You are on page 1of 56

Khaidarwisy’s Collections@SKuaT 2018

My GRAMMAR
BOOKLET

Name :
Class :
School :
Teacher’s name
GrammarCollections@SKuaT
Khaidarwisy’s Workshop 2018 2018

G
R N
A O
M T
M E
A
R

1
1
A common noun is a noun which is common to all
people or things.
• children • sister • neighbour
• baby • nurse • hawker
PEOPLE •

father
mother


teacher
carpenter


boy
girl
• brother • pupil • lady

• tiger • girrafe • turtle


• lion • horse • bear
ANIMALS • fish • frog • snake
• cat • crocodile • zebra
• buffalo • lizard • monkey

• pen • car • television


• pencil • table • lamp
OBJECTS • book • computer • shoes
• fan • plate • cap
• table • umbrella • blouse

• mosque • lighthouse • Clinic


• church • school • police
BUILDINGS • museum • temple station
• hostel • factory
• hotel • pupil

• airport • playground • field


• zoo • restaurant • court
PLACES • stadium • market
• park • cinema
• beach • theatre
2
A proper noun is a special name that belongs to only
one person or thing that begins with capital letter.
• Encik Idrus • Shakespeare
• Puan fatimah • Alexandra
PEOPLE • Mr. Loh • Mozart
• Mrs. Vijaya • Maria
• Chong Wei • Siti Nurhaliza

• Tompok • Pumpkin
• Sammy • Teddy
ANIMALS • Candy • Bubbles
• Comel • Snowball
• Thunder • Bambi

• America • Italy
COUNTRIES •

Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur


Thailand
Kedah
& CITIES •

Malacca
Jerantut


Bangkok
New Delhi

• Monday • Friday
MONTHS •

Tuesday
Wednesday


Thursday
February
& DAYS •

Saturday
July


March
November

DESERTS • Kalahari Desert • Atlantic Ocean


• Sahara Desert • Pacific Ocean
& • Gobi Desert • Arctic Ocean
• Great Victoria • Indian Ocean
OCEANS • Namib Desert • Southern Ocean
3
2
An abstract noun is something that we cannot see or
touch but can only feel or think about. It is a feeling,
a condition or an action.

• ability • attraction • choice • childhood


• absence • astonishment • co-operation • decision
• admiration • beauty • concentration • disappointment
• anger • bravery • consideration •darkness
• anxiety • brightness • conflict • enjoyment

• explanation • imagination • kindness • thought


• faith • leadership • punishment • truth
• freedom • love • pleasure • wisdom
• goodness • knowledge • sadness • youth
• happiness • pride • strength • hope

4
3
A collective noun is the name of a number of things,
animals or people taken together as one thing.
A • a pride of lions • a team of horse; oxen
N • a herd of cattle • a gaggle of geese
I • a swarm of bees • a pack of wolves
M • a litter of kittens; • a flight of swallows
A puppies • a troop of monkey
L • a school of whales • a brood of chickens
S • a flock of sheep; birds • a nest of mice

O • a loaf of bread • a chest of drawers


B • a string of pearls • a suit of clothes
J • a pack of cards • a batch of bread
E • a set of tools • a fleet of cars ; ships
C • a row of houses • a suite of furniture ; room
T • a bunch of keys • a collection of pictures ; stamps
S • peal of bells • a bale of cotton ; wool

• a party of friends • a board of directors


P
• a troupe of dancers • a choir of singers
E
• an army of soldiers • a company of actors
O
• a bench of magistrates ; • a crew of sailors
P
bishops • a field of runners
L
• a band of musicians • a staff of teachers ; servants
E
• a bevy of ladies • a team of payers

• a basket / crate of fruits • a comb of bananas


P • a bouquet of flowers • a cluster of grapes ;
L • a bunch of grapes ; bananas coconuts
A • a clump of trees • a sheaf of corn
N • a hedge of bushes • a stack of hay
T • a punnet of strawberries • a tuft of grass
S • a forest of trees
5
4
 Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted.
 They can be in the singular or plural forms.
 Singular means one.
 Plural means more than one.
 Articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are used before the singular nouns.

• a ball • a desk • a child


• a cat • a pencil • a boy
Examples:
• a rose • a blouse • a toy

 Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be counted.


 They are always in the singular form.

• rice • oil • salt • hair


• flour • water • sugar • money
Examples: • smoke • tea • milk • mud
• rice • sand • cloth • coffee
• perfume • pepper • soup
• soil • fun • jam
• butter • sauce • bread
• porridge • cereal • noodles
6
5
 There are certain words that are used for countable
and uncountable nouns.

