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Steel Girder Bridge System

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Steel Girder Bridge System

By

Fang Zhou

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of

The College of Engineering and Computer Science

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Master of Science

Florida Atlantic University

Boca Raton, Florida

August 2009

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor, Dr.M.Arockiasamy,

Professor of Civil Engineering, and Director of the Center of Infrastructure and

Constructed Facilities, Florida Atlantic University, for all his help in preparing this

thesis, for his excellent guidance, unique suggestions and advice, for his tireless

editing efforts.

I would like to thank Dr Yang Young and Dr. D.V.Reddy for serving on the

supervisory committee and going through my work, in spite of a busy schedule.

A special thanks is given to Dr. K. Sobhan, Dr. Fred Bloetscher, Department of

Civil Engineering, and Dr. Chi-Tay Tsai, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Florida Atlantic University, for their valuable suggestions, encouragement, and

support. Thanks are extended to Dr. Pete Scarlatos, Professor and Chair

Department of Civil Engineering, Florida Atlantic University. Special thanks are

extended to Digna Mejia, Jessica Meith, and Sue Courtade for their supports.

I would like to thank my family especially my wife. I appreciate their support and

encouragement during my pursuit of a Master’s degree.

iii

ABSTRACT

Author: Fang Zhou

**Title: Blast/Explosion Resistant Analysis of Composite Steel Girder
**

Bridge System

Institution: Florida Atlantic University

Thesis Advisor: Dr. M. Arockiasamy

Degree: Master of Science

Year: 2009

The design of bridge structures to resist explosive loads has become more of a

concern to the engineering community. This thesis proposes a method to

evaluate the effects of conventional blast loads on a two span continuous

composite steel girder bridge system. The bridge design is based on AASHTO

LRFD method. Resistance capacities of bridge deck and composite steel girder

are calculated according to AASHTO specifications. Equivalent blast pressures

on the bridge components are obtained. Response and performance of concrete

deck, steel girders, and supporting piers are evaluated under typical blast loads.

The blast induced force in the bridge components are computed in the static

analyses for varying amounts of TNT. The blast effects in the supporting pier are

determined using both static and dynamic analyses. Further research needs to

be done in the dynamic analysis of the bridge system subjected to blast loads.

iv

….2 Blast/Explosion Waves…………………………………………………..….1 1.….…3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………..22 3.…22 3..….1 Background……………………………………………………..1 Introduction………………………………………………………….5 Blast/Damage to Structures……………………………………………11 CHAPTER 3: COMPOSITE STEEL GIRDER BRIDGE: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN………………………….…....4 2..22 3...………………………………………………..…..3 Blast Load…………………………………………………………….1 Introduction……………………………………………………………….…..4 Steel Girder Design……………………………………………………....3 Thesis Overview………………………………………………………..………………26 3..…xv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………....2 Objective……………………………………………………………….ix LIST OF FIGURES……….38 v ..…..…….1 1.…………………4 2. Blast/Explosion Resistant Analysis of Composite Steel Girder Bridge System LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….4 Modeling of Blast Pressure………………………………………..5 2.3 Concrete Deck Design…………………………………..….……………………….…………1 1.7 2..4 2.2 General Information……………………………………………………..…...

1.2.82 4.4 Load Case 4………………………………………………………….84 4.…89 4...82 4.5 Application of Blast Loads………………………………………………93 4. Bridge Deck Moment Capacity………………………….…….………………………………….1.1.……………………………….1.….…105 4.3 Positive and Negative Plastic Moment Capacities (Non-Composite)………….3. Steel Girder Plastic Moment Capacity………………………………69 4.7 Bridge Modeling Using ANSYS Program………………….104 4...108 4.……107 4.5 Load Case 5…………………………………………….3 Load Case 3…………………………………………………….69 4.4 500lb TNT Blast Pressure on The Bridge……………………….1.67 4.3...79 4.6 Analysis for Pressures on the Deck…………………….….8.1 Compute Plastic Moment Capacity-Positive (Composite).4 Bridge Steel Girder Shear Capacity…………………………….106 4..8.3.….…...2 Negative Plastic Moment Capacity………………………………72 4.….CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF BLAST PRESSURES IN THE BRIDGE DECK……………………………………..…………96 4..8 Blast Load Cases……………………………………………….1 Load Case 1……………………………………………………….……..……………….3.1..1.…..……………………67 4.2 Load Case 2……….……..1.8...8.8..3 Equivalent Blast Pressure…………………………………………….2 Typical Blast Load………………………………………………….69 4.1 Model Bridge Capacity…………………………….………... Bridge Deck Shear Capacity………………………………….……………108 vi .101 4..….……………67 4.

4.6..115 5..…………167 5.2 Performance for Blast Load Case 2……………………….2 Local Response………………………………………….7 Limitations of Analyses……………………………………………….……..…….4 Bridge Performance under Typical Blast Load…………………….4.. CONCLUSIONS.….4..……….110 CHAPTER 5: RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITE STEEL GIRDER BRIDGE TO BLAST LOAD……………………..1 Global Response……………………………………………………..2 Conclusions…………………………………………………………….4 Performance for Blast Load Case 4……………………….147 5.4.....122 5..3 Moment and Shear Capacities of The Bridge…………………….181 6.6 Comparison of Static and Dynamic Analyses…………………...1 Multi-degree-of-freedom System………………………….3 Performance for Blast Load Case 3……………………….1.132 5.4.182 vii .1 Performance for Blast Load Case 1……………………….122 5..139 5.153 5..………166 5.1 General Failure Modes of Bridge Structure Due To Blast Load….120 5.115 5.5 Blast Induced Forces in Bridge Components Due to Varying Amount of TNT……………………………………………….5 Performance for Blast Load Case 1………………………. AND RECOMMENDATIONS..118 5.179 CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY.165 5..….119 5.……..…….2 ANSYS Program Transient Dynamic Analysis………...……………………..... 4.1 Summary……………………………………………………….1...….9 Blast Pressure Distribution on the Bridge Components……….………181 6.…….133 5.6..2 Bridge Failure…………………………………….116 5.

3 Recommendations for Future Research………………………. 6.184 viii .183 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………......….….

...21 Table 3..44 Table 3..5 Unfactored dead load moment (kip-ft / ft)………….…….1.……………………….….25 Table 3. Ngo. kip -ft/ft………………….10 Resistance factors…………………………………………………….……………….2)……………………………...11 Dynamic load allowance…………………………………………….1-1)…………………….46 Table 3.…..…….9 Load factors: ( STable 3.4.41-1 & 3.5...4 Dynamic Load Allowance (Stable 3..33 Table 3.3 Multiple Presence factors (STable 3.6 Equivalent primary width of strip………………………………….6.25 Table 3..45 Table 3.…..…25 Table3.2 Resistance factors (S5.5..14 Dead load components……………………………………………….4.2.4..30 Table 3.6..……..4.49 ix ..2 & S6..27 Table 3.1.1 Peak reflected overpressures Pr (in MPa) with different W-R combinations (T.1-2)………………………40 Table 3.41 Table 3..………..31 Table 3.15 Dead load moment……………………………………………………...41-2)…………24 Table 3.13 Negative moment region section properties…………………………. 2007)………….48 Table 3.7 Unfactored live load moments (kip-ft)………………………………….1-1 &STable 3.16 Dead load shears (kips)………………………………………….….2 Damage Approximations (FEMA 428)…………………………………..2-1)…………………………. LIST OF TABLES Table 2..1 Load combination and load factors (Stable 3.8 Maximum live load moments per unit width.9 Table 2.…41 Table 3..12 Positive moment region section properties……………………….

…...…83 Table 4.57 Table 3-20 Combined effects at location of maximum negative moment………...18 Live load effects (Interior Beam)………………………………………..14 Blast Load Cases………………………………………....91 Table 4..Table 3-17 Longitudinal stiffness parameter…………………………….9 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 25 ft)……………….93 Table 4.…112 x ..54 Table 3-19 Combined effects at location of maximum positive moment…….. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) Agency……….5 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 5 ft)…………………….90 Table 4..11 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 1 and girder 5……………….83 Table 4.6 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 10 ft)………………………90 Table 4.13 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3…………………………….7 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft)………………………91 Table 4.12 Pressure and arrival time on the girders 2 and 4…………………….8 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 20 ft)……………………..…….104 Table 4.…….4 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 0 ft)………………………..……………………………………..93 Table 4..2 Magnitude of threats (Recommendations for Bridge and Tunnel Security -The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security)..10 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 30 ft)…………………….91 Table 4.92 Table 4.15 Peak blast pressure Pv and arrival time on the bridge component ……………………………….90 Table 4.85 Table 4.1 Vehicle bomb explosion effects --Federal Alcohol..….…………....58 Table 3-21 Combined effects at location of maximum shear……………….3 Equivalent parameters for 500 lb of TNT explosion………………….………………………….92 Table 4.……….50 Table 3..……59 Table 4.

