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IAMI revision answers

IAMI Motor & General

M.E. Preparation & Watchkeeping

1. Inform the chief engineer and bridge, request the engine to be stopped.
Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and maintain
lubrication.
Evacuate the engine-room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned. No attempt
must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.
If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space.
space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1 hour of engine
turning. Great care should still be taken.
The engine may only be restarted once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out and
feel over of all bearing shells.
2. a) Alert the C/E and engine staff and stand-by console.
match the pitch on the bridge to that in the ECR and take control of the main engine.
Maintain communication with the bridge at all times and carry out orders immediately using the
manoeuvring table for pitch and speed references.
Do not leave controls at any time.
Prepare engine side control for precaution of loss of ECR steering.
b) alert the C/E and engine staff and stand-by in ECR.
Match the engine speed setting in ECR with the bridge and take control. Control is now ready to
be handed over to engine side.
Establish communication with the bridge using engine side phone.
Set up manual control, ensuring speed matched that in ECR, control can now be taken over at
engine side.
Remove the governor control and use manual control wheel to control the fuel, ensure control
air valve is on local. Engine speed can now be controlled from this position as well as starting,
stopping and reversing.
3. Ensure that all expansion tank levels and sump levels are correct.
Ensure that the fuel oil, lubrication oil and cooling water are pre-heated as per running
instruction.
Open all indicator cocks of main engine, ensure that all temperatures and pressures of
lubrication system are correct.
With the fuel rack closed, engage turning gear and inform the bridge the engine is to be turned.
Manually actuate cylinder lubrication, observe indicator cocks for any ejected material (water).
Whilst the engine is being turned (minimum 2 revolutions), ensure that all support systems such
as sea water cooling are operational, that air compressors are operational and enough electrical
capacity is available on the main switchboard.
Drain starting air bottles, fuel oil settling and service tanks. Disengage turning gear and kick the
engine on air, observe all indicator cocks.
Once engine is stopped close all indicator cocks, open fuel rack and inform the bridge the engine
is ready.
4. Ensure that all expansion tank levels and sump levels are correct.
Ensure that the fuel oil, lubrication oil and cooling water are pre-heated as per running
instruction.
Open all indicator cocks of main engine, ensure that all temperatures and pressures of
lubrication system are correct.
With the fuel rack closed, engage turning gear and inform the bridge the engine is to be turned.
Manually actuate cylinder lubrication, observe indicator cocks for any ejected material (water).
Whilst the engine is being turned (minimum 2 revolutions), ensure that all support systems such
as sea water cooling are operational, that air compressors are operational and enough electrical
capacity is available on the main switchboard.
Drain starting air bottles, fuel oil settling and service tanks. Disengage turning gear and kick the
engine on air, observe all indicator cocks.
Once engine is stopped close all indicator cocks, open fuel rack and inform the bridge the engine
is ready.
5. a) Contact the bridge and C/E and request for the engine load to be reduced. This could be
caused by the rough weather causing the propeller to crash in and out of the water causing
excess vibrations. Lowering the load reduces the vibration.
b) Contact the bridge and C/E and request for the engine to be slowed or stopped if possible.
Fuel would have to be shut off to the affected unit.
c) Reduce the cooling water flow rate/increase the temperature of the cooling water to prevent
water moisture condensing on the liner and washing off the lubricating oil. This prevents
scuffing and corrosion caused by the removal of lubrication oil.
d) Inform the bridge and C/E, request the engine speed be reduced. Change to the second fuel
filters in the booster pump. Check water in fuel oil service tank, ensure all valves are in line to
the main engine fuel rail. This is caused by blocked booster filters.
6. Inform the C/E and bridge, request engine to be stopped if possible.
Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and maintain
lubrication.
Evacuate the engine room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned. No attempt
must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.
If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space.
space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1 hour of engine
turning. Great care should still be taken.
The engine may only be restarted once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out and
feel over of all bearing shells.
7. a) To prevent water condensing and washing off lubrication oil film on the cylinder liners. It also
prevents cold corrosion due to the condensate mixing with the acidic combustion products and
forming sulphuric acid.
b) To prevent over pressurisation of fuel rail components and to maintain proper injection of
fuel.
c) testing will indicate any potential contaminants such as water or metal in the lubrication oil
which could cause damage. It is also used to monitor the degradation of the oil which will tell
you when new oil is needed.
d) this is to ensure even temperature distribution to make sure no distortion, it also ensures
even carbon deposit build up.
8. Ensure all bilge wells are emptied sufficiently.
Ensure that all watertight doors are closed.
Ensure that all heavy items are securely stowed and lashed.
Ensure that any chemicals, noxious liquids, flammable or otherwise are stored correctly and
securely.
Stop all maintenance work, stow all tools and parts securely.
Ensure all tanks are sufficiently full.
Sufficient water within boiler and boiler system to compensate for rolling.
Sufficient lubricating oil within machinery sumps and service tanks.
All tank vents on deck covered with water-proof hoods.
Ensure that all external openings are securely closed.
All non-essential over-side discharges stopped and valves closed.
9. Engine room logs
Alarm record
Planned maintenance schedule
Chiefs standing orders
physical condition of outgoing watch keeper. Is he/she well?
Fuel oil storage tanks, level, temperature drain of water7
Lubrication sump levels and temperature
Structural condition
Fresh water supply tank level and ensure enough is being produced
10. a) Ensure cylinders are free from debris or fluid
Ensure correct rotation of the engine, building lubrication.
b) To allow the escape of any trapped fluid
To de-compress cylinders so that turning gear may operate
c) Lubrication of bearing faces
Cooling of bearing faces and oil
d) To maintain correct starting temperature
To slowly allow the engine to cool from operation temperature reducing thermal stress
M/E 2&4 Stroke

