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IAMI’s

Motor & General 1


M.E. Preparation & Watchkeeping 1
M/E 2&4 Stroke 4
Camshaft & Fuel Cam 10
Jacket Cooling Water System 11
Air Starting System 12
Air Compressors 13
M/E Fuel Oil & Fuel Injection 15
Turbo-Charger 18
Crankcase Explosion 21
Scavenge Space 22
Exhaust Gas Economisers 24
Auxiliary Marine Boiler 24

IAMI’s Auxiliary 30
EOOW Responsibility 30
Heat Exchanger/FWG/STP 33
Steering Gear 35
Centrifugal Separator 37
Refrigeration 38
Pumps 40
Control System 41
OWS 42
Machinery Space Safety 43
IMO & Regulations 49

IAMI’s Electrical 55
Switchboard & Safety 55
Batteries 57
Generators 58
Motors 60

IAMI’s Ship Construction 62
Ship Construction 62




IAMI’s Motor & General

M.E. Preparation & Watchkeeping



1. As engineer officer of the watch explain the procedure to be followed in the event of a
crankcase oil mist alarm on a bridge controlled, constant speed, main propulsion engine
fitted with a controllable pitch propeller. (16)

Inform the Chief Engineer and Bridge, request the engine to be stopped.
Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and maintain
lubrication.
Evacuate the engine-room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned No attempt
must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.
If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine-room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space.
Space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1hr of engine turning
great care should still be taken.
The engine may only be re-started once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out and
feel over of all bearing shells.

2.
a) In the case of a main engine and Controllable Pitch Propeller not responding to bridge
control, describe the routine for changing to Engine Room Control. (8)
b) Explain how manual control of fuel pump delivery is achieved when emergency
manoeuvring on a large 2 stroke crosshead engine. (8)

a) Alert the C/E and engine staff and stand-by console.
Match the pitch on the bridge to that in the ECR and take control of the main engine.
Maintain communication with the bridge at all times and carry out orders immediately
using the manoeuvring table for pitch and speed references.
Do not leave the controls at any time.
Prepare engine side control for precaution to loss of ECR steering.

b) Alert the C/E and engine staff and stand-by by in ECR.
Match the engine speed setting in ECR with the bridge and take control. Control is now
ready to be handed over to engine side.
Establish communication with the bridge using engine side phone.
Set up manual control, ensuring speed matched that in ECR, control can now be taken
over at engine side.
Remove the governor control and use manual control wheel to control the fuel, ensure
control air valve is on local. Engine speed can now be controlled from this position as
well as starting, stopping and reversing.

3. Describe the sequence of actions when preparing the main engine, from cold, for sea service.
Assume that the engine has been shut down for a long period of time. (16)

Ensure that all expansion tank levels and sump levels are correct.
Ensure that the fuel oil, lubrication oil and cooling water is pre-heated as per running
instruction.
Open all indicator cocks of main engine, ensure that all temperatures and pressures of
lubrication system is correct.

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With the fuel rack Closed, engage turning gear inform the bridge the engine is to be turned.
Manually actuate cylinder lubrication, observe indicator cocks for any ejected material (water).
Whilst the engine is being turned (minimum 2 revolutions), ensure that all support systems such
as sea water cooling is operational, that the air compressors are operational and enough
electrical capacity is available on the main switchboard.
Drain starting air bottles, fuel oil settling and service tanks. Disengage turning gear and Kick the
engine on air, observe all indicator cocks.
Once engine is stopped close all indicator cocks, open fuel rack and inform the bridge the engine
is ready.

4. State the actions to be taken by the EOOW to prepare a main propulsion diesel engine plant
from a cold condition to that of a condition ready for manoeuvring. (16)

Ensure that all expansion tank levels and sump levels are correct.
Ensure that the fuel oil, lubrication oil and cooling water is pre-heated as per running
instruction.
Open all indicator cocks of main engine, ensure that all temperatures and pressures of
lubrication system is correct.
With the fuel rack Closed, engage turning gear inform the bridge the engine is to be turned.
Manually actuate cylinder lubrication, observe indicator cocks for any ejected material (water).
Whilst the engine is being turned (minimum 2 revolutions), ensure that all support systems such
as sea water cooling is operational, that the air compressors are operational and enough
electrical capacity is available on the main switchboard.
Drain starting air bottles, fuel oil settling and service tanks. Disengage turning gear and Kick the
engine on air, observe all indicator cocks.
Once engine is stopped close all indicator cocks, open fuel rack and inform the bridge the engine
is ready.

5. With respect to main propulsion engine, state the immediate action to be taken as an EOOW in
the event of the following, stating one reason for each:
a) Turbocharger repeatedly surging; (4)
b) Air start manifold/branch pipe overheating local to one unit; (4)
c) Low scavenge air temperature alarm; (4)
d) Engine misfires “fuel rail pressure low” alarm activates booster pump pressure high. (4)

a) Contact the bridge and C/E and request for the engine load to be reduced. This could be
caused by the rough weather causing the propeller to crash in and out of the water causing
excess vibrations, lowering the load reduces the vibration.
b) Contact the bridge and C/E and request for the engine to be slowed or stopped if possible.
Fuel would have to be shut off to the affected unit.
c) Reduce the cooling water flow rate/increase the temperature of the cooling water to
prevent water moisture condensing on the liner and washing off the lubricating oil. This
prevents scuffing and corrosion caused by the removal of lubrication oil.
d) Inform the bridge and C/E, request the engine speed t be reduced. Change to the second
fuel filters in the booster pump. Check water in F.O. service tank, and ensure all valves are in
line to the M/E fuel rail. This is caused by blocked booster filters.

6. Enumerate the important actions to be taken by the EOOW in the event of an alarm condition
activated on the oil mist detector. (16)
Inform the Chief Engineer and Bridge, request the engine to be stopped.

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Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and maintain
lubrication.
Evacuate the engine-room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned No attempt
must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.
If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine-room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space.
Space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1hr of engine turning
great care should still be taken.
The engine may only be re-started once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out and
feel over of all bearing shells.

7. With reference to the operation of main propulsion engine, outline the importance of each of
following:
a) Maintaining the temperature of the scavenge air above the dewpoint; (4)
b) Maintaining the fuel at the correct viscosity for injection; (4)
c) Regular on board testing of the lubricating oil; (4)
d) Ensuring rotation of the exhaust valves. (4)

a) To prevent water condensing and washing off L.O. film on cylinder liners. It also prevents
cold corrosion due to the condensate mixing with the acidic combustion products and
forming sulphuric acid.
b) To prevent over pressurisation of fuel rail components and to maintain proper injection of
fuel.
c) Testing will indicate any potential contaminants such as water or metal in the lubrication oil
which could cause damage. It is also used to monitor the degradation of the oil which will
tell you when new oil is needed.
d) This is to ensure even temperature distribution to make sure no distortion, it also ensures
even carbon deposit build up.

8. Describe the actions necessary to prepare the engine room for rough weather. (16)

Ensure that all bilge wells are emptied sufficiently.
Ensure that all watertight doors are closed.
Ensure that all heavy items are securely stowed and lashed.
Ensure that any chemicals, noxious liquids, flammable or otherwise are stored correctly and
securely.
Stop all maintenance work, stow all tools and parts securely.
Ensure all tanks are sufficiently full.
Sufficient water within boiler and boiler system to compensate for rolling.
Sufficient lubricating oil within machinery sumps and service tanks.
All tank vents on deck covered with water-proof hoods.

Ensure that all external openings are securely closed.
All non-essential over-side discharges stopped and valves closed.

9. State, with reasons, EIGHT areas or items which should be checked by the duty engineer before
taking over the watch. (16)

Engine Room Logs

Alarm Record

Planned Maintenance Schedule

Chiefs Standing Orders


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Physical condition of outgoing watch keeper is he/she well
Fuel oil storage tanks, level, temperature drain of water
Lubrication sump levels and temperature

Structural condition
Fresh water supply, tank level and ensure enough being produced.

10.
a) State the reason for turning the engine with the turning gear prior to starting. (4)
b) State the reason for leaving the indicator cocks on main engine cylinders open when the
engine is turned initially with the turning gear. (4)
c) State the reason for leaving the lubricating oil circulating after “Finish with Engines”. (4)
d) State why diesel alternator cooling water may be circulated through the main engine after
shutdown. (4)

a) Ensuring Cylinders are free from debris or fluid
Ensure correct rotation of the engine, building lubrication
b) To allow the escape of any trapped fluid
To de-compress cylinders so that turning gear may operate
c) Lubrication of bearing faces
Cooling of bearing faces and oil
d) To maintain the correct starting temperature
To slowly allow the engine to cool from operation temperature reducing thermal stress

M/E 2&4 Stroke



1. Describe, with the air of sketches, the operation of a 4 stroke cycle diesel engine.


Intake – the air inlet valve open allowing the vacuum caused by the descending piston to draw in a
fresh charge of air for the cycle. Most modern 4 strokes will have the inlet air supplied under presser
by a supercharger, normally a turbocharger.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder against a closed exhaust valve &
inlet causing high compression temperature above the self ignition temperature of the fuel.

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Power – the burning fuel which has been injected into the cylinder just before TDC and has ignited
with the rapidly expanding combustion gas driving the piston down.

Exhaust – the exhaust valve opens allowing the rising piston to expel this gas from the cylinder.

2. a) Explain why the correct tappet clearance is essential on the inlet and exhaust valves of a 4-
stroke diesel engine.
b) State the results of the tappet clearance being: i) too large
ii) too small

a) The tappet clearance ensures that the valve is closed when it is supposed to be, as the valve
spindle expands in length during operation due to the high temperature. If there was no
clearance the valve would expand against the fixed piston of the rocket arm, while cam on
base circle and would therefore expand into the cylinder causing loss of compression and
burning of the valve and seat.
bi) If the tappet clearance is too large the valve will open late and close early
bii) If the tappet clearance is too small the valve will open early and close later.

3. Describe, with the aid of sketches, the operating principle of a 2 stroke diesel engine.
Y Y
Y











Intake and exhaust– Air is forced into the cylinder through the scavenge ports at a pressure of about
1-2 bar, the exhaust valve then opens allowing all the gases to be released from the cylinder in
uniflow. As the piston moves up the scavenge ports are covered and the exhaust valve closes.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder closed the exhaust valve causing
high compression temperature.

Power – just after TDC fuel is injected at enormous pressure causing auto ignition and the power
stroke.

4. Explain the constructional differences between 2 stroke low speed and 4 stroke medium speed
diesel engines.

In a 2 stroke engine, the air inlet to the cylinder is usually in the form of inlet ports in the cylinder on
the exhaust is usually by a centrally located exhaust valve in the cylinder head. In 4 strokes the inlet
and exhaust is in the form of valves in the cylinder head. In a 2 stroke the scavenge space is
separated from the crankcase by a separating diaphragm whereas in a 4 stroke the crankcase is
exposed to the piston skirt and cylinder liner. The force from the piston in a 2 stroke is transmitted
via the piston – piston rod – crosshead bearing – connecting rod - crankshaft arrangement whereas

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in a 4 stroke the arrangement is piston – gudgeon pin – connecting rod – crankshaft. The stroke to
bore ratio in a 4 stroke is approx. 2:1 whereas 2 stroke is approx. 4:1. Large stroke to bore ratio in 2
strokes separates crankpin and main journal giving large throws, In a 4 stroke the crankpin and main
journal gives an overlap. Lubricating oil drilling connection min journal and crankpin in 4 strokes are
not present in 2 strokes.

5. a) State 2 differences between trunk type and crosshead type diesel engines.
b) Describe, with aid of sketches the combustion process of the 2 stroke

a) The operational speed in trunk engines are usually faster. Also the stroke size in crosshead
machines are much longer.
b)
Y Y
Y

Intake and exhaust– Air is forced into the cylinder through the scavenge ports at a pressure of about
1-2 bar, the exhaust valve then opens allowing all the gases to be released from the cylinder in
uniflow. As the piston moves up the scavenge ports are covered and the exhaust valve closes.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder closed the exhaust valve causing
high compression temperature.

Power – just after TDC fuel is injected at enormous pressure causing auto ignition and the power
stroke.

6. a) Make 4 simple sketches to illustrate the sequence of events fro a diesel engine operating on
the 4 stroke cycle.
b) With reference to (a), describe the sequence of events for a diesel engine operating on a 4
stroke cycle.

a)

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b) Intake – the air inlet valve open allowing the vacuum caused by the descending piston to
draw in a fresh charge of air for the cycle. Most modern 4 strokes will have the inlet air
supplied under presser by a supercharger, normally a turbocharger.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder against a closed exhaust
valve & inlet causing high compression temperature above the self ignition temperature of
the fuel.

Power – the burning fuel which has been injected into the cylinder just before TDC and has
ignited with the rapidly expanding combustion gas driving the piston down.

Exhaust – the exhaust valve opens allowing the rising piston to expel this gas from the
cylinder.


7. a) Sketch a power indicator card for a slow speed marine diesel engine.
b) Explain how the card may be used to asses the power developed in the cylinder.


a)

Area


Atmospheric line


Mean pressure




length


b) Indicated power is found with the equation:


ip= PLAN


P – the indicated mean pressure
L – the cylinder stroke length
A – area of piston
N – the number of power strokes per second.

8. Describe the function of each of the following components of a diesel engine:
a) Clocks
b) Bedplate
c) Tie rods
d) Entablature
e) Holding down bolts

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f) Crankshaft

a) To securely hold the engine and prevent movement whilst maintaining initial alignment.
b) The base of the engine which is rigid and strong as it has to support the whole engine whilst
resisting stress forces maintaining crank shaft alignment.
c) To maintain a compression between all components through the engine, and transmit the
compressive and explosive forces acting on the cylinder heads throughout the engine
structure.
d) The cast iron housings of the cylinder blocks, housing the liner inserts incorporating the
scavenge space and jacket water cooling passages.
e) It secures the bed plate in its correctly aligned position, to maintain correct alignment
between crankshaft and propeller shaft.
f) Converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion to transmit to the
propeller shaft.

9. Draw a line diagram of a main lubricating oil system for a large 2 stroke crosshead type diesel
engine, label all the main components of the system.







45oC


Booster pump







Thermostatic 3-way valve
55oC
3-4 bar 50 µm




10. With reference to medium speed diesel engines, sketch and label a typical arrangement for the
piston and connecting rod.

