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151

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5639 x 200 = (5639 x 200) + (5639 x 10) + (5639 x 8)

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5639 x 2 = 11278

5639 x 200 = 1127800

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5639 x 1 = 5639

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TL363

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TL363

153

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TL363

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5 9 45 160

TL363

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5.3.2 fn,.~tl'Unr"Lln L-.mf.llJlml'Y11~mfltflatl,. (Teaching mathematical problem

so 1 v i ng ) lOJ'Yl~i:lnm 1'Y11-.J f1ruVl¥11 ~\;I ~'VIlJ1 tJfl..J DlliVI1Yl ')J flru.~ fi 1 m~1~ mJl 'U "j lJ'lJ El ~ 1Jnrvl1~ L ~'Ur1l\.l\9l

QoI ~ "l.i ~ oW ~

(word problems) 'VI~fl1JQMI~b~'UC$nl'l!nl"~'VI~flL~El..J11J (situation or story problems) ~..:J;;tl..J m,.filVlfl1JEl~nlJll 11 111ll1J1J~-n "1 Liu l1~JJlru ~1'U 'J'U 'VI~fl b 'VI\9lc.J~ n'l"Llnt~~1lmIl'V1lJ1TIfl..J

'" 9 -----

~1n~Td~1 "Learning to solve problems is the principal reason for studying

mathematics. II (National Council of Supervisors 'of Mathematics 1977 : 20)

~ '.1 ~~ ~ .1

fUJ Cl-J fl1J'l::: n fl1J'YI~ 1 f1QM "'1 ~ lJ'l~n'l"

M'l'Wll161~fllll'\lm'lLLnilc;}Yll

178

TL363

1 j ~ "[ j~--- ~ ~ ~o ~~~ ~ ~~ t~_" 1~

L ."aul"11 tj"j'UJffl"tlEh] ~'YlLlill.Y"l ~~ L l1'U~"]'Yl'Yll L",'Um 7tNLLfI L":iJYltJu!fI'11 fI

iJll ;':i]"'~eJ 1~,h l ~':i] L ~El~l~~lflfU L'U "["11~ilmI11~llri 11.!LL1J1Jtlfl" 1;,1'l~~" 1~LLri1trm,#1':i]YI~Lh L ~'UEl

~ ~ ~

... ... ,

nmJ~~l" ., LLi\J~ 1"1"]~11"t1B" 1':i]'Yl~ if~El'U~;El1irihf~fl'U n"L'U~l'UL UeJ~l J)l~nni.~ 'lhl'!~ "[!If]

~ ~

... ...

LLnl 'J'Yl~iJMn ~ml{l!~~nJ 'I ~ ~61'i:bJ.1~LLll 'fI :nJJ1~u·::num.J~,u"ru(f1~1c;f(f14 LL4'l~'fI 'J1JJ111'U lfUi.'Un1'7

. ~ ~ -

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iJQI'I'11m~<il'.Ji1(f1L 'JU LL~~f111JJn(il~'Ut!B"~l1tJ'UL'U~nWfl1icl~n" "1

OJ

3. ni~1J7Unl1i.'Unl1Un~1 B"~1.!'t::ntJ~L'U~'Uni~1Jl'Un"~L~lJl;B.JEl~l~

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I -6) q!lJ~ ~ I.q... .... I ~~ q, '!i

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.. -

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tl..J~1.!1t::mm~h-.j '1 ~"n~''Jti 1-.j~'U~ ~CJ4'l~Elf1l1LL nl'J11~ihJJ~n,.n.Jflru~f11~(J)1Tl rl-J un ~ ;'~UEl~'.JlJln ~-J~fl 'J1JJ L ~~'J~il'UlJlnOJuLLl11JOJ~u~n 111ElElfl ~.J~.yh 1~f1l1LL nlOJrr~ilf!m1 L 'Ptcil~'U L ~'U~-.j~mn~l'Pt:hun l1~U 1~LLrl

- fll1m1J~tl'U 1'1.1. "[OJ""~~l L tf'U ~1'U 'J'Ut! E1.Jn 8lJ~~nl'Ptufl "t~ ~lU )uii'JLLlI"J

..

