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S–CALCF

Scholarship 2013
Calculus
2.00 pm Monday 18 November 2013

FORMULAE AND TABLES BOOKLET

Refer to this booklet to answer the questions for Scholarship Calculus 93202Q.

Check that this booklet has pages 2 – 4 in the correct order and that none of these pages is blank.

YOU MAY KEEP THIS BOOKLET AT THE END OF THE EXAMINATION.

© New Zealand Qualifications Authority, 2013. All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without the prior permission of the New Zealand Qualifications Authority.
2

CALCULUS – USEFUL FORMULAE

ALGEBRA Complex numbers COORDINATE GEOMETRY


Quadratics z = x + iy Straight Line
If ax 2 + bx + c = 0 = r cis! Equation y − y1 = m(x − x1 )
= r(cos! + isin ! )
−b ± b2 − 4ac
then x = Circle
2a
Logarithms z = x ! iy (x − a)2 + ( y − b)2 = r 2
= r cis (!! ) has a centre (a,b) and radius r
y = log b x ⇔ x = b y
= r(cos! ! isin ! )
( )
log b xy = log b x + log b y Parabola
2 2
⎛ x⎞ r = z = zz = (x + y ) y 2 = 4ax or (at 2,2at)
log b ⎜ ⎟ = log b x − log b y
⎝ y⎠ ! = arg z Focus (a,0) Directrix x = − a
x
( )
log b x n = n log b x where cos! =
r Ellipse
y x2 y2
log a x and sin ! =
log b x = r + = 1 or (acosθ ,bsin θ )
log a b a 2 b2
Foci (c,0) (–c,0) where b2 = a 2 – c 2
De Moivre’s Theorem
c
If n is any integer, then Eccentricity: e =
a
(r cis ! ) n = r n cis (n! )
Binomial Theorem
Hyperbola
⎛ n⎞ ⎛ n⎞ ⎛ n⎞ ⎛ n⎞ ⎛ n⎞
n n n−1 1 n−2 2 x2 y2
(a + b) = ⎜ ⎟ a + ⎜ ⎟ a b + ⎜ ⎟ a b + ... + ⎜ ⎟ a b + ... + ⎜ ⎟ bn
n−r r
− = 1 or (a sec θ ,b tan θ )
⎜⎝ 0 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 1⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 2⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ n⎟⎠ a2 b2
b
⎛ n⎞ asymptotes y = ± x
n! a
⎜ ⎟ = nCr =
⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠ (n − r)!r! Foci (c,0) ( − c,0) where b2 = c 2 – a 2
c
Eccentricity: e =
⎛ n⎞ a
Some values of ⎜ ⎟ are given in the table below.
⎜⎝ r ⎟⎠

r 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
n
0 1
1 1 1
2 1 2 1
3 1 3 3 1
4 1 4 6 4 1
5 1 5 10 10 5 1
6 1 6 15 20 15 6 1
7 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
8 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
9 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1
10 1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 1
11 1 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55 11
12 1 12 66 220 495 792 924 792 495 220 66
3

CALCULUS Product Rule


Differentiation dy dv du
( f .g )′ = f .g ′ + g. f ′ or if y = uv then =u +v
dx dx dx
dy
y = f ( x) = f ′( x )
dx
Quotient Rule
1
ln x ′ du dv
x ⎛ f⎞ g. f ′ − f .g ′ u dy v dx − u dx
⎜⎝ g ⎟⎠ = or if y = then =
e ax ae ax g2 v dx v2
sin x cos x
cos x − sin x Composite Function or Chain Rule
2
tan x sec x ′
sec x sec x tan x
( )
f ( g ) = f ′ ( g ) .g ′
dy dy . du
cosec x −cosec x cot x or if y = f (u) and u = g(x) then =
dx du dx
cot x −cosec 2 x
NUMERICAL METHODS
Integratioon Trapezium Rule
f ( x) ∫ f ( x )dx b
1
∫a
f (x) dx ≈ h ⎡⎣ y0 + yn + 2( y1 + y2 + ...+ yn−1 ) ⎤⎦
2
x n +1 b− a
xn +c where h = and yr = f (xr )
n +1 n
( n ≠ −1)
1 Simpson’s Rule
ln x + c b
x 1
f ′( x )
ln f ( x ) + c
∫a
f (x) dx ≈ h ⎡⎣ y0 + yn + 4( y1 + y3 + ...+ yn−1 ) + 2( y2 + y4 + ...+ yn−2 ) ⎤⎦
3
f ( x) b− a
where h = , yr = f (xr ) and n is even.
n
First principles
f ( x + h) − f ( x )
f ′( x ) = lim
h→ 0 h

Parametric Function
dy dy . dt
=
dx dt dx
d2 y d  d y  . dt
=  

dx 2 dt  d x  d x
4

TRIGONOMETRY Products
1 2sin Acos B = sin ( A+ B) + sin( A − B)
cosec! = –
sin ! 6
2cos Asin B = sin ( A+ B) − sin( A − B)
2
1 3 2cos Acos B = cos( A+ B) + cos( A − B)
sec! =
cos! 2sin Asin B = cos( A − B) − cos( A+ B)
–
3
1 1
cot ! =
tan ! – Sums
4
cos! 2 1 C+D C−D
cot ! = sinC + sin D = 2sin cos
sin ! – 2 2
4
1 C+D C−D
sinC − sin D = 2cos sin
Sine Rule 2 2
a b c C+D C−D
= = cosC + cos D = 2cos cos
sin A sin B sinC 2 2
C+D C−D
cosC − cos D = −2sin sin
Cosine Rule 2 2

c 2 = a 2 + b2 ! 2ab cosC
MEASUREMENT
Triangle
Identities
1
cos 2 ! + sin 2 ! = 1 Area = absinC
S–CALCF

2
tan 2 ! + 1 = sec 2 !
cot 2 ! + 1 = cosec 2! Trapezium
1
Area = (a + b)h
General Solutions 2
If sin ! = sin " then ! = n! + ("1) n "
Sector
If cos ! = cos " then ! = 2n! ± "
1 2
If tan ! = tan " then ! = n! + " Area = rθ
2
where n is any integer
Arc length = rθ

Compound Angles
Cylinder
sin( A ± B) = sin Acos B ± cos Asin B
Volume = ! r 2 h
cos( A ± B) = cos Acos B ! sin Asin B
Curved surface area = 2!rh
tan A ± tan B
tan( A ± B) =
1! tan Atan B
Cone
1
Double Angles Volume = !r 2 h
3
sin 2 A = 2sin Acos A
Curved surface area = ! rl where l = slant height
2 tan A
tan 2 A =
1! tan 2 A
Sphere
cos 2 A = cos 2 A ! sin 2 A 4
2 Volume = ! r 3
= 2cos A ! 1 3
= 1! 2sin 2 A Surface area = 4! r 2