• many • several Only used


• a few for countable
• a large number of nouns
• a small number of
• There are many dresses in the wardrobe.
• A few girls helped the old man to carry the bags.
• She bought several notebooks from the shop.
• Aira has a large number of Barbie dolls.
• Pak Ali has a small number of cows in his farm.

Only used • much


for uncountable • a little
nouns • a great deal of

• There is too much sugar in my tea.


• A little salt will make the soup tastier.
• There is a great deal of rubbish at the backyard of
her house.

7
• any • several Can be used
• some for countable
• plenty of and uncountable
• a lot of nouns

• I ate a lot of apples yesterday. ( Countable )


• I need a lot of flour to make the cookies. ( Uncountable)
• Father bought some oranges yesterday. ( Countable )
• Please add some sugar into the coffee. ( Uncountable )
• Are there any brownies in the box? ( Countable )
• Is there any milk in the bottle? ( Uncountable )
• The grocer sold plenty of eggs yesterday. ( Countable )
• She adds plenty of sugar into my coffee. ( Uncountable )

• isn’t / aren’t / wasn’t / weren’t


/ doesn’t / don’t/ didn’t : any
many / much
many / much
• too
a few / a little
• only
• in asking questions any

8
6
Phrasal Quantifiers are phrases that show quantity.

Phrasal Nouns
Quantifiers

A bottle of powder, tomato ketchup, water, milk, oil, syrup

A crate of Apples, mangoes, canned drinks, oranges, pears

A slice of Cake, bread, meat, beef, mutton, cheese

A spoonful of Sugar, salt, flour, rice, oil, cough syrup, medicine

A tube of Chocolate topping, whipped cream, toothpaste

A pinch of Salt, nutmeg, chilly powder

A cube of Ice, chicken stock, cheese, sugar

A scoop of Ice cream, rice, jelly

A tin of Biscuits, milk powder

A pail of Water, cement, sand

A can of Soup, sardines, soft drink, mushrooms, milk

9
Phrasal Nouns
Quantifiers

A jar of jam, honey, chutney, pickle, peanut butter

A stick of cinnamon, celery, cheese

A bunch of grapes, bananas, rambutans

A bundle of sticks, vegetables, firewood

A sprinkle of glitter, grated cheese, sugar, chocolate rice

A sack of potatoes, onions, sugar, rice

A cylinder of gas

A plate of noodles, rice, fruit, fried vegetables

A tub of ice cream, cream

A tray of eggs

A sachet of chilly sauce

A clove of garlic

A drop of ink

10
7
Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Adding ‘s’ to the


No 1 singular form

Singular Plural Singular Plural


cottage cottages street streets
year years poster posters
month months ruler rulers
day days girl girls
noun nouns office offices
song songs bank banks
canoe canoes carrot carrots
Adding ‘s’ to the nouns
No 2 that end with ‘o’

Singular Plural Singular Plural


motto mottos banjo banjos
kimono kimonos zero zeros
piano pianos dynamo dynamos
solo solos radio radios
video videos kangaroo kangaroos
11
Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Adding ‘es’ to the nouns that end


No 3 with ’s’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’ and ‘x’

Singular Plural Singular Plural


abacus abacuses class classes
dress dresses church churches
bus buses sandwich sandwiches
octopus octopuses crutch crutches
fish fishes watch watches
wish wishes fox foxes
bush bushes glass glasses

Adding ‘es’ to the nouns that end with ’o’.


No 4

Singular Plural Singular Plural


cargo cargoes mango mangoes
echo echoes mosquito mosquitoes
hero heroes volcano volcanoes
tomato tomatoes vertigo vertigoes
buffalo buffaloes negro negroes
12
Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

Changing ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘es’ for nouns that


No 5 end in ‘y’ and there is a consonant before the ‘y’

Singular Plural Singular Plural


story stories country countries
butterfly butterflies berry berries
diary diaries injury injuries
candy candies study studies
lorry lorries scenery sceneries
baby babies city cities
army armies party parties

Adding ‘s’ to the singular nouns if the noun


No 6 ends in ‘y’ and there is a vowel before the ‘y’

Singular Plural Singular Plural


day days way ways
donkey donkeys valley valleys
monkey monkeys toy toys
key keys guy guys
boy boys turkey turkeys
13
Rules of changing from singular to plural nouns

No 7
Changing ‘f’, ‘fe’ to ‘ves’

Singular Plural Singular Plural


elf elves wolf wolves
knife knives wife wives
hoof hooves thief thieves
leaf leaves
life lives
calf calves
loaf loaves

No 8
Adding ‘s’ to nouns ending with ‘f’ and ‘fe’

Singular Plural
gulf gulfs
roof roofs
chief chiefs
beef beefs
café cafés
dwarf dwarfs
14
8
as the subject of the verb as the object of the verb
 I : I have taken my lunch  Me : My mother bought me a
Subject : I pair of jeans.