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11. With reference to a small diesel engine that requires the use of a starting handle,
a) State the procedure for starting
b) State 8 reasons that would cause difficulty in starting

a) Check fuel and L.O. level is OK.
Check fuel in fuel tank is OK.
Check the fuel stop cock is switched on.
If the engine is water cooled, turn on seacock.
Check the gear lever is in neutral.
Set the throttle to open and switch on the cold start lever.
Set the decompression lever to the decompression position.
Swing round the starting handle building up speed until maximum speed, then push over
decompression lever whilst continuing to maintain speed with the starting handle.
As son as the engine starts, cut back on the throttle.

b) Heater plugs
No fuel
Blocked fuel filters
Incorrect viscous of L.O.
Not enough inertia build up in cranking
Restricted/blocked air filters
Decompression switch closed
Contaminated fuel

12. a) Explain the constructional difference between a slow speed 2 stroke and a medium speed
4 stroke diesel engine with respect to the connection between the piston and the crankshaft.
b) Describe the function of the diaphragm and stuffing box.

a) On 2 stroke engines, the connecting rod is attached to the piston rod via the crosshead
bearings, which transfer much of the engine thrust to the crosshead guides in the engine
frames. In 4 stroke engines, the connecting rod Is attached directly to the piston pin.

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b) Its positioned between the crankcase and cylinder of a 2 stroke engine, to segregate the 2
areas. Its purpose is to prevent crankcase oil being carried into the scavenge space, and to
prevent scavenge air, used cylinder oil and the products of combustion all from contaminating
the crankcase oil.

13. a) If the M/E control pitched propeller doesn’t respond to bridge control, describe the routine
for changing to E/R control.
b) Explain how to manually control fuel pump delivery, whilst emergency manoeuvring on a
large 2 stroke engine.

a) Make contact with OOW on bridge, request to take control of M/E
Ensure that the governor setting for the engine and pitch setting of the propeller in the
control room matches that of the bridge.
Switch to E/R control.
If possible, lock the console in this position so it cannot be changed.
b) Adjust the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders sets the speed of the engine.
This is achieved by manually operating the fuel rack levers.
Before changing the engine to local control, ensure that the governor settings match that
of the bridge and the local control panel. Once fuel lever has been moved, allow engine to
settle at chosen speed, as it isn’t instantaneous.
Once set, the lever will not move until manually operational again.

Camshaft & Fuel Cam



1. a) Sketch a camshaft timing arrangement indicating how the chain tension is adjusted.
b) State 2 items of ancillary equipment that can be driven via the timing chain.


a)














Chain
b) Air starting distributor tightening
Cylinder lubricators bolt

2. With reference to marine diesel engines;
a) State the purpose of a camshaft.
b) State 2 methods of driving a camshaft on a large marine diesel engine.
c) State the speed of the camshaft relative to the crankshaft on:

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i) a 4 stroke engine
ii) a 2 stroke engine
d) Sketch a full cam for a unidirectional diesel engine indicating each of the following:
i) point of injection
ii) peak
iii) slow return

a) To drive the fuel pumps, cylinder lubricators and maintain the engine timing.
b) The 2 methods are gearing or cam chains.
c)i) ½ the speed of the crankshaft
c)ii) the same speed as the crankshaft
d)

Peak


Slow return

Point of injection








Jacket Cooling Water System



1.
a) Make a labelled sketch of a jacket cooling water system.
b) State the purpose of the major components shown in sketch (a).

a)

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b) The circulating pumps move the water within the system.
The pre heater is to heat the water back to operational temperature.
The de-aerating tank is to remove oxygen bubbles from the system.
The main cooler removes heat from the water.
The fresh water generator produces fresh water to use in the system.

2. With reference to jacket cooling water treatment of a diesel engine;
a) State the chemical tests carried out.
b) State the frequency of testing.
c) Explain why it is necessary to keep the test results within certain limits.
d) State the action to be taken to rectify an abnormal test result.

a) The chemical PH of the J.W. is maintained and controlled in order to prevent acidic or caustic
corrosion.
The concentration of chemical inhibitors within the jacket water to protect against corrosion and
scale.
The chloride content of the water, to monitor and control the concentration to prevent
corrosion.
b) Weekly as per planned maintenance scheduled.
c) For the safe and efficient operation of the engine, whilst ensuring operation within
manufacturers specifications.
d) Retest, if still abnormal inform the Chief Engineer and following manufactures guidelines
administer the correct course of treatment.

Air Starting System



1. With reference to a main engine air starting system:
a) List 5 important safety features fitted to the system.
b) State how a leaking air start valve may be detected.
c) Briefly describe the dangers of allowing the condition mention in (b) persists.

a) Flame traps on each of the cylinder start air branch pipes.
A relief valve on the start air manifold.
A non-return valve between the start air manifold and the main start air valve.
An automatic shut off when the correct revolutions are reached and fuel is put in the engine.
Bursting discs on each of the cylinder air start branch pipes.
b) The start air branch pipe local to the affected unit will become hot and may glow red.
c) If the leak is allowed to persist, hot exhaust gases could leak by and cause start air
explosions in the manifold that will travel back to the air reservoir.









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2. Sketch a simple cross section through an air start valve for marine diesel engine.















Start Air



3. With respect to two stage reciprocating compressors used for air start purposes:
a) State 4 reasons for taking too long to fill the main starting air bottles.
b) State 4 safety devices that may be fitted.

a) There’s a leak in the system.
Blocked air inlet filters.
Worn liners or piston rings.
Incorrectly seated valves.
b) Bursting disk, safety valves on every branch of the air start manifold.
Pressure relieving safety valves on intercoolers and after coolers.
Safety valves on main air starting bottles.
Bursting diaphragm on air compressors cooling jacket.

Air Compressors

1. With reference to main starting air compressors:
a) State 3 maintenance procedures that maintain their efficiency.
b) Describe the procedure for the manual starting of a compressor.
c) State how deterioration in the efficiency would be effected.
d) State 4 causes for deterioration in efficiency.
e) Describe a test for establishing performances.

a) Regular replacement of the air suction filter.
Regular lubrication of motor bearings.
Using only OEM parts for replacement works.
b) Ensure there is sufficient oil within the sump.
Ensure that the cooling water is open.
Ensure stage drains and discharge values are open.
Press start button.
Once up to speed close all stage drains and de-loading value.

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c) If one compressor is on auto mode but it constantly running, and the main start air bottle is
not charging properly.
d) Blocked unlet filters.
Values seated incorrectly.
Work liners/piston rings.
e) Drain off a small amount of air from the air receiver and record the pressure left inside. Start
the compressor and record now long it takes for the bottle pressure to increase, after to full
or pre-determined level.

2. With respect to 2-Stage reciprocating compressor used for air start purposes:
a) State 4 reasons for a reciprocating compressor taking too long to fill the man air starting
bottles.
b) State 4 safety devices fitted to the air staring system of a large marine diesel engine.

a) There is a leak in the system.
Blocked air inlet filters.
Worn liners/piston rings.
Incorrectly seated valves.

b) Bursting disks, safety valves on every branch of the air start manifold.
Pressure relieving safety valves on intercoolers and after coolers.
Safety valves on main air starting bottles.
Bursting diaphragm on air compressors cooling jacket water.

3. With reference to 2-Stage water cooled reciprocating main engine starting air compressors:
a) Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a protective device fitted to the waterside of the
intercooler or after cooler.
b) Explain why the device described in (a) is fitted.
c) Briefly describe the possible consequences should the device described in (a) fail to operate.

a) Compressor Jacket Water Relief Valve.

b) To relieve pressure build up in the event of an air tube leak or cylinder liner cracked within
the air compressor.

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c) If the device failed to operate, over pressure may occur within the jacket water cooling,
resulting in potential rupture of the air compressor.

4. Sketch a cross section through a 2-Stage main starting air compressor, labelling the main
components.

M/E Fuel Oil & Fuel Injection



1. With reference to high viscosity fuel:
a) Explain how it is treated between storage tank and main engine.
b) State the purpose for the treatment.
c) State the changes in fuel preparation required when changing to a fuel of lower density and
viscosity.

a) Fuel oil is held and heated within the settling tank where sludge and water is separated by
gravity. Further heating takes place after it travels through course filters. The fuel is purified,
removing particulate and water before being transferred to the service tank, where t is
maintained at a higher temperature. Passing through hot fine filters before passing through
the visco-therm where the fuel is heated to the correct viscosity. Finally passing through the
booster pumps to the main engine fuel rail.
b) To remove solid particulate to prevent damage.
To remove water to prevent emulsifying the fuel.
To reduce the viscosity of the fuel for correct injection and combustion.
c) Fuel of this type requires the purifiers to have a smaller gravity disk fitted in order to
maintain the water-oil interface, finer filters are also fitted within the fuel treatment system
to enable effective particle separation. The visco-therm controller must also be adjusted in
order not to over-heat the fuel reducing its viscosity too much risking carbonisation or
gassing up the fuel lines. The engine fuel injection timing must also be retarded to
compensate for less viscous fuel.
2.
a) Describe the tests that are carried out on a fuel injector after overhaul and before it is
refitted to the engine.

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b) Sketch a section through the nozzle of a fuel injector.
c) State the stages of on board preparation of heavy fuel oil prior to use.

a) Newly overhauled injectors have a crack-off test performed on them to test their operation.
The injector is mounted on a test rig and the injector is primed with calibration fluid. The
pressure is then raised to test the crack/lifting pressure of the injector. The pressure is read
from the rig and if within the correct pressure it is good for use, if firing too high an
additional washer may be added into the injector.
b)















c) Fuel oil is transferred from storage tanks to a settling tank where it is heated and water is
allowed to settle out and be drained. It is then heated to approx., 60oC and centrifuged to
remove liquid containments, it is then stored in the service tank. From the service tank it is
further heated to around 120oC to reduce its viscosity to around 14 cSt before being passed
through fine filters to remove all debris. Its then pressurised to around 300 bar before being
injected into the engine via the fuel injectors which atomise the fuel.

3.
a) State why the simultaneous injection of fuel oil and starting air into a main engine cylinder is
undesirable.
b) Explain how simultaneous injection of fuel oil and starting air is prevented.
c) Explain how a leaking air start valve is detected while the engine is running.
d) Describe the actions to be taken upon discovery of a leaking air start valve.

a) Pressure relief valves may lift, causing hot fuel oil to spray onto hot parts of the engine.
b) Starting interlocks of the air start valve in order to stop fuel supply until air is released.
During manual starting, the operator will only apply fuel once the engine is up to starting
speed and after the air has been closed.
c) Hot branch of pipeline with possible paint discoloration.
Activation of air start line, bursting disk prevention device.
d) Inform the bridge and CE of the situation and request for the engine to be stopped.
If the engine is stopped, isolate air and fuel from affected unit and replace valve, if
replacement is not an option, isolate fuel and air to until and open the indicator cock.
If engine is still running, ensure fuel is isolated and inform bridge that the engine has to be
run with care and minimal load.

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4.
a) With respect to the fuel injection timing of a 2-stroke diesel engine, what would be the
effect of:
i) Early injection
ii) Late injection
b) Sketch an “out of phase” draw card for a 2-stroke diesel engine and indicate the point of the
fuel injection.

a)
i) Sever stress loading of piston rod, connecting rod, cross head bearing and bottom end
bearings.
Very high unit temperature, cooling water and exhaust gas.
Vibration, irregular engine speed.
ii) Uneven thermal distribution throughout piston liner, causing micro-seizure and liner
cracking.
Heavy carbon deposits on piston, liner also due to improper combustion
Fuel oil wash down due to incomplete combustion.
b)






























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5. Draw a line diagram of a fuel oil system from fuel oil double bottomed tanks to the daily service
tanks, for large diesel engine plant. Label all main components of the system including any safety
devices fitted.





















6. Describe how the high viscosity fuel oil is prepared for delivery to the injection pumps to ensure
correct conditions for combustion.


A visco-therm consists of a capillary tube inside of which a gear pump is fitted which rotates at very
slow rpm. There is an outside casing provided for the capillary tube. When the oil passes through
the casing, some part of the oil pass through the gear pump and its capillary, and some part of the
oil passes over the capillary tube. Hence a flow difference occurs inside the casing. The oil inside the
tube maintains a laminar flow and outside the tube maintains a turbulent flow. The pressure
difference between outside and inside of the tube is measured which is directly proportional to the
viscosity of the oil. Hence oil viscosity is maintained. The viscosity controllers act as the controller of
the 3 way valve from which steam is passed into the heater or bypassed from the heater as per the
position of the control valve.

Turbo-Charger

1. With reference to main engine turbochargers:
a) Explain their function.
b) State two advantage of fitting them.

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c) Explain how they are cooled and lubricated.

a) To make use of and reduce the amount of waste energy from exhaust gas.
To provide a high pressure air charge for efficient scavenging 

b) Increase the efficiency of the engine
Reduce wastages found within older mechanical driven
superchargers 

c) The bearing journals are lubricated from the main engine lubrication oil system via a header,
to maintain lubrication after the engine is stopped.
Some older turbines have build in pumps driven from the turbine ends with a small oil
reserve.
The casings of older turbochargers are cooled with a water jacket off of the HT system of the
main engine.
Newer turbines air from the compressor side is circulated as a cooling medium 


2.
a) Describe, with the aid of a sketch, the operational principle of a main engine exhaust gas
turbocharger. (10)
b) State the function of each of the following turbocharger system components:
(i) Suction filters; (2)
(ii) Exhaust grids; (2)
(iii) Charge air cooler. (2)

a)

Hot high pressure exhaust gas


enters the turbocharger’
exhaust side-driving shaft to
which the compressor is
connected. The compressor
draws cool air from the
atmosphere and compresses
the “air charge” this is
delivered to the charge air
coolers prior to the scavenge
space.

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b)
i) To clean the air, removing large harmful debris prior to entry to the engine.
ii) To collect any foreign debris, metal or otherwise after combustion.
iii) To cool the charge air, enabling a larger volume of air for scavenge purposes.

3.
a) State two reasons for fitting an exhaust gas turbocharger to an engine.
b) Describe the effect of dirty or restricted:
(i) Air filters;
(ii) Exhaust gas turbine.
c) Outline how the exhaust gas turbine is cleaned.

a) Fewer mechanical losses than mechanically driven superchargers.
Recovery of energy from exhaust gas reducing waste.
b)
i) Loss of engine power, reduced combustion efficiency.
ii) Excessive turbine vibration, potential for sparks within uptake.

c) A measured quantity of solid cleaning media specified by the manufacturer is admitted via a
fixed vessel at full load speed.