11..,363

179

179

,

41 1,.0 ........

(bn~1~B~n~~B 1, 2 ~~~ 4)

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- L'l~WI~ll fl~i1m 1E'U~~~lElnT~Lbfi1~11~i3tyVllm.:J'f1ru~\'\1~~4 b tf'U ilm ~mtll~ u 1~fl1~Wil1 il~'r;nlJn~~'U~,' 1JJ b tl1 L~ I:U 1 <l"r'l~1jnfJ.'\1 l'Jl1~l1nnn 1JJU 1~'U l~bb~~ 1JJ b n~'f1111l~'Un l'Um1

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..

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'i.I 'i.I <iii c:u

., ,

. TIlll\O\~dh!\9ItrU'.\lU 'l;:;fll(t]B~TI~f)~n1'1

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~

~ l' ~ q~q~ q ~ l'

'VI~f) jJ 'Vl'HljJ-J1H)U .., Eln'VI"m lJ

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~ ..,

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,

1li~llJljfl'Jt: L n 11;) 1~ m11~um ;~UrilU l'qJYl~ilrpn~"'~fJ-J Cln l~iJ.m j~Uril'U~l .., LLjN::: 1~~\9I L n~J

fi1J~~~ L n lfllU~J!I ~j 1~fl )"J'rnwn L ;!IU 11 "un L ;m!fllU 1 ;)Yl~i1f1J'V11l ;'!I~; a~LL~J'VIiati..) 7ft ~)~

~ -

TL363

181

~ ~ ~ ~ 'il 1'1~~ ~~ ~, ~ ~ , urn ,.tI~"r'lLLn V~l'ltl 1]'VIl lJ ~lJn~t:lJlJt)!PIl mm'rtll~~L~~m1~'f1JllJ'Yll,Jflru~'i'l1~(fI-:l'

fl"~~~8~~nl~~nl~tlufllU ~flJllJ~lJ1ELL~t:~lflJllJLnlL~lUl~n~l~~~L~~n~Ul~~1

..

2. ~8~nl"L~nn~"r'l1~LfI~fl~~fl (tool skills) ~l~~'t:nl-:l'L~fliJtlL~lnll~ l~"r'l~~lL~~~~~U nn~1'l1~LfI~81~a~lJltln1nn~t:~~t:iJ~L~nl'Jl1LlUU1~ff~L~U iJ~Lunl'~~

...., -4 ~ "l a,.. qq .... 1i..- i.I Q, ~ q 0 <t ,

n17'l1 tllJ~(;1'-l "'\ ~"Hl"d:JE Lnmn1J'n'7LLnllruvn ;]f1n(;18..J 'f1"j"flJ"j"~~ru L 1'1f1~f1~1..J tlEl..Jl'l~Z:;Y11 L~Yl'CJi1ru'1ln

-tJ ... .. ~ ...

~fl11lJLnu'~1J"'lJ LL~t:lJ8-lL~~flJllJmlJWui'lla~nalJ~ Liu n11~1(;11'1-l nl'L;tI~SlJn11 n11ltrN~'

OJ OJ ..

...... ,

,L fltrmU L II'~

~ q ~ ~ q ~

1 1J lJ 12 L ~tl~ LL~t: 1 L ;]tlU lJ 30 JU

d fI':lllJl'n

.

~llJL~NElJL~lnuYlnU7~n17

~

182

TL363

6. 1~~nl~~U~n~Unll~~~UQM1~1~~1~ln~Unl~~U~U~1~ ~ lUff~~~l~~'~U ~~a~ln1~1~~1~lnSnl~~~nl1~U~U~;~~~D~l~U~1~Unl1~UUnn~1~ Liu n11Jl~~~u1~l~~J

~ ~~, 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ '1 ~ ~

~J~nu ~~~a~ L~~l~a~ 1Ul~ ~~~a~LnUb~U~U~~L~l '1 LUU~U

~~m1l~,j "1 lum'mfil~'Yl~llQm1 L~~Jnu b ~a l~~m ~tJu 1~CJnm'1LLnll(!lY1l1~'I'I,ntJ ~ ~~ 1~ij6l~61 lll'nlLL1Jul~LLu1J'I'I~-J «~mu'Wl~