Verb : have Object : me

 You : You are pretty. Verb : bought

Subject : You  You : The fresh air is good for


you
Verb : are
Object : you
 He : He wore a black jacket.
Verb : is
Subject : He
 Us : My sister gave us some clay.
Verb : wore
Object : us
 She : She bought a dress.
Verb : gave
Subject : She
 Them : I show them some shawl.
Verb : bought
Object : them
 It : It has a broken wing.
Verb : show
Subject : It
 It : They chased it away.
Verb : has
Object : it
 We : We enjoy eating cookies.
Verb : chased
Subject : We
 Her : He sent her some flowers.
Verb : enjoy
Object : her
 They : They love local fruits
Verb : sent
Subject : They
 Him : We told him the news.
Verb : love
Subject : him
15 Verb : told
9
Possessive pronouns are used to show owning or having something of
your own.
M
I I have a dictionary.
N
E
It is mine.
O
U Anne and I have a pet cat.
R
S It is ours.
H Darry has a computer.
I
S It is his.
H
E Siti has a beautiful hat.
R
S It is hers.
T
H
E
Liz and Sue has a kitten.
I It is theirs.
R
S

Y
O I have a dictionary.
U
R
It is mine.
S 16
10

Possessive pronouns are used to show owning


or having something of your own.

I wrote the letter myself.


Myself
I bought the blouse myself.

You washed the car yourself.


Yourself
You watered the plants yourself.

Please clean the room yourselves.


Yourselves You should hang the clothes
yourselves.

Herself Aina baked the cake herself.


She arranged the books herself.

Himself My uncle painted the wall himself.


Rajan fed the fish himself.

17
Possessive pronouns are used to show owning
or having something of your own.

Ourselves We cleaned the drain ourselves.


Salma and I picked the fruits
ourselves.

Itself The cat scratched itself.


The kitten licked itself.

One should have confidence in


Oneself oneself.
One could easily arranged it
oneself

They decorated the room


Themselves
themselves.
Laila and her friends sang the
song themselves.

18
11

• We use demonstrative pronouns to


“point” at people or things.

Type Usage
1. THIS Singular ( near )
Example :
This is my bag.

2. THAT Singular ( far )


Example :
That is my bag.

3. THESE Plural ( near )


Example :
These are my bags.

4. THOSE Plural ( far )


Example :
Those are my bags.

19
12

We can use more than one adjectives when describing


something or someone in sentences.

Age /
Opinion / Value Shape
Temperature

• beautiful • Size ( big, • old


• famous small ) • hot
• clever • Length • new
• handsome ( long , tall ) • warm
• strong • Shape • young
• proud ( round, • cold
• weak square, thin, • ancient
• friendly fat ) • modern
• fair • Width
• dark ( wide,
• good narrow )
• naughty
• poor

Colour Origin Material

• red • Malay • rubber


• brown • Indian • cotton
• blue • Chinese • gold
• green • Malaysian • copper
• orange • Italian • leather
• purple • American • plastic

20
13

Formation of the camparative and superlative

Adding –er and -est


No 1

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


Bold Bolder Boldest
Brave Braver Bravest
Clean Cleaner Cleanest
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
Cold Colder Coldest
Dark Darker Darkest
Dear Dearer Dearest
Fine Finer Finest
Free Freer Freest
Great Greater Greatest
High Higher Highest
Kind Kinder Kindest

Forming the comparatives and the superlatives of words


No 2
ending with ‘y’ use ‘-ier’ and ‘iest’.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


dirty dirtier dirtiest lazy lazier laziest
early earlier earliest merry merrier merriest
easy easier easiest naughty naughtier naughtiest
funny funnier funniest noisy noisier noisiest
happy happier happiest ugly uglier ugliest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest wealthy wealthier Wealthiest
hungry hungrier hungriest

21
To form the comparative and superlative of some adjectives,
No 3
the last letter must be doubled.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


big bigger biggest red redder reddest
dull duller dullest sad sadder saddest
fat fatter fattest tall taller tallest
hot hotter hottest thin thinner thinnest
mad madder maddest wet wetter wettest

If the positive ends in ‘y’ there is a vowel before it, the ‘y’
No 4 is not changed. Add ‘er’ to the comparative and ‘est’ to the
superlative.
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
gay gayer gayest
grey greyer greyest