1.

Intake – the air inlet valve opens allowing the vacuum caused by the descending position to draw in a
fresh charge of air for the cycle. Most modern 4-strokes will have the inlet air supplied under pressure
by a supercharger, normally a turbocharger.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder against a closed exhaust valve &
inlet causing high compression temperature above the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.

Power – the burning fuel which has been injected into the cylinder just before top dead centre (TDC)
and has ignited with the rapidly expanding combustion gas driving the piston down.

Exhaust – the exhaust valve opens allowing the rising piston to expel this gas from the cylinder.

2. a) The tappet clearance ensures that the valve is closed when it is supposed to be, as the valve spindle
expands in length during operation due to the high temperature. If there was no clearance the valve
would expand against the fixed piston of the rocker arm, while cam on the base circle and would
therefore expand into the cylinder causing loss of compression and burning of the valve seat.
bi) If the tappet clearance is too large the valve will open late and close early.
bii) if the tappet clearance is too small the valve will open early and close later.
3.

Intake and exhaust – air is forced into the cylinder through the scavenge ports at a pressure of about 1-2
bar, the exhaust valve then opens allowing all the gasses to be released from the cylinder in uniflow. As
the piston moves up the scavenge ports are covered and the exhaust valve closes.

Compression – the piston compressing the air is sealed in the cylinder, closing the exhaust valve and
causing high compression temperature.

Power – just after TDC fuel is injected at enormous pressure causing auto-ignition and the power stroke.

4. In a 2stroke engine, the air inlet to the cylinder is usually in the form of inlet ports in the cylinder and the
exhaust is usually by a centrally located exhaust valve in the cylinder head. In 4-strokes the inlet and
exhaust is in the form of valves in the cylinder head. In a 2-stroke the scavenge space is separated from the
crankcase by a separating diaphragm whereas in a 4-stroke the crankcase is exposed to the piston skirt and
cylinder liner. The force from the piston in a 2-stroke is transmitted via the piston – piston rod – crosshead
bearing – connecting rod – crankshaft arrangement, where as in a 4-stroke the arrangement is piston –
gudgeon pin – connecting rod – crankshaft. The stroke to bore ratio in a 4-stroke is 2:1 where as a 2-stroke
is 4:1. Large stroke to bore ratio in 2-strokes separates crankpin and main journal giving large throws, in a
4-stroke the crankpin and main journal gives an overlap. Lubricating oil drilling connection in journal and
crankpin in 4-strokes and are not present in 2-strokes.
5. a) The operational speed in trunk engines are usually faster. Also, the stroke size in crosshead machines are
much longer.