4. With respect to main propulsion engine, state the immediate action to be taken as an EOOW in
the event of the following, stating one reason for each. (Any 4 could be asked)
a) Turbocharger repeatedly surging;
b) Excessive vibration from turbocharger at full sea speed;
c) Air start manifold/branch pipe overheating local to one unit;
d) Low scavenge air temperature alarm;
e) Engine misfires “fuel rail pressure low” alarm activates booster pump pressure high.
f) Excessive vibration of air start branch pipe to one cylinder during manoeuvring.
g) High Main Bearing Temperatures.

a) Contact the bridge and chief engineer; request the engine load be reduced. One unit is
producing more power and other is producing less. Due to this the air consumption required
by both the turbochargers differs, which leads to surging.
b) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, request the engine load to be reduced as much as
possible until vibration stops. Caused by propeller being crashed into water in rough
weather.
c) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, request the engine to be slowed or stopped, shut off
fuel to the effected unit observe unit down running procedures.
d) Reduce the cooling water flow rate/increase the temperature of the cooling water to
prevent water moisture condensing on the liner and washing off the lubricating oil. This
prevents scuffing and corrosion caused by the removal of lubrication oil.
e) Inform the bridge and C/E, request the engine speed t be reduced. Change to the second
fuel filters in the booster pump. Check water in F.O. service tank, and ensure all valves are in
line to the M/E fuel rail. This is caused by blocked booster filters.
f) Inform the bridge and C/E, shut off fuel to the affected unit until manoeuvring is complete
then try and source the problem.
g) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, ask the engine loading to be reduced or stopped.
Check lubrication oil flows, pressures and temperature

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Crankcase Explosion

1.
a) State the name of equipment used to give a warning of the presence of conditions that
could lead to an explosion in the crankcase of a diesel engine.
b) Sketch and describe the device used to relieve any excess pressure that might develop as a
result of a crankcase explosion in a diesel engine.

a) Oil-mist detector
b) A strong spring seals the valve during normal conditions, however in the event of an excess
of pressure cause by an explosion then overcomes the spring force for a brief period to allow
the pressure to escape before reclosing. Flame gauzes fitted to stop flames expelling from
the open valve, a guide also fitted to safely allow the force downwards to the deck plates.




















2. As EOOW explain the procedure to be followed in the event of a crankcase oil mist alarm on a
bridge controlled constant speed main propulsion engine fitted with a controllable pitch
propeller. (16)

• Inform the Chief Engineer and Bridge, request the engine to be stopped
• Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and
maintain lubrication
• Evacuate the engine-room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned No
attempt must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.
• If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine-room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space
• Space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1hr of engine
turning great care should still be taken
• The engine may only be re-started once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out
and feel over of all bearing shells

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3. With reference to conditions which may cause an explosion in the crankcase of a large
marine diesel engine:
a) state FOUR possible sources of ignition (8)
b) state TWO methods which can be used to detect a potentially dangerous situation within
the crankcase (4)
c) state TWO other indications which could signify a possible dangerous situation within
the crankcase. (4)

e) Hot spots on bearing surfaces

Sparks from metal to metal contact

Fire outside the engine

Badly damaged piston rings and stuffing box 

f) High oil mist alarm activation
High and rising crankcase pressure 

g) Mist emitting from crankcase vent

Mist or sound from crankcase explosion doors 


Scavenge Space

1. With reference to large slow speed diesel engines,
a) State four possible factors leading to a scavenge fire.
b) State four indications of a scavenge fire.

a) Poor Maintenance

Badly worn or failed piston rings
Blocked stuffing box drain

Over injection of fuel oil
b) High scavenge temperature in one or more units
Turbocharger surging

Increased scavenge pressure

Paint discolouration

2. a) State FOUR important factors which contribute to the initiation of a scavenge fire.
b) State the duties of the Engineer Officer of the Watch on discovering a scavenge fire.

a) Damaged or worn piston rings

Leaking fuel injector

Over lubrication of cylinder

Lack of regular maintenance and scavenge space cleaning
b) Inform the bridge and chief engineer and request the engine to be slowed down Isolate the
fuel supply to the effect unit

Open the indicator cock

Administer steam or other fixed installed fire suppression system

3. a) Describe the actions to be taken by the Engineer Officer of the Watch on discovering a
scavenge fire.
b) State two dangers of allowing a scavenge fire to exist.

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a) Inform the bridge and chief engineer and request the engine to be slowed down
Isolate the fuel supply to the effect unit

Open the indicator cock

Administer steam or other fixed installed fire suppression system
b) A loss of power to one unit on the engine will cause irregular running. The remaining units
will take more load, which cause damage or misalignment to engine components such as the
piston and piston rod.
Excessive temperatures will put the engine components under stress, if the diaphragm plate
cracks and hot gases are allowed into the crankcase, it could cause a crankcase explosion.

4. State four actions to be taken by the EOOW on discovering:
a) A scavenge fire in one engine unit only;
b) A scavenge fire in several engine units at the same time.

a) Raise the alarm
Request to reduce engine speed
Shut off fuel to affected cylinder
Increase cylinder lubrication and monitor, if the fire increases then reduce. Allow the fire
to burn itself out.

b) Raise the alarm
Request to stop the engine
Engage turning gear
If fitter, smother with firefighting system, if not boundary cool in small doses to stop the
bilges from filling.

5.
a) Explain the procedure to be carried out before the inspection of the scavenge space on a
large 2-stroke diesel engine.
b) State four reasons for carrying out a scavenge space inspection.

a) The scavenge space is in considered an enclosed space, so the relevant permit to work must
be filled out and signed. The engine must be tagged out properly the starting air must be locked
off and the turning gear engaged. Signs must be posted to make others aware of the work being
undertaken. The space must be opened 24 hours in advance and ventilated. The atmosphere
must be tested immediately prior to entry, and a tester should be carried by the person(s)
entering. Any hinged doors must be secured open to prevent accidental closure. Enclosed space
procedures apply with regards to a safety number being posted outside and emergency
equipment must be at hand.
b) To check the cleanliness of the space
To check the condition of the piston rings
To check the condition of the cylinder liner
To check that the scavenge drains are clear of blockage
6. With reference to the operation of main propulsion engine, outline the importance of each of
following:
a) Maintaining the temperature of the scavenge air above the dewpoint;
b) Maintaining the fuel at the correct viscosity for injection;
c) Regular on board testing of the lubricating oil;
d) Ensuring rotation of the exhaust valves.

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a) To prevent cold corrosion due to the formation of condensate which when mixed with acidic
combustion products forms an acidic solution such as sulphuric acid.
b) To prevent over pressurisation of fuel rail components and to maintain proper injection of
fuel. 

c) To indicate any potential contaminants such as water or metal that would cause damage, to
monitor the degradation of the oil.
d) To ensure even carbon deposit build-ups, cleaning and maintaining the valve seat.

Exhaust Gas Economisers



1. With reference to exhaust gas economisers:
a) State why regular soot blowing is considered necessary; (4)
b) Explain why it is important to maintain the exhaust gas temperature above the dewpoint; (6)
c) List three indications of an exhaust gas economiser fire; (6)

a) To prevent an excessive accumulation of carbon deposits within the economiser.
To reduce the risk of economiser damage from fire and overheating.
b) To prevent damage from acidic corrosion within the exhaust space.
To prevent cold corrosion attacking exhaust components and cylinders due to wash down.
c) Increased economiser pressure.
Paint discolouration of economiser.
Falling embers and smoke from economiser.
Safety valves lifting.

2. With reference to fires in diesel engine uptake economisers:
a) State TWO indications of a fire in an economiser; (4)
b) List the course of action to be taken in the event of discovering a fire whilst on passage. (12)

a) Violent stream of sparks and flames from the uptake.
High economiser pressure 

b) Raise the Fire Alarm.
Inform the Bridge of the situation and request that the engine is slowed.
Start additional circulation pump.
Call C/E and emergency engineers.
Start the emergency generator and fire pump.
Stop all mechanical ventilators within the machine space 

Close all fire dampers 

Assemble boundary cooling of the engine casing, using flood quantities of water attack the
fire.
Cover T/C with sheeting to prevent air getting to fire.
C/E order drenching system, if fitted.

Auxiliary Marine Boiler



1. List eight mountings that are found on auxiliary marine boilers. (16)
Boiler gauge glass.
Safety valve
Blow down valve
Boiler feed check

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Drum vent valve.
Pressure gauge connection
Main stop valve
Water sampling valve
Scum valve

2. List EIGHT mountings which must be present on auxiliary marine boilers. (16)

Boiler gauge glass.
Safety valve
Blow down valve
Boiler feed check
Drum vent valve.
Pressure gauge connection
Main stop valve
Water sampling valve
Scum valve

3. a) State four possible reasons for the boiler feed pump failing to maintain the water level in an
auxiliary boiler.
b) Upon rectification of the fault in Q a) describe the start up sequence of the boiler.

a) Feed filter tank empty.
Tube failure.
Problem with pump i.e. coupling failed key failure.
Boiler water controller fail shut.
b) Stop the burner.
When restoring the normal water level ensure that you feed with hot feed water to avoid
thermal shocking.
Shut the stop valve to ensure not feeding steam to the system.
Start the burner on low fire on auto and keep on low fire until the steam pressure returns to
normal.

4. a) State TWO consequences of not treating the water in a boiler. (4)
b) Outline TWO tests which are carried out on boiler water. (12)

a) Failure to control the recommended level for the water can lead to increased chance of
water becoming acidic, or the dissolved solids increasing to level that could lead to tube
blockage reduction of water circulation.
b) Total Alkalinity
This test gives the alkalinity due to all salts in the water.
Use the sample from ‘P’ Alkalinity and add 5 drops of total alkalinity indicator and the
solution should go clear. Add sulphuric acid N/10 until pink. Convert ml in burette to ppm
using chart and chemically treat using manufactures guidance.
Chlorides
This test measures the amount of chloride in the water.
Fill the plastic vial to 10ml and add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to neutralise the sample. Add
N/10 until turns clear and add one more drop, add 6 drops of potassium chromate to turn
yellow. Add silver nitrate N/10 until orange. Drops of silver nitrate x 10 = ppm chloride.

5. a) State the effect on auxiliary boiler operation in the event of the following alarm condition:

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i) High water level; (2)
ii) Low water level; (2)
iii) Extra-low or low-low water level. (2)
b) Describe the procedure for blowing down a low-pressure boiler gauge glass. (8)
c) How often should a low-pressure boiler gauge glass be blown down? (2)

a)
i) May need to stop feed pump.
ii) May need to start feed pump.
iii) Burner must be stopped to identify problem.
b) Close off cocks ‘S’ and ‘W’ and open drain ‘D’. Make sure both water and steam cocks are
holding.
Open cock ‘W’ and blow through. Make sure that water is coming out and cock ‘W’ is clear.
Close water cock.
Open cock ‘S’ and blow through. Make sure that steam is coming out and cock ‘S’ is clear.
Close steam cock.
Close drain ‘D’.
Open water cock ‘W’ and check water level rises in the glass.
Open steam cock ‘S’ for showing boiler water level.
c) Once a day.











6. With the aid of simple sketches describe the procedure for blowing through a boiler gauge glass.
(16)

1. Close off cocks ‘S’ and ‘W’ and open drain ‘D’. Make sure
both water and steam cocks are holding.
2. Open cock ‘W’ and blow through. Make sure that water is
coming out and cock ‘W’ is clear. Close water cock.
3. Open cock ‘S’ and blow through. Make sure that steam is
coming out and cock ‘S’ is clear. Close steam cock.
4. Close drain ‘D’.
5. Open water cock ‘W’ and check water level rises in the
glass.
6. Open steam cock ‘S’ for showing boiler water level.




7.
a) Explain the sequence of events that occur on pressing the start button of an automatically
controlled oil fired package steam boiler.

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b) State three reasons why the boiler in Q a) would automatically shut down during the starting
sequence (6)

a) The burner force draught fan will run to purge the combustion space

Upon successful purge and correct air-pressure, the ignition spark is started
The diesel oil pilot flame solenoid valve is opened and pilot flame ignited
The main burner fuel solenoid is opened once a pilot flame is detected, and burner ignition
commences, the pilot flame now extinguishes after a time delay
If no flame after 5 seconds, the main burner and pilot burner fuel supplies are cut and the
boiler locked out
The air register dampers and burner fuel supply adjusted to achieve the correct firing rate.
b) Low-Low Water Level
Flame Fail
High Water Level
Low Fuel Oil Pressure

8. State FOUR tests which are required for boiler water, giving a reason for EACH test (16).

Phenol Alkalinity to keep the water neutral not alkaline or acidic.
Chloride to monitor and control the concentration of chloride salts within boiler water,
indicating the ingress of salt water from coolers.
Total Dissolved Solids, to monitor and control the amount of solids within boiler water that
gradually build up overtime. These would otherwise cause foaming within the boiler water and
carry over that would damage steam plant severely.
PH to monitor and control the chemical concentration of boiler water preventing acidic and
caustic corrosion.
Water Hardness, to monitor and control the levels of calcium and magnesium salts within feed
water, that would otherwise damage boiler surfaces.

9. State four circumstances under which the fuel supply to the burners of an auxiliary boiler would
be automatically cut off, giving a reason why each circumstance requires the fuel to be cut off.

Low-Low water level, to prevent permanent thermal damage to the heat transfer surfaces of the
boiler risking a possible boiler drum rupture.
Flame Fail, so that un-burnt does not flood the combustion space filling it with explosive gasses.
High water level, so that carry over does not occur damaging steam plant and systems.
Low fuel oil pressure, a reduced fuel pressure leads to poor and unstable combustion.


10. List four safety or alarm devices fitted to an automatically controlled auxiliary boiler indicating
how each of these devices may be tested. (16)

High Water Level, using the manual feed valve slowly over - fill the boiler until the alarm sounds
and the feed pumps cut-off.
Low fuel oil temperature - turn off the fuel oil heaters and allow the fuel to cool tripping the
burners.
Low-low water level - blow the boiler down until the alarm sounds followed but the tripping of
the burners.
Ignition failure - isolate the ignition transformer and begin start sequence, the burner will lock
out after purge.

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11. State the possible cause, and outline the remedial action that should be taking when each of the
following faults occur during starting up of an automatic package boiler.
a) The boiler starts and the fan runs with the control dampers correctly positioned, the boiler
then locks out before purging is completed; (4)
b) The boiler purges correctly, but the ignitors fail to spark and the boiler locks out; (4)
c) The boiler purges correctly, the ignitors spark, but the boiler fails to light up and locks out;
(4)
d) The boiler flame flashes up but after about 5 seconds the automatic control locks the boiler
out. (4)

a) Low air pressure. Action check that the fan is running and no obstruction to the air flow
check the pressure sensor is operational
b) Check the igniter tips clean clearance are correct and the high voltage supply is operational.
c) Check the burner tip is clean, fuel is being supplied ok and solenoid valve opens ok.
d) Check flame condition and fuel and air ration is correct.

12. With reference to Auxiliary Boiler,
a) Sketch an open feed system suitable for an auxiliary boiler, labelling the component parts.
b) Indicate on the sketch in (a) the components that allow for leakage and expansion within the
system.











a)
















b) Feed water Header tank allows for expansion 

Auxiliary feed pump allows for leakage 


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13. With reference to auxiliary boilers:
a) Explain how scale forms on the heating surfaces; (8)
b) State two reasons why scale is undesirable; (4)
c) State how scale builds up is prevented from forming in steam boilers. (4)

a) The bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium are decomposed by heat and come out of the
solution as scale forming carbonates.
High concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts within hard water.
Scale forms as carbonates adhere to heated surfaces due to “coming out of suspension”
Due to the scale covering of scale heat increases and the process intensifies.
b) Reduction in heat transfer efficiency.
Local overheating of boiler tubes and damage.
c) By keeping the hardness salts in suspension in the solution to prevent scale formation.
By stopping any suspended salts and impurities from sticking to the heat transfer surfaces.

