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# Answer the following questions:

2.
(a) Sometimes the signals for television are combined into fewer than all the parts required for TV
transmission. [6 marks]
i. Altogether, how many and what are the signals used for studio broadcast TV?
5 => R, G, B, audio, sync; can say “blanking” instead, too
ii. How many and what signals are used in S-Video? What does S-Video stand for?
Luminance+chrominance = 2+audio+sync = 4,
Separated video
iii. How many signals are actually broadcast for standard analog TV reception? What kind of
video is that called?
1=> Composite
iv. What are the most salient differences between ordinary TV and HDTV?
More pixels, and aspect ratio of 16/9 rather than 4/3
(a) HDTV has a much wider aspect ratio of 16:9 instead of 4:3.
(b) HDTV moves toward progressive (non-interlaced) scan. The rationale is that interlacing introduces serrated
edges to moving objects and flickers along horizontal edges.
(b) NTSC video has 525 lines per frame and 63.6 μsec per line, with 20 lines per field of vertical retrace and
10.9 μsec horizontal retrace. [4 marks]
i. Where does the 63.6 μsec come from?
1 / (525 lines/frame×29.97 frame/sec) = 63.6×10−6 sec/line
ii. Which takes more time, horizontal retrace or vertical retrace? Justify your answer.
horiz = 10.9×10−6 sec,
vertical is 20 line * 63.6 µsec = 1272 µsec = 1.272 msec, so
vertical is 1272/10.9 = 117 times longer than horizontal.

(c) Show how the I , Q signal can be extracted from the NTSC Chroma signal C during the
demodulation process. [5 marks]
To extract I:
(a) Multiply the signal C by 2 cos(Fsc t), i.e.,
C · 2cos(Fsct) = I · 2cos2 (Fscct)+Q · 2sin(Fsct) cos(Fsct)
= I · (1+cos(2Fsct))+Q · 2sin(Fsct) cos(Fsct)
= I +I · cos(2Fsct)+Q · sin(2Fsct).
(b) Apply a low-pass filter to obtain I and discard the two higher frequency (2Fsc ) terms.

To extract Q:
(a) Multiply the signal C by 2 sin(Fsc t), i.e.,

## C · 2 sin(Fsc t) = I · 2 sin(Fsc t) cos(Fsc t) + Q · 2 sin2 (Fsc t)

= I · sin(2Fsc t) + Q · (1 − cos(2Fsc t))
= Q + I · sin(2Fsc t) − Q · cos(2Fsc t).

(b) Apply a low-pass filter to obtain Q and discard the two higher frequency (2Fsc ) terms.
(b) Digital video uses Chroma subsampling. What is the purpose of this? Why is it feasible?
Human vision has less acuity in color vision than it has in black and white — one can distinguish close black lines
more easily than colored lines, which soon are perceived just a mass without texture as the lines move close to
each other. Therefore, it is acceptable perceptually to remove a good deal of color information. In analog, this is
accomplished in broadcast TV by simply assigning a smaller frequency bandwidth to color than to black and
white information. In dig- ital, we “decimate” the color signal by subsampling (typically, averaging nearby
pixels). The purpose is to have less information to transmit or store.
What was the main impetus for the development of HDTV?
Immersion — “being there”. Good for interactive systems and applications such as virtual reality.

9. What is the advantage of interlaced video? What are some of its problems?
Positive: Reduce flicker. Negative: Introduces serrated edges to moving objects and flickers along horizontal
edges.

10. One solution that removes the problems of interlaced video is to de-interlace it. Why can we not just
overlay the two fields to obtain a de-interlaced image? Suggest some simple de-interlacing algorithms that
retain information from both fields.
The second field is captured at a later time than the first, creating a temporal shift between the odd and even lines of
the image.
The methods used to overcome this are basically two: non-motion compensated and motion compensated de-
interlacing algorithms.
The simplest non-motion compensated algorithm is called “Weave”; it performs linear interpo- lation between the
fields to fill in a full, “progressive”, frame. A defect with this method is that moving edges show up with significant
serrated lines near them.
A better algorithm is called “Bob”: in this algorithm, one field is discarded and a a full frame is interpolated from a
single field. This method generates no motion artifacts (but of course detail is reduced in the resulting progressive
image).
In a vertical-temporal (VT) de-interlacer, vertical detail is reduced for higher temporal frequen-cies. Other, non-
linear, techniques are also used.
Motion compensated de-interlacing performs inter-field motion compensation and then combines
fields so as to maximize the vertical resolution of the image.