10 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 3…………………………………………………………………….13 Blast pressures and arrival times on the girder 3…………………. 15 ft) for blast load case 3………………………………………………….1 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0..8 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 3…135 Table 5..….11 Moment in the steel bridge girder 1 and girder 2 for blast load case 3………………………………………………………………....9 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0.12 Moment in the steel bridge girders 1 and 2 for blast load case 3…..131 Table 5.140 Table 5.3 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 1.…………………136 Table 5. 15 ft) for blast load case 1…….13 Moment in the steel bridge girder 4 for blast load case 3………….....139 Table 5.138 Table 5.Table 5..14 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 0 ft) for load case 4….………………………………………………………….127 Table 4.…126 Table 5.2 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 1…………………………………………………………………….126 Table 5.……137 Table 5.6 Moment in the steel girders 1 and 5 for blast load case 1……….4 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=20 ft) for blast load case 1.5 Moment in the steel girder 3 for blast load case 1……………………130 Table 5...16 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 (H = 10 ft) for load case 4……………………………………………………………….……141 xi .7 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 2……………133 Table 5.128 Table 5.15 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft) for load case 4…140 Table 5.136 Table 5...127 Table 5.

.…………………………………….21 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 4……….…………………………………………….155 Table 5...26 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 3lb TNT blast load case …………….28 3lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the girder 3……………….……157 xii .23 Moment and shear in the pier column for blast load case 5……….22 Moment in the steel bridge girders 2 and 4 for blast load case 4…..154 Table 5.………………………………………………….143 Table 5.27 3lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressures and arrival times on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 5 ft)………………………………..18 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0.24 3 lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 0 ft)…….Table 5.19 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 4……………………………………………………………...20 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 4………………………………………………………………….…142 Table 5..25 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for 3lb TNT blast load case1………….…146 Table 5.153 Table 5.29 Moment in the steel girder 3 for 3lb TNT blast load case 1…..…145 Table 5.…………………………154 Table 5.17 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 2 (H = 10 ft) for load case 4………………………………………………………………….……. 15 ft) for blast load case 4…………………………………………………………………….………144 Table 5.146 Table 5.…156 Table 5.156 Table 5.

.30 5lb TNT load case 3 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 0 ft)………………………...Table 5..172 xiii ..40 Moment in the bridge pier column for 125 lb TNT blast load case 5……………………………………………………………….………………………………………………….163 Table 5.33 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 5lb TNT blast load case 3………………………………………………………………..159 Table 5.37 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 (H = 10 ft)……………….160 Table 5...…..…...165 Table 5.….35 Moment in the girders 1 and 2 for 5lb TNT blast load case 3…….…171 Table 5.41 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 .36 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft)……………………162 Table 5.42 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft…………………………………………………………………..163 Table 5.160 Table 5.161 Table 5.…...32 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 and 5 ft) for 3lb TNT blast load case 3……………...38 Moment in the bridge steel girder 3 for 100lb TNT blast load case 4…………………………………………………………………….39 125 lb TNT blast peak pressure and arrival time on the bridge pier ………………….34 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y = 5 ft) for 5lb TNT load case 3………………………………………………………………….31 5lb TNT blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 5 ft)…… ……………………………………………..…165 Table 5.159 Table 5.……………………………………159 Table 5.

.175 Table 5.…176 Table 5..………………..48 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Moment in the bridge pier column for 125lb TNT blast load case 5…………………….…….46 ANSYS Time (ms) History: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft………….…………173 Table 5..178 xiv .43 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 500 lb TNT blast load case 5……………………………….…………………………………………………….………….………………….………173 Table 5.44 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 500lb TNT blast load case 5………………….Table 5.47 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 125 lb TNT blast load case 5……………………….177 Table 5...45 ANSYS Time (ms) History: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft …………………………………………………………………………………………..

as a function of stand-off distance and net explosive weight (Pounds-TNT) (FEMA 428)….1 Blast wave pressure-time history……………………………………….29 Figure 3.1b Cross section of composite steel bridge……………………………. Tuan Ngo 2007)……….10 Distribution of blast pressure on building facade (Mendis & Ngo....……...……….. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.6 Figure 2.2 Equivalent strips…………………………………………………………..23 Figure 3.………………………………………….7 Oil-Tanker Burned on Interstate 95.…21 Figure 3.20 Figure 2.…7 Figure 2.…..1a Two-span continuous bridge…………………………………………..6 Roadway to Bay Bridge collapses after tanker explosion (San Francisco)……………………………………………………………14 Figure 2.9 Incident overpressure measured in pounds per square inch. Priyan Mendis.19 Figure 2..4 Response Spectrum Solutions for Blast Loading (Nelson Lam.……….….15 Figure 2.....34 xv .10 Figure 2..23 Figure 3..2 Blast pressure traces for at different times…………………………. March 2004……………..8 ATBlast software program output……………………………………….6 Figure 2.…..12 Figure 2. 2002)………………………………….5 Blast loads on a building (FEMA 427)…………………………………...3 Equivalent triangular pulse………………………………………….…………….3 Crack control for positive reinforcement under live loads………...

5 Explosion location above the bridge deck………………………….9 Plate girder elevation…………………………………………………….86 Figure 4.66 Figure 4.9 500 TNT explosion location above the bridge deck………………..10 Lever Rule…………………………………………………………….74 Figure 4.6 Deck overhang dimensions and live load…………………………….8 Blast pressure vertical components…………………………………….60 Figure 3..11 Envelope of Strength I moments…………………………………….42 Figure 3.7 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (Elevation)……………….39 Figure 3.…..64 Figure 3.….. range curve (ATBlast)……………………………………..15 Final plate girder elevation……………………………………………....60 Figure 3.5 Crack control for negative reinforcement under live loads……………35 Figure 3....…...3 Girder cross section (non-composite)………………………………….4 Pressure vs.87 Figure 4.88 Figure 4.4 Reinforcing steel for negative bending in deck………………………...88 Figure 4.89 xvi .Figure 3.13 Location of maximum positive moment………………………………...12 Envelope of Strength I shears………………………………………….87 Figure 4.….1 Girder cross section…………………………………………………….70 Figure 4..2 Girder cross section with steel reinforcements in the concrete deck……………………………………………………………………….34 Figure 3.7 Superstructure positive and negative moment deck reinforcement…37 Figure 3.8 Framing plan…………………………………………………………….14 Computation of plastic moment capacity for positive bending sections………………………………………………………………..6 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (Plan)……………………..79 Figure 4.36 Figure 3..52 Figure 3.61 Figure 3.

769 ms)…………………….99 Figure 4. 2007)………..606 ms)………………….10 Standard pressure vs.135 ms)………………….575 ms)………………….. Time = 2.95 Figure 4.…….……………………………………………. Time = 7. Modeling of concrete bridge deck for analysis using ANSYS……. Time = 0.……………………………………..16 Pressure on the deck (Y= 0 ft..19 Pressure on the deck (Y=5 ft.Figure 4.28 Modeling of bridge steel girder for analysis using ANSYS……….101 Figure 4.24 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft.22 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft..806ms)………………….29 Uniformly distributed blast loads on the bridge…………………….…94 Figure 4.…….97 Figure 4. Time = 0. 2007)……………………..23 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft..66 ms)………………………98 Figure 4. Time = 6. Time = 0.100 Figure 4... Time = 3..105 xvii .59 ms)…………………….. time curve for an explosion at a point (Robert.15 Peak pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y=0 ft)……………….…98 Figure 4.1.18 Pressure on the deck (Y=0 ft. ………………….94 Figure 4.. Time = 0.902 ms)…………………….21 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft.…100 Figure 4...……………………………………………..17 Pressure on the deck (Y=0 ft.103 Figure 4.95 Figure 4.97 Figure 4...404 ms)……………….26 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft.25 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft. Time = 0. 2007)…………………. 2007)...99 Figure 4.11 Nonlinear decay of actual blast loading at different (McClendon.100 Figure 4.20 Pressure on the deck (Y=5 ft.12 Linear decay of trial positive phase pressures (McClendon.105 ms).103 Figure 4. Time = 6.094 ms)……………….13 Impulse comparison (McClendon.14 Peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft)…………………97 Figure 4.27.99 Figure 4.98 Figure 4.. Time = 2.