Intake and exhaust – air is forced into the cylinder through the scavenge ports at a pressure of about 1-2
bar, the exhaust valve then opens allowing all the gasses to be released from the cylinder in uniflow. As
the piston moves up the scavenge ports are covered and the exhaust valve closes.

Compression – the piston compressing the air is sealed in the cylinder, closing the exhaust valve and
causing high compression temperature.

Power – just after TDC fuel is injected at enormous pressure causing auto-ignition and the power stroke.
6.

Intake – the air inlet valve opens allowing the vacuum caused by the descending position to draw in a
fresh charge of air for the cycle. Most modern 4-strokes will have the inlet air supplied under pressure
by a supercharger, normally a turbocharger.

Compression – the piston compressing the air sealed in the cylinder against a closed exhaust valve &
inlet causing high compression temperature above the self-ignition temperature of the fuel.

Power – the burning fuel which has been injected into the cylinder just before top dead centre (TDC)
and has ignited with the rapidly expanding combustion gas driving the piston down.

Exhaust – the exhaust valve opens allowing the rising piston to expel this gas from the cylinder.

7. a)

b) indicated power is found with the


equation:

P – The indicated mean pressure


L – The cylinder stroke length
A – Area of the piston
N – The number of power strokes
per second
8. a) To securely hold the engine and prevent movement whilst maintaining initial alignment.
b) The base of the engine which is rigid and strong as it has to support the whole engine whilst resisting
stress forces maintaining crank shaft alignment.
c) To maintain a compression between all components through the engine, and transmit the compressive
and explosive forces acting on the cylinder heads throughout the engine structure.
d) The cast iron housings of the cylinder blocks, housing the liner inserts incorporating the scavenge space
and jacket water cooling passages.
e) it secures the bed plate in its correctly aligned position, to maintain correct alignment between
crankshaft and propeller shaft.
f) converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion to transmit to the propeller shaft.
9.

10.
11. Check fuel and L.O. level is OK
Check fuel in fuel tank is OK
Check the fuel stop cock is switched on
If the engine is water cooled, turn on seacock
Check the gear lever is in neutral
Set the throttle to open and switch on the cold start lever
Set the decompression lever to the decompression position
Swing round the starting handle building up speed until maximum speed, then push over
decompression lever whilst continuing to maintain speed with the starting handle.
As soon as the engine starts, cut back on the throttle.

b) Heater plugs
No fuel
Blocked fuel fileters
incorrect viscosity of L.O
Not enough inertia build up in cranking
Restricted/blocked air filters
Decompression switch closed
Contaminated fuel

12. a) On 2-stroke engines, the connecting rod is attached to the piston rod via the crosshead bearings,
which transfer much of the engine thrust to the crosshead guides in the engine frames. In 4-stroke
engines, the connecting rod is attached directly to the piston pin.
b) It is positioned between the crankcase and cylinder of a 2-stroke engine to segregate the 2 areas.
Its purpose is to prevent crankcase oil being carried into scavenge space and to prevent scavenged
air, used cylinder oil and the products of combustion from contaminating the crankcase oil.
13. a) Make contact with OOW on bridge, request to take control of M/E
Ensure that the governor setting for the engine and pitch setting of the propeller in the control
room matches that of the bridge
Switch to E/R control
If possible, lock the console in this position so it cannot be changed.
b) Adjust the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder sets the speed of the engine.
This is achieved by manually operating fuel rack levers.
Before changing the engine local control, ensure that the governor settings match that of the bridge
and the local control panel. Once fuel lever has been moved, allow engine to settle at chosen speed
as it isn’t instantaneous.
Once set, the lever will not move until manually operational again.
Camshaft & Fuel Cam

1.

b) Air starting distributor


Cylinder lubricators

2. a) To drive the fuel pumps, cylinder lubricators and maintain the engine timing.
b) The 2 methods are gearing or cam chains.
c)i) ½ the speed of the crankshaft
c)ii) the same speed as the crankshaft
d)
Jacket cooling water system

1.

b) The circulating pumps move the water within the system.


