You are on page 1of 23

# Bond,

Anchorage,  and
Development  Length
What  would  happen  if  there  was  no  bond
between  concrete  and  steel?
Why  do  steel  bars  tend  to  debond?
Reinforcing  bars  in  the  past
Bars  were  plain  (not  deformed).

End
anchorage

Which  one  is  be+er?  bar  only  anchored  at  the  ends  or
bonded  throughout  the  beam?
Bond  failure  when  using  deformed  bars
Development  length

## A  reinforcing  bar  must  extend  a  certain  length  in  both  direcDons

from  its  point  of  highest  stress  in  order  to  develop  its  strength
by  bonding  to  concrete.

The  shortest  length  in  which  a  bar’s  strength  can  be  increased
from  0  to  fy  is  called  its  development  length.
Development  length  in  pracDce

Are  we  interested  in  a  short  or  long
development  length?
Factors  aﬀecDng  development  length

## •  Tensile  strength  of  concrete

•  Cover  distance
•  Bar  spacing
–  For  a  given  As,  do  we  prefer  larger  number  of
small  bars  or  smaller  number  of  large  bars?
•   Transverse  reinforcement
# & cb + K tr
% ( ≤ 2.5
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s ( db
ld = ⋅d
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & ( b
ψ t ⋅ψ e ≤ 1.7
c
% % b tr
((
\$ \$ db ' '

## λ : lightweight aggregate concrete factor

cb : the smaller of cover distance and half of bar spacing
db : bar diameter
Ktr : transverse reinforcement index (0 is always allowed)
ψt : reinforcement location factor
ψe : coating factor
ψs : reinforcement size factors

Refer  to  the  book,  secDon  5.3.a  for  detailed  deﬁniDons  of  the  terms
# &
% (
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s (
ld = ⋅d
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & ( b
c
% % b tr
((
\$ \$ db ' '

⎛ ⎞
⎜ ⎟
ld ⎜ 3 f y ψ t ⋅ψ e ⋅ψ s ⎟
=⎜
d b ⎜ 40 λ f c′ ⎛ cb + K tr ⎞ ⎟⎟
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎜ d ⎟
⎝ ⎝ b ⎠ ⎠

The  simpliﬁed  (and  more  conservaDve)  ACI
Equations for Development Lengths, ld

## Use the original equation, assuming Ktr = 0.

# &
% (
% 3 f y ψt ⋅ ψe ⋅ ψ s (
ld = ⋅ db
% 40 λ f ! # c + K & (
c
% % b tr
((
\$ \$ db ' '
Hooks

Why  do  we  use  them?
Standard  bar  hooks  for  the  main  reinforcement

## From  ACI  7.2

Development  length  of  hooked  bars

⎛ 0.02ψ e f y ⎞
ldh = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ d b × (applicable factor from ACI 12.5.3)
⎜ λ f′ ⎟
⎝ c ⎠

## ldh ≥ Max (6" ,8d b )

(Next slide)
Confinement of hooks by stirrups and ties

?
Horizontal  hooks
ACI  12.5.4:  When  standard  hooks  with  less  than  2.5  in  side,  top,
or  boZom  cover  are  use  at  the  disconDnuous  ends  of  members:

1.  The  hooks  shall  be  enclosed  within  Des  or  sDrrups  spaced  no
further  than  3db  for  the  full  development  length  ldh.
2.  No  modiﬁcaDon  factor  shall  be  used
Bar  cutoﬀs  in  ﬂexural  members
•  When  and  where  can  we  cut  oﬀ  (terminate)
bars?

•  Purpose?
•  Are  bar  cutoﬀs  desirable?
Finding
cutoff
limits

Mu :

φM n :