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of a Spherical Rolling Robot

Human and Robot Interaction Human and Robot Interaction Human and Robot Interaction Laboratory,

Laboratory, Tehran, Iran. Laboratory, Tehran, Iran. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering,

Email: rasoul.sadeghian@taarlab.com Email: shahrooz.shahin@taarlab.com University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Email: m.t.masouleh@ut.ac.ir

Abstract— In this paper, three path planning algorithms and latter subjects have a direct effect in system energy consuming

the comparison between them are described in terms of which has connection with lifetime of the system. Some of

processing time and path distance values. The algorithms which algorithms which are used for path finding can be regarded

are used in this paper are, Genetic Algorithm (GA), as, artificial potential field with fuzzy logic [2] and integrated

Bidirectional Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (BRRT) particle swarm optimization [3].

algorithm and Potential Field algorithm. According to the

simulation results which are obtained based on MATLAB The main contributions of this paper can be considered as,

simulation, the performance of the designed potential field comparing GA, BRRT and Potential Field path-planning

algorithm is better than the other ones in terms of processing algorithms in order to find a high performance path-planning

time and the path distance values. Indeed, the designed potential algorithm in terms of process time and the path distance values

field algorithm is considered as the one that is chosen to be used to use in vision based control process and finally

in vision based control process. The proposed process is used to implementing the aforementioned vision based control

path finding for a spherical rolling robot, which is named TSR. methods in a spherical rolling robot.

A fixed camera on top of the proposed robot’s workspace is

connected to a laptop, which is used as the main core of vision The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. First,

based control processor unit. The experimental results based on three path-planning algorithms are presented and compared.

implementing the potential field approach as path planning In Section 2, the vision based control procedure is presented.

algorithm, verified the desirable performance of it in terms of Finally, the experimental results of implementation of the

finding a short and accurate path in an acceptable time. Finally, proposed vision based control method is presented.

the effect of using the proposed vision based control method is

assessed. The experimental results based on combining the

aforementioned control methods verified the significant

performance of the propounded spherical rolling robot in terms II. PATH PLANNING ALGORITHMS

of path finding and following. Finding path, especially a short path between the source

and goal points is one of the main issues of mobile robots,

Keywords— Path planning ; Potential Field ; Bidirectional which has direct relation with time and energy saving. In this

Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (BRRT) algorithm ; vision based

section three designed and implemented path planning

control ; Spherical rolling robot

algorithms are investigated and compared with each other in

terms of the computational time for calculating the path

distance value and distance value of the obtained path.

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent decades the widespread applications of mobile A. Genetic Algorithm

robots as a helpful device in solving different problems in Genetic Algorithm is a randomized searching policy via

various applications has stimulated the interests of many applying an evolutionary optimization method on the laws of

researchers and involved people in industry. One of the biological selection to solve any possible optimization

applicable mobile robots is spherical rolling robot. The natural problem. In GA approach, every solution to an optimization

characteristics of the spherical rolling robots in terms of problem is considered as an individual with unique

moving in any directions with the lowest demand to change characteristics which can be encoded into a finite set of

the robot’s position make them so useful [1]. parameters, or in other words genes or genetic information.

These genetic information or gens that make up chromosomes

One of the main challenges of the mobile robots consists can form a population function and fitness function which is

in their path planning and obstacle avoidance techniques. The used to estimate the real world structure of individuals in these

population. In this method, a series of generations are used in path is completed. The pseudo code for the bi-directional RRT

order to evolve population S of P individuals to find the best algorithm is shown in Algorithm 1.

and fittest individual to solve a particular problem. Each set of

solutions is called a population or generation and each

individual solution is called a chromosome. A fitness function

is defined to determine the fitness of each individual which

evaluates the aptitude level of a particular individual to solve

the optimization problem. Genetic operators produce a new

set of individuals from each generation in every genetic search

process. Each chromosome in the population serves as a

feasible path which can be used in robot path planning. This

path should be continuous and does not contain obstacles.