~

, ,

"'1 .,. <OJ.., " ... <OJ...... "'1 1 !1-__ l'

9. un 'i'lflJl~CJ~l'I1El'ila1Jn'W'jD~~1.:J ~ rib n6lnlLL~t1llm 1mLLn ~rI~ill!'l' ~~J1

LLn1n t.w!J~ l~1Ji~1~fllJ~ftn~a.:J l '!'h~'U fI'jfl J'j 1~afilJl~ b 'Yl~I'Ufl~1,jftn~a~~iln L ~EU l~lumllLnllMn

~ ~ ~ ~

.....q g_.. ~ 1""'!;; l' 0 ~ .0:::.. ~ ~

'Unl"mll~~lnl L~ ~ll1mmLL~~~~ ~~l~~CJ(o]'W~l(;l'UU ., an

11. CJnus~i1n l ~!JU 'l~Jl.JlLC.Jll' d~~~"IIlJ(;lnaulJ.J~arh m·nl.JlLe.Jll~ual~nl1~l(O]tJ

~... q ... q ~ ... 1 ~ ~1 10 ., ~"'... q

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l~U~l n'j~UJunl'~UnL1t1ulti1unl1~nll~1~ll~1~~n~1~1~a1J

ilm 1t1UlJl "l~iim 1t1U~(;lUatJ '1 161t1"l~um ~mlff)fim'mnihy7l1'1'1~1t1 '1 LL'1.IlJ

13. naU~~~aTIlm1JLLe.J'U fI'lfi )1~n "l~iin L i'tI'UiJl1J~~ilUflJllJ L ik 1tJ1~'/] a.JLLtJ'U L ~tlnil'lL

..

TL363

183

14. ~nl~UnL~~u~7~~lru~1~~~~~lfll1~~~7~~lru 1~~1~~n~Ufl~rrn17~1~ ~ (liU 256 - 95 1~unL~~U~~Ln~11 95 ~fll1n~ 100 ~~~Unl~1~11~~~'~~lrul~71~L~1al~ ltr 100 L ~Ui'b'1ll11)

15. ~nl~UnL7VU~1J~aa~fll~a~'1II11~~lnn~~~~~a1~ ll~~li~11~Sa~~11~L~U

..

1V1~na~~1~a~L~~1~U~1~ Liu '1IIl~1~a~~lnnlU~lU1Ul~~ln~~lUlu~U~Ltiul1~L8~~1~ 23 ~u l~UnL~~U~~11~111~lU1U~U~tLtluL~~7U1~~7a~ L~11~L~~L~

'I

16. ~nl~UnL~~Ua'l~l~~~~l~L~~l;a~n~L~a~~L~UU~lnna~~~L~U~~~LU

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, ~

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'Ul~S~~n~~a~n17~a~~1,a~~U~~l~'U'~~L~~~~~U~1 ~lUn;1~na~~'U~~~~11

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~ ..I C1.........' ~ 1 t~ __ • C1." "'i to, ~".. 1

JUT! 1 L'1IIUm ,~ualuaam ~~~ ~~t.Jillff'll LL~t L'VIlIl"Jl L~~t1W1tl~m7 L'1II'VIla~ .,

LL~t 1.m~nl'V1u~~~ L~~l L~Ul~ LL~t L~Un L ~m L ntruI11~LL~~,h~..jtt~~nl'V1Ufl Li~~ L'IlfIlwU'U ~~ unlit.J'U~tLn8ULLuunl~LL~t'1ll1fl11~NuWu~nEl..j~a~~~.'Yl~nl'1llU~l~~11~~~~

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184

TL363

9,000 1i11'11.JLlJtil"l

... ... ....

!!UTI 2

~dUDjna~~.J~~u.Jnlj~l ~~Unl~VUal~~lJlJ~~11lJ~ldt~u x LlJ~"l ri~~~1~JllJn~1~1~L~U

q

...

x - 10 L lJ\JI"J liUnL 1'tlUlhn- alJcl'U~'1lULLc./Uf(fW bL~::·lYi dj!lU~lJnT~lL~(;l.J ~ 11lJ~JJi4'U.~tI a-,.1~·'1.J.