14. a) The name given to the water level indicators mounted on a boiler. (2)
a) State why at least two of the items stated in Q (a) are fitted.
b) List FIVE boiler mountings which are subject to survey, other than those stated in Q(a).

a) Water Level Gauge Glass 

b) To enable the level of boiler water to be monitored in the event of glass failure
To allow the water level to be monitored in the event of severe roll 

c) Pressure Gauge Connections
Boiler Vent Cock

Main Steam Stop Valve
Safety Valves 

Blow Down valve connection 


15. With reference to an auxiliary boiler, state for EACH of the following circumstances the action to
be taken, giving a reason for EACH action;
a) no water level visible in gauge glass; (4)
b) safety valve lifting; (4)
c) excessive smoking during firing; (4)
d) excessively high chloride content of boiler water. (4)

a) If water level has not yet dropped completely out of the sight glass, water may be put into
the boiler. If water drops completely out of sight glass, check another sight glass. If both
have no water visible, don’t add water until the boiler is cold enough to prevent any possible
damage due to rapid cooling of overheated plate.
b) Excessive boiler pressure of steam can occur due to the steam outlet valve being shut off.
You would check the boiler steam outlet valve, if on manual change to auto and if auto isn’t
working shut down the boiler.
c) Too much fuel, not enough air or cold oil. Check the oil temperature, check the flame colour,
if orange increase until primrose yellow.
d) Blow down frequently.
Reduce the boiler load to minimum.
If highly contaminant shut down and completely and wash out.
Trace and fine out the fault and remedied.

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IAMI’s Auxiliary

EOOW Responsibility

1. Describe the procedures to be observed when taking over the responsibility for the engine room
on a ship that is operating under UMS conditions.

Inform the bridge that you are now in command of the engine-room.
Activate the dead-man alarm system and carry out a through engine-room walk around.
Check and drain off sludge from settling and service tanks, check all fuel treatment plant.
Check the condition of running plant, heat, pressures vibration.
Check the sump levels of main engine, the flow of oil to turbochargers and main bearings as-
well-as intermediate shaft lubrication.
Check the auxiliary plant, the aux engines for correct sump levels pressures, the boiler for water
level and steam pressure.
Check the steering gear for correct operation, temperatures and sufficient hydraulic oil reserve.
Check all bilges and structural condition of machinery spaces, rectify any leaks if possible.
Upon return to the ECR record and log all findings, reset the dead-man alarm system.


2. State, with reasons, eight areas or items that should be checked by the duty engineer before
taking over the watch.

Engine Room Logs

Alarm Record

Planned Maintenance Schedule

Chiefs Standing Orders

Physical condition of outgoing watch keeper is he/she well
Fuel oil storage tanks, level, temperature drain of water
Lubrication sump levels and temperature

Structural condition
Fresh water supply, tank level and ensure enough being produced.

3. Outline a safe procedure for final daily watch-keeping checks of an engine room which is
designated UMS.

With the dead man alarm system activated a full tour of the engine-room and machinery spaces
must be conducted.
All sump levels must be checked for correct level.
All running plant must be checked for safe and correct condition.
Fuel service tanks should be topped off.
Bilges and bilge wells should be inspected.
All watertight doors closed.
All standby plant, fire pumps and emergency generator must be placed in Auto, Remote or
Standby controls for immediate activation.
All header tanks hydraulic, lubricating oil and water should be topped off.

4. Describe the procedure for taking over an engine room watch.

Arrive at the watch 20 minutes prior to starting time.

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Talk with the outgoing engineer officer and discuss the happenings from his watch.
Read through the engine-room log book identifying any abnormalities and the general trend
Check the standing orders for any special requirements.
Check through the planned maintenance book identifying any tasks that could be undertaken in
your watch.
Check all readings from the engine-control-room and the main-switchboard.
Contact the bridge and check everything is ok, and inform them you are about to take a walk
round of the engine-room.
Check the condition of all running plant, for abnormal noise and running conditions.
Check the levels of the settling and service tanks, drain sludge and water accumulation.

5. As EOOW, explain how to safely carry out the complete bunkering operation of a ship.

Sound tanks fuel is being bunkered to.
Establish communication with barge and choose a common language.
Ensure the bunker plan is ready.
Sound the tanks on the barge using water indicating paste.
Have SOPEP equipment ready for fast action in case spill.
Close the scuppers to prevent oil easily getting into the water.
Secure and support inlet hose usually with deck crane.
Establish a flow rate suitable.
Erect bunker flag to ensure everyone knows you are in bunker operations.
Receive permission from the port before starting operation and once received commence
bunkering.
Ensure watch keeper knows what tanks are to be filled and opens the valves accordingly,
keeping in mind to leave room in the tanks for the final blow down.
Conduct final soundings to ensure received the correct quantity.
C/E signs final paper work and hose can be released.

6. List eight actions to be taken by the EOOW to ensure the safe passage of the vessel through an
area of heavy weather.

Ensure that all bilge wells are emptied sufficiently.
Ensure that all watertight doors are closed.
Ensure that all heavy items are securely stowed and lashed.
Ensure that any chemicals, noxious liquids, flammable or otherwise are stored correctly and
securely.
Stop all maintenance work, stow all tools and parts securely.
Ensure all tanks are sufficiently full.
Sufficient water within boiler and boiler system to compensate for rolling.
Sufficient lubricating oil within machinery sumps and service tanks.
All tank vents on deck covered with water-proof hoods.

Ensure that all external openings are securely closed.
All non-essential over-side discharges stopped and valves closed.

7. As the EOOW list eight reasons for calling the Chief Engineer Officer.

Abnormality or drastic change in behaviour of main propulsion plant
Oil mist detector

Main engine slow-down or shut-down trip

Fire

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Any situation of which you are unsure of the correct action to take
Electrical black-out

Oil found in the boiler, gauge glass or hot-well

Death or injury of any crewmember within the engine-room

8. Explain the actions that the EOOW should take on discovering the lagging on the main engine
exhaust, within the funnel spaces, was on fire.

Raise the nearest fire alarm call point.
Inform the chief engineer, bridge and inform them of the situation.
Request that the engine is stopped, once stopped turn off auxiliary blowers, fuel supply and ER
fans closing all flaps also.
Start the emergency generator and fire pump, set up fire hoses around the area and start
boundary cooling on outside areas.
Block all turbocharger air inlets, and remove lagging.
Using flood quantities of water to cool the area and attack the fire.
Start emergency bilge if levels increase beyond that of the bilge pump.

9. In the event of discovering a fire in the machinery space, list the actions to be taken after each of
the following situations:
a) Initially finding the fire; (6)
b) Deciding that the fire has become too fierce to fight and the fixed CO2 installation is to be
used. (10)

a) Raise the nearest Alarm call point.
Isolate all supplies of fuel and electrical supply.
Use a portable appliance to extinguish the fire if safe to do so.
b) Evacuate the machinery spaces and carry out a head count ensuring all persons are present.
Start the emergency generator, close all machinery fan flaps and stop mechanical
ventilation.
Isolate all fuel supplies and stop running machinery within the space.
Set up boundary cooling outside the machinery space.
A second count should be carried out and once all persons are present, the entire CO2
system may be released 


10.
a) State four actions the EOOW would take on discovering a small fire in the engine room bilge.
(8)
b) State four good watch-keeping practices that can help prevent such fires mentioned in Q a)
from occurring. (8)

a) Using a portable foam extinguisher attack the fire.
Fully extinguish the fire and cool using water.
Inform the bridge and chief engineer of the event.
Logs should be made and the issue raised at the safety meeting
b) Regular bilge cleaning and the removal of combustible materials from these spaces
The use of drip trays under plant.
The correct maintenance of plant preventing fuel oil, oil leakage.
Regular inspection of machine positions adjoining or close to bilge areas and rectifying leaks
promptly.

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11. The water level in the engine room is rising faster than can be contained by the bilge pump.
a) Describe the immediate action that the EOOW should take. (10)
b) What features are provided in the engine room pumping systems to deal with the situation
outlined in Q a). (6)

a) Raise the alarm.
Open emergency bilge suction valve.
Close watertight doors.
Try to locate the problem.
Start other circulating system and isolate the leaking pipe, pump or cooler.
Close the inlet and outlet valves of affected system to stop the leak.
If leak doesn’t stop start emergency generator.
If tank leakage, transfer water from affected tank to minimise leakage.
b) The emergency suction valve is fitted in order to deal with engine room flooding. It is
suctioned onto the highest capacity pump which goes overboard, usually the seawater
system. It is a large non-return valve whose suction pipe draws from the tank tops with a
strum-box and pipes should be 2/3’s of the system pipe diameter.

12. State EIGHT actions the Engineer officer of the Watch would take on acknowledging unexpected
high level engine room bilge alarms, in both port and starboard bilge wells?

Acknowledge the alarm and report it to the bridge and C/E.
Activate dead man alarm and go to both port and starboard bilge wells to ensure no false alarm.
Go back to ECR and sound alarm, letting bridge know engine room flooding.
Start the emergency bilge suction valve, which is connected to the highest capacity pump in the
engine room.
Close water tight doors.
Once more personnel arrived, try and locate the source of flooding.
Once located start the circulating system, isolating the leaking pipe, pump or cooler.
Close the inlet and outlet of affected component to stop the leak, if it doesn’t stop, start the
emergency generator.

13.
a) State FOUR legal documents which are found in the engine room. (8)
b) State the procedure to be carried out if you found no one in the engine room when taking
over a watch (8)

a) Oil record book.
Engine-room log book.
Sewage Management log.

Engine-room tank sounding log.
b) Inform the bridge and chief engineer that the person is not to be found inform them you are
about to search the engine-room.
Check for log entries the last date and time.
Tour the engine-room searching the regular spaces.
Return to the control room and await further instruction

Heat Exchanger/FWG/STP

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1. Sketch a cross-section of a horizontally mounted two-pass, tubular heat exchanger suitable for
lubricating oil cooling, showing the flow path of the fluids.

2. Describe, with the aid of sketches, a plate type heat exchanger.


A plate heat exchanger consists of a series of thin corrugated metal plates between which a number
of channels are formed, with the primary and secondary fluids flowing through alternate channels.
Heat transfer takes place from the primary fluid steam to the secondary process fluid in adjacent
channels across the plate. A corrugated pattern of ridges increases the rigidity of the plates and
provides greater support against differential pressures. This pattern also creates turbulent flow in
the channels, improving heat transfer efficiency, which tends to make the plate heat exchanger
more compact than a traditional shell and tube heat exchanger. The promotion of turbulent flow
also eliminates the presence of stagnant areas and thus reduces fouling. The plates will usually be
coated on the primary side, in order to promote the drop wise condensation of steam.

3. With reference to a low-pressure fresh water evaporator:
a) Explain why the water at the evaporator outlet is unsuitable for drinking; (8)
b) State the treatment that may be used to make the water potable. (8)

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a) At the evaporator outlet the water has been boiled, but it still isn’t safe to drink. This is due
to it being boiled at a much lower temperature than 100℃, usually 55℃, which doesn’t
sterilise it. This means bacteria dangerous to human health can still be present in this water,
as it isn’t tested before it enters the fresh water generator.
b) Ultra-Violet sterilisation.
Addition of mineral salts.
Chlorination.
Katadyn Silver Ion.

4. Sketch an Aerobic Sewage Treatment Plant.


5. State FOUR advantages and FOUR disadvantages of plate type heat exchangers.

Advantages:
Larger surface area for heat exchange.
Smaller and more compact than a shell or tube type.
Allows turbulent flow.
Usually made of titanium which is strong, has hard wearing and has good thermal conductivity.

Disadvantages:
Expensive to manufacture and repair.
Large surface area means lower pressure.
Not enough head pressure on low pressure systems to push liquid through all plates.
Use special gaskets which can only be used at low temperatures and cannot be used with steam.

Steering Gear

1. Describe the procedure for testing the ship’s steering gear and associated equipment prior to
departure from port.

Inform bridge and C/E you’re going to test the SG.
Start additional Generator for manoeuvring power supply.
Check oil levels.
Check SG for oil leaks.
Check SG system alarm.
Check SG rudder carrier bearing is well lubricated.

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Check hunting gear/lever are in good condition.
Check communication between SG and bridge is OK.
Test movement of SG from bridge 35°P to 30°S and then time to ensure within 28 seconds.
Test emergency steering from 15°P to 15°S within 60 seconds.
Oil filter checked.
SG floor must be clean and tidy.
Handrail secured.

2. With reference to the testing of a ship’s steering gear prior to departure, list eight items of
machinery or control systems whose operation must be tested.

SG motor and pump.
Emergency power.
SG alarm tested.
Automatic failure changeover of steering gear pumps.
Hydraulic oil low level alarm.
Position repeaters to bridge.
Fixed communication systems.
Rudder bearing grease or lubrication system.
Rudder stock cooling system.
35°P to 30°S in 28 seconds.
15°P to 15°S in 60 seconds.

3. Describe the routine watch-keeping duties carried out in the steering flat.

Check the electrical load of the steering gear motors.


Check the oil level of hydraulic header tanks, top up as required.
Check the temperature of the hydraulic oil.
Check the pumps and motors for excess noise, vibration and heat.
Check the grease pump for operation, that sufficient reserve of grease is available.
Check all bilge wells for oil/water accumulation.
Check the carrier bearing (rudder stock) for excess leakage.
Check the condition of all linkages, pipe brackets for security and damage.
Check pump pressure.

4. Describe the procedure for testing a steering gear within 12 hours of sailing.

Inform bridge and C/E you’re going to test the SG.
Start additional Generator for manoeuvring power supply.
Check oil levels.
Check SG for oil leaks.
Check SG system alarm.
Check SG rudder carrier bearing is well lubricated.
Check hunting gear/lever are in good condition.
Check communication between SG and bridge is OK.
Test movement of SG from bridge 35°P to 30°S and then time to ensure within 28 seconds.
Test emergency steering from 15°P to 15°S within 60 seconds.
Oil filter checked.
SG floor must be clean and tidy.
Handrail secured.

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Centrifugal Separator

1. With reference to centrifugal purifiers:
a) State the function of the gravity disc; (4)
b) Explain the consequences of fitting the following:
i) Too large a gravity disc; (6)
ii) Too small a gravity disc. (6)

a) The gravity disc is required to create sufficient back pressure on the water seal to maintain
the oil water interface as close to the edge of the bowl as possible without loosing the water
seal. This results in the oil which has to be purified having a longer dwell time in the bowl in
order for centrifugal forces to separate the water which then leaves through the water
outlet.
b)
i) The oil water interface is displaced too near to the bowl periphery. Resulting in a
collapse of the liquid seal, oil may now pass out the water outlet. Escaping oil via the
water outlet could potentially drain the sump of a machine, overfill the sludge tank or
cause substantial damage within the machinery spaces 

ii) The oil water interface is too near the bowl centre, not creating an effective water-oil
seal and poor solids removal. Water seal may therefore pass out via the oil outlet risking
extreme contamination of the oil. Water within oil reduces and inhibits its ability to
lubricate efficiently, causing machinery damage; or in the case of fuel oil emulsification
of the fuel resulting in poor injection and combustion 


2.
a) State two factors that have an influence on the separating process. (8)
b) Give two reasons for a purifier not attaining full running speed. (8)

a) The oil density.
The oil temperature.
The oil viscosity.
b) Shaft misalignment.
Damaged motor.