The pre heater is to heat the water back to operational temperature.
The de-aerating tank is to remove oxygen bubbles from the system.
The main cooler removes heat from the water.
The fresh water generator produces fresh water to use in the system.

2a) The chemical PH of the J.W. is maintained and controlled in order to prevent acidic
or caustic corrosion.
The concentration of chemical inhibitors within the jacket water to protect against
corrosion and scale.
The chloride content of the water, to monitor and control the concentration to
prevent corrosion.
b) Weekly as per planned maintenance scheduled.
c) For the safe and efficient operation of the engine, whilst ensuring operation
within manufacturers specifications.
d) Retest, if still abnormal inform the Chief Engineer and following manufactures
guidelines administer the correct course of treatment.
Air Starting System

2.

3. a) There’s a leak in the system.


Blocked air inlet filters.
Worn liners or piston rings.
Incorrectly seated valves.
b) Bursting disk, safety valves on every branch of the air start manifold.
Pressure relieving safety valves on intercoolers and after coolers.
Safety valves on main air starting bottles.
Bursting diaphragm on air compressors cooling jacket.
Air Compressors

1. a) Regular replacement of the air suction filter. Regular lubrication of motor bearings.
Using only OEM parts for replacement works.
b) Ensure there is sufficient oil within the sump.
Ensure that the cooling water is open.
Ensure stage drains and discharge values are open. Press start button.
Once up to speed close all stage drains and de-loading value.
c) If one compressor is on auto mode but it constantly running, and the main start air bottle is not
charging properly.
d) Blocked unlet filters. Values seated incorrectly. Work liners/piston rings.
e) Drain off a small amount of air from the air receiver and record the pressure left inside. Start the
compressor and record now long it takes for the bottle pressure to increase, after to full or pre-
determined level.

2. A) There is a leak in the system.


Blocked air inlet filters.
Worn liners/piston rings.
Incorrectly seated valves.
B) Bursting disks, safety valves on every branch of the air start manifold.
Pressure relieving safety valves on intercoolers and after coolers.
Safety valves on main air starting bottles.
Bursting diaphragm on air compressors cooling jacket water.

3. A) Compressor Jacker Water Relief Valve.

b) To relieve pressure build up in the event of an air tube leak or cylinder liner cracked
within the air compressor.
c) If the device failed to operate, over pressure may occur within the jacket water cooling,
resulting in potential rupture of the air compressor.

4.
M/E Fuel Oil & Fuel Injection

1. a) Fuel oil is held and heated within the settling tank where sludge and water is separated by gravity.
Further heating takes place after it travels through course filters. The fuel is purified, removing
particulate and water before being transferred to the service tank, where t is maintained at a higher
temperature. Passing through hot fine filters before passing through the visco-therm where the fuel
is heated to the correct viscosity. Finally passing through the booster pumps to the main engine fuel
rail.
b) To remove solid particulate to prevent damage.
To remove water to prevent emulsifying the fuel.
To reduce the viscosity of the fuel for correct injection and combustion.
c) Fuel of this type requires the purifiers to have a smaller gravity disk fitted in order to maintain the
water-oil interface, finer filters are also fitted within the fuel treatment system to enable effective
particle separation. The visco-therm controller must also be adjusted in order not to over-heat the
fuel reducing its viscosity too much risking carbonisation or gassing up the fuel lines. The engine fuel
injection timing must also be retarded to compensate for less viscous fuel.