….2 Schematic illustration of the relation between load and response time for an impulsive load (Magnusson.…………………….107 Figure 4...….31 Load case 1…………………………………………………………….125 xviii .4 Breaching failures due to a close-in explosion of 6000 kg TNT equivalent (Photograph by T..8 Deck shear (Y=15 ft) ………………………………………………. 2008) …119 Figure 5. from the force centroid on the component surface……………………………….6 Modeling of concrete composite bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 1 analysis using ANSYS…….113 Figure 4..3 Local damage caused by close-in explosion (NYSTRÖM.1Global damage of reinforced concrete beam (NYSTRÖM.32 Load case 2…………………………………………………………….37 Peak blast pressure Pv vs duration time (td)…………………….105 Figure 4.……………108 Figure 4.…..107 Figure 4...…125 Figure 5.36 Distribution of peak blast pressure (Pv) on bridge structural component as a function of radial distance r. 2007)………….118 Figure 5.106 Figure 4..117 Figure 5.. 2008)….7 Deck shear (Y=0 ft)………………………………………………….30 Uniformly distributed blast loads on the bridge steel girder………..109 Figure 4.119 Figure 5.…124 Figure 5.33 Load case 3…………………………………………………………….…………………………..35 Load case 5………………………………………………………..34 Load case 4………………………………………………..38 Peak blast pressure Pv vs radial distance (r).Figure 4.5 Load case 1 uniform distribution of blast loads on the bridge………124 Figure 5.114 Figure 5.114 Figure 4.Nao)…………………………………….….

132 Figure 5.….18 Modeling and analysis of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 4 using ANSYS…………………………..12 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 1…...148 Figure 5.….11 Modeling of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 1 analysis using ANSYS………………………………………………………….9 Modeling of concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for load case 1 analysis using ANSYS……………………………………………….125 Figure 5.17 Modeling of concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 4 analysis using ANSYS………………………………………………..129 Figure 5.144 Figure 5..14 Modeling of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 2 analysis using ANSYS………………………………………………………….....128 Figure 5..………….19 Load case 5…………………………………………………………….22 Modeling and analysis of bridge pier column for load case 5 using ANSYS…………………….143 Figure 5.…..23 Final pier design…………………………………………………….597ms)….16 Modeling and analysis of concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 3 using ANSYS.13 Moment in the steel bridge girders 1 and 5 for blast load case 1…132 Figure 5..10 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case1……………………………………………………………………..150 Figure 5.147 Figure 5...…………………………..149 Figure 5.151 xix ..Figure 5..21 Pressures on pier column (Arrival Time = 0.135 Figure 5.….…129 Figure 5...…………………………….……………………………………………...….15 Load case 3 peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft)…134 Figure 5.20 Peak pressures decay on the pier column…………………………..

.38 125 lb TNT triangular blast load…………………………………….…………….175 Figure 5.170 Figure 5.36 Static moment in the bridge pier column for 500lb TNT blast load…………………………………………………..78ms.174 Figure 5.78ms.……………………………..170 Figure 5. …………………………………………………………………...….164 Figure 5.168 Figure 5..26 Peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft.176 xx ...27 Pressure on pier column (Time = 0..31 Load case 5: Modeling of the supporting pier for ANSYS transient dynamic analysis……………. 125 lbTNT)…………….28 Multi-degree-of-freedom system…………………………………….39 Static moment in the bridge pier column for 125lb TNT blast load……………………...40 ANSYS time history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft…..172 Figure 5.157 Figure 5.173 Figure 5.…………………………….175 Figure 5.……….169 Figure 5...25 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for 3lb TNT blast load case 1...30 Pressures on pier column (Arrival Time = 0..158 Figure 5.….597ms)…………. 125 lb TNT)………. 5TNT) for load case 3……….Figure 5.24 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 3lb TNT blast load case 1…………………………………………………...34 ANSYS Time history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft……..171 Figure 5.155 Figure 5.….37 Pressure on pier column (Time = 0...………………………………………..35 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft……………………….29 MDOF system subjected to a triangular load…………………….………………………………..32 500TNT triangular blast load……………………………………….166 Figure 5.

177 Figure 5.41 ANSYS time history: Shear force (FX) at location h = 0 ft……….…178 xxi .42 Response of a beam to a dynamic step-load…………………….Figure 5...

church or the doctor's office and businesses shipping goods to customers throughout the nation and around the globe. 1. None of these bridges have been designed to resist impact of explosion. highways and bridge are the backbone of the U.S. more than 11. and seismic events coefficients. Bridge engineers. and petrochemical facilities.000 bridges in the United States and. have not typically considered the blast effects in the design 1 . American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) have design methodologies for the ship impact. transportation system.000 in the State of Florida (Bureau of Transportation Statistics). There are more than 600. The citizens depend on good roads for traveling to work. people driving to stores. however.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The nation's roads. But there are no definite structural design criteria for bridges to withstand typical blast loadings. vehicular collisions. military structures. providing Americans with approximately 3 trillion miles of travel annually.2 Objective Blast-resistant design has traditionally been considered only for essential government buildings.

This chapter contains an explanation detailing the current knowledge of explosives. 2003). The objective of this study is to develop a blast/explosion analysis procedure for a two span continuous composite steel girder bridge system. A dynamic analysis of typical supporting pier has 2 . Methods for estimating the blast load and structural responses are discussed. 1.3 Thesis Overview Chapter 2 covers a literature review of the available search on explosives and blast waves. Chapter 3 presents a summary of the analysis and design of a typical two span composite bridge. Chapter 5 presents finite element analysis for the response and performance of composite steel girder bridge to blast loads.process. The static loads are applied on the bridge model at selected critical locations for different load cases. Bridge engineers need to develop an understanding of the principles of blast wave propagation and its potential effects on bridge structures. and blast waves. and most of the current state of knowledge of the design structures subjected to blast effects are based on the performance of buildings rather than bridges. The responses of the components of the bridge system are evaluated to determine the performance of the bridge. blast load. Typical amount of blast loads are converted into equivalent static loads using the ATBlast software. Chapter 4 presents the details of the equivalent blast load on the composite bridge to different blast load cases. The dead and live load effects are considered in the concrete deck and steel girder design (LRFD Design FHWA.

been carried out using the ANSYS program and the results compared with those from the static analysis. 3 . Chapter 6 summarizes the results of the analyses and presents the conclusions along with the recommendations for future work.

the incident or over-pressures decrease. 2. The shock wave consists of highly compressed air that reflects off the ground surface to produce a hemispherical propagation of the wave traveling outward from the source at supersonic velocities. As the shock wave expands. nuclear. (Figure2-1). rapid and sudden release of energy. That is. for all practical purposes. volcanic eruptions. or even the mix of two liquids at different temperatures. the time required for compression of the undisturbed air just ahead of the wave to full pressure just behind the wave is essentially zero.2 Blast/Explosion Waves The rapid expansion of hot gases resulting from the detonation of an explosive charge gives rise to a compression wave called a shock wave.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. The front of the shock wave can be considered infinitely steep. In physical explosives. Explosion can be categorized on the basis of their nature as physical. When it encounters a surface 4 . This chapter presents a literature review including past research and blast loads and blast effects on structures. which propagates through the air. energy is released from the catastrophic failure of a cylinder of compressed gas. or chemical events.1 Introduction An explosive is defined as large-scale.

resulting in a tremendous amplification of pressure. 2. and other types of explosives are converted to this mass type. peak values of both dynamic pressure and underpressure are typically much smaller than during the positive phase. the wind blows toward the point of detonation during the negative phase.1). As consequently. Typically the charge mass is measured in terms of TNT. During the positive phase. or charge weight W. as when the over pressure is positive. 2. The total duration of the shock burst actually increases. This is proportional to the distance from the charge and inversely proportional to the cube root of the charge mass. measured typically in thousandths of a second (milliseconds). the bomb size. exponentially). and the standoff distance R between the blast source and the target. The peak overpressure is related to a factor called the scaled distance. During the negative phase. the pressure behind the front may drop below the ambient pressure. The pressures decay rapidly with time (i.. Z (Eqn. the maximum pressure of the shock wave decreases.3 Blast Load The threat for a conventional bomb is defined by two equally important elements. the wave is reflected. a partial vacuum is created and air is sucked in rather than being pushed away. the overpressure rises vary rapidly from ambient to peak value and then subsides more slowly to ambient. During such a negative phase.e. As the distance increases. After a short time. It should 5 .that is in its line-of-sight of the explosion. Peak values of the underpressure during the negative phase rarely exceed 4 or 5 psi below ambient.

1b Overpressure and dynamic pressure with time 6 . 1967). the peak overpressure of the blast wave decays exponentially to the atmospheric pressure (Biggs.also be noted that at any particular range. Z is given by R Z= (2-1) W 1/ 3 Where R = distance from blast source W = mass of charge in term of TNT Figure 2.1a Blast wave pressure-time history Figure 2. The scaled distance.