To form the comparative and superlative by changing the


No 5
spelling of the positive.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


bad worse worst
far farther farthest
good better best
little less least
many more most
much more most
up upper upmost 22
If the positive is long ( more than two syllables ) add more
No 6
to the comparative and most to the superlative.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


brilliant more brilliant most brilliant
charming more charming most charming
dangerous more dangerous most dangerous
expensive more expensive most expensive
foolish more foolish most foolish
generous more generous most generous
handsome more handsome most handsome
ignorant more ignorant most ignorant
learned more learned most learned
polite more polite most polite
robust more robust most robust
serious more serious most serious
splendid more splendid most splendid
wicked more wicked most wicked
hardworking more hardworking most hardworking
intelligent more intelligent most intelligent
interesting more interesting most interesting
fortunate more fortunate most fortunate
luxurious more luxurious most luxurious
merciful more merciful most merciful
peaceful more peaceful most peaceful

23
14
PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
add adds added add adding added
allow allows allowed allow allowing allowed
arrive arrives arrived arrive arriving arrived
awake awakes awoke awake awaking awoken
bake bakes baked bake baking baked
beat beats beat beat beating bitten
become becomes became become becoming become
begin begins began begin beginning begun
bend bends bent bend bending bent
bite bites bit bite biting bit / bitten
bleed bleeds bled bleed bleeding bled
blow blows blew blow blowing blown
borrow borrows borrowed borrow borrowing borrowed
break breaks broke break breaking broken
breathe breathes breathed breathe breathing breathed
bring brings brought bring bringing brought
brush brushes brushed brush brushing brushed
build builds built build building built
burn burns burnt burn burning burnt
bury buries buried bury burying buried
buy buys bought buy buying bought
carry carries carried carry carrying carried
catch catches caught catch catching caught
change changes changed change changing changed
choose chooses chose choose choosing chosen
clap claps clapped clap clapping clapped
clean cleans cleaned clean cleaning cleaned
climb climbs climbed climb climbing climbed
close closes closed close closing closed
comb combs combed comb combing combed
come comes came come coming come
cook cooks cooked cook cooking cooked
copy copies copied copy copying copied
cry cries cried cry crying cried
cut cuts cut cut cutting cut
cycle cycles cycled cycle cycling cycled
dance dances danced dance dancing danced
deal deals dealt deal dealing dealt
dig digs dug dig digging dug
dive dives dived dive diving dived
divide divides divided divide dividing divided
do does did do doing done
draw draws drew draw drawing drawn
dream dreams dreamed/ dream dreaming dreamed/
dreamt 24 dreamt
PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
drink drinks drank drink drinking drunk
drive drives drove drive driving driven
drop drops dropped drop dropping dropped
dry dries dried dry drying dried
eat eats ate eat eating eaten
fail fails failed fail failing failed
fall falls fell fall falling fallen
feed feeds fed feed feeding fed
feel feels felt feel feeling felt
fight fights fought fight fighting fought
find finds found find finding found
fit fits fitted fit fitting fitted
fly flies flew fly flying flown
forget forgets forgot forget forgetting forgotten
forgive forgives forgave forgive forgiving forgiven
get gets got get getting got
give gives gave give giving given
go goes went go going gone
grow grows grew grow growing grown
hand hands handed hand handing handed
hang hangs hung hang hanging hung
hear hears heard hear hearing heard
hide hides hid hide hiding hidden
hit hits hit hit hitting hit
hold holds held hold holding held
hope hopes hoped hope hoping hoped
hurry hurries hurried hurry hurrying hurried
hurt hurts hurt hurt hurting hurt
join joins joined join joining joined
jump jumps jumped jump jumping jumped
keep keeps kept keep keeping kept
kick kicks kicked kick kicking kicked
kneel kneels knelt kneel kneeling knelt
know knows knew know knowing known
laugh laughs laughed laugh laughing laughed
lay lays laid lay laying laid
lead leads led lead leading led
leave leaves left leave leaving left
lend lends lent lend lending lent
let lets let let letting let
lie lies lay lie lying lain
live lives lived live living lived
lock locks locked lock locking locked
lose loses lost lose losing lost
25
PRESENT PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
open opens opened open opening opened
pay pays paid pay paying paid
pick picks picked pick picking picked
pin pins pinned pin pinning pinned
plan plans planned plan planning planned
pluck plucks plucked pluck plucking plucked
pull pulls pulled pull pulling pulled
push push pushed push pushing pushed
put puts put put putting put
read reads read read reading read
reply replies replied reply replying replied
ride rides rode ride riding ridden
ring rings rang ring ringing rung
rise rises rose rise rising risen
row rows rowed row rowing rowed
run runs ran run running run
say says said say saying said
see sees saw see seeing seen
sell sells sold sell selling sold
send sends sent send sending sent
sew sews sewed sew sewing sewn
shake shakes shook shake shaking shaken
shine shines shone shine shining shone
shoot shoots shot shoot shooting shot
shout shouts shouted shout shouting shouted
show shows showed show showing shown
shut shuts shut shut shutting shut
sing sings sang sing singing sung
sink sinks sank sink sinking sunk
sit sits sat sit sitting sat
skip skips skipped skip skipping skipped
sleep sleeps slept sleep sleeping slept
smile smiles smiled smile smiling smiled
speak speaks spoke speak speaking spoken
spend spends spent spend spending spent
stand stands stood stand standing stood
steal steals stole steal stealing stolen
stop stops stopped stop stopping stopped
strike strikes struck strike striking struck
study studies studied study studying studied
sweep sweeps swept sweep sweeping swept
swim swims swam swim swimming swum
take takes took take taking taken
talk talks talked talk talking talked
26
PRESENT TENSE PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS PAST
TENSE TENSE TENSE PARTICIPLE
tell tells told tell telling told
think thinks thought think thinking thought
throw throws threw throw throwing thrown
tie ties tied tie tying tied
try tries tried try trying tried
type types typed type typing typed
understand understands understood understand understanding understood
use uses used use using used
wait waits waited wait waiting waited
wake wakes woke wake waking woken
walk walks walked walk walking walked
water waters watered water watering watered
wear wears wore wear wearing worn
win wins won win winning won
wind winds wound wind winding wound
write writes wrote write writing written