..

9, 000 ~Wlj11 L lJl'l"J

(x - 10) LJJm

9,000 = x<x - 10)

,., .

iiuTi 3 i.~un L ~'tJuri1tJnUbb n~lJfll'll\J1!1Ltf~lJiJ;jfll.,n"Jt:~1'tJLL~::;fll7LLtJn~bDj~ntJ1J

L tllri-:J'tJ ~'Hn'J~fl~'Yl1J'Yll1H ~a-Jm'JlL'tJn~ltJj::;nD1J~lnUm ~'tJU1J-l~~U~a.Jm"J~JllJrilm l'I~a

..

9,000 == x <x - 10)
2
9,000 = x lOx
2
0 == X lOx - 9,000
0 == (x 100) (x + 90)
'Jt;1~ ....
(x - 100) = o l'I'1u (X + 90) == 0
....
x == 100 'V!7EJ - 90
TL363 185 TL363

Uu~l ~~~u ~~~a~LUfll~\~~~ni~liu L~B~~l~~l~~B~~lUUB~~L~;g~Uu~lLfiu 100 L~~' ~~~~lA~1~n~1~1~L~ 90 L~~' ~~LiluAl~B~~~B~nl~

i~~ 4 Li~nl7gu~'~~~8U~1~BU~~11All~~11~B~eu~~l~~~~~~lL~~

'" "I 1St~ ~ c1 4 '1_', ... ~

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UB~n11~lU~11 10 l~I1I"~~"~~B~ ~ll1k~i~ ~1~BU~11~~1~"liluAl~B~~n~8"

OJ

L~~~8ULU'~~1J~ng~~flHl~a~~u ~"~fl~~l~lUfll"~~~{l'Ul~ru~'~1J1J~~~~ ~~Ufll'~~~~~U ~

~ ~ OJ

~~1~L'Ul~~~~~~8UlU"~~~~"~~ uflli~ucllUl~ru1~~8~~81Jnl'~~~~ l~B"~lflUl~A~l~;

~ ~ ~ v

1~ ~'~~~B"'W~1~1~~~ll~~lnUl~AU~f11"j'~~~ill~~~~1~1~~liTIfll'~1" ~ ~~~~8UUflL~~

~ ..

L~~~~~1~ ~,,~~ lU~1~8~~~flal1~"~11~i~u~lU~~B"Ul~11~il~lufll'WBU~W~~lul~8"

~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~

UU~l~U1J~UUfll,.l~L~~~~~~ ~

~ ~

na~~1~1a'W~~~1"flru~~1~~~iU~fl~~f1~118fln~11u'~Ltlu~i,,~ifll~Ln~ Liu

..

fl. 1 := 0

186

TL363

u. ax ~ 5 ~a~ y ~ 1 fl. x iith1J.i > 0

~. ~~~ t ~'L~ cos(t) = t

~

~. \~~'~Nfl~L~L~ ~ UU1~~1~~~Uu1unu~7a~~nu~~~ ~ ~~~

~

.. .... 1 q I.... " ," G\ ~

~lnUflfl~1~'DW~U~1~flm~~I~~'U1~~~U ~~~~11 ua n. \UU~~~~~~B

na~. L~~;~LA~a N1~;~~fl u. ~~~nB fl. a1~Ltlu~;~~~flL~~ ~~~~i~fl~n~A1Ua~~~Utl7

..

....... ...

~1a ~1 A ~~1 B (If A then B)

....

