Reinforcing  bars  in  the  past  
Bars  were  plain  (not  deformed).  

End  
anchorage  

Which  one  is  be+er?  bar  only  anchored  at  the  ends  or  
bonded  throughout  the  beam?  
Bond  failure  when  using  deformed  bars  
Development  length  

A  reinforcing  bar  must  extend  a  certain  length  in  both  direcDons  


from  its  point  of  highest  stress  in  order  to  develop  its  strength  
by  bonding  to  concrete.    
 
The  shortest  length  in  which  a  bar’s  strength  can  be  increased  
from  0  to  fy  is  called  its  development  length.    
Development  length  in  pracDce  
 
 
Are  we  interested  in  a  short  or  long  
development  length?  
Factors  affecDng  development  length  

•  Tensile  strength  of  concrete  


•  Cover  distance  
•  Bar  spacing  
–  For  a  given  As,  do  we  prefer  larger  number  of  
small  bars  or  smaller  number  of  large  bars?  
•   Transverse  reinforcement  
ACI  equaDon  for  development  length  
# & cb + K tr
% ( ≤ 2.5
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s ( db
ld = ⋅d
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & ( b
ψ t ⋅ψ e ≤ 1.7
c
% % b tr
((
$ $ db ' '

λ : lightweight aggregate concrete factor


cb : the smaller of cover distance and half of bar spacing
db : bar diameter
Ktr : transverse reinforcement index (0 is always allowed)
ψt : reinforcement location factor
ψe : coating factor
ψs : reinforcement size factors

Refer  to  the  book,  secDon  5.3.a  for  detailed  definiDons  of  the  terms  
Development  length  equaDon  
# &
% (
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s (
ld = ⋅d
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & ( b
c
% % b tr
((
$ $ db ' '

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
ld ⎜ 3 f y ψ t ⋅ψ e ⋅ψ s ⎟
=⎜
d b ⎜ 40 λ f c′ ⎛ cb + K tr ⎞ ⎟⎟
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎜ d ⎟
⎝ ⎝ b ⎠ ⎠
ACI  Simplified  EquaDons  
 
 
 
The  simplified  (and  more  conservaDve)  ACI  
equaDons  can  be  used.  
Equations for Development Lengths, ld
RecommendaDon  

Use the original equation, assuming Ktr = 0.

# &
% (
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s (
ld = ⋅ db
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & (
c
% % b tr
((
$ $ db ' '
Hooks  
 
Why  do  we  use  them?  
Standard  bar  hooks  for  the  main  reinforcement  

From  ACI  7.2  


Development  length  of  hooked  bars  

⎛ 0.02ψ e f y ⎞
ldh = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ d b × (applicable factor from ACI 12.5.3)
⎜ λ f′ ⎟
⎝ c ⎠

ldh ≥ Max (6" ,8d b )


ModificaDon  factors  applied  to  ldh  

(Next slide)
Confinement of hooks by stirrups and ties

?  
Horizontal  hooks  
Other  consideraDons  
ACI  12.5.4:  When  standard  hooks  with  less  than  2.5  in  side,  top,  
or  boZom  cover  are  use  at  the  disconDnuous  ends  of  members:  
 
1.  The  hooks  shall  be  enclosed  within  Des  or  sDrrups  spaced  no  
further  than  3db  for  the  full  development  length  ldh.  
2.  No  modificaDon  factor  shall  be  used  
Bar  cutoffs  in  flexural  members  
•  When  and  where  can  we  cut  off  (terminate)  
bars?  

•  Purpose?  
•  Are  bar  cutoffs  desirable?  
Finding
cutoff
limits

Mu :

φM n :