27
15

An adverb is a descriptive word that adds more


information to a verb.

More examples:
carefully, carelessly,
silently, loudly, gracefully,
sweetly, soundly, happily,
sadly, neatly, softly

More examples:
every day, every
afternoon, just now, last
night, last week,
tomorrow, next week,
soon, later

More examples:
hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly,
monthly, yearly, never, seldom,
sometimes, often, usually,
always, twice

28
An adverb is a descriptive word that adds more
information to a verb.

More examples:
Here, away, near, nowhere,
above, there, inside,
everywhere, somewhere,
below, outside

An adverb can be
placed:

after the action The children drank thirstily.


after the object He pushed her roughly.
before the He ran quickly into the
preposition house.
before the action The boys hurriedly stacked the
if there are many books into
words after it neat piles.

29
16

USAGE EXAMPLES
1.When the action happens 1. Rizal wakes up early every morning.
habitually.
2. The children usually cycle to the library.
Words usually used are: 3. We always jog in the park.
every….., usually,
sometimes, always, 4. Darren visits his grandparents in the
seldom, often. weekends.

2. When we state universal 1. The moon goes round the earth.


truths.
2. Dolphins communicate through sounds.
3. The grass is green.
4. The sun sets in the west.
3. When we give 1. Please arrange these on the shelf.
instructions or directions
2. Draw an animal and colour it.
3. Please shut the door.
4. Walk along Jalan Meru until you reach to
a junction.
4. When we refer to events, 1. My father works in a bank.
actions or situations
which are true at the 2. Azlan lives in Kota Kinabalu.
present time. 3. I am ten years old.
4. We are twins.

30
USAGE EXAMPLES
a) To show an Ali watered the plants at 8a.m. today.
action that They watered in the school hall this morning.
happened in The girls watered the school compound just
the past. now.
b) Words usually Yesterday, last ( night, week, month…), just
used are: now, an hour ago, a few minutes ago, this
morning
c) The simple 1)By adding ‘d’ to the words ending in ‘e’.
past tense is Examples : bake – baked , dance – danced,
formed: like - liked
2)By adding ‘ed’ to the verb
Examples : clean – cleaned , climb -
climbed , jump - jumped
3) By adding ‘ied’ to words ending with ‘y’
except when the ‘y’
follows a vowel.
Examples: burry – burried , carry – carried,
hurry - hurried
4) By adding consonant + ‘ed’
Examples: chop – chopped , drop –
dropped, stop - stopped

31
USAGE EXAMPLES
a) To show an action Ali watered the plants at 8a.m. today.
that happened in They watered in the school hall this morning.
the past. The girls watered the school compound just now.

b) Words usually Yesterday, last ( night, week, month…), just now, an hour
used are: ago, a few minutes ago, this morning

c) The simple past 1)By adding ‘d’ to the words ending in ‘e’.
tense is formed: Examples : bake – baked , dance – danced, like - liked