~'tl A -> B

~ ....
4 tl7~Lfl'U tltl
1) A Lik~:;~ u.~~ B L11u~-1~
2> A Li1u~;.J LLa~ B L11uL~~
3) A LtluL~~ LLat: B L~U~7~
4) A LtluL~~ use B bikL~~
~ I ~ q t L~ ~ I ~ L ti'~ "~1Wftfl LL~" ~~,hl1JlJl It ....
ft1aal~Uatl11un~t:~1~ ~L~~~1~UU A 'lila
~,c.tu.ftn LL~t: B q[ 0' q 11';;" Ii 1'"
fla LL~~~t:~171J1J1 ~~17m1 1t:L~UI~UU~~t: ~11 TL363

187

L~L~~ ] L~11~lU~~~11~~1~

Lfiu~;~ n~l1~~L~~clu~~n

.1 ., ~.1·'~ ~~.~ ~% . ~

11JLL 'U1Jfll1\J'N~'U m~1J1Ufl11fl~LL~~'1JLLlJ1Jfl1''W'N~1!l.I''I'I~l~11l' LLIJl ~'UmJ;~::::fml1fl~

~ u ~ v

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~ ~ ~

<forward - backward methoe) LL~::::m'~'N~1iLLii~ <contradiction method}

tI

A -----) ("I'IU111l"l'l~~ •••• ("1'1~~~l"1'1iil) <----- B ~b~!Jl~ rrrswuru 1~~ '1ufll1ii'N;j,11~tJ l~)nih 1'1.l"'~-J-"I'I~"mVlii 1

tI

I •

~ q q~~

fll'Nl~lVl~tJ~~lJ~lfl xyz ~~~1'UtJl1 x ~~~ y

q

LL~1~llJ l 'I'I~tJ~ xyz ~'U L ~U~l~ L 'I'I~tJlJ"Il'ih~1

4

4

188

TL363

x

y

z

x

2. 1~n'~~1~nl'~~~~1~~1 (backward procesS)1~~nl'~~fllOl~~DUni~ ~ln~~;~~~aa,~il~tlu~;~~~ ~~~a~b~a~~l~lnL~~~~L~ Ol~L~a~1~~~~~a~&~~ A ~nil

~ , ..

.q too':".q;

al~b~~~~~1~1~'~

2) x ~~b~ln~ y ~1a y b~ln~ z 1~~;a1~

TL363

... a

L 'PI~tJ&lI7Elfll"lm

q

x = y

~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~._

3. b~a~1~'YI~aEl~atJ\il'~~1~n~~1I'YIb'YIlntL

.. ,

~ . ~ ~ ~

fla~~ X = ~~ y (~\ilb~a~~l'~l~El~~

q, ..

L~ A 1~~na~~l~~~~a~~~~an1~11

..

~~ X = ~~ YX)

, "

ell ...

'PI,a l~a (x - y) = 0 (Bz)

4. 'PIlb'PI\il~~~1"a~1~1~

,

189

~... ... 1-J.... ~ ..,... t." C)

3. U(fl'~1J1l1.fll"l'I'I!1 lJl!~.J (forward process) L~tl1LfI'!1~'JItI£JlJa LU

..

~£Jfl11~ A ~L~~lJlJ~ll1.l'I;~nll'1U~1~lJl11L~~;.J~U ~~~fl11lJmlJWutn~ B B ~~~1~a~£J'

~ M 1 Z ..

~,.~ B 1~7£J1~ 1LfI"1~il~tllifll~1~~a~fll"l'I1Ll'I~~aLUUL~tl1fi1Jfl"~1J1Unl"l'I~.JlJll'1U1