2. a) Newly overhauled injectors have a crack-off test performed on them to test their
operation. The injector is mounted on a test rig and the injector is primed with
calibration fluid. The pressure is then raised to test the crack/lifting pressure of the
injector. The pressure is read from the rig and if within the correct pressure it is good
for use, if firing too high an additional washer may be added into the injector.

b)

c) Fuel oil is transferred from storage tanks to a settling tank where it is heated and
water is allowed to settle out and be drained. It is then heated to approx., 60oC and
centrifuged to remove liquid containments, it is then stored in the service tank. From
the service tank it is further heated to around 120oC to reduce its viscosity to around
14 cSt before being passed through fine filters to remove all debris. Its then
pressurised to around 300 bar before being injected into the engine via the fuel
injectors which atomise the fuel.
3.
a) Pressure relief valves may lift, causing hot fuel oil to spray onto hot parts of the engine.
b) Starting interlocks of the air start valve in order to stop fuel supply until air is released.
During manual starting, the operator will only apply fuel once the engine is up to starting
speed and after the air has been closed.
c) Hot branch of pipeline with possible paint discoloration.
Activation of air start line, bursting disk prevention device.
d) Inform the bridge and CE of the situation and request for the engine to be stopped.
If the engine is stopped, isolate air and fuel from affected unit and replace valve, if
replacement is not an option, isolate fuel and air to until and open the indicator cock.
If engine is still running, ensure fuel is isolated and inform bridge that the engine has to be
run with care and minimal load.

4.
a)
i) Sever stress loading of piston rod, connecting rod, cross head bearing and
bottom end bearings.
Very high unit temperature, cooling water and
exhaust gas. Vibration, irregular engine speed.
ii) Uneven thermal distribution throughout piston liner, causing micro-seizure
and liner cracking.
Heavy carbon deposits on piston, liner also due to improper
combustion Fuel oil wash down due to incomplete combustion.
b)
5.

6.

A visco-therm consists of a capillary tube inside of which a gear pump is fitted which rotates
at very slow rpm. There is an outside casing provided for the capillary tube. When the oil
passes through the casing, some part of the oil pass through the gear pump and its capillary,
and some part of the oil passes over the capillary tube. Hence a flow difference occurs inside
the casing. The oil inside the tube maintains a laminar flow and outside the tube maintains a
turbulent flow. The pressure difference between outside and inside of the tube is measured
which is directly proportional to the viscosity of the oil. Hence oil viscosity is maintained. The
viscosity controllers act as the controller of the 3 way valve from which steam is passed into
the heater or bypassed from the heater as per the position of the control valve.
Turbocharger

1. a) To make use of and reduce the amount of waste energy from


exhaust gas. To provide a high pressure air charge for efficient
scavenging

b) Increase the efficiency of the engine
 Reduce wastages found within older mechanical
driven superchargers

c) The bearing journals are lubricated from the main engine lubrication oil system via a
header, to maintain lubrication after the engine is stopped.
Some older turbines have build in pumps driven from the turbine ends with a
small oil reserve.
The casings of older turbochargers are cooled with a water jacket off of the HT system
of the main engine.
Newer turbines air from the compressor side is circulated as a cooling medium.

2.
Hot high pressure exhaust
gas enters the
turbocharger’ exhaust
side-driving shaft to which
the compressor is
connected. The
compressor draws cool air
from the atmosphere and
compresses the “air
charge” this is delivered
to the charge air coolers
prior to the scavenge
space.
b)
i) To clean the air, removing large harmful debris prior to entry to the engine.
ii) To collect any foreign debris, metal or otherwise after combustion.
iii) To cool the charge air, enabling a larger volume of air for scavenge purposes.

3.
a) Fewer mechanical losses than mechanically driven superchargers.
Recovery of energy from exhaust gas reducing waste.
b)
i) Loss of engine power, reduced combustion efficiency.
ii) Excessive turbine vibration, potential for sparks within uptake.

c) A measured quantity of solid cleaning media specified by the manufacturer is admitted via a
fixed vessel at full load speed.