Generally, the chromosome or path is expressed by source,

goal and intermediate positions. These positions represent

genes of the chromosomes. The evolution starts from a

population of randomly generated chromosomes and has four

basic steps. Fitness evaluation, selection, cross over and

mutation in order to create the next generations. The

steps of a GA can be considered as follows [4]:

1) Initialize random population;

2) Calculate the Fitness members of population;

3) Select populations members based on the described

rules and limitations;

4) Generate new chromosomes by making the population

which are selected in certain probability;

5) Investigate the optimal conditions until the maximum

iteration is reached and get the minimum values if they

provide conditions;

Algorithm

planning algorithm based on sampling method and usually is

used in the cases which the prior data about the workspace is

not adequate. The RRT algorithm, starting from an initial

Algorithm 1: The BRRT pseudo code for detecting obstacles

node , selects random samples from the obstacle free and path planning.

space and searches for the closest neighbor path on the tree or

another new random sample [5], [6]. The RRT algorithm

approach expands a particular incrementally method, the C. Potential Field Algorithm

starting point of the free space is considered as a root and then

the algorithm generates extension branches of trees randomly Potential Field method is working on the basis of attractive

through a slow growth of leaf points and it ends when the leaf potential field due to the goal and repulsive potential field due

point of random extension trees reaches the target or goal to the obstacles. Eventually, summation of attractive and

point. repulsive potential exhibits the current potential field of the

Bi-directional variation of sampling based algorithms are robot. Subsequently, the replacement vector is obtained from

often applied to problems with challenging and difficult the gradient of aforementioned summation. Obstacles are

spaces such as narrow aisles or high dimensional presumed as the global maxima and the goal position is

configuration spaces with numerous obstacles. The bi- considered as the global minimum. Moreover, the potential

directional RRT approach grows a tree from start position and field is assumed as the workspace of robot. However, this

a second tree from the goal position. In addition, the BRRT method has some drawbacks as well such as, existence of

algorithm extends incrementally both trees toward random some trap circumstances due to local minimal, lack of passage

samples. Moreover, in the bi-directional RRT algorithm the between closed space obstacles and also vibrations in the

trees alternate between moving towards random locations in presence of obstacles or even in limited aisles.

free obstacle space and moving towards each other until the

24

The total potential is obtained by summation of attractive and III. VISION BASED PATH PLANNING CONCEPT

repulsive potential. The attractive potential function, is According to the sensor installation limitation which is

described as follows [7]: caused based on the spherical shape of the TSR robot, the

| − | , | − |≤ vision based path planning based on potential field method is

( )= (1)

(2 | − | − ), | − |> chosen as a solution to control the under study spherical

rolling robot. In order to achieve a global image from the

Where d, x and are the distance between the robot and proposed robot’s workspace a camera is set on the ceiling, on

the goal, the robot and goal position vector, respectively. The top of the robot’s workspace.

variable ξ in Eq. (1) is the attraction gain coefficient. The

gradient of the Eq. (1) is attractive force which is obtained as

follows: TABLE I: The proposed GA, BRRT and potential field algorithms

performance in terms of processing time and obtained path distance.

2 ( − ), | − |≤

( ) = −∇ = (2) Algorithm Time(A) Distance(A) Time(B) Distance(B)

2 | , | − |>

| GA 5.165006e+0 1716 2.372744 1671

2 e+01

The repulsive potential function is defined as follows:

BRRT 4.139758e+0 1.578909e+0 4.884343 2.639219e+0

Υ( − ) , δ≤δ 0 3 e+00 3

( )= (3)

0 , δ>δ Potential 3.924764e+0 1.523337e+0 1.825863 1.631966e+0

field 0 3 e+00 3

Where is the repulsive potential function and Υ, δ and

δ are the repulsive gain, the limit distance of potential field

influence and the shortest distance to the obstacle,

respectively.

Derivative of Eq. (3) results in the repulsive force. By

considering as the repulsive force, one has:

Υ( − ) , δ≤δ

( ) = −∇ = (4)

0 , δ>δ

By considering Eqs. (2) and (4) The generalized force F(x)

is calculated as follows:

( ) = − ∇U(x) = −∇ −∇ = ( )+

( ) (5)

The pseudo code for the Potential field algorithm is shown in

Algorithm2.