2)By adding ‘ed’ to the verb


Examples : clean – cleaned , climb - climbed , jump -
jumped

3) By adding ‘ied’ to words ending with ‘y’ except when


the ‘y’
follows a vowel.
Examples: burry – burried , carry – carried, hurry -
hurried
4) By adding consonant + ‘ed’
Examples: chop – chopped , drop – dropped, stop -
stopped

d) The simple past 5) Without any changes


tense is formed: Examples : cut , spread , shut, put , cost
6) By changing the whole verb ( irregular verbs)
Examples : see – saw , catch – caught, bring - brought

• The simple past tense of ‘am’ and ‘is’ is ‘was’.


• The simple past tense of ‘are’ is ‘were’.
• ‘Was’ is used with ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ and singular nouns.
• ‘Were’ is used with ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’ and plural nouns.

32
17

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) Formula :
Subject + verb to be ( am,is,are ) + verb + ing

b) We use the present They are waiting for you now.


continuous tense She is watching television now.
for actions taking The bears and its cubs are returning to
place at the time of their den now.
speaking.

Word usually used


is : now

c) We also use it for I am visiting my uncle tomorrow.


actions that are She is coming to our house next week.
going to happen in They are sitting for the exam next
the near future. month.
My friends and classmates are planning
to celebrate my birthday this Saturday.

33
18

USAGE EXAMPLES

a) To show an Ali was watering the plants at 8a.m. today.


action that They were dancing in the school hall this
happened morning.
over a period The girls were sweeping the school
of time compound just now.

b) To show two I was swimming while he was building a


past actions huge sandcastle.
happening at We were sleeping while they were studying.
the same
time.

c) To show that They were always playing together in their


something childhood days.
was a past Aminah was always baking cakes in the
habit. afternoon.

d) To show that I was studying in my room last night when it


one action rained.
happened My friends were sleeping when I entered the
while another room.
was still
taking action.

34
19

USAGE EXAMPLES

Formula :
Subject + will / shall + root verb

b) We use the 1. Our examination will start next


simple future Monday.
tense for
planned actions 2. Zafri will pass his driving test soon.
that have yet to
be carried. 3. I shall mop the floor after the party
has ended.
Shall is usually
used for the 4. We shall visit Uncle Osman in the
pronouns I and hospital this evening.
we, whereas will
is used for other. 5. She will teach at the new school.

6. The will go for a picnic.

35
20

• We use the question tags to change statements into


questions.
• Examples : He is a teacher. ( statement )
He is a teacher, isn’t he? ( questions )

• Positive statement will use negative question tags.


• Negative statement will use positive question tags.
POSITIVE STATEMENTS NEGATIVE QUESTION
TAGS
1. Amin is a naughty boy, isn’t he?
2. Amin and Ahmad are naughty aren’t they?
boys,
3. Amin was a naughty boy, wasn’t he?
4. Amin and Ahmad were naughty weren’t they?
boys,
5. Aminah has a cat, hasn’t she?
6. You have a cat, haven’t you?
7. They will go to school tomorrow, won’t they?
8. Aida can help us, can’t she?
9. We should keep ourselves clear, shouldn’t we?
10. The boy plays football, doesn’t he?
11. The boys play football, don’t they?
12. The boys played football, didn’t they?

36
NEGATIVE STATEMENTS POSITIVE QUESTION TAGS
1. Amin isn’t a naughty boy, is he?
2. Amin and Ahmad aren’t are they?
naughty boy,
3. Amin wasn’t a naughty boy, was he?
4. Amin and Ahmad weren’t were they?
naughty boys,
5. Aminah hasn’t a cat, has she?
6. You haven’t a cat, have you?
7. They won’t go to school will they?
tomorrow,
8. Aida can’t help us, can she?
9. We shouldn’t keep ourselves should we?
clear,
10. The boy doesn’t plays does he?
football,
11. The boys don’t play football, do they?
12. The boys didn’t play football, did they?

37
21

We use conjunctions to join words, phrases or sentences.

TYPES USAGE EXAMPLES

a) Although We use although to 1. John went to work


( walaupun ) join two contrasting although he is sick.
facts
b) And We use and to join 1. She is thirsty. She is tired.
( dan ) words, phrases or She is thirsty and tired.
sentences.
c) But , yet We use but to join 1. She wants to work but
( tetapi ) ideas that are her father won’t let her.
opposite of each
other.
d) Or We use or to show a 1. Do you want a piece of
( atau ) choice between two cake or some cookies?
things.
e) If We use if to show 1. If we don’t go, she will
( jika ) condition. be upset.

f) So We use so to show 1. They were early so they


( jadi , oleh itu ) result watched television.