2 Blast pressure traces for at different times Figure 2. Estimations 7 . Blast wave parameters for conventional high explosive materials have been the focus of a number of studies during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Many empirical formulae are available to predict maximum blast overpressure in free air. Ngo (2007) introduced different methods to estimate blast loads and structural response. Figure 2. T.4 Modeling of Blast Pressure Many researchers have studied blast overpressure and shock wave propagation in air.3 Equivalent triangular pulse 2.

depends on the peak overpressure of the blast wave. and Z is the scaled distance: (2. Pso.4) As the blast wave propagates through the atmosphere. in bars. This velocity of the air is associated with the dynamic pressure.2) Newmark and Hansen (1961) introduced a relationship to calculate the maximum blast overpressure. The velocity of the air particles. the air behind the shock front is moving outward at lower velocity. qs is given by 8 . for a high explosive charge that detonates at the ground surface as: (2.3) Another expression of the peak overpressure in kPa is introduced by Mills (1987). The overpressures are given by (2. The maximum value. and hence the wind pressure.of peak overpressure due to spherical blast based on scaled distance Z = R/W 1/3 were introduced by Brode (1955). q(t). in which W is expressed as the equivalent charge weight in kilograms of TNT.

This correlation was subsequently reviewed by Smith (1994) who compared Bride’s model with results obtained from more recent 9 . Table 2. 2007) Brode developed the correlation between Psmax and Z based on numerical modeling (Fig 2.1.2). Peak reflected overpressures Pr (in MPa) with different W-R combinations (T. Ngo. (2.6) A full discussion and extensive charts for predicting blast pressures and blast durations are given by Mays and Smith (1995) and TM5-1300 (1990). 1. Some representative numerical values of peak reflected overpressure are given in Table 2. reflection increases the overpressure to a maximum reflected pressure as: (2.5) If the blast wave encounters an obstacle perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

2 .4 Response Spectrum Solutions for Blast Loading (Nelson Lam. Tuan Ngo 2007) 10 . The absolute value of this "minimum" pressure (denoted Psmin) is presented in Figure 1 along with the maximum (positive) over- pressure. An amplification factor of 1.2.8 has been applied to account for the effects of waves reflecting from the ground surface in the common “hemispherical” blast scenarios. which develops shortly after the subsidence of the positive (compressive) over-pressure. Previous investigations have also identified a significant negative (suction) pressure. Figure 2. The model is considered valid within the range of z = 0.experimental studies. Priyan Mendis. The comparison shows excellent consistency between the models in the far field while the Brode's model tends to be conservative in the near field (Z<<1). The over-pressure varies by about three orders of magnitude within this range of Z (1-1000 bar).

and radiological attacks. academia. federal and state agencies. sponsored jointly by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). but also addressing chemical biological. retail. FEMA 427 Primer introduces a series of concepts that can help building designers. focusing primarily on explosions. 2001. Listed below are some of the existing protective design criteria prepared by the federal government using the damage-limiting approach. and state and local governments mitigate the threat of hazards resulting from terrorist attacks on new buildings (Figure 2. and light industrial. A Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) of bridge and tunnel experts from professional practice.5 Blast/Damage to Structures The emphasis on the design of critical infrastructure has changed since the events of September 11. private sector building types: commercial office. FEMA 427 specifically addresses four high-population. The intent of this paper is to recommend policies and actions to reduce the probability of 11 . and toll authorities convened to examine bridge and tunnel security and to develop strategies and practices for deterring. Effects of blast loads on buildings and military structures have been studied for many years. The BRP. and multi-family residential. This manual contains extensive qualitative design guidance for limiting or mitigating the effects of terrorist attacks. and mitigating potential attacks. disrupting. acknowledges that the nation's bridges and tunnels are vulnerable to terrorist attacks.5).2. owners.

loads on structures. 1986) provide procedures for the design and analysis of protective structures subjected to the effects of conventional weapons. 1989) provide procedures for the analysis and design of protective structures exposed to the effects of conventional (non-nuclear) weapons and is intended for use by engineers with basic knowledge of weapons effects. Figure 2.catastrophic structural damage that could result in substantial human casualties. air-blast effects.5 Blast loads on a building (FEMA 427) Protective Construction Design Manual (ESL-TR-87-57. Fundamentals of Protective Design for Conventional Weapons (TM 5-855-1. structural dynamics. and socio-political damage. economic losses. and dynamic responses of structures. fragment protection. resistance of structural elements. and hardened protective structures. It is intended for use by 12 . The Manual covers topics such as uncertainties in protective design.

demilitarization. This manual was used as the standard for explosive effects for about thirty years. It includes chapters on air- blast effects. and electrical cable). testing. or to prevent the mass detonation of explosives and provide protection to personnel and valuable equipment. and load determination with references 13 . and auxiliary systems (piping. inspection. Instrumental to this approach was a well-developed understanding of: • the blast load parameters • the response of structures to blast loads • how to establish proper details for construction to develop the proper structural response • establishing guidelines for sitting explosives facilities. By using this manual. storage. modification. air ducting. maintenance. and disposal of explosive materials.engineers involved in designing hardened facilities. incendiary and chemical agents. 1997) provides for the structural design of blast resistant petrochemical facilities. siting considerations. engineers could design structures to resist the effects of blast waves and fragments preventing the propagation of explosive effects from one structure to the next. loads on structures. Guidelines for Blast-Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities (ASCE. Informational coverage is provided for OSHA requirements. TM 5-1300 Manual (1990) presents methods for protective construction used in facilities for the development. fire. design objectives. production.

More detailed coverage is provided for types of construction. Following the September 11. analysis methods. The fire created such intense heat that a stretch of highway melted and collapsed.mentioned for more detailed information. a section of San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in the State of California collapsed after a gasoline tanker crashed and burst into flames. On April 2007. A "how to" discussion on the upgrade of existing buildings is provided for older facilities which may not meet current needs. dynamic material strengths. Three example calculations are included to illustrate design procedures. Typical details and ancillary considerations. and design procedures. allowable response criteria. Some of the recent bridge failures due to blast loadings are presented in the following: i). such as doors and windows. A strategically placed truck bomb or accident on a critical bridge could result in significant loss of life and significant structural damage. Figure 2. which are crucial to our nation’s transportation infrastructure. 2001 attacks.6 Roadway to Bay Bridge collapses after tanker explosion (San Francisco) 14 . increased attention has been given to bridges. are also included.

the concrete strength (40 Mpa for normal strength concrete and 80 15 . Currently. AASHTO has specified probability-based design methodology and load factors for designing bridge piers against ship impact and vehicular collision.7 Oil-Tanker Burned on Interstate 95. Ngo (2007) presents the analytical investigation conducted at the University of Melbourne on the behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) columns subjected to severe blast loadings. Bridge and highway engineers are required to assess the vulnerability of structures and to identify means for reducing this vulnerability. But design for resistance to explosive effects is a new area for bridge engineers. On March 2004. The variables considered were the magnitude of the blast. a bridge on I-95 Bridgeport.D. March 2004 There is a need to protect the nation's bridges from intentional or accidental explosions. Connecticut was partly damaged by the explosion of a tanker truck carrying over 9000 gallons of heating oil. Figure 2. no specific AASHTO design guideline exists for bridges against blast loading. T.ii).

The paper describes the broad aspects to resist blast and impact threats. It was found that HSC columns perform better than NSC (normal strength concrete) columns (with the same axial load capacity) when subjected to extreme impulsive loading. Dynamic stress-strain relations. which differ considerably from corresponding static relations are derived for the load histories and are modeled with the proposed dynamic constitutive law. Some aspects of protective design related to the structural design of perimeter devices were focused along with building components for the purpose of the protecting the building’s occupants and functionality against explosive treats. A case study was carried out to assess the performance of a ground floor RC column of a typical office building under a bomb blast. and loading conditions on the dynamic behavior of high-strength concrete columns were investigated by the Finite Element Explicit code LS-DYNA3D. This presentation begins by identifying general military and most commonly used commercial explosives. A constitutive law is proposed to model the strain-rate-dependent engineering properties of HSC.MPa for HSC). Longinow (1996) presented A Primer on Blast Effects. The 16 . geometry. Crawford (2006) presented methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast and impact resistance of building. The effects of reinforcement detailing. The manner in which explosives release their energy is described and the primary blast parameters for explosions in air are identified.

