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What is Engineering Graphics

is a visual means to develop ideas
and convey designs in a
technical format.
is the dominant means to
communication among
engineers in industry.

Engineering graphics and the
skills associated are
developed early in an
engineer’s education.

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics
Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004

What is Engineering Graphics
Several of the topics that are covered in
engineering graphics are listed below:
• Sketching
• Geometric Modeling
• Engineering Drawing/Documentation
• Assembly Drawing
• Visualization
• Rapid Prototyping

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics
Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004

Computers in The Engineering Office
Computers are classified as
analog or digital.

Analog computers are
generally used for
mathematical problem
solving. (control Polish analogue computer “ELWAT”
electronic, mechanical
equipment)
Digital computers count by
digits in distinct steps.
(electric wall clock)
IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics
Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004

Historical Background of Computing

(1830s) C. Babbage developed
the idea of a mechanical
digital computer. (undertake
laborious calculations ; store
the results for further use)
(1904) A. Fleming invented the
first diode.(allow current to
flow in one direction) Babbage's Difference Engine
L. De Forest devised the triode
valve. (control the flow of
current)
IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics
Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004

the transistor was introduced. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . 3rd generation computer. generating large amounts of heat) (1947) The first transistor was developed at Bell Lab. based on integrated circuit.(filling large rooms. (valve computer !) 2nd generation computer. Historical Background of Computing (1940s) Thermionic valves was used in the first electronic computers. based on small-scale integrated circuits.(early 1960s) 4th generation computer.

1. as with manual drawing. Computer-aided design. is only the graphical means of representing a design. is a technique where the attributes of the computer and those of the designer are blended together into a problem-solving team. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing What is CADD ? Computer-aided drawing is a technique where engineering drawings are produced with the assistance of a computer and. however. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing Two-dimensional (2D) computer drawing is the representation of an object in the single-view format which shows two of the three object dimensions or the mutiview format where each view reveals two dimensions.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing Three-dimensional (3D) computer drawing is the coordinate format. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1. Three dimensional computer aided drawing allows the production of geometric models of a component or product for spatial and visual analysis.

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing The advantages of using CADD systems are listed as follow: constant quality drawing saving on repetition creation of database greater accuracy creation of library multicolour drawings use of layers editing functions IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . 1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing History And Background 1963 Sketchpad in MIT The first computer aided drawing system was introduced by IBM.

„ Sketchpad is considered to be the ancestor of modern computer-aided drafting (CAD) programs as well as a major breakthrough in the development of computer graphics in general. „ It helped change the way people interact with computers. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing „ Sketchpad was a revolutionary computer program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 in the course of his PhD thesis. 1.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing „ Ivan Sutherland demonstrated with it that computer graphics could be utilized for both artistic and technical purposes in addition to showing a novel method of human-computer interaction. Sketchpad used an x-y point plotter display as well as the then recently invented light pen. „ Sketchpad was the first program ever to utilize a complete graphical user interface.1. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing „ The clever way the program organized its geometric data pioneered the use of "objects" and "instances" in computing and pointed forward to object oriented programming. 1. „ Sketchpad ran on the Lincoln TX-2 computer at MIT. „ In 1963 most computers ran jobs in batch job mode only. using punch cards or magnetic tape reels submitted by professional programmers or engineering students.

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing History And Background – 2 In modern systems the light pen has been replaced by more effective pointing hardware. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . a mouse . that is a digitizer tablet.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CAD system and Hardware (a) the mainframe computer (b) the minicomputer (c) the microcomputer Input Devices The input devices are used for making selections from a menu. 1. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Sending these commands into the computer produces complete engineering drawings. which is a layout of a variety of commands and functions required to operate the system.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing Mouse Digitizer (tablet) Light pen Joystick Scanner IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

(a) impact printers (dot matrix) (b) non-impact printers include electrostatic. hard copy. ink-jet and laser (c) flatbed plotters (d) drum plotters IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . 1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CAD system and Hardware –2 Output Devices The output devices receive data from the computer and provide an output.

target object) IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing The User Interface CAD systems may be considered as comprising a large number of functions for creating or manipulating the design model. Traditionally. command (optional parameters . 1. there are two ways in which this is achieved: Command-based systems Command-based systems operate by reading a command and its parameters entered by the user. carrying out the required actions. then waiting for the next command.

The most important of these rules are: A clear. Easy function selection by a well-structured menu system. 1. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Easily accessible and clearly written help information. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing The User Interface –2 Menu-driven systems The menu-driven approach contrasts markedly with the command approach. well presented screen layout. Meaningful and helpful prompts to the user. Meaningful function names. The basic principle is that the user is at any time presented with a list or menu of the functions that are available to be selected.

Management functions are concerned with how the drawing is presented both on the screen and eventually on paper. The functions can be said to fall into three categories: Synthesis type functions are concerned mainly with the creation of geometric features and drawing details Modification functions include those which allow for the deletion and editing of existing geometry or detail. analysis and manufacturing work. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CADD FUNCTIONALITY The main benefits of a computerized draughting and design system over those of manual methods is this ability to represent the design of a component or assembly in a geometrically accurate format so that the same model can be used for other modelling. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . 1.

1. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Most of these packages have both a 2D and 3D component or have an integrated 2D and 3D modeling system. A lot of ease and efficiency has been obtained with the use of CADD systems. and ProEngineer. The newer versions of drawing software operate under a menu system which can be accessed through keyboard input or mouse manipulation. CATIA. SolidWorks. I-DEAS. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CADD SYSTEM SELECTION There is a large variety of different CADD packages available on the market these days and the design manager is faced with the enormous problem of selecting a package to suit the demands of the company and its product range. Among the more widely used CAD systems are AutoCAD.

Data transfer characteristics : when we consider data transfer between two computers. Memory capacity : evaluation between main and branch memory circuits. we have to keep in mind the need to decrease computing time IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . the system must have. 1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CADD SYSTEM SELECTION – 2 According to these factors. Functional abilities: the abilities to perform memory circuits. or a main computer and a station.

how good and how long is the training? How easy is it to expand the system? IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . surfaces or solids? Other analysis tools needed? Will the ability to transfer the geometry to these modelling and analysis systems be needed? Compatibility with other systems needed? How good is the maintenance and support from the suppliers? How much. 1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CADD SYSTEM SELECTION – 3 The size of the company and the amount of investment capital available will be one of the main deciding factors but there are many other questions to be considered: Mainframe or PC/workstation platform? Two dimensions or three? Lines.

5 MB of free disk space during installation only CD-ROM drive 640 x 480 VGA video display (1024 x 768 recommended) Windows-supported display adapter Mouse or other pointing device IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing AutoCAD AutoCAD is PC-based CAD software products (late 1982). System Requirements for AutoCAD Windows NT or Windows 95/98/2000 Intel 486 or Pentium processor or compatible 32 MB of RAM 50 MB of hard disk space 64MB of disk swap space 2. 1.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing menu bar Docked toolbars Floating toolbar crosshairs graphic window Command line Status bar IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . 1.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . and document your mechanical product. 2D drawing capabilities for mechanical design.1. and 3D drafting and drawing capabilities that help you conceptualize. and greatly expanded 3D goemetric coverage. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing MECHANICAL DESKTOP Mechanical Desktop offers greater ease of use. flexibility and speed. design. Mechanical Desktop is an integrated package of advanced 3D modeling tools.

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing menu bar Docked toolbars Floating toolbar Desktop browser crosshairs graphic window Command line Status bar IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing Part / Assembly Environment „ Assembly Mode „ Scene Mode „ Drawing Mode IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing PRO/ENGINEER Pro/ENGINEER or Pro/E. Features are three-dimensional (3D) geometries that have direct analogies to shapes that can be machined or manufactured. Feature-based solids modeling creates and modifies geometric shapes that make up an object in a way that readily represents common manufacturing processes. is a three-dimensional (3D). solids model-ing system. feature- based.1. such as holes or rounds. It was developed by Parametric Technologies Corporation (PTC) in the late 1980s. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

menu bar tool bar message area graphic window IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

experiment with features and dimensions. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing SOLID WORKS SolidWorks is mechanical design automation software that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft® WindowsTM graphical user interface. and produce models and detailed drawings.1. This easy-to- learn tool makes it possible for mechanical designers to quickly sketch out ideas. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing menu bar toolbars drawing document IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 Status bar . 1.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

1. I-DEAS is a complete Mechanical Computer Aided Engineering System for the engineering department. It provides full function design. manufacturing (CAM). This software was designed to facilitate a collaborative concurrent engineering approach to mechanical engineering product design and analysis. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing I-DEAS (INTEGRATED DESIGN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS SOFTWARE) I-DEAS (Integrated Design Engineering Analysis Software) is a computer aided design (CAD). and NC programming in support of mechanical design automation. testing. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . drafting. analysis. and engineering (CAE) package.

I-DEAS Solid Modelling (Geomod) I-DEAS Drafting (Geodraw) I-DEAS Engineering Analysis (Supertab) contains finite element modelling for finite element solvers such as ANSYS or ABAQUES. I-DEAS System Dynamic (Systan) is used to design complex mechanical system. project management.1. and data acquisition IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . I-DEAS Test Data Analysis (TDAS) offers tools for general and specific data analysis. which are selected from the first menu option entering I-DEAS. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing I-DEAS The package is separated into five distinct families.

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing I-DEAS Design Application Modeler Task Drafting Simulation Manufacturing Test IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing menu task task specific icons application specific graphic icons region common list region icons prompt region IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing CATIA stands for Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application. is the most powerful and widely used CAD (computer aided design) software of its kind in the world.1. CATIA was created by Dassault Systems of France and is marketed worldwide by IBM. IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . CATIA is used by the automotive and aerospace industries for automobile and aircraft product and tooling design.

1. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing menu bar toolbars icons graphical window status bar IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .

Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.

sdrc.com I-DEAS CAD software home page www.com Pro-Engineer CAD Software www.com CATIA CAD software home page www.intergraphics.autodesk.ptc.com SolidWorks CAD software home page www.cadkey.solidworks. Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing Web Pages for CAD softwares Autodesk home page www.com IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 .1.com CADKEY software www.

IE102 Engineering Drawing & Graphics Dr C Erdem IMRAK @ 2004 . Arc etc. layering etc.) „ Modification (move. The steps to follow are: „ Screen Coordinates „ Geometric Parameters „ Geometry Creation (Line..) „ Management (zoom.) Prepare a pen & a notebook . copy etc) „ Automatic Functions (dimensioning... Introduction to Computer Aided Drawing You will learn parametric design and basic drawing functions. cross-hatching etc. Circle.1.