3. With reference to the treatment of lubricating or fuel oil:
a) State function of a purifier, (4)
b) State function of a clarifier, (4)
c) State TWO constructional differences found in the bowls of purifiers and clarifiers. (8)

a) To remove solid particulate and water from the fuel.
b) To remove solid particulate only, slower throughput due to longer dwell time.
c) No gravity disc in clarifiers as there’s no oil water interface to maintain, larger discs and bowl
size than purifiers for a longer dwell time. A clarifier also has a blind disc and a purifier
doesn’t.

4.
a) Outline the separation process that occurs within centrifugal oil purifiers (12)
b) Describe the change required to the purifier if it is to be used for an oil of lower density (4)

a) When a fluid such as oil is subjected to gravity, substance of different densities separates.
Before the process beings a small amount of water is needed to prime the machine and

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prevent the oil carrying over into the water discharge. Centrifuging amplifies the effects of
gravity using centrifugal force to make the separation happen much quicker, this is due to
the gravitational force being increased. When oil is inside the bowl, the high speed rotation
causes impurities such as water to be forced to outside of the bowl leaving the much clearer
oil near the centre. This is due to the water and solids being less dense than the oil.
Separation is aided by the addition of a disk stack which enlarges the bowls surface area.
Within the oil outlet there is a gravity disc which controls the oil water interface during
operation which help prevent cross contamination. Periodically the purifier will
automatically de-sludge to discharge any solids that are collected and the bowl.
b) For fuel of a lower density, a smaller gravity disc will be needed in order to maintain the oil-
water interface. If the gravity disc wasn’t changed oil would be lost in the water outlet,
which could drain a sump, fill the bilge sludge tank or even cause damage to a machine.

5. With reference to a centrifugal fuel oil separator:
a) Explain the importance of using the correct size of "Gravity Disc". (12)
b) State the TWO factors that determine the size of "Gravity Disc" to be used. (4)

a) Using the correct size of gravity disc in a fuel oil purifier is important in several ways. If the
disc was too large the oil water interface is displaced too near to the bowl periphery.
Resulting in a collapse of the liquid seal, oil may now pass out the water outlet. Escaping oil
via the water outlet could potentially overfill the sludge tank or cause substantial damage
within the machinery spaces. If the disc was too small the oil water interface is too near the
bowl centre, not creating an effective water-oil seal and poor solids removal. Water seal
may therefore pass out via the oil outlet risking extreme contamination of the oil. Water
within fuel oil causes emulsification of the fuel resulting in poor injection and combustion. It
can also cause corrosion and etching; corrosion is the most common cause of fuel injector
failure, water in the fuel rapidly speeds the corrosion process resulting in significantly
shorter life of a fuel injector. Etching is caused by a water-induced fuel which produces
sulphuric acid that eats the metal surfaces.
b) The fuel oil separation temperature.
The fuel oil density.
The feed rate required for the fuel oil.

Refrigeration

1. With reference to a refrigeration system:
a) Describe how air is removed from a system. (8)
b) Describe how and where refrigerant gas is added to a system. (8)

a) Pump the system down until the condenser is full.
Using an approved service vessel and pump, the refrigerant may be extracted.
Re-charge with fresh refrigerant.
Fill out the log book for the system recording type of gas and quantities.
b) Attach the filling line to the suction side of the compressor tightly.
Invert the refrigerant canister and start the compressor.
Observe the condenser sight-glass for the correct level.
Log how much and type of gas added.

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2. With reference to a refrigeration system, state the indications of EACH of the following faults:
a) air in the system; (8)
b) undercharge of refrigerant gas. (8)

a) Bubbles seen within condenser sight glass
Compressor knocking
Icing of pipe-work
Fluctuating pressures
b) Compressor Over-running
In-effective cooling
No liquid visible within condenser sight-glass
Low suction pressure

3.
a) Sketch a simple refrigeration system showing the FOUR major components. (8)
b) State the condition of the refrigerant between EACH component in the sketch of Q2(a). (8)

a)

b) Evaporator - Compressor Superheated vapour.


Compressor - Condenser Superheated vapour.
Condenser - Thermostatic Expansion Valve Sub cooled liquid.
Thermostatic Expansion Valve - Evaporator Liquid & vapour mix.

4.
a) Describe the operation of a domestic refrigeration plant, referencing the refrigerant
condition at the main components. (12)
b) State how liquid is prevented from returning to the compressor. (4)

a) The gas in the system is compressed in the compressor, raising its temperature and pressure
to a superheated vapour. The vapour is then led to the condenser where its cooled by
seawater and changes to a sub cooled liquid, due to it remaining at high pressure at this
stage. A thermostatic expansion valve then dramatically drops the pressure of the sub
cooled liquid which causes the saturation temperature to fall. As it crossed the valve the
saturation temperature falls below its actual temperature causing some liquid to flash off
before reaching the evaporator where latent heat in the surrounding are boils off remaining
liquid meaning a superheated gas leaves ready to re-enter the compressor.

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b) To stop liquid returning to the compressor, a solenoid is connected to a thermostat inside
the evaporator. As the room is cooled to the pre-determined temperature, the solenoid
shuts off the expansion valve, stopping the flow of refrigerant in the system. The compressor
will continue to run briefly but will be stopped once drop in pressure.

Pumps

1. List eight reasons why a bilge pump may not be able to remove water from an engine room
bilge.

Strainer or filter fouled.
Pump damaged or obstructed.
Insufficient level within bilge to maintain suction.
Pipeline damaged inducting air.
Pump Discharge Valve Closed.
Fluid too viscous for the pump to handle.
Other bilge suction valve open or damaged on the line.
Electrical supply isolated.
Empty bilges.

2. With reference to of a gear pump suitable for use with fuel or lubricating oil:
a) Sketch a cross-section indicating flow of fluid (8)
b) Explain the operating principle. (8)

a)

b) The sketch above shows a gear pump


suitable for use with fuel or lubricating oil on a small 4 stroke engine. One shaft is motor
driven and is fitted to the gear (the driver gear), this drives the other gear (the driven gear).
During rotation, oil is carried around the casing trapped in the space between the gear
teeth. When the teeth of both wheels squeeze together the oil is directed towards the
discharge ports. The pump id s type of positive displacement pump and should have a
pressure relief valve on the casing that can’t be isolated by valves.

3. With reference to centrifugal pumps:
a) State why the pump can be started with the discharge valve closed; (8)
b) State four possible reasons for the pump failing to achieve suction from a double bottom
tank. (8)

a) As the impeller of the pump rotates at high speed, a centrifugal force is created. The force
gives kinetic energy to the fluid as its thrown from the eye of the impeller to the outer part.
The impeller rotates inside a volute casing; whose cross-sectional area increases as it nears
the pump outlet. This acts as a diverging nozzle that converts the kinetic energy in the fluid

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to pressure energy. As energy cannot be created or destroyed, the rise in pressure energy is
limited to the amount of velocity in the fluid. Therefore, it is perfectly safe to start the pump
with the discharge valve closed, without causing over pressure in the system.
b) Strainer or filter blocked.
Insufficient level within tank.
Pump wear-rings and seals damaged.
Pipe-work damaged inducting air.
Hole in suction pipes.
Impeller coupling failure.

Control System

1. Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a typical single element temperature control for a large
lubricating oil system.















The 3-way valve senses the temperature going to the M/E, it then adjusts the flow through
the cooler to achieve the required temperature.



2. Sketch and describe a method of remotely monitoring the contents of a fuel oil tank.










Pressure head is measured by a displacement diaphragm, altering resistance, which is measured and
displayed as a tank level reading.

3. With reference to a control system,

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a) List four examples of a measured variable. (8)
b) State the meaning of “two-step controller” and outline its basic action. (4)
c) State the meaning of “proportional controller” and outline its basic actions. (4)

d) Voltage.
Frequency.
Temperature.
Pressure.
e) There are only two methods of operation, i.e. start and stop. It will start at a set point and
stop at a set point.
f) There will be a master and slave control and the master control will monitor the input and
the slave will monitor the output. The output signal is controlled against the input variable;
the process is altered to achieve a constant output proportionally between full on and full
off conditions

OWS

1. Draw a cross-sectional diagram of an oily-water separator system suitable for oil discharges of
less than 15ppm. Indicate on the diagram the flow of fluid through the separator and label all
major component parts.

2. With reference to the disposal of bilge water from the machinery spaces:
a) Explain when it is not permissible to discharge the bilge water overboard, even via an oily
water separator; (8)
b) State the maximum permissible oil content of the overboard discharge. (2)
c) Identify the documentation to be completed and state by whom, following such an
operation. (6)

a) When the vessel is alongside, anchored or at rest.
If the bilge water originates from cargo pump rooms.
If less than 12 miles off-shore.
If in a special area and no automated stop and logging controls are fitted.
This is to comply with MARPOL: Annex 1.
b) 15ppm.
c) Engine Room Log by watch-keeper and chief engineer.

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Oil record book by watch-keeper, chief engineer and captain.
Vessel movements log and ships log by the captain.

3.
a) Describe the procedure for operating the oily water separator (12)
b) State TWO ways that the separator could be made to operate more efficiently. (4)

a) Inform the bridge and C/E that you wish to discharge bilge water.
Fill the OWS with fresh water to flush, test the alarm ensuring the discharge stops during
alarm state.
Sound bilge holding tank and record results.
Start drawing from bilge holding tank and record result, the separator must be in full auto
control.
Log the time when the discharge commenced, the starting volume of tank and position of
vessel.
After discharge quantity is reached, stop discharge and close discharge valve.
Flush OWS with clean water.
Sound bilge holding tank and record in ER log book and oil record book.
Inform bridge and C/E operation finished.
b) Heat the bilge water to ait in the oil separation.
Auto logging and tracking in the OWS control system.

4.
a) Describe the operating procedure for using a static oily water separator to discharge bilge
water overboard. (8)
b) State the effect that EACH of the following would have on the efficiency of the separator:
i) The addition of heat to the separator (4)
ii) Agitating the bilge water before it is pumped. (4)

a) The main principle of operation works on gravity differential between oil and water.
Generally, in an oily water mixture oil exists as a collection of small globules of varying size,
the larger the higher rate of separation. The first stage is a coarse separating chamber,
where oily water mixture flows over a series of baffle plates. Due to the movement of the
fluid larger oil globules are filtered out and rise to the top where they collect and are
discharged. Depending on the type of oil being separated, there will be heating coils in the
first stage. The mixture leaves at around 100ppm and slows into the second chamber, where
coalescent filters are used, which encourage the smaller remaining globules to join and
increase the size. They they rise to the top of the second chamber where they’re discharged,
meanwhile the remaining oily water mixture is going through the second set of filters ready
to be discharged at 15ppm or lower.
b)
i) Heat added will increase the specific density differential of the oil and water and
reduces the viscosity of the oil, which would aid in the separation.
ii) The larger the oil globules, the faster rate of separation. Agitating it will mix the water
and oil making the globules smaller, making separation more difficult.

Machinery Space Safety



1.
a) Define the term “enclosed space”; (2)
b) State three areas on board a ship that would be designated as an enclosed space; (6)

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c) Describe the procedure for the entry into an enclosed space. (8)

a) A space with restricted or limited points of entry and exit, with an atmosphere that is
questionable of its condition, its oxygen level may be less than 21%.
b) Chain locker.
Cofferdams.
Fuel tanks.
c) Space should be tested for oxygen content of a minimum 21%, and explosive fume content
measured. The space must be ventilated by an approved ventilation fan and trunk for a
minimum of 24hours or 3 times air volume exchange.
Job details should be briefed with all persons involved with the works, all tools and
equipment’s to be checked-catalogued and checked prior to entry. Suitable lighting and
standby lighting inside the space.
Communication systems must be set up and tested with all persons involved, a backup
means of communication must also be established. An alarm and evacuation procedure
must be set up and practiced (enclosed space drill) prior to entry.
A competent officer must remain at the point of entry recording the persons within the
space, times of entry and work practices. The atmosphere must be tested during working
operations and the forced ventilation maintained at all times. Emergency and escape
equipment must be readily available for immediate use at the point of entry 


2.
a) State the meaning of the term enclosed space. (4)
b) Explain the procedure for preparation for entry into a cofferdam prior to an inspection. (12)

a) A space with restricted or limited points of entry and exit, with an atmosphere that is
questionable of its condition, its oxygen level may be less than 21%.
b) Following a through risk assessment, job brief and permit to work the space must be
thoroughly force-ventilated for a minimum of 24 hours.
All servicing pipelines to be sealed, locked and tagged.
The atmosphere within the space tested with a calibrated and approved atmosphere testing
device the space shall not be entered if the O2 is less than 21%.
Rescue equipment, standby lighting to be gathered and assembled for immediate use. An
alarm and escape procedure to be established and understood by all persons involved within
and outside the space.
The communication systems set up and tested between all working parties, and persons in
command.
Ventilation should continue at all times, all persons within to wear personal O2 meters, H2S
meters and be familiar with their operation, the atmosphere should be test regularly during
works.

3. State the safety checks needed before using EACH of the following lifting gear:
a) Wire strops.
b) Chain blocks.
c) Eye bolts.
d) Shackles.

a) That the appliance has been tested, no visible signs of damage and is correctly rated.
b) Tested, operates in both directions, does not slip, no visible damage and is correct size.
c) Tested, threads not damaged and correct size, correct weight rating, no visible damage.
d) Tested, of correct load rating, no visible damage.

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4. With reference to a steam heating coil in a fuel storage tank developing a leak:
a) State how the leak would be detected; (4)
b) State the immediate action to be taken when the leak is detected; (4)
c) Explain how the leak may be traced; (8)

a) Boiler pressure loss.
Rapid temperature change.
Excess from settling tank water.
Steam from tank vents.
Fuel in hot well.
Oil sensor in the condensate return.
b) Divert the returns.
Take samples from boiler.
Call C/E.
c) Check ER log to see if any of the steam heating coils have been turned on recently. Close
both valves and allow the tank to cool down. Open the condensate drain valve and open the
inlet valve to steam coil, if oil is seen in the drain valve then you found the correct tank.