~ ~

9 ... ,

Rl[)llJ1Lfl71~l'I

6) eu~tla.JNllJLl'I~tllJ xyz ~nll'1l1.~l~lJln1J~ l'Il1~L~a~1.J17nll. 7

Lfiufl11lJtll1t1£J.Jlll1. LLa~ y L fiufl111J~.J

'II

6. 'J~1~ 1 x.y = Z2 4,

E

z

'Jln~~~~~tla.JWnlln~Nl~tlln1J~ll1.tlfl.J Z Z E
7) 7. (x + y ) = z Az
NllJLl'I~tllJlJlJ~ln~fl11lJm~~nll.aEl.J1~7
~
A1 LLa~ Az ~fI,:)llJi\hj'wll.~nll.fl'th.J177 a E
8) 8. lxy = (x + Y ) A
3
E 4 e 1~11J~ o 1~ach.J 1,.7 2 E
9) 'J~1'l1 A3 (x - y) == 9. x 2xy + Y = 0 A4
'II
2
(x - y) = 0 Ap;
(x - y) = 0 Ae = BE I .... iI oe:.. t q, i~ ~ ~ q

~~~~11 Ae ~a~ Bz lJl~1JfllI.~a1 nl"lLfI'!l~l'Inl'~~~UnlJl~.J~~l'l'J~Ltlau

nl~~~i.;L~al~~:u~au1~

..

190

TL363

II>

1HW11llJ

A : 1 x.y Z2
1 2 .. 4"
2- 2- 2
A : x + y - Z
2.
A : 1 x.y (X2 + y2)
3 '2
4
2- Z
A · x 2xy + Y = 0
·
4
2
A : <x - y) ::= 0
!S
B · (x - y) = 0
·
2
B · x =: y
·
1
~ ~ I.-' ~
B : xyZ L lhJ.WllJ llll~EJlJlIIl! lOlJ "6.~.w.

q q c; ~

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LL'Yl'Uf1l AZ "lu Al

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ucn y n'lWfl-1TI l..J

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mUOl';\Jln Mathematician's

Delight 1~~ W.W. Sawyer Middlesex~ England 1943) S.n-1 ~;)~LL'Vl-Jtfl~.:;j~LL'lll'JLLl'J~~~.wlJ~~ 'W.I'\. 2512.

ULll~';\Jln The Language of Mathematics lf1~

~ .,. ,

~~'WjJ'W 'W.I'\. 2521.

5. Aichele, B. Douglas and Robert E. Reys (editors). Reading in Secondary

school Mathemat.ics. Boston: Prindle, Weber and Scrunidt, 1977.

6. Arends, Richard 1. Learning to Teach. 3 rd. ed., New York : McGraw-Hill,

1994.

7. Bass, W.G., and L.J. Godfrey. Mathematics Through Arithemetic.

Northamptonshire : The Teacher Publishing Co. Ltd.~ 1969.

8. Cockcroft, W.H., (Chairman). Mathematics Counts. Report of the Committee

of Inquiry into the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools. London:

Her Majesty's stationary off ice, "1982.

9. Cooney. Thomas J., Edwar-d J. Davis and K.B. Hendersol). Dynamics of

Teaching secondary School Mathematics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Company. 1975.

lO.Gagne, R.M. The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction. 4~h

ed., New York: Rinehart and Winston, 1985.

TL363

199

u .... ..:>o..:>

11. Fremont. How to Teach Mathemat ics In SecondaQ:~§(::JWE)_J.s. London W. B.

Sounders Company, 1969.

12.Gunter, Mary Alice, Thomas H. Est.as and Jan Hasbrouck Schwab.

Instruction : A Models Approach. Boston: A llyn and Bacon, 1 ~190. 13.Immerzeel, George and Bob Wills (Compiler) Ideas_10m t.he~r~t~l}I!l~.th:

Teacher. Virginia: The National Council of Teachers of MaUlematics, Inc. 1979.

14. Kidd, Kenneth P., Shirley SMyers a.nd David M. Cilley. The Laboratory Approach to Mathematics. Illinois: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1970.

15.Krulik, stephen, and Ingrid B. Weise. Teaching Secondary School Mathematics. Philadelphia: W.B. Sounders Company, 1975.

IS. MacLennan, Alexander. Technical Teaching and Inst!:uction. London Oldbourne Book Co. Ltd., 1963.

17.National Council of SUpervisors of Mathematics. "Position Paper on Basic Mathematics Skills" Arithmatir.: Teacher. 25 (November 1977) : 19 - 22.

18.Polya, G. How to Solve It : A New Axpect of Mathematical Method. 2 nd. ed., Princeton, New Jersey :Princeton University Press, 1985.

19. Rosenshine, B. "Teaching Functions in Instructional Programs," The Elementary School Journal. 83(March 1983) : 335 - 350.

20.Solow, Daniel. How to Read and Do Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Thought Processes. 2 nd ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990.

21. Trimble, Harold C. "The Heart of Teaching" Perspective on Secondary Mathematics Education. New Jersey: Printice Hall, 1971.

200

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