4. a) Contact the bridge and chief engineer; request the engine load be reduced. One
unit is producing more power and other is producing less. Due to this the air
consumption required by both the turbochargers differs, which leads to surging.
b) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, request the engine load to be reduced as
much as possible until vibration stops. Caused by propeller being crashed into
water in rough weather.
c) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, request the engine to be slowed or stopped,
shut off fuel to the effected unit observe unit down running procedures.
d) Reduce the cooling water flow rate/increase the temperature of the cooling
water to prevent water moisture condensing on the liner and washing off the
lubricating oil. This prevents scuffing and corrosion caused by the removal of
lubrication oil.
e) Inform the bridge and C/E, request the engine speed t be reduced. Change to the
second fuel filters in the booster pump. Check water in F.O. service tank, and ensure
all valves are in line to the M/E fuel rail. This is caused by blocked booster filters.
f) Inform the bridge and C/E, shut off fuel to the affected unit until manoeuvring is
complete then try and source the problem.
g) Contact the bridge and chief engineer, ask the engine loading to be reduced or
stopped. Check lubrication oil flows, pressures and temperature
Crankcase Explosion

1. a) Oil-mist detector
b) A strong spring seals the valve during normal conditions, however in the event of an excess of
pressure cause by an explosion then overcomes the spring force for a brief period to allow the pressure
to escape before reclosing. Flame gauzes fitted to stop flames expelling from the open valve, a guide
also fitted to safely allow the force downwards to the deck plates.

2. Inform the Chief Engineer and Bridge, request the engine to be stopped

Stop any auxiliary blowers, ER fans, open all indicator cocks, engage turning gear and
maintain lubrication

Evacuate the engine-room for at least half an hour whilst the engine is being turned No
attempt must be made to enter the crankcase during this time.

If the engine is not able to be stopped the engine-room must be evacuated and sealed, with
emergency generator started and fire hoses set up outside ER space

Space may only be entered if no explosion has occurred and after about 1hr of engine
turning great care should still be taken

The engine may only be re-started once a full check of the crankcase has been carried out
and feel over of all bearing shells
3a) Hot spots on bearing surfaces, sparks from metal to metal, contact fire outside the engine, badly
damaged piston rings and stuffing box.
b) High oil mist alarm activation, high and rising crankcase pressure
c) Mist emitting from crankcase vent, mist or sound from crankcase explosion doors.

Scavenge space

1a) Poor Maintenance, badly worn or failed piston rings, Blocked stuffing box drain, o ver
i njection of fuel oil.
b) High scavenge temperature in one or more units, Turbocharger surging, Increased
scavenge pressure, Paint discolouration.

2a) Damaged or worn piston rings, Leaking fuel injector, Over lubrication of cylinder, Lack
of regular maintenance and scavenge space cleaning.

b) Inform the bridge and chief engineer and request the engine to be slowed down Isolate
the fuel supply to the effect unit, Open the indicator cock, Administer steam or other fixed
installed fire suppression system.

3a) Inform the bridge and chief engineer and request the engine to be slowed down Isolate
the fuel supply to the effect unit, Open the indicator cock, Administer steam or other fixed
installed fire suppression system.

b) A loss of power to one unit on the engine will cause irregular running. The remaining
units will take more load, which cause damage or misalignment to engine components such
as the piston and piston rod. Excessive temperatures will put the engine components under
stress, if the diaphragm plate cracks and hot gases are allowed into the crankcase, it could
cause a crankcase explosion.

4a) Raise the alarm, Request to reduce engine speed, Shut off fuel to affected cylinder,
Increase cylinder lubrication and monitor, if the fire increases then reduce. Allow the fire
to burn itself out.

b) Raise the alarm, Request to stop the engine, Engage turning gear, If fitter, smother with
firefighting system, if not boundary cool in small doses to stop the bilges from filling.

5a) The scavenge space is in considered an enclosed space, so the relevant permit to work
must be filled out and signed. The engine must be tagged out properly the starting air must
be locked off and the turning gear engaged. Signs must be posted to make others aware of
the work being undertaken. The space must be opened 24 hours in advance and ventilated.
The atmosphere must be tested immediately prior to entry, and a tester should be carried
by the person(s) entering. Any hinged doors must be secured open to prevent acci dental
closure. Enclosed space procedures apply with regards to a safety number being posted
outside and emergency equipment must be at hand.

b) To check the cleanliness of the space, To check the condition of the piston rings, To
check the condition of the cylinder liner, To check that the scavenge drains are clear of
blockage.
6a) To prevent cold corrosion due to the formation of condensate which when mixed with acidic
combustion products forms an acidic solution such as sulphuric acid.
b) To prevent over pressurisation of fuel rail components and to maintain proper injection of fuel.

c) To indicate any potential contaminants such as water or metal that would cause damage, to
monitor the degradation of the oil.
d) To ensure even carbon deposit build-ups, cleaning and maintaining the valve seat.