38
We use conjunctions to join words, phrases or sentences.

TYPES USAGE EXAMPLES

g) because We use 1. Ali won the prize


( kerana ) because to because he had all
show reason. the correct answer.
h) Either …or Refer to a 1. You can either walk
( sama ada, situation in up the stairs or take
salah satu which there the lift.
is a choice
between two
things.
i) Neither ….nor Say that two 1. Neither Ben nor Wati
( mahu pun or more went to school
, pun things are yesterday.
tidak ) not true.
j) Instead We use 1. You can use the blue
( sebaliknya instead to book instead the red
, gantinya) show other one.
choice.
k) Since We use since 1. Since you are kind, I
( semenjak , to express give you this present.
memandangkan ) cause and 2. We live here since
effect. 1979.

39
22

The subject of a sentence must agree with the verb.


SUBJECT VERBS

PRESENT PAST
PRESENT PAST
SINGULAR PLURAL CONTINOUS CONTINUOUS
TENSE TENSE
TENSE TENSE

am + verb +
was + verb +
am was ing
ing
do did
I Example:
have had Example :
I was eating
play played I am eating
just now.
now.
are + verb +were + verb
are were ing + ing
do did Example:
You You
have had Example : You were
play played You are eating just
eating now. now.
were + verb
He is + verb +
+ ing
She is was ing
It does did
Example:
Ahmad has had Example :
You were
The boy plays played He is eating
eating just
The cat now.
now.

40
SUBJECT VERBS

PRESENT PAST
PRESENT PAST
SINGULAR PLURAL CONTINOUS CONTINUOUS
TENSE TENSE
TENSE TENSE
We are + verb + were + verb +
They ing ing
are were
Ali and
do did
Abu Example:
have had
The Example : We were
play played
boys We are eating just
The cats eating now. now.
Note:
Someone , each one , everyone, anyone, no one, somebody, everybody,
anybody, nobody ( Singular / one )
Use root word after:
Will , would, can, could, may, might, does, do, did, shall, should, to, must

Remember : Use (-ing) after ‘will be’, ‘after’ and ‘before’


Example: He will be going to school by bus if it rains tomorrow.
After swimming, they were very hungry.
Before eating, they wash their hands.

Use ‘past prticiple’ after HAS / HAVE / HAD


Example : She has gone to school.
They had done the homework.

41
23

Indefinite Articles

A An
‘A’ is used with words ‘An’ is used with words
beginning with a consonant beginning with a vowel sound
sound ( b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,o, of ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘I’, ‘o’, ‘u’.
p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,yz)

• A boy • A flower • An egg • An ice-cream


• A pen • A box • An apple • An elephant
• A rat • A rose • An igloo • An island
• An eagle • An insect
• An ox • An apron
Before a word starting with a • An arrow • An onion
vowel but having a consonant • An ant
sound

Before a silent ‘h’


• A useful book
• A uniform
• A European • An hour
• A university • An honour
• A one-eyed man • An heir
• A one-dollar note • An honest boy
• A one-way street • An honourable man
• A ewe • An hourglass
• A one-legged man

42
Definite Articles

The
1. CLASS 2. COUNTRIES
 To refer to a whole class.  To refer to certain countries
 Example :  Example :
The cow is a useful animal The Philippines, The United States
of America

3. SPECIFIC THINGS 4. SECOND TIME


 To refer to a specific thing  To a noun that is mentioned for a
or person second time
 Example :  Example :
The girl who is standing Aisyah has a hamster. The
under the tree is my hamster is cute.
cousin.

5. ONLY ONE 6. SUPERLATIVES


 Before nouns only one of  Before superlatives.
their kinds.  Examples :
 Examples : the sun, the Abu is the tallest boy in the class.
sea, the earth, the stars Lara is the most beautiful girl in
The earth moves around the village.
the sun.

43
Definite Articles

The
7. PLACES 8. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
 Before names of certain  To refer to a musical instrument
seas, mountains, rivers, being played by someone.
etc.  Example :
 Example: Alisa plays the piano beautifully.
The South China Sea Aryan plays the guitar everyday.
The London Bridge
The Pahang River

We do not use
articles before:

44
24

Means or
Accompaniment

• My grandfather killed • Rina goes to school by


with by
the snake with a stick. car.
• She cut the fish with a • We will send the file
knife. by email.