5. The steam heating coil in a heavy fuel oil service tank has a suspected leak.
a) Explain how the fault may be detected. (8)
b) Outline a safe tank preparation and entry procedure to make a repair. (8)

a) Check ER log to see if any of the steam heating coils have been turned on recently. Close
both valves and allow the tank to cool down. Open the condensate drain valve and open the
inlet valve to steam coil, if oil is seen in the drain valve then you found the correct tank.

b) Shut down the purifiers.
Empty the fuel tank via the transfer pump.
All servicing pipelines to be sealed, locked and tagged.
Vent the tanks with the portholes open.
The atmosphere within the space tested with a calibrated and approved atmosphere testing
device the space shall not be entered if the O2 is less than 21%.
Inform bridge about tank entry.
Ensue everyone has correct PPE and tank entry gear.
Risk assessment and permit to work are completed.
Ventilation should continue at all times, all persons within to wear personal O2 meters, H2S
meters and be familiar with their operation, the atmosphere should be test regularly during
works.

6. Describe the routine checking of a compressed air breathing apparatus set.

The facemask and seal should be checked to ensure in good condition.
The supply pipe should be in good condition.
The pressure gauge lens must be clear and easy to read.
The whistle should be attached.
Check the certification on the back plate to ensure OK.
The bottle should be working at correct pressure, shouldn’t fall to 0 within 30 seconds.
Ensure no leaks by sound.
Do pressure down test and ensure whistle sounds.
All straps are secure and in good condition.

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7.
a) State four features which assist in the starting of lifeboat engines in cold climate conditions.
b) Briefly describe TWO devices that control the rate of fall of a lifeboat when launched from
standard davits.

a) Use of water grade diesel.
Use of engine sump and jacket heaters.
Keeping the engine enclosed so that it isn’t exposed to the elements.
The instillation of battery chargers with a constant trickle charge.
b) There is a hand operated break, which comprises of a weighted lever. The lever must be
lifted by a member of personnel before the boat will move.
A centrifugal brake uses centrifugal force to connect two centric shafts, the driver and
driven. As the lifeboat is lowered and the revolutions increase, weighted arms swing
outward’s to engage with friction pads mounted on the inside rim of the housing, the
friction slows the rate of fall.

8. In order of preference, identify two types of portable fire extinguishers that may be used to fight
a fire in the following shipboard cases:
a) The galley;
b) An accommodation space;
c) The machinery space control room;
d) The main electrical switchboard.

a) Foam, in the event of oil based fire.
CO2, in the event of a fire with live electrical equipment.
b) Water, in the event of a combustible materials fire.
Dry Powder, in the event of a fire involving live electrical equipment.
c) Foam in the event of an oil based electrical fire.
Dry Powder in the event of a fire involving live electrical equipment non-critical.
d) CO2 in the event of a fire involving live electrical systems that are critical.
Dry Powder in the event of a fire involving live electrical equipment non-critical.

9.
a) With reference to contents and use, describe how a portable fire extinguisher is identified.
b) State, with reason, the type of fire extinguisher normally found in the engine control room.
c) List the actions to be taken prior to the operation of a bottled CO2 fire fighting system. (8)

a) When using Foam Fire extinguishers, aim the jet to the back of the source of fire building a
thick blanket of foam over it.
b) CO2 due to its ability to be used on live electrical equipment whilst being non-corrosive.
c) All persons to be evacuated and accounted for.
All fans, ventilators and flaps to be closed.
Emergency generator started and all fuel supplies and machinery turned off within
machinery space.
With the machinery space sealed, all persons accounted for and present the full quantity
CO2 may be released.

10.
a) Name four types of portable fire extinguishers that may be found in the machinery space on
board ships. (8)

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b) State the Fire Classifications, including the type of material involved with EACH (8)

a) Dry powder
Foam
Water
CO2
b) A – Wood/paper textiles.
B – Flammable liquids and solids.
C – Fires involving gases.
D – Fires involving metals.
↯ – All electrical fires.
F – High temperature cooking oils.

11.
a) Describe the maintenance required by each of the following fire extinguishers:
i) CO2: (6)
ii) Dry powder. (6)
b) Describe the routine inspections of the portable fire extinguishers found in the machinery
spaces (4)

a)
i) Check the hoses are not perished.
Check the weight of the bottle within 10% of stated volume.
Check the bottle for visible damage.
ii) Weigh the appliance for stated weight.
Check the CO2 canister for damage.
Rotate the canister 180O and shake to free powder.
b) Fire detector heads and call points should be tested on a rotation weekly, with different
sensors and call points every week. All detectors and call points should be tested over a
month.
12.
a) Describe the immediate action that should be taken in the event of discovering a fire in the
accommodation spaces, whilst as sea. (8)
b) Briefly describe the organisation of the two emergency parties on board a ship. For each
party define who is in charge, the responsibility of each party and how the efforts of each
party are co-ordinated. (8)

a) Sound the alarm, state the location of the fire, the type and if any casualties.
Close all doors, windows and vents leading to the location of fire if possible.
Isolate the electrical supply and close dampers to reduce risk of spreading.
If possible, use a portable fire extinguisher to tackle the fire.
If not, go to muster station and tackle the fire.
b) The Chief Officer will brief all parties and remain in command at the scene.
The 2nd Engineer is in charge of the fire party, their role is to extinguish and prevent the
spread of the fire.
The 2nd Officer is in charge of the stand-by team, their role is to take care of first aid
responsibilities and be on hand to help anywhere needed.

13.
a) List four different types of fire detector heads that may be fitted to the fire detection
system. (4)

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b) Briefly describe the operation of three of the fire detector heads listed in part a). (12)

a) Heat detector.
Optical smoke detector.
IR flam detector.
Rate of rise.
b) Heat detector, a thermistor is fitted within the device, once heat is applied its electrical
resistance changes beyond a pre-determined value, creating an alarm.
Optical smoke detectors relay on the smoke particles to obstruct an IR or other light source
within the device, obstructing the light sensor thus causing an alarm.
IR flame detectors work by sensing a flame, flickering at less than 25Hz and after a time
delay of 5-20 seconds an alarm sounds.

14.
a) Describe four classes of fire indicating which fire fighting media should be used to extinguish
each. (8)
b) State the document that indicates the location of the fire extinguishers on board a vessel. (2)
c) State three places where the document stated in Q d) would be found. (6)

a) A – Wood/paper textiles. Water, foam, dry powder and wet chemical.
B – Flammable liquids and solids. Foam, dry powder and CO2.
C – Fires involving gases. Dry powder.
D – Fires involving metals. Special powder.
↯ – All electrical fires. CO2 and dry powder.
F – High temperature cooking oils. Wet chemical.
b) Ship fire plan.
c) The Bridge.
The ECR.
Accommodation.

15. Describe the procedure and the frequency of the maintenance for the fire detection system.

Weekly, at least one manual-call-point break glass should be activated, as well as smoke and or
heat detectors. The same points should not be tested each week. The number and the condition
of the detector or call point should be logged and a sounder should not operate for longer than
10 seconds. The smoke detectors are tested with simulating a fire by using a canister of smoke.

16. In the event of having to flood the machinery spaces with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) because of a
serious fire, list the actions to be taken prior to the release of the gas.

Receive conformation CO2 system is being used from the Master & C/E.
Evacuate the engine room and carry out a head count.
Start the emergency generator.
Close and seal all engine room doors and engine room hatch.
Isolate the fuel supply.
Stop all forced ventilation and close dampers.
Set up boundary cooling outside the engine room space.
Only the C/E, Master or highest personnel available can discharge the CO2 system.

17.
a) Explain the importance of regular fire drills; (8)

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b) Describe how a drill relating to a fire in a purifier room may be organised. (8)

c) Fire drills can reduce panic and take pressure off in the event of a real life emergency by
teaching crew members what their duties are and how they can be safely executed.
All personnel are familiar with the location and operation of fire fighting equipment
reducing the likelihood of panic.
Procedures are put in place which work in real life situations.
Everyone is familiar with the fire functions such as correct flow rate and procedure.
d) Fire support parties know their roles and positions of all fire fighting equipment and escape
routes.
The dangers associated with large quantities of fuel, the requirement for extra cooling and
careful application of water must be followed to ensure no flooding.
The use of B.A. sets and teams, the possibility for extreme heat, structural damage and poor
visibility.
Stand-by teams know how to replenish B.A. set bottles, from solution and how to set up and
maintain firefighting foam supply.

18.
a) Describe the actions that the EOOW should take on finding that the temperature of the
thrust block is rising above normal acceptable range. (6)
b) Explain why the thrust block temperature is critical. (10)

a) When the thrust block bearing temperature exceeds 75OC you would slow down the main
engine. If still rising, Request Bridge & C/E to stop M/E if safe to do so.
If diesel generator not started automatically, start and put on load.
Check L.O. level and water level for bearing cooling; if required top it up.
b) Thrust block bearings are made of white metals. White metals start losing their tensile
strength about 120 OC, and starts melting about 180 OC. If thrust block temperature isn’t
controlled by adequate cooling system such as L.O. or water the damages could be
extensive.

IMO & Regulations



1. What are the appropriate regulations and/or safety practices relating to the following?
a) Grinding wheels;
b) Rotating machinery;
c) Safety Clothing and Footwear;
d) Prevention of skin reactions.

a) Abrasive Wheels Regulations 1970.
Use only manufacture stated grinding wheels, use machinery only if trained and use all
guards and protective equipment.
b) PUWER regulations 1998.
The Supply of Machinery (safety) Regulations 1992.
Use only well maintained equipment, use of protective guards, report all deficiencies within
plant and only use if trained to do so.
c) PPE at work regulations 1992.
Wear all equipment as directed, use of approved and serviceable items only.
d) COSHH regulations 2002.
Use of protective clothing, limiting exposure and use of barrier creams 


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2. State the MARPOL regulations for pumping engine room bilges in special areas.

The regulations under MARPOL: Annex 1 state:
The vessel must be underway at a speed of more than 4 knots.
The oil content must not exceed 15ppm.
The bilge water must pass through an approved oil water separator with an oil content
monitor and alarm.
Only engine room bilges are allowed to be pumped.
The OWS must automatically stop discharge upon 15ppm or more alarm sounding and re-
circulate.
Automatic logging of the vessel position and stop of the OWS via vessel GPS.
The oil record book must be filled in with the correct details.

3.
a) State the regulations that make each ship responsible for the prevention of pollution at sea
and in port.
b) Name the equipment that must be used in machinery spaces to comply with Annex 1 of the
regulations stated in Q a)
c) Describe the principle of operation of the equipment named in Q b).

a) MARPOL: Annex 1
b) Oily Water Separator
c) The main principle of operation works on gravity differential between oil and water.
Generally, in an oily water mixture oil exists as a collection of small globules of varying size,
the larger the higher rate of separation. The first stage is a coarse separating chamber,
where oily water mixture flows over a series of baffle plates. Due to the movement of the
fluid larger oil globules are filtered out and rise to the top where they collect and are
discharged. Depending on the type of oil being separated, there will be heating coils in the
first stage. The mixture leaves at around 100ppm and slows into the second chamber, where
coalescent filters are used, which encourage the smaller remaining globules to join and
increase the size. They they rise to the top of the second chamber where they’re discharged,
meanwhile the remaining oily water mixture is going through the second set of filters ready
to be discharged at 15ppm or lower.

4. With reference to the prevention of pollution at sea regulation, explain each of the following:
a) Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP); (8)
b) Oil Record Book. (8)

a) An approved code of practice, for the instruction of ships crew, officers and master of the
methods to prevent the escape of oil and minimise the damaging effects caused by an
escape of oil within the marine environment.
The safe and effective collection and recovery of escaped oil.
The procedures and practices to be followed to contain and prevent the spread of an oil
spill.
The procedures and bodies that should be informed including the details which should be
given them relating to the disaster.
b) A document that may be used in the court of law, for the accurate record keeping of oil and
oil products on board ship including bilge water discharges.
To be filled out after every fuel transfer operation including bunkering, the disposal of waste
oil to a shore facility.

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The discharge of bilge water via an oily water separator and the incineration of oily wastes
and sludge.
To be maintained regularly, fully up to date, accurate and signed by both master and chief
engineer

5. With reference to the regulations relating to the pollution of the seas with oil, explain EACH of
the following:
a) The purpose of the oil record book; (6)
b) The action to be taken in the event of an oil spillage; (6)
c) How the bilge water overboard discharge is monitored? (4)

a) To record all fuel oil transfers.
To record all bilge water discharge, quantities and locations.
To ensure vessel complies with MARPOL: Annex 1.
b) Stop all pumping operations and sound all tanks.
Stop the vessel and report spill to authorities.
Maintain and contain the spill to the best of your ability with the aid of floating booms.
Collect and as much oil as possible.
c) Through an oil content meter fitted on an approved oil water separator.

6.
a) Name the International Convention that regulates the prevention of oil pollution at sea. (4)
b) Describe how oily water from machinery space bilges is treated to ensure that the discharge
complies with the convention mentioned in Q a). (10)
c) State the legal document that is required to comply with the convention mentioned in Q c).
(2)

a) MARPOL: Annex 1
b) The main principle of operation works on gravity differential between oil and water.
Generally, in an oily water mixture oil exists as a collection of small globules of varying size,
the larger the higher rate of separation. The first stage is a coarse separating chamber,
where oily water mixture flows over a series of baffle plates. Due to the movement of the
fluid larger oil globules are filtered out and rise to the top where they collect and are
discharged. Depending on the type of oil being separated, there will be heating coils in the
first stage. The mixture leaves at around 100ppm and slows into the second chamber, where
coalescent filters are used, which encourage the smaller remaining globules to join and
increase the size. They they rise to the top of the second chamber where they’re discharged,
meanwhile the remaining oily water mixture is going through the second set of filters ready
to be discharged at 15ppm or lower.
c) Oil Record Book.

7.
a) State the operations which should be entered in the Oil Record Book of ALL ships. (12)
b) State the conditions which must be complied with for the discharge of oily water from
machinery spaces. (4)

a) All oil transfers on board ship.
All oil bunker operations.
All discharges of bilge water.
All discharges of oily waste to shore facilities.
All disposal operations of waste oil via incineration.

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ROB figures at the end of each day.
b) The vessel must be underway at more than 4 knots on-passage and more than 12 miles off-
shore.
The bilge water oil content must be less than 15PPM and be passed through an approved
oily water separator.

8.
a) State the entries necessary in the Oil Record Book when discharging bilge water at sea.
b) State FOUR precautions taken prior to taking bunkers.

a) The location of discharge when started and then when stopped.
Quantity of bilge water discharged.
Time of discharge.
Identity of tank(s).
Ships speed during discharge.
Method of discharge, e.g. through approved OWS.
b) Receiving tanks have sufficient space for bunkered oil.
SOPEP equipment is at the ready.
No smoking sign is at bunker station.
Scuppers are closed.

9. State, with reasons, four principle requirements for maintaining records on board ships.

Ensuring Legal Compliance with Flag, Class and maritime legislations.
Developing trend, in order to spot unsafe change.
Ensuring that all practices carried out follow approved methods.
Record building for reference of company and ships staff.