Algorithms

The aforesaid GA, BRRT and potential field algorithms

are

simulated in MATLAB software. The results of the proposed

simulation based on three different maps are presented in

Figs. 1 and 2. Table I represents the comparison between the

proposed GA, BRRT and potential field algorithms’

performance in terms of processing time and obtained path

distance. According to the simulation results, which are

obtained based on the proposed algorithms, the potential field

algorithm has a better performance in terms of processing time and

the path distance.

Figure 3 represents the camera’s installation location and

Algorithm 2: The pseudocode representing detecting

the robot’s workspace. The obstacles which are set on the obstacles and obstacle labeling process.

robot’s workspace are static and they do not move and

reshape.

25

(a) The path which is found based on GA.

(a) The path which is found based on GA.

(b) The path which is found based on BRRT algorithm.

(c) The path which is found based on potential field algorithm.

algorithm.

Fig. 2: The paths which are found based on GA, BRRT and

Fig. 1: The paths which are found based on GA, BRRT and potential field algorithms for the second designed map.

potential field algorithms for the first designed map.

for finding the short path based on potential field algorithm

which is designed in this project. According to Figs. 4, firstly,

the obstacles are detected then the short path between the

source and goal points is calculated and depicted.

Figure 5 illustrates the path which is defined based on

potential field and the robot’s movement on the proposed path.

According to Fig. 5, the proposed robot tracks the path based

on vision control.

IV. CONCLUSION

In this paper, GA, BRRT and Potential Field algorithms

were investigated and the comparison results of them in terms

of processing time and distance value were presented. Based

on the obtained results of latter simulation, the potential

field algorithm had better performance. Moreover, in order

to compensate the weakness of the under study spherical

rolling robot in terms of impossibility of setting sensors on the

spherical shell of the robot, vision based control method was

used. The experimental results validate the high performance

Fig. 3: The camera’s installation location and robot’s workspace of the proposed method about path tracking and obstacle

which can be detected with the proposed camera. avoidance.

26

(c) 4s.

(d) 6s.

(e) 8s.

(f) 10s.

Fig. 5: Process of the experimental test in obstacle detection, numbering

and short path defining based on potential field for the TSR spherical rolling

robot.

REFERENCES

(d) Path. adaptive sliding mode controller for a novel spherical rolling robot.

InRobotics and Mechatronics (ICROM), 2015 3rd RSI International

Fig. 4: Process of the first test in obstacle detection, numbering Conference on 2015 Oct 7 (pp. 529-534). IEEE.

and short path defining based on potential field. [2] Tuazon, J.P.C., Prado, K.G.V., Cabial, N.J.A., Enriquez, R.L., Rivera,

F.L.C. and Serrano, K.K.D.An improved collision avoidance scheme

using Artificial Potential Field with fuzzy logic, In Region 10

Conference (TENCON), 2016 IEEE (pp. 291-296). IEEE.

[3] Chih-Jui Lin, Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, Ping-Huan Kuo, Yin-Hao

Wang.Integrated particle swarm optimization algorithm based obstacle

avoidance control design for home service robot, Computers &

Electrical Engineering, Volume 56, November 2016, Pages 748-762.

[4] Rasoul Sadeghian, Mehdi Tale Masouleh. Controller tuning based on

optimization algorithms of a novel spherical rolling robot. Journal of

Mechanical Science and Technology. 2016 Nov 1;30(11):5207-16.

(a) 0s. [5] LaValle SM, Kuffner JJ. Algorithmic and Computational Robotics:

New Directions, chapter Rapidly-exploring random trees. Progress and

prospects. 2001:293-308.

[6] Pepy R, Kieffer M, Walter E. Reliable robust path planner.

InIntelligent Robots and Systems, 2008. IROS 2008. IEEE/RSJ

International Conference on 2008 Sep 22 (pp. 1655-1660). IEEE.

[7] Tuazon JP, Prado KG, Cabial NJ, Enriquez RL, Rivera FL, Serrano

KK. An improved collision avoidance scheme using Artificial

Potential Field with fuzzy logic. InRegion 10 Conference (TENCON),

(b) 2s. 2016 IEEE 2016 Nov 22 (pp. 291-296). IEEE.

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