Description

• The lady with brown • The boy in white


with in
hair is my aunty. shorts is my cousin.
• The man with a green • The things were piled
shirt is my neighbour. in a heap

Place

• They stay at a small in • My aunty was in


at Kuala Lumpur for
village.
• You can post the three days.
letter at 51, Jalan • She arrived in
Semenyih. Singapore a week
• We arrived at the ago.
airport. • The man is in his
office.

45
Place

• The greedy dog fell into the drain.


into
• Aisya’s family moved into the apartment next to ours.
• He threw the rubbish into the big dustbin
• She jumped into the nearest taxi.

Time

at in on to from during after before

by for till until since

• Our school holiday fall in October.


• I shall visit her on Wednesday.
• The lady’s working hours is from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.
• He was in Australia from April to May.
• The girl went missing during the picnic.
• We will meet them after lunch.
• Kayla brushes her teeth before she went to bed.
• He will prepare the menu by tomorrow.
• Lisa was admitted in the hospital for a week.
• There were at the bus station until midnight.
• She has been staying with her grandmother since her mother
passed away

46
Place

• The greedy dog fell into the drain.


into
• Aisya’s family moved into the apartment next to ours.
• He threw the rubbish into the big dustbin
• She jumped into the nearest taxi.

Time

at in on to from during after before

by for till until since

• Our school holiday fall in October.


• I shall visit her on Wednesday.
• The lady’s working hours is from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.
• He was in Australia from April to May.
• The girl went missing during the picnic.
• We will meet them after lunch.
• Kayla brushes her teeth before she went to bed.
• He will prepare the menu by tomorrow.
• Lisa was admitted in the hospital for a week.
• There were at the bus station until midnight.
• She has been staying with her grandmother since her mother
passed away

47
To show place and
positions

• I’ll be waiting for • The book is on the


in on
you in the garden table.

• The dog fell into • We arrived at the


into at
the drain. airport.

• He came by car to • A loud noise came


to from
our house. from the bushes.

• Anis have been • She jumped over


Up over
walking up and the gate.
down down outside his
house

• He hid my bag
under
under the table.

48
To show place and
positions

• The cat is running • He swim across


around across
around the tree. the river.

• We walked along • The bird flew


along through
the foot path. through the hole.

• The picture is • I prefer to sit


near beside
near the clock. beside my father.

• I left the shoes in • He stood in front


behind
behind the door. front of his friends.

49
To show place and
positions

• I waited for him • She waited for me


inside outside
inside the house. outside the room.

• She walked past • I will go to the


past with
the shop. mall with her.

between • Lila is standing against • The teacher told


between Fara the pupils not to
and Alia. lean against the
wet wall.

50
25

There are various


punctuation such as:

? Question mark ! Exclamation mark


• Used at the end of • Used after a
a question. command. Also used
Examples: to show strong
• How are you? emotions such as
• Who is that pretty surprise, anger etc.
lady? Examples:
• Where does Mr. Boon • Help ! Help !
live? • It is very cold !

‘ Apostrophe , Comma
• Used to show • Used to separate
ownership or items in a list, or a
possessions series of nouns
Examples: Examples:
• The girl’s doll. • I bought a pencil, a
(singular ) ruler, an eraser, and a
• The girls’ doll. book at the shop.
( plural) • I love English, Maths,
• The children’s toys Science and
( plural ). Geography.

51
There are various
punctuation such as:

. Full stop A Capital Letters


• Used to mark the • It is used at the
end of a sentence beginning of a
and also after sentence and Proper
abbreviations or Nouns.
short forms. Examples:
Examples: • The clock is round.
• My name is Alia . • Your hair is very
• I like playing beautiful.
football . • Sally lives in a big
• Cash on delivery house near the beach.
C.O.D • Polly is my parrot.

; Semicolon Quotation Mark


• Used to link • A quotation mark is
statements which used in a sentence or
are related to each • question to indicate
other. speech or
Examples: conversation.
• There was a big Examples:
crowd ; some ladies • “ How can you take
are buying them out?” asked
vegetables, some Hisham’s mother.
ladies are buying
fish at the market
and some were
buying groceries.

52
GrammarCollections@SKuaT
Khaidarwisy’s Workshop 2018 2018
Note :
_______________________________
_______________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

53
GrammarCollections@SKuaT
Khaidarwisy’s Workshop 2018 2018
Note :
_______________________________
_______________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

54
“The more that you read, the more
things you will know. The more that
you learn, the more places you'll go.”

Thank you so much dear friends for


supporting Teacher Idayu @
Khaidarwisy’s Collections. Special thanks
also to Teacherfiera.com for inspiring me..

Regards,
Idayu