10. Outline the function of each of the following:
a) International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
b) International Safety Management Code (ISM)
c) Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
d) Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW)

a) To develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory frame work for shipping
internationally.
b) Setting minimum standards throughout shipping flag-states in order to ensure safety at sea,
to prevent human injury or loss of life and avoid damage to the environment and ships 

c) Setting the requirement of flag-states to ensure that all vessels meet the minimum safe
standards; within construction, equipment and operation
d) Setting an internationally harmonised minimum standard of safety training for all officers,
crew and watch keeping persons of commercial ships 


11.
a) List the three types of “notice” issued by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) to
disseminate information to ship owners and seafarers and define the importance and
relevance of each one.
b) Describe the function of the Merchant Shipping and Fishing Vessels (Healthy & Safety at
Work) Regulations.

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a) MINs – for a more limited receptor, offering information such as timetables of MCA
examinations.
MGNs – Gives significant advice and guidance leading to the importance of safety of
shipping and life at sea.
MSNs – Convey mandatory information that must be complied with under UK legislation.
b) All safety measures should be based on an assessment of the risks involved in a particular
task, and the identification of the most effective measures to limit the risks.
All new personnel should be informed of their employer’s duties in respect to health and
safety.
Remind new employees they are to follow any training; oral or written instructions they
have been given. They should also know who they should report any deficiency’s in
equipment or unsafe practices they notice to.

12.
a) Describe the purpose of each of the following publications issued by the Maritime and
Coastguard Agency (MCA):
i) Merchant Shipping Notices (MSNs) (4)
ii) Marine Guidance Notes (MGNs) (4)
iii) Marine Information Notes (MINs) (4)
b) State how it can be determined that such MCA publications have been superseded or
cancelled. (4)

a)
i) Marine Information Notices are the least importance, relating to companies, training
companies, overall.
ii) Merchant Shipping Notices must be complied with under UK law.
iii) Marine Guidance Notices provide significant detailed information related to the
improvement of safety at sea.
b) By the release of a M notice via email or other means.

13.
a) State four engine room records that are kept. (4)
b) State why the records stated in Q a) are important. (8)
c) State the frequency of updating the records stated in Qa). (4)

a) Oil record book.
Engine room log book.
Rest and work hours.
Engine room sounding logs.
b) ORB – to comply with MARPOL: Annex 1 and to track and keep record of all oil discharge or
transfers.
ERLB – to comply with SOLAS and to track and monitor behaviour patterns in engine and
auxiliaries.
R&WH – to comply with SOLAS and to ensure crew are getting sufficient rest.
ERSL – To keep track of levels of engine room tanks.
c) Any time oil is transferred or bilge water is discharged overboard.
Completed twice daily.
Completed at the end of each day.
Completed twice daily.

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IAMI’s Electrical

Switchboard & Safety



1. With reference to marine electrical distribution systems:
a) State the meaning of the term insulated neutral. (8)
b) Briefly describe how the location of an earth fault can be found. (4)
c) State the safety precautions to be taken before investigating faulty electrical machinery. (4)

a) An insulated distribution system is one in which main generators neutral point is kept away
from the ships hull. Insulated neutral systems are preferred on low voltage ships operating
at 440V AC.
b) Earth faults can be located by the process of elimination. Power is switched off to a certain
area in a pre-determined order – personnel in the area must be alerted before doing so –
and someone keeps an eye on the fault monitor until it clears. Once the general location has
been found, go there and conduct an insulated resistance test to locate the exact location.
c) Risk assessment must be conducted by the competent person to put in place control
measures.
Electrical circuits to be investigated will be safely isolate.
Safe isolation means switching off the power, locking it in place with a safety lock and
posting appropriate notices; caution if dead and danger if live work.

2.
a) List FIVE protective devices fitted to a main electrical switchboard. (10)
b) Explain the meaning of the term earth fault and state why it is undesirable in electrical
installations. (6)

a) Reverse power trip relay.
Overload trip relay.
Preferential trip relay.
Under/Over frequency trip relays.
Under/Over voltage trip relays.
Short circuit protection.
b) An earth fault is when electrical current flows to the ships hull. This is due to a weakness in
insulation whereby insulation can no longer contain the electrical current. When two earth
faults occur, it can lead to a short circuit which may lead to fire and explosions.

3.
a) List FIVE precautions that should be taken before any work is carried out on electrical
equipment. (10)
b) Identify THREE additional precautions to those in Q4(a), if it has become essential to work
near to live equipment. (6)

a) Risk assessment must be conducted by the competent person to put in place control
measures.
Appropriate PPE worn.
Electrical circuits to be investigated will be safely isolate.
Safe isolation means switching off the power, locking it in place with a safety lock and
posting appropriate notices. Caution if dead and danger if live work.
Equipment is proved dead.
b) Appropriate barriers put in place.

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Rubber matts under feet.
Another competent engineer is present.

4. With reference to the emergency generator:
a) state the checks required prior to starting the engine: (6)
b) describe the routine testing. (10)

a) The fuel tank level.
Check the batteries.
Check the lubricating oil level.
Check cooling water level.
Check turbocharger oil level.
Check for any general leaks.
b) Start emergency generator and allow it to run up.
Check the generator for any abnormal behaviour such as leaks, vibrations and noise.
Check the running parameters for the prime mover and alternator.
Simulate a black out to check the generator I connected with the emergency switchboard in
no more than 45 seconds.
A portion of emergency load (say 50%) is put on the generator and is allowed to run for a
given period (30 mins) to see if the generators running parameters are holding up.

5.
a) State THREE underlying causes of electrical causes of electrical equipment failure.
b) State the precautions to be taken before working on the switchboard.

a) Overloading
Insulation failure
Misuse
b) You decide whether it is possible to make the equipment dead.
If not possible, do a risk assessment to put in place appropriate control measures to identify
hazards.
Appropriate PPE must be used.
A competent engineer must be present with the person working.
Safety barriers must be put in place.
Rubber matts are put in place.
Appropriate notices are placed to warn other personnel.
A permit to work must be issued before work can begin.

6. With reference to electrical distribution systems:
a) State the meaning of the term earth fault; (2)
b) State FOUR different possible causes of an earth fault occurring in an electric motor; (4)
c) State THREE undesirable consequences of earth faults; (3)
d) Describe ONE method of detecting earth faults. (7)

a) When current flows to earth, which on ship is the hull.
b) Excessive damage.
Water entering motor.
Insulation damage.
Surface dirt.
c) The ships structure has become “live” risking the potential for a dead-short between
multiple phases leading to a potential black-out situation.

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High Oscillating currents throughout the ships structure, may cause over- heating and
sparking very dangerous on ships with dangerous cargos.
Reduced effectiveness of over-current protective devices, due to a reduced potential
difference
d) Earth faults can be located by the process of elimination. Power is switched off to a certain
area in a pre-determined order – personnel in the area must be alerted before doing so –
and someone keeps an eye on the fault monitor until it clears. Once the general location has
been found, go there and conduct an insulated resistance test to locate the exact location.

7. Explain why EACH of the following protective devices are fitted to a main electrical switchboard.
i) Reverse power.
ii) Under voltage.
iii) Main circuit breaker overcurrent.
iv) Preference trips.

i) Reverse power trip: is fitted to avoid the loss of electrical power and possibly damage to
the generating set. Reverse power – also known as motoring – occurs when generator
instead generating power consumes power. In case of a generator motoring, the healthy
generator will not be able to cope with the electrical load of the motoring generator
AND ship’s electrical load and therefore due to overload healthy generator will tend to
trip.
ii) Under voltage: protection is fitted to prevent the circuit breaker of a dead generator to
be closed on to a live bus bar. Closing a dead generator on a live bus bar will be equal to
a three phase short circuit fault.
iii) Main circuit breaker overcurrent: protection is fitter to prevent the generator from
damages of overcurrent – current above full current rating of the generator.
iv) Preference trip: protection is fitted to prevent generator from overloading by shedding
the generator off electrical non-essential load in a predefined manner. In case of an
overload, after a time delay, preference trip relay will switch off predetermined set of
non-essential loads.

Batteries

1.
a) Name one publication dealing with the storage of ship’s batteries. (2)
b) List SEVEN precautions that should be taken when working in an area where batteries are
stored. (14)

a) Code of Safe Working Practices.
b) Adequate positive pressure ventilation must be present.
No smoking, spark, hot works, naked lights or non-approved electrical tools.
All PPE must be worn especially when handling acids.
Care should be taken of exposed battery terminals; electrical burns are likely.
Metal tools should never be used within the battery space; all metal jewellery should be
removed.
Battery cell caps should be securely fastened.
Do not mix battery acid in non-approved containers.

2. With reference to secondary cell batteries:
a) slate the two types;(4)

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b) state four applications on board ship. (4)
c) describe the maintenance required. (8)

a) Lead-acid and nickel cadmium batteries.
b) Emergency generator start up.
Emergency lighting.
Radio/ communication system
Navigational aids batteries.
c) Keeping the batteries and their vicinity clean.
Regular testing of the electrolyte’s specific gravity – and tipping up with distil make-up water
as and when required.
Keeping the terminal connections tight and clean.
Smeared with petroleum jelly to prevent against corrosion.
Regularly testing the state-of-charge of the battery system.
Ensuring correct operation of the ventilation system.
Ensuring the light fixings are in order and of approved type
Ensuring batteries are stowed securely.

Generators

1. Describe the procedure for running up and paralleling an alternator onto the switchboard. (16)

Ensure that no persons are working on the machine, all covers and guards are in place.
Ensure sufficient lubrication oil level within the sump.
Ensure that starting and control air is on, fuel supply is available and the cooling system is
operational.
Start the lube oil priming pump, check the engine for leaks and that the pressure has risen.
Open all indicator cocks, with the fuel supply closed turn the engine on turning gear ensuring all
cylinders purge now close indicator cocks.
Disengage turning gear, open fuel supply and start the engine. Ensure the priming pump has
stopped and check the machine for leakage.
Set the frequency of the incoming machine to that just higher of the bus bar; ensure the correct
voltage and phase rotation is correct.
Bring the machine into synchronism and close the circuit breaker, using the governor controls
reduce the outgoing machine and increase the incoming machine. Ensuring that voltage and
frequency remain constant whilst balancing out the load.

2. Describe the conditions that must be satisfied before paralleling an A.C. generator with the main
electrical switchboard. For each condition described explain how it is achieved. (16)

Voltages of both incoming and running generators must be the same. This is achieved by
observing the voltmeter and any adjustments required are made through AVR.
Frequencies of both incoming and running generators must be the same. This is achieved by
observing the frequency meter, any adjustments required are made through governor control
provided on the main switchboard.
Voltages of both incoming and running generators must be in phase. This is achieved by
observing the synchroscope, any adjustments required are made through governor control
provided on the main switchboard.

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3.
a) State the conditions that must be satisfied before paralleling an A.C. generator with the
main electrical switchboard. (6)
b) For EACH condition stated in Q3(a) explain EACH of the following:
a) how it is monitored (4)
b) how it is adjusted (6)

a) Voltages of both incoming and running generators must be the same. Frequencies of both
incoming and running generators must be the same. Voltages of both incoming and running
generators must be in phase.
b)
i) Observe the voltmeter.
Observe the frequency meter.
Observer the synchroscope.
ii) Any adjustments required are made through AVR.
Any adjustments required are made through governor control provided on the main
switchboard.
Any adjustments required are made through governor control provided on the main
switchboard.

4. Describe how to manually couple a second auxiliary generator to the main switchboard and
balance out the load.

On the switchboard check the voltage to see if the incoming voltage is same as busbar, if not
adjust through AVR.
On the switchboard, check the frequency to see if the incoming frequency is same as busbar, if
not adjust through governor control.
Turn on the synchroscope.
Synchroscope must run in clockwise direction, if not adjust through governor control.
Allow synchroscope to steadily run at a rate of 4-5 seconds per revolution.
Close the main circuit breaker when synchroscope is at 5 to 12.
Switch off the synchroscope.
Allow generators to run steadily.
With the aid of governor control, increase the fuel if incoming slightly and decrease the fuel of
running slightly. This adjustment, will add kW to incoming and decrease kW load from running.
Keep adjusting kW load sharing until evenly balanced.

5. Explain the procedure to be taken in EACH of the following circumstances in order to prepare a
large electrical generator set for maintenance:
a) taking the a. c. generator off electrical load; (6)
b) isolating the machine in order that work may be safely carried out. (10)

a) Before the generator is off loaded for maintenance, a standby generator is started,
synchronised and loaded. When it is safe to off load the generator following procedure is
adopted to off load this generator making it ready for maintenance. (No.1 maintenance and
No.2 being put on)
Gradually shift the load from No.1 to No.2.
When No.2 is fully loaded, open circuit breaker of No.1
Now No.1 is safe to be shut down.
b) For safe maintenance both the alternator and the prime mover will require to be isolated.
Prime Mover Isolation:

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Stop or shutdown the generator and post notices.
Change to manual/ local control.
Close and lock off fuel valve and post notices.
Close and lock off starting air valve and post notices.
Remove the turning bar to engage the interlock.
Isolate the lub. oil and jacket water system.
Alternator Isolation:
Rack out the main circuit breaker, lock in position and post notices.

Motors

1. With reference to electrical motors:
a) List FOUR maintenance actions that are necessary for good operation. (8)
b) Describe how to test for electrical faults within in an electrical motor. (8)

a) Make sure motor is tightly secured and is free from vibration.
Ensure regular insulation resistance readings are taken and values obtained recorded.
Make sure that the motor shaft is turning freely.
Make sure the bearings are greased regularly but not overly.
Make sure motor body is kept clean; free from dust and moisture residues.
Make sure motor is dissipating heat correctly and it is well ventilated.
Make sure motor’s electrical connections are tightly secured and correct labels are secured.
Regularly check the state of motor windings for integrity.
b) Insulation Resistance Test: This test is carried with the aid of an appropriately rated IR Tester
(Megger). Before applying any electrical test, appropriate safety paperwork such as Risk
Assessment and Permit to Work is completed; this will ensure that the motor is isolated and
it is safe for the test to be carried out. To prove the basic operation of the tester, short the
two probes together and press the ‘test’ button. The display should read 0Ω. For an IR test
on a three phase machine, measure and log the phase-to-phase insulation resistance values.
Three readings should be measured as U-V, V-W, W-U. Measure and log the phase to earth
insulation resistance values. Three readings should be measured as U-E, V-E, W-E. Continuity
Test: Appropriately rated multimeter set to ‘continuity’ is used, interconnections are
removed so we have both the ends of each winding. Test probes are applied, in turn, to each
end such as U1 and U2 and checking the multimeter to give continuity indication.
Balance Test: This test is carried out with the aid of an appropriately rated multimeter.
Resistance readings for each winding are obtained. A good motor will show that each
winding resistance is similar to other windings.

2.
a) Describe how you would overhaul an electric motor that has been flooded with sea water.
(8)
b) Explain how to check the insulation resistance of the motor, stating the minimum acceptable
value. (8)

a) The motor should be removed from its fixings and dismantled into rotor and stator. Both the
rotor and stator should then be bathed in fresh water to clean off the salts and other
matter. They should then be allowed to dry before re-varnishing the stator. Once the varnish
has dried, electrical tests should be carried out; a megger test, balance and continuity test. If
all tests produce acceptable results the motor can be reassembled with new bearings and
commissioned for service.