This is followed by a brief discussion of the interaction of the blast wave with building structures. if the explosion occurs at a minimum standoff distance. Performance of AASHTO girders.M. pier cap. A brief presentation of results is made from the studies dealing with casualties in buildings produced by external blast. This study determined the blast capacities of the AASHTO girders. AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design methods were used in the bridge design. and the required stand off distance of explosion from the columns that may possibly protect the bridge from failure. A. A 2-span 2-lane bridge with Type III AASHTO girders was considered for modeling. The model bridge columns were capable of resisting typical blast loads. 17 . This is followed by a brief discussion of internal explosions. The model bridge failed under typical blast loads applied over and underneath the bridge. and columns could not resist typical blast loads. was determined. pier caps and columns were analyzed under blast loading to determine their capacities. piers. The amount of blast loads. pier caps and the columns. Strength of buildings subjected to blast effects of high yield (nuclear) explosions is quantified.emphasis is on blast from surface explosions. Anwarul Islam (2005) investigated the most common types of concrete bridges on interstate highways and assessed the capacities of the critical elements. which the individual members can resist before failure. and columns under typical blast loading were analyzed and documented for future use in blast resistant design of concrete bridges. The research findings concluded that the AASHTO girders. The girders.K.

gov/software/atblast. Moreover.Suthar (2007) provides a basic guideline for using the blast load analysis on the suspension bridge. The modeling of the suspension part of the bay bridge was done on the SAP2000 for carrying out the non-linear analysis of the blast loads. can be easily obtained from the software output. and displacements.oca. This shows the importance of the initial stress in the analysis of a suspension bridge ATBlast software ATBlast is a software program that estimates the blast loads that develop during an open-air explosion. AT-Blast developed by Applied Research Associates for GSA (http://www. moments.gsa. explosive charge weight. the bridge was modeled using the SAP2000 system. the blast loads with and without the application of initial stress were compared in the study. and 18 . which was used for cost allocation studies. For carrying out the impact of blast loading. axial loads. A three-dimensional finite analysis model under dynamic load has been established for the suspension bridge part (West-bound side) of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge for determining the effect of live load. and axial load at each node and at any point within the element. The behavior of each element under the effect of the blasts was studied from the output generated by the SAP2000. Also. The program allows the user to input minimum and maximum range. The “progressive collapse” approach of the bridge was also carried out to know the exact behavior with the formation of the plastic hinges under the impact of blast loadings. The output of the software presents results including moments.php).

Pressure (P). Impulse (I). and is provided at no cost to the government and to authorized users. total impulse. TNT equivalence factor. Figure 2. and duration (td). The results are displayed on screen in a tabular format and may be printed. effective load duration. peak pressure. Output: Airblast velocity.angle of incidence. ATBlast is a proprietary computer program developed by Applied Research Associates Inc. Time of Arrival (TOA). the resulting pressure and impulse curves may be displayed graphically. Input: Minimum and maximum standoff distances. time of arrival. In addition. ATBlast calculates the following values: Shock Front Velocity (V). Based on this information. angle of incidence.8 ATBlast software program output 19 . size of explosive.

Figure 2. Enter the x-axis with the estimated explosive weight a terrorist might use and the y-axis with a known stand-off distance from a building. By correlating the resultant effects of overpressure with other data. The vehicle icons in Figure 4-6 indicate the relative size of the vehicles that might be used to transport various quantities of explosives. as a function of stand-off distance and net explosive weight (pounds-TNT) (FEMA 428) 20 . the degree of damage that the various components of a building might receive can be estimated.9 Incident overpressure measured in pounds per square inch.FEMA 428 (Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks) provides a quick method for predicting the expected overpressure (expressed in pounds per square inch or psi) on a building for a specific explosive weight and stand-off distance.

1Mpa at the ground level and reduces rapidly up the height of the building. The average duration of loading was adopted as 15 milliseconds. The peak overpressure is 4. 2002) 21 . Figure 2.10 Distribution of blast pressure on building facade (Mendis & Ngo.2 Damage Approximations (FEMA 428) Mendis and Ngo (2002) analyzed a typical tall building subjected to a bomb blast detonated at different stand-off distances from the ground level.Table 2. Façade damage at different levels was assessed based on the blast pressure distribution.

4 .Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1. and Location Study Design Step 1.6 .CHAPTER 3: COMPOSITE STEEL GIRDER BRIDGE: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 3.Obtain Geotechnical Recommendations Design Step 1.Plan for Bridge Aestheti 22 . Bridge width 44 feet curb to curb (two 12-foot lanes and two 10-foot shoulders) iii.Perform Span Arrangement Study Design Step 1.2 .3 .1 Introduction This chapter presents a summary of the analysis and design of a typical two span composite bridge (FHWA NHI-04-041. continuous structure configuration ii. Reinforced concrete deck with overhangs iv. LRFD Design Example).5 .1 .Perform Type. Grade 50 steel 3. F-shape barriers (standard design) v. The following are the design parameters: i. The dead load and live load effects are considered in the concrete deck and steel girder design (LRFD Design FHWA. 2003).Obtain Geometry Requirements Design Step 1.2 General Information Design Step 1. Size. Two span.

6 23 .including interims for 1999 through 2002) Design methodology: Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Live load requirements: HL-93 S3. the following is a summary of the primary design criteria: Design Criteria Governing specifications: AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (Second Edition.1b Cross section of composite steel bridge The first step for any bridge design is to establish the design criteria. For this design example. Figure 3.1a Two-span continuous bridge Figure 3. 1998.

5.1-1 Future wearing surface thickness: t fws = 2.5.1-1 Parapet weight (each): W par = 0.2.875ft Roadway width: W roadway = 44.5.3 & S6.4.150kcf STable 3.490kcf STable 3.4.1-1 Concrete density: W c = 0.1 Reinforcement strength: f y = 60ksi S5.41-2) 24 .1 Load combination and load factors (Stable 3.140kcf STable 3.7 Steel density: W s = 0.Deck width: W deck = 46.3.1-1 Future wearing surface: W fws = 0.41-1 & 3.0ksi S5.5in (assumed) Table 3.53 K/ft STable 3.0ft Bridge length: Ltotal = 240⋅ft Skew angle: Skew = 0 deg Structural steel yield strength: Fy = 50ksi Structural steel tensile strength: Fu = 65ksi Concrete 28-day compressive strength: f'c = 4.5.10.

2 Resistance factors (S5.4 Dynamic Load Allowance (Stable 3.2 & S6.1.5.2.4.6.Table 3.2-1) Table 3.6.3 Multiple Presence factors (STable 3.1-1) 25 .2) Table3.4.5.1.

09 k-ft /ft) = 0.3 Concrete Deck Design Step 2.85 kip . parapet.38 k-ft / ft) + γpDCmax *(0. except for the overhang. Traditionally. Self weight Factored positive dead load moment: Based on Table 3-5. for a unit width strip of the deck are calculated using the following approach: M = w l2/ c where: M = dead load positive or negative moment in the deck for a unit width strip (kip-ft/ft) For this example. and future wearing surface positive dead load moment occurs in Bay 2 at a distance of 0.2.ft /ft 26 . Using a simplified approach to determine the deck dead load effects will result in a negligible difference in the total (DL+ LL) load effects. The maximum factored positive dead load moment is as follows: Muposdead = γpDCmax *(0.19 k-ft /ft) + γpDWmax *(0. dead load positive and negative moments in the deck.1. .Select Slab and Overhang Thicknesses The slab and overhang thicknesses will be assumed for this design example: ts = 8. the dead load moments due to the self weight and future wearing surface are calculated assuming c = 10.4S.5 in and to = 9 in Step 2. the maximum unfactored slab.Compute Dead Load Effects Dead loads represent a small fraction of the deck loads. .3.

09 k-ft /ft Unfactored Munegdead = (-0.38 + 0.Unfactored Muposdead = 0. The maximum factored negative dead load moment is as follows: Munegdead = γpDcmax * (−0.74 k-ft / ft)+ γpDcmax *(−1. kip-ft / ft) 27 .09 = 0.66 kip-ft /ft = 8 kip-in / ft Factored negative dead load moment: From Table 3.06) = -2.46 kip-ft /ft = -29 kip-in / ft Table 3.66) + (-0.06 k-ft /ft) = −3.0S.5 Unfactored dead load moment (1-foot strip.66 k-ft /ft) + γpDwmax *(−0.5.74) + (-1.19 + 0. the maximum unfactored negative dead load moment occurs in Bay 4 at a distance of 1.