Exhaust Gas Economisers

1a) To prevent an excessive accumulation of carbon deposits within the economiser. To reduce the
risk of economiser damage from fire and overheating.
b) To prevent damage from acidic corrosion within the exhaust space.
To prevent cold corrosion attacking exhaust components and cylinders due to wash down.
c) Increased economiser pressure.
Paint discolouration of economiser.
Falling embers and smoke from economiser. Safety valves lifting.

2a) Violent stream of sparks and flames from the uptake. High economiser pressure
b) Raise the Fire Alarm.
Inform the Bridge of the situation and request that the engine is slowed.
Start additional circulation pump.
Call C/E and emergency engineers.
Start the emergency generator and fire pump.
Stop all mechanical ventilators within the machine space
Close all fire dampers
Assemble boundary cooling of the engine casing, using flood quantities of water attack the fire.
Cover T/C with sheeting to prevent air getting to fire.
C/E order drenching system, if fitted.
Auxiliary Marine Boiler

1. Boiler gauge glass, safety valve, blowdown valve, boiler feed check, drum vent valve, pressure gauge
connection, main stop valve, water sampling valve, scum valve.
2. Boiler gauge glass, safety valve, blow down valve, boiler feed check, drum vent valve, pressure gauge
connection, main stop valve, water sampling valve, scum valce.
3a)
Feed filter tank empty. Tube failure.
Problem with pump i.e. coupling failed key failure.
Boiler water controller fail shut.
b)
Stop the burner.
When restoring the normal water level ensure that you feed with hot feed water to
avoid thermal shocking.
Shut the stop valve to ensure not feeding steam to the system.
Start the burner on low fire on auto and keep on low fire until the steam pressure returns
to normal.

4.
a) Failure to control the recommended level for the water can lead to increased
chance of water becoming acidic, or the dissolved solids increasing to level that
could lead to tube blockage reduction of water circulation.
b) Total Alkalinity
This test gives the alkalinity due to all salts in the water.
Use the sample from ‘P’ Alkalinity and add 5 drops of total alkalinity indicator and
the solution should go clear. Add sulphuric acid N/10 until pink. Convert ml in
burette to ppm using chart and chemically treat using manufactures guidance.
Chlorides
This test measures the amount of chloride in the water.
Fill the plastic vial to 10ml and add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to neutralise the
sample. Add N/10 until turns clear and add one more drop, add 6 drops of potassium
chromate to turn yellow. Add silver nitrate N/10 until orange. Drops of silver nitrate x
10 = ppm chloride.
5.

a)
i) May need to stop feed pump.
ii) May need to start feed pump.
iii) Burner must be stopped to identify problem.
b) Close off cocks ‘S’ and ‘W’ and open drain ‘D’. Make sure both water and steam cocks are
holding.
Open cock ‘W’ and blow through. Make sure that water is coming out and cock ‘W’ is clear.
Close water cock.
Open cock ‘S’ and blow through. Make sure that steam is coming out and cock ‘S’ is clear.
Close steam cock.
Close drain ‘D’.
Open water cock ‘W’ and check water level rises in the glass.
Open steam cock ‘S’ for showing boiler water level.
c) Once a day.
6.

1. Close off cocks ‘S’ and ‘W’ and open drain ‘D’.
Make sure both water and steam cocks are holding.
2. Open cock ‘W’ and blow through. Make sure that
water is coming out and cock ‘W’ is clear. Close
water cock.
3. Open cock ‘S’ and blow through. Make sure that
steam is coming out and cock ‘S’ is clear. Close
steam cock.
4. Close drain ‘D’.
5. Open water cock ‘W’ and check water level rises
in the glass.
6. Open steam cock ‘S’ for showing boiler water level.