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b) Before conducting the test it is ensured that the motor has been safely isolated and that
certified and appropriately rated test instruments are being used.
On the terminal block of the motor each winding’s connections are separated. With the aid
of a megger (500V DC for 440V AC motor), two sets of readings are obtained; 3 between
phases and earth (UE, VE, WE). It is also ensured that obtained insulation resistance values
are recorded for trending purposes. This allows engineers to predict any maintenance
requirements. Minimum acceptable value is 1MΩ.

U1 V1 W1

U2 V2 W2
Earth
Motor’s Terminal Block




3. With reference to the testing and maintenance of large electric motors:
a) State the minimum satisfactory value of insulation resistance. (2)
b) State the instrument AND the voltage to be used for the insulation resistance test. (4)
c) State the regular maintenance that is necessary for good electric motor operation. (10)

a) 1MΩ.
b) A megger & 500V DC for a 440V AC motor.
c) Make sure motor is tightly secured and is free from vibration.
Ensure regular insulation resistance readings are taken and values obtained recorded.
Make sure that the motor shaft is turning freely.
Make sure the bearings are greased regularly but not overly.
Make sure motor body is kept clean; free from dust and moisture residues.
Make sure motor is dissipating heat correctly and it is well ventilated.
Make sure motor’s electrical connections are tightly secured and correct labels are secured.
Regularly check the state of motor windings for integrity.

4. With reference to small 3 phase electrical motor, driving a transfer pump that is not used on a
regular basis, failing to rotate when the start button is pressed:
a) Outline the procedure to determine the possible cause (8)
b) Explain the procedure to remove the motor should it be faulty and require changing (8)

a) There may be two general reasons for non-starting of the motor; mechanical and electrical.
Mechanically, bearings may have become seized, or the gears may have been seized, in both
the cases motor will overheat rapidly producing unusual noise as it is trying to rotate the
pump. Ensure that the power supply is switched on and also is available at the motor
terminals. This can tested with the aid of an appropriately rated potential indicator. If the
power supply is proved to be available at the terminal block then this is indicating that the
fault is inside the motor. Inside the motor, few electrical tests are carried out such as
continuity test to see if the phase windings are continuous (electrically) and are not
damaged. Once continuity of the windings has been proved, then other tests such as megger
should be carried out.
b) Prior to work being carried out, motor and its attached pump is safely isolated both
mechanically and electrically as per ship’s SMS requirements. Electrical isolation will involve

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switching off the power, securing switch off so that it cannot re-energised even accidently,
posting notices to let other engineers know of the work being carried out. Ensure correct
PPE, tools, sufficient lighting, appropriate and certified lifting equipment are available.
Motor is then uncoupled from the pump, safely stowed to a designated storage space. Work
area itself secured until the fitting of new motor to protect the pump.

5. State the procedure to be carried out if you found someone you suspected of having received an
electric shock. (16)

First of all, I will call for help, for example letting the bridge know of the situation with brief
details of the situation and asking for assistance.
I will quickly assess the situation to see if it is safe for me to approach the casualty; I will
approach with extreme caution.
I will separate – with extreme caution – the casualty from the source of electric power.
Depending on the situation, this could by switching off the power mains, if not possible, I may
also use insulating material such as wood to remove the casualty from the source of electric
power.
Once, removed from the source of electric power, I will assess the condition of casualty and
provide necessary first aid that could be CPR procedure or even help with blood circulation
through casualty’s body.
If conscious and breathing, I will put the casualty in recovery position and continue monitoring
his/ her condition.
Use of defibrillator may be required.
If required, we might call for shore-side medical assistance.

IAMI’s Ship Construction

Ship Construction

1. Explain the meaning and purpose of EACH of the following ship terms:
a) Transverse watertight bulkhead. (4)
b) Bilge keel. (4)
c) Shear strake. (4)
d) Cofferdam. (4)

a) It is a bulkhead which stretches the full breadth and from bottom plates to the main upper
deck. It prevents spread of water and fire whilst also providing strength to the vessel which
stops racking.
b) A stiffened plate that is welded to the outside hull plating. Acts as passive stabilising device
which reduces the severity of ships rolling.
c) The top line of ships side plating running adjacent to the weather deck. The plate is required
to be of higher strength, either thicker plate or higher tensile material.
d) A tank used to segregate and resist cross contamination of different liquids, or the engine
room. A cofferdam would be found between a fuel storage tank and a ballast water tank, if
fuel tank were to form a crack internally, it would leak into the cofferdam instead of
contaminating the ballast water.

2. Describe, with the aid of a sketch, the structural features of the bow which impart structural
strength. (16)

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A collision bulkhead is fitted to a vessels bow between 10 & 13 meter (or 5% to 7% of the ships
overall length) from the fore peak, it adds structural strength to the vessel and its main purpose
being limiting the damage of a head-on collision to the part of the bow forward to it.
The plate floors help keep the structural strength transversely of the vessel which prevents racking.

3.
a) State the structural features to bow and stem which impart structural strength. (8)
b) State the stability implications when using water to fight a fire on board a ship. (8)

a) Breast hooks.
Wash bulkhead at centre line.
Painting beams.
Painting stringers.
Transverse straighteners.
Longitudinal straighteners.
Plate floors.
Collision bulkhead.
Transom plate.
Deep floors
Floor spacing is closer at bow, moves from 2m to around 0.8m between.
Thicker plating in painting and pounding areas.
Stern frame.
b) When fighting a fire you must ensure flood quantities of water are used, this is too ensure a
large mass of water doesn’t overflow the bilges. It is hard to know how much water has
been used to counteract with ballasting of the vessel.
Free surface effect increases the capsize moment.
It increases displacement of vessel in the water.
Could cause listing if mass of water remains at one side due to shift of centre of gravity.
Shift in vertical position of G which would decrease stability.

4. Sketch the following ship construction features:
a) A plate floor;(6)
b) A watertight bulkhead. (6)
c) Explain how watertight bulkhead integrity may be tested. (4)



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a)














b)















c) Watertight bulkheads can be tested by two ways, either by filling the compartment with
water or using a fire hose against the wall. Filling the compartment would only be possible if
there was a safe means of emptying the tank. With both methods, you ensure that no water
passes through the bulkhead.

5. With reference to forward collision bulkheads:
a) Describe their construction; (8)
b) State their function;(4)
c) State their position, giving a reason for this positioning. (4)

a) As with watertight bulkheads, the forward collision bulkhead is stronger and
thicker than other bulkheads to sustain against water pressure.
A number of large stakes are welded to the ships structure, tank tops, side shell
and upper deck.
Thicker plates towards the base, with plate-work arranged horizontally.
Stiffening and strength is arranged vertically and uses vertical bulb plate
stiffeners and/or toe angle bar.

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b) To stop the spread of water throughout the vessel in the event of a frontal collision,
maintaining the stability and buoyancy of the ship.

c) A collision bulkhead is fitted to a vessels bow between 10 & 13 meter (or 5% to 7% of the
ships overall length) from the fore peak.

6.
a) Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a freeing-port. (8)
b) Explain how freeing-ports assist in maintaining the stability of a ship. (8)

a)







A freeing port is an open hole cut into a bulk ward that allows rapid draining of green seas
and collected rain water from the weather deck. It can sometimes be sealed by a hinge plate
that will open when a weight of water acts on the inside surface. These can also be located
on hull side plating, such as on Ro-Ro ferries in order to drain the water from internal car
decks.
b) The freeing port maintains stability by quickly allowing large volumes of water to drain away
which would otherwise be able to gather on the weather deck. The effect of this water
would increase the mass of the vessel which would increase displacement and draft and
improve gravity a little. Having this water collecting on the upper deck would raise the
centre of gravity therefore decreasing GM, consequently the righting lever GZ would
decrease. This would adversely affect stability. Free surface effect could further decrease
stability due to the large volume of water accumulating on deck, which could cause a
permanent list.

7.
a) Explain the term free-surface effect. (8)
b) Explain why free-surface effect is important in ro-ro ferries. (8)

a) When a tank is partially filled, the liquid’s centre of gravity position will change as the ship is
inclined. Liquid in partially filled tank always decreases the initial metacentric height GM,
righting lever GZ, and angle of vanishing stability.
A partially filled tank is know as a “slack tank”. The reduction of stability caused by the
liquids in slack tanks is known as free-surface effect. This adverse effect on the stability is
referred to as a “loss in GM”.
The free-surface effect can endanger the ship or even lead to a negative metacentric height.
Therefore the number of partially filled tanks should be kept to a minimum. When ballasting
the vessel, only one transverse pair or a single centreline ballast tank should be filled up. At
sea, as far as possible, ballast tanks shall be 100% full or empty. When ballasted, wide
double bottom tanks must be always 100% full.
b) Free surface effect is important on Ro-Ro ferries due to the lack of bulkheads, this means
large open spaces such as car-decks can accumulate large bodies of water, and if not cleared
quickly increase the risk of a strong free surface effect. By adding 1 internal bulkhead it
reduces the free surface effect by 4 times. Adding 2 bulkheads reduce it by 9.

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8.
a) Describe how the thrust of the propeller is transmitted to the hull of the ship.(6)
b) Show with the aid of a sketch the principle of operation of a Michell thrust block. (10)

a) The thrust of the propeller is transmitted axially through the shafting of a ship to a heavily
reinforced point on the ship’s hull, where either a separate/engine mounted thrust block
will transfer from the shaft to the hull. A thrust collar which rotates with the shaft is located
between bearing faces.
b)















9. List EIGHT actions to be taken by the Engineer Officer of the Watch to ensure the safe passage of
the vessel through an area of heavy weather.(16)

Ensure that all bilge wells are emptied sufficiently.
Ensure that all watertight doors are closed.
Ensure that all heavy items are securely stowed and lashed.
Ensure that any chemicals, noxious liquids, flammable or otherwise are stored correctly and
securely.
Stop all maintenance work, stow all tools and parts securely.
Ensure all tanks are sufficiently full.
Sufficient water within boiler and boiler system to compensate for rolling.
Sufficient lubricating oil within machinery sumps and service tanks.
All tank vents on deck covered with water-proof hoods.

Ensure that all external openings are securely closed.
All non-essential over-side discharges stopped and valves closed.

10. With reference to transferring large quantities of fuel from double bottom storage tanks to wing
bunker tanks:
a) Explain the possible effects on the stability of the vessel. (8)
b) State the important checks to be made before and during the fuel transfer operation. (8)

a) The wing tanks are higher than the double bottom tanks and are off-centre of the ship which
results in the centre of gravity being higher due to the weight of the oil in the wing tanks.
This has a destabilising effect on the ship as it decreases its GM. The situation would be
made worse if the oil from lower double bottom tanks was used fires due to the weight
being taken from a lower point of the ship which would increase destabilisation of the ship

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due to the increase in GM. Therefore taking the oil from the wing tanks first would help to
make the ship more stable.
b) Open correct valves.
Check tank levels before and during operation.
Check pump on starting suction and discharge pressure.
Test pump emergency stop.
Check running amps of pump.
Check fuel tank temperature before transfer.
Inform bridge where transferring to so appropriate ballasting can be done – monitor
stability.
Test emergency stop.

11.
a) State the measurement that gives an indication of a ship’s stability.
b) Explain the meaning of the measurement stated in Q a)
c) Explain how the measurement given in Q a) indicates EACH of the following:
i) Stable stability,
ii) Unstable stability
iii) Neutral Stability

a) GM
b) GM is the distance between the centre of gravity and the metacentre of a vessel. Depending
on the size of GM would indicate ships stability, i.e. stable, neutral or unstable.
c)
i) GM = KM – KG, and since in a stable vessel metacentre is above the centre of gravity GM
will be positive, therefore the ship will be stable as a righting lever will bring the ship
back to centreline.
ii) In a neutral vessel the metacentre and centre of gravity are the same location which
means the vessel is neither stable nor unstable, meaning it’ll stay at the same angle.
iii) In an unstable ship, the G is above M. This means the moment is acting to capsize the
vessel as there isn’t a righting lever.

12. With reference to Bilge Injection System
a) Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a bilge injection system.
b) State the purpose of fitting a bilge injection system on board a ship.
c) Identify the location on board a ship of a bilge injection system.


a)

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A bilge injection system uses largest seawater pump in the engine room which pumps
overboard. It will have a suction line that is taking suction from the lowest point in the
engine room through a strainer and is isolated by a screw down non return valve. The bore
of suction line must be a minimum of 2/3 the diameter of the main sea suction.

b) To remove large volumes of water inside the machinery space.
c) Bottom deck of the engine room.

13. With reference lubricating oil or fuel oil tanks that have ventilators on the vessels main weather
deck, explain EACH of the following:
a) The purpose of the ventilation;
b) How ingress of sea water in bad weather is prevented;
c) How the risk of fire entering the ventilator is reduced;
d) How the risk of pollution is reduced.

a) The purpose of ventilation is to let the potential explosive hydro-carbon fumes be released
from the tank. Also, to prevent over and under-pressure during filling/emptying of a
fuel/lub. oil tank.
b) F.O. & L.O. tanks have vents on the freeboard deck which are fitted with closing devices in
order to prevent water entering the tank. In case of vent submersion due to green seas, a
floating ball inside will float it against a rubber neck, preventing sea water entering.
c) Mushroom vents are fitted with flame gauze for protection against fire.
d) An overflow pipe is equipped to guide the contents to another tank, usually an overflow
tank.
Sounding tanks are there to allow you to measure the depth of the oil and only full tank as
per design to avoid slop over.
Flame proof mesh and a save-all is compulsory on deck vents.

14. Explain, with reference to stability, why, when the vessel has full bunkers, fuel stored in higher
tanks, such as wing tanks, is generally used before fuel stored in lower tanks, such as double
bottom tanks.

The wing tanks are higher than the double bottom tanks and are off-centre of the ship which
results in the centre of gravity being higher due to the weight of the oil in the wing tanks. This
has a destabilising effect on the ship as it decreases its GM. The situation would be made worse
if the oil from lower double bottom tanks was used fires due to the weight being taken from a
lower point of the ship which would increase destabilisation of the ship due to the increase in
GM. Therefore, taking the oil from the wing tanks first would help to make the ship more stable.

15. Describe the inspection required of a weather deck water-tight door to ensure compliance with
load line survey.

A weather deck water tight door prevents the passage of water when exposed to a head of
water. A typical head of water could range from 3-10m. A watertight door is designed to be used
on the ship deck above the water line, where they can be subject to the adverse weather
conditions experienced offshore. Water tight doors are also designed to withstand brief
submersion experienced from green seas. Water tight doors are tested using a pressure tank
where a hydrostatic pressure can be applied to the door. The door is generally pressurised from
the inside as this is the worst case scenario. A watertight door is also tested with a high pressure
hose, which is directed at the seal. In both cases no leak can be present.

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