Step 2. m: STable 3.3 – Compute Live Load Effects The following are the basic parameters in the computation of live load effects: The minimum distance from the center of design vehicle wheel to the inside face of parapet = 1 foot The minimum distance between the wheels of two adjacent design vehicles = 4 feet Dynamic load allowance. m = 1.85 Resistance factors for flexure: Strength limit state φstr = 0. IM IM = 0. 28 .1.90 Service limit state φserv = 1.2-1(AASHTO LRFD) With one lane loaded. Table 3. m = 1.75 Multiple presence factor.7 represents a continuous beam analysis of the example deck using a finite element analysis program.00 For this example.00 Extreme event limit state φext = 1. m = 0.33 Load factor for live load . Method A: The live load portion of the factored design moments is computed based on the values presented in Table 3. the design moments will be computed using two different methods.Strength I γLL = 1.6.00 With three lanes loaded.7.1.20 With two lanes loaded.

and overhang moment equivalent strip equations are presented in Figure 3. The values are tabulated using the equivalent strip method for various bridge cross sections.1-1.2 below.1-1 (AASHTO LRFD). negative. The values in STable A4. interpolation can may be used to get the moment. Figure 3.2 Equivalent strips 29 . moments per unit width include dynamic load allowance and multiple presence factors. In STable A4.1-1 may be slightly higher than the values from a deck analysis based on the actual number of beams and the actual overhang length. The maximum live load moment is obtained from the table based on the girder spacing. Method A Compute Equivalent Strip Live Load Moment The positive.Method B: The live load portion of the factored design moments is computed using STable A4. For girder spacing between the values listed in the table.

located at 0.76 kip -ft) / W posstripa =11.6 Equivalent primary width of strip Step 2.35 in or W posstripa = 7. The maximum factored positive live load moment is: MuposliveA = γLL(1+IM) *(36.21 kip-ft/ft 30 .53 ft Based on Table 3.76 K-ft.7. 4 Compute Factored Positive and Negative Design Moments Factored Positive Live Load Moment: The width of the equivalent strip for positive moment is: Wposstripa = 26.Table 3.88 kip-ft /ft = 59 kip-in / ft The total factored positive design moment for Method A is: MupostotalA = MuposliveA + Muposdead = 12.0 + 6. the maximum unfactored positive live load moment is 36.6S S = 9.ft) / W posstripa = 4.36 kip-ft/ft Unfactored MuposliveA = 36.76 kip.4S in Bay 1 for a single truck.75 ft Wposstripa = 90.

Table 3.25 ft The width of the equivalent strip for negative moment is: Wnegstripa = 48.ft / W negstripa = -4.44 ft Based on Table 3-7.0 + 3.7 Unfactored live load moments (excluding dynamic load allowance) (kip- ft) Factored Negative Live Load Moment: The deck design section for steel beam for negative moments and shear forces is taken as one-quarter of the top flange width from the centerline of the web.0S in Bay 4 for two trucks.63 kip-ft/ft Unfactored MunegliveA = -29.40 K-ft. The maximum factored negative live load moment is: MunegliveA = γLL(1+IM) *(-29.56 kip-ft /ft = -55 kip-in / ft 31 .0 ft bf 1/4 = 0.0S = 77.4 kip. the maximum unfactored negative live load moment is - 29. Assume bf = 1.40 kip-ft) / W negstripa = -10. located at 0.25 in or W negstripa = 6.

0.74 kip-ft/ ft) = 11.top integral wearing surface de = ts .1-1 Factored Positive Live Load Moment: For a girder spacing of 9'-9".5 = 6. the maximum unfactored positive live load moment is 6.31 in2 Effective depth.90 b = 12 in 32 .5 – 1 – 0.bottom cover .1/2 bar diameter .69 in Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.625/2 -0.bar diam/2 . as follows: φf = 0. de = total slab thickness .5 in = 8.65 kip-ft/ ft) = 11. The maximum factored positive live load moment is: MuposliveB =γLL *(6.Coverb .64 kip-ft/ ft Step 2. The maximum factored negative live load moment is: MunegliveB =γLL *(6.75 Factored negative live load moment: For a girder spacing of 9'-9" and a 3" distance from the centerline of girder to the design section.72 kip-ft/ft Method B: Using Stable A4.The total factored negative design moment for Method A is: MunegtotalA = MunegliveA + Munegdead = -13. This moment is calculated on the basis per foot and includes dynamic load allowance.5 Design for Positive Bending in Deck Assume #5 bars: bar_diam = 0.625 in bar_area = 0.74 K-ft/ft.65K-ft/ft.80 kip-ft/ ft γLL = 1. the maximum unfactored negative live load moment is 6.

8 Maximum live load moments per unit width.Table 3.00530 Required bar spacing = bar_area/ As = 8. kip -ft/ft ρ = 0.0 in 33 .7 in Use #5 bars @ bar_space = 8.

de = ts − Covert − bar diam/2 = 5.3 Crack control for positive reinforcement under live loads Step 5 Design for Negative Bending in Deck Figure 3.69 in Solve for the required amount of reinforcing steel.90 b=12 in 34 . as follows: φf = 0. Figure 3.4 Reinforcing steel for negative bending in deck Assume # 5 bars: Effective depth.

5 Crack control for negative reinforcement under live loads Step 2.0 in Figure 3.1) Bridge deck overhangs must be designed to satisfy three different design cases. In the first design case.Required bar spacing = bar_area/ As = 6.Design for Bending in Deck Overhang (SA13.6 .4 in Use # 5 bars @ bar_space = 6.4. the overhang must be designed for horizontal (transverse and longitudinal) vehicular collision forces. 35 .

the deck overhang region must be designed to have a resistance larger than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet.Design Overhang for Horizontal Vehicular Collision Force Case 1A . For Design Case 3.6 Deck overhang dimensions and live load Design Case 1 . Also. For Design Cases 1 and 2.Check at Design Section in Overhang Case 1C . the design forces are for the strength limit state. the design forces are for the extreme event limit state.Check at Inside Face of Parapet Case 1B . Finally.For the second design case. for the third design case. the overhang must be designed to resist the vertical collision force.Check at Design Section in First Span 36 . the overhang must be designed for dead and live loads. Figure 3.

Check at Design Section in First Span The required area of reinforcing steel in the overhang is the largest of that required for Cases 1A. 3A.Design Case 2 . 1C.0 in Figure 3.7 Superstructure positive and negative moment deck reinforcement 37 .Design Overhang for Vertical Collision Force Design Case 3 . Case 1A controls with: As = 1.Check at Design Section in Overhang Case 3B . Use 2 # 5 bars @ bar_space = 6. 1B.Design Overhang for Dead and Live Load Case 3A .24 in2 / ft Bundle one #5 bar to each negative flexure-reinforcing bar in the overhang area. and 3B.

1b Cross section of composite steel bridge 38 .1 .4 Steel Girder Design Design Step 3.1a Two-span continuous bridge Span Configuration Figure 3.Obtain Design Criteria Figure 3.3.

8 Framing Plan Design Data: Number of spans: N spans = 2 Span length: Lspan = 120 ft Skew angle: Skew = 0 deg Number of girders: N girders = 5 Girder spacing: S = 9.4.3 39 .1-1 Reinforcement strength: f y = 60ksi S5.4.0ksi S5.9375 ft Cross-frame spacing: L b = 20 ft S6. Figure 3.1 & STable C5.4.4.2.4 Web yield strength: F yw = 50 ksi STable 6.2.75 ft Deck overhang: Soverhang = 3.7.1-1 Concrete 28-day compressive strength: f' c = 4.4.1-1 Flange yield strength: Fyf = 50ksi STable 6.

Total deck thickness: t deck = 8.5.1-2) 40 .875 ft Roadway width: wroadway = 44.5in Deck width: w deck = 46.0in Effective overhang thickness: t effoverhang = 8.1-1 &STable 3.1-1 Additional miscellaneous dead load (per girder): Wmisc 0.015 K/ ft Stay-in-place deck form weight: W deckforms = 0.0 in Total overhang thickness: t overhang = 9.015ksf Parapet weight (each): W par = 0.5.1-1 Future wearing surface thickness: tfws = 2.5.4.140kcf STable 3.0 ft Haunch depth (from top of web): dhaunch = 3.5 in Average Daily Truck Traffic (Single-Lane): ADTTSL = 3000 Design Factors from AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications: Table 3.9 Load factors: ( STable 3.490kcf STable 3.53 K/ft Future wearing surface: W fws = 0.5 in Effective deck thickness: t effdeck = 8.5in Steel density: W s = 0.4.1-1 Concrete density: W c = 0.150kcf STable 3.

Table 3. 41 .10 Resistance factors Table 3.2 – Selection of Trial Girder Section Before the dead load effects can be computed. This trial girder section is selected based on previous experience and preliminary design. a trial girder section must be selected.11 Dynamic load allowance Design Step 3.

the interior girder controls. Using a modular ratio of 3n for the superimposed dead loads always gives higher stresses in the steel section. Using a modular ratio of n typically gives higher stresses in the concrete deck.10. except in the moment reversal regions where the selection of 3n vs. Figure 3.1. both interior and exterior. the slab area shall be transformed by using a modular ratio of 3n or n. both the exterior and interior girders must be considered. n can become an issue in determining the maximum stress in the deck. 42 . in the steel section and concrete deck.1b.Compute Section Properties Modular Ratio As specified in S6. and the controlling design is used for all girders. Step 3.3 . whichever gives the higher stresses. In general.9 Plate girder elevation For this design example.3.