7. The burner force draught fan will run to purge the combustion
space
 Upon successful purge and correct air-pressure, the ignition
spark is started The diesel oil pilot flame solenoid valve is opened and
pilot flame ignited
The main burner fuel solenoid is opened once a pilot flame is detected, and burner
ignition commences, the pilot flame now extinguishes after a time delay
If no flame after 5 seconds, the main burner and pilot burner fuel supplies are cut
and the boiler locked out
The air register dampers and burner fuel supply adjusted to achieve the correct
firing rate

b) Low-Low water level, flame fail, high water level, low fuel oil pressure.

8.
Phenol Alkalinity to keep the water neutral not alkaline or acidic.
Chloride to monitor and control the concentration of chloride salts within boiler
water, indicating the ingress of salt water from coolers.
Total Dissolved Solids, to monitor and control the amount of solids within boiler water
that gradually build up overtime. These would otherwise cause foaming within the
boiler water and carry over that would damage steam plant severely.
PH to monitor and control the chemical concentration of boiler water preventing
acidic and caustic corrosion.
Water Hardness, to monitor and control the levels of calcium and magnesium salts
within feed water, that would otherwise damage boiler surfaces.

9.
Low-Low water level, to prevent permanent thermal damage to the heat transfer
surfaces of the boiler risking a possible boiler drum rupture.
Flame Fail, so that un-burnt does not flood the combustion space filling it with explosive
gasses. High water level, so that carry over does not occur damaging steam plant and
systems.
Low fuel oil pressure, a reduced fuel pressure leads to poor and unstable combustion.
10.
High Water Level, using the manual feed valve slowly over - fill the boiler until the alarm
sounds and the feed pumps cut-off.
Low fuel oil temperature - turn off the fuel oil heaters and allow the fuel to cool
tripping the burners.
Low-low water level - blow the boiler down until the alarm sounds followed but the
tripping of the burners.
Ignition failure - isolate the ignition transformer and begin start sequence, the burner
will lock out after purge.

11.
a) Low air pressure. Action check that the fan is running and no obstruction to the
air flow check the pressure sensor is operational
b) Check the igniter tips clean clearance are correct and the high voltage supply is
operational.
c) Check the burner tip is clean, fuel is being supplied ok and solenoid valve opens ok.
d) Check flame condition and fuel and air ration is correct.

12.

b) Feed water header tank allows for expansion; auxiliary feed pump allows for leakage.

13.

a) The bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium are decomposed by heat and come out
of the solution as scale forming carbonates.
High concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts within hard water.
Scale forms as carbonates adhere to heated surfaces due to “coming out of
suspension” Due to the scale covering of scale heat increases and the process
intensifies.
b) Reduction in heat transfer efficiency.
Local overheating of boiler tubes and damage.
c) By keeping the hardness salts in suspension in the solution to prevent scale formation.
By stopping any suspended salts and impurities from sticking to the heat transfer surfaces.
14.

a) Water Level Gauge Glass


b) To enable the level of boiler water to be monitored in the event of glass failure To allow the
water level to be monitored in the event of severe roll
c) Pressure Gauge Connections
Boiler Vent C o c k
Main Steam Stop Valve
Safety Valves
Blow Down valve connection

15.

a) If water level has not yet dropped completely out of the sight glass, water may be put
into the boiler. If water drops completely out of sight glass, check another sight glass.
If both have no water visible, don’t add water until the boiler is cold enough to
prevent any possible damage due to rapid cooling of overheated plate.
b) Excessive boiler pressure of steam can occur due to the steam outlet valve being
shut off. You would check the boiler steam outlet valve, if on manual change to auto
and if auto isn’t working shut down the boiler.
c) Too much fuel, not enough air or cold oil. Check the oil temperature, check the flame
colour, if orange increase until primrose yellow.
d) Blow down frequently.
Reduce the boiler load to minimum.
If highly contaminant shut down and completely and
wash out. Trace and fine out the fault and remedied.