150 kcf f' c = 4.772 in2 43 . plus the greater of web thickness or one-half the width of the top flange of the girder: W eff2 = 12⋅teffdeck +14 in/2 = 8. controlling effective span length equals approximately 60 feet (over the pier). the effective flange width is taken as the least of: 1. 12.6 Therefore.58 ft 3.00 ft 2. the total area of longitudinal deck reinforcing steel in the negative moment region is computed as follows: Adeckreinf = 2 × 0.31⋅in2 Weffflange/5 in = 12. The effective flange width is computed as follows: For interior beams. One-quarter of the effective span length: Assume that the minimum.W eff2 . Spaneff = 60 ft W eff1 = Spaneff / 4 = 15.5) ⋅f'c0.0 ksi Ec = 33000( W c1. The average spacing of adjacent beams: W effflange = min(W eff1 .5 = 3834 ksi Es = 29000 ksi n = Es/Ec = 7. use n = 8.W eff3) W effflange = 8.0 times the average thickness of the slab.0 in Based on the concrete deck design example.58 ft or W effflange = 103.The modular ratio is computed as follows: Wc = 0.

The distance to the centroid is measured from the bottom of the girder.5 inches above the top of the web. Table 3. the noncomposite and composite section properties for the positive moment region are computed as shown in the following table.12 Positive moment region section properties 44 . That is. this distance is used in computing the location of the centroid of the slab. However. the slab haunch is 3. the area of the haunch is not considered in the section properties. For this design example. Based on the trial plate sizes shown in Figure 3-4. the bottom of the slab is located 3.Slab Haunch For this design example.5 inches throughout the length of the bridge.

the noncomposite and composite section properties for the negative moment region are computed as shown in the following table. For the strength limit state. since the deck concrete is in tension in the negative moment region. The distance to the centroid is measured from the bottom of the girder.Similarly. Table 3. The concrete slab will be assumed to be fully effective for both positive and negative flexure for service and fatigue limit states. the deck reinforcing steel contributes to the composite section properties and the deck concrete does not.13 Negative moment region section properties 45 .

Step 3.4 - Compute Dead Load Effects

The girder must be designed to resist the dead load effects, as well as the other

load effects. The dead load components consist of some dead loads that are

resisted by the noncomposite section, as well as other dead loads that are

resisted by the composite section.

In addition, some dead loads are factored with the DC load factor and other dead

loads are factored with the DW load factor. The following table summarizes the

various dead load components that must be included in the design of a steel

girder.

Table 3.14 Dead load components

For the steel girder, the dead load per unit length varies due to the change in

plate sizes. The moments and shears due to the weight of the steel girder can be

computed using readily available analysis software. Since the actual plate sizes

are entered as input, the moments and shears are computed based on the

**actual, varying plate sizes.
**

46

For the concrete deck, the dead load per unit length for an interior girder is

computed as follows:

W c = 0.150 kips / ft3 S = 9.8 ft t deck = 8.5 in

DLdeck = W c⋅S⋅tdeck/12 in/ft =1.036 kips / ft

For the concrete haunch, the dead load per unit length varies due to the change

in top flange plate sizes. The moments and shears due to the weight of the

concrete haunch can be computed using readily available analysis software.

Since the top flange plate sizes are entered as input, the moments and shears

due to the concrete haunch are computed based on the actual, varying haunch

thickness.

For the stay-in-place forms, the dead load per unit length is computed as follows:

W deckforms = 0.015 ksf S = 9.8 ft W topflange = 14 in

DLdeckforms = W deckforms⋅(S−W topflange)= 0.129 kips / ft

For the miscellaneous dead load (including cross-frames, stiffeners, and other

miscellaneous structural steel), the dead load per unit length is assumed to be as

follows:

DLmisc = 0.015 kips/ft

For the concrete parapets, the dead load per unit length is computed as follows,

assuming that the superimposed dead load of the two parapets is distributed

uniformly among all of the girders:

W fws = 0.140 kcf tfws = 2.5 in

wroadway = 44.0 ft Ngirders = 5

47

DLfws=0.257 kips / ft

The following two tables present the unfactored dead load moments and shears,

as computed by an analysis computer program (AASHTO Opis software). Since

the bridge is symmetrical, the moments and shears in Span 2 are symmetrical to

those in Span 1.

Table 3.15 Dead load moment

Unfactored Dead Moment:

Mu = 1593 (1/4span), 1908 (1/2span), 1162 (3/4span), 983 (centre) kip-ft

Step 3.5 - Compute Live Load Effects

LRFD Consideration for Live Load

The basic live load designation is HL-93. The load consists of a design truck or

**tandem, combined with a lane load. In LRFD, 90% of the effect of two design
**

48

trucks at a specified distance is combined with 90% of the lane load to compute

the maximum negative live load moment. Dynamic load allowance is applied only

to the design truck and design tandem.

Table 3.16 Dead load shears (kips)

The girder must also be designed to resist the live load effects. The live load

consists of an HL-93 loading. Similar to the dead load, the live load moments and

shears for an HL-93 loading can be obtained from an analysis computer

program.

Based on Table 3-11, for all limit states other than fatigue and fracture, the

dynamic load allowance, IM, is as follows:

IM = 0.33

The live load distribution factors for moment for an interior girder are computed

as follows: (S4.6.2.2.1)

First, the longitudinal stiffness parameter, Kg, must be computed:

Kg = n ⋅ (I + A ⋅ eg 2)

49

5 ≤ ts ≤ 12. The case corresponding with the superstructure cross section in this design example is "a. Stable 4.75 ft OK 4.2b-1 and 4. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in interior beams is as follows: (STable4.6.2.0 S = 9.0 in OK 20 ≤ L ≤ 240 L = 120 ft OK Nb ≥ 4 N b = 5 OK 10000 ≤ Kg ≤ 7000000 K g = 818611 in4 OK For one design lane loaded.2." STables 4.2b-1) 50 .6. respectively.0 ts = 8.Table 3-17 Longitudinal stiffness parameter After the longitudinal stiffness parameter is computed.6.2.5 ≤ S ≤ 16.1-1 is used to find the case for type of superstructure cross section.2.2.6.2.2. Check the range of applicability as follows: 3.2." Based on cross section "a.3a-1 are used to compute the distribution factors for moment and shear.2.

6.2. the skew correction factor need not be considered for this design example.2. However. the distribution of live load per lane: The live load distribution factors for shear for an interior girder are computed in a similar manner.2. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior beams is as follows: (Stable 4.6. This design example is based on an interior girder. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in interior beams is as follow: Stable 4.For two or more design lane loaded.2.3a-1) Since this bridge has no skew. the live load distribution factors for an exterior girder are computed as shown below: 51 . for illustrative purposes.3a-1) For two or more design lanes loaded. The range of applicability is similar to that for moment For one design lane loaded.

as follows: Figure 3.0 ≤ de ≤ 5. For this design example. is defined as the distance between the web centerline of the exterior girder and the interior edge of the curb.50 ft OK For one design lane loaded.2.2.50 ft Check the range of applicability as follows: (Stable 4.The distance.6.10 Lever Rule For two or more design lanes loaded. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in exterior beams is computed using the lever rule. the distribution of live load per lane for moment in exterior beams is as follows: 52 . based on Figure 3.5 de = 2.2d-1) −1.2: de = 2. de.

3b-1) For two or more design lanes loaded. CEquation 4. For one design lane loaded. The range of applicability is similar to that for moment.6.2.2d-1 provides one approximate 53 . the distribution factor for the exterior beam cannot be taken to be less than that which would be obtained by assuming that the cross-section deflects and rotates as a rigid cross-section.2.2. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in exterior beams is as follows: In beam-slab bridge cross-sections with diaphragms or cross-frames.2.The live load distribution factors for shear for an exterior girder are computed in a similar manner. the distribution of live load per lane for shear in exterior beams is computed using the lever rule.6. as illustrated in Figure 3-5 and as follows: (STable4.

as computed using an analysis computer program.18 Live load effects (Interior Beam) The design live load values for HL-93 loading.2 must be applied when this equation is used.6.1. However.approach to satisfy this requirement. the moments and shears in Span 2 are symmetrical to those in Span 1. 54 . Since the bridge is symmetrical. The multiple presence factor provisions of S3. These values include the live load distribution factor. The following table presents the unfactored maximum positive and negative live load moments and shears for HL-93 live loading for interior beams. These values also include the effects of dynamic load allowance. as presented in the previous table. and they also include dynamic load allowance.1. it is important to note that the dynamic load allowance is applied only to the design truck or tandem. Table 3. The dynamic load allowance is not applied to pedestrian loads or to the design lane load. are computed based on the product of the live load effect per lane and live load distribution factor.

3). 968(1/2span).Combine Load Effects After the load factors and load combinations have been established (see Design Step 3.2 kip⋅ft MDC = 1400. 983 (centre) kip-ft Muneglive = 680 (1/4span). the force effects must be combined for each of the applicable limit states. the section properties have been computed (see Design Step 3.0 kip⋅ft + 922.6 .00. (For more detailed information about η. 1908 (1/2span).4 kip ⋅ft LFDW = 1.5).Unfactored Live Moment: Mupositive = 1593 (1/4span).1). and all of the load effects have been computed (see Design Steps 3.) Based on the previous design steps. For this design example. the maximum positive moment (located at 0.8 kip⋅ft + 192.4L) for the Strength I Limit State is computed as follows: LFDC = 1.4 and 3.4 kip⋅ft + 135.75 MLL = 1908 kip ⋅ft Mtotal = LFDC⋅MDC + LFDW ⋅MDW + LFLL⋅MLL Mtotal = 5439 kip⋅ft 55 . 1032 (3/4span).25 MDC 150. refer to Design Step 1.50 MDW = 232. η equals 1. 2450 (centre) kip-ft Step 3.7 kip⋅ft LFLL = 1. 1162 (3/4span).

the maximum stress in the top of the girder due to positive moment (located at 0.4L) for the Strength I Limit State is computed as follows: Noncomposite dead load: Parapet dead load (composite): Parapet dead load (composite): Future wearing surface dead load (composite): Live load (HL-93) and dynamic load allowance: 56 .Similarly.

for this design example. the Strength I Limit State elastic stress in the bottom of the girder exceeds the girder yield stress. However. shears. all of the combined moments. A summary of those combined load effects for an interior beam is presented in the following three tables. Table 3-19 Combined effects at location of maximum positive moment As shown in the above table. and flexural stresses can be computed at the controlling locations. this value is not used because of the local yielding that occurs at this section. summarizing the results obtained using the procedures demonstrated in the above computations.Multiplying the above stresses by their respective load factors and adding the products results in the following combined stress for the Strength I Limit State: Similarly. 57 .

and fdeck is the stress in the deck reinforcing steel.Table 3-20 Combined effects at location of maximum negative moment Legend: * Strength I Limit State stresses are based on section properties assuming the deck concrete is not effective. ** Service II and Fatigue Limit State stresses are based on section properties assuming the deck concrete is effective. 58 . and f deck is the stress in the deck concrete.

it can be seen that the interior girder controls the design. Based on these envelopes. and values for both interior and exterior girders are presented. Maximum and minimum values are presented.Table 3-21 Combined effects at location of maximum shear Envelopes of the factored Strength I moments and shears are presented in the following two figures. 59 . and all remaining design computations are based on the interior girder.

Figure 3. 60 .12 Envelope of Strength I shears Design steps consist of verifying the structural adequacy of critical beam locations using appropriate sections of the Specifications.11 Envelope of Strength I moments Figure 3.

which is at 0. it should be noted that the maximum moment within a span may not necessarily occur at any of the above locations. as shown in Figure 3-13.13 Location of maximum positive moment 61 . two design sections will be checked for illustrative purposes. all specification checks for these same design steps will be performed for the location of maximum negative moment and maximum shear. which is at the pier. which is at 0.7 through following Steps will be performed for the location of maximum positive moment.For this design example. Specification Check Locations For steel girder designs.4L in Span 1.4L in Span 1. specification checks are generally performed using a computer program at the following locations: • Span tenth points • Locations of plate transitions • Locations of stiffener spacing transitions However. The following specification checks are for the location of maximum positive moment. Figure 3. all specification checks for Design Steps 3. First. Second.

10.Step 3.) The first section proportion check relates to the general proportions of the section.Check Section Proportion Limits – Positive Moment Region Several checks are required to ensure that the proportions of the trial girder section are within specified limits.3.2.7 . For a section without longitudinal stiffeners.10. The flexural components must be proportioned such that: The second section proportion check relates to the web slenderness. the web must be proportioned such that: For the Strength I limit state at 0.4L in Span 1 (the location of maximum positive moment): S6. (S6.4a (See Table 3-19 and Figure 3-9) 62 .1.

3) 63 .The third section proportion check relates to the flange proportions.4Dc. the flange width is greater than both 0.10. the tension flanges on fabricated I- sections must be proportioned such that:( S6. (C6.3) In addition to the compression flange check. The compression flanges on fabricated I-sections must be proportioned such that: According to C6.2.2.4Dc.2. so this requirement is clearly satisfied. it is preferable for the flange width to be greater than or equal to 0.10.3Dc and 0.10. In this case.3.

Step 3.14 Computation of plastic moment capacity for positive bending sections For the tension flange: For the web: For the compression flange: 64 .Positive Moment Region Figure 3.Compute Plastic Moment Capacity .8 .

results in an equilibrium condition in which there is no net axial force. Check that the position of the plastic neutral axis. is computed as follows. The plastic moment. as computed above. where d is the distance from an element force (or element neutral axis) to the plastic neutral axis: 65 . the plastic neutral axis is located within the slab. as follows: Therefore.For the slab: Check the location of the plastic neutral axis. Mp.

Figure 3.15 Final plate girder elevation 66 .

24 x 6000x(5.24 in2 /ft a = Asfy / 0. Concrete deck slab capacity: Overhang Negative Moment Capacity: 2 # 5 bar (bundled bar) @ 6 in As = 2x0.82/2) =29.69-1.85 x 4000 x 12 = 1. Future wearing surface density .0 inch for reinforcement bar size smaller than a #11 bar.The concrete bottom cover is set at 1.85fcb = 1.1. This includes the required ½ inch integral wearing surface.82 in Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) = 1.5 inches since the bridge deck may be exposed to deicing salts and/or tire stud or chain wear.31x12 in /6 in = 1.5 in thick future wearing surface with a density of 0.1 Bridge Deck Moment Capacity Deck top cover . The concrete 28-day compressive strength for decks shall be not less than 4.2. Also.6 kip-ft 67 . Deck bottom cover .1 Model Bridge Capacity 4.The concrete top cover is set at 2.140 kcf is assumed in the calculations. type "AE" concrete should be specified when the deck will be exposed to deicing salts or the freeze-thaw cycle.0 KSI.24 x 6000/0.CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF BLAST PRESSURES IN THE BRIDGE DECK 4.

2 kip-ft Positive Moment Capacity: 1 # 5 bar @ 8 in As = 1 x 0.684 in Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) = 0.465 in2 /ft a = Asfy/0.69-0.69-0.8 kip-ft Concrete Deck Slab Cracking Moment Ig =12x83/12 = 512 in4 fr = 7.31 x 12 in / 6 in = 0.91/2) = 16.684/2) =14.91 in Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) = 0.31x12 in/8 in = 0.684x6000x(6.85fcb = 0. Figure 3.5 x 4000 = 474 psi yt = H/2 = 4 in Mcr = Igfr/yt = 512 x 474 / 4 = 60672 lb-in = 61 kip-in/ft = 5.85x4000x12 = 0.465x6000/0.5 f ' =7. 62 x 6000 / 0.62 x 6000 x (5.85fcb = 0.62 in2 /ft a = Asfy / 0.5 Superstructure positive and negative moment deck reinforcement Negative Moment Capacity: 1#5 bar @6 in As = 1 x 0.1 kip-ft/ft 68 .85 x 4000 x 12 = 0.

2 Bridge Deck Shear Capacity For 1 ft width concrete deck. Mp.1.3.3 Steel Girder Plastic Moment Capacity Figure 3.4. and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 0.15 Plate girder elevation 4. Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”.1.1. is calculated as the first moment of plastic forces about the plastic neutral axis.1 Compute Plastic Moment Capacity – Positive (Composite) For composite sections.6 kips 4.69 = 8.875 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 613 kips 69 . Mid Span Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”. the plastic moment. the maximum allowable nominal shear strength Vc: Vc = 2 f ' b0d = 2 4000 x12x5.

1 Girder cross section For the web: Fyw = 50. Figure 4.50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 0.85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅ts Ps = 2802 kips The forces in the longitudinal reinforcement may be conservatively neglected.0 in Ps = 0.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0. as follows: Pt + Pw = 1963 kips Pc + Ps = 3239 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 2400 kips Ps = 2802 kips 70 .0 ksi bs = 103 in ts = 8. Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.625 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 438 kips For the slab: f'c = 4.

5in + ts – Y dw = 31. Pc Pw Pt Y = (ts) Ps Y = 6.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0.33 in dw = Dw/2+3. and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 1.50 in 71 . Bottom flange 14” x 1-3/8”. as computed above.08 in Y 2 Ps Mp = +(Pc⋅dc + Pw⋅dw + Pt⋅dt) 2 t s Mp = 7419 kip-ft 3/4 Span Section Top flange 14” x 1-1/4”. results in an equilibrium condition in which there is no net axial force.5 kips For the web: Fyw = 50. the plastic neutral axis is located within the deck concrete slab.Therefore.65 in dt = tt/2 + Dw + 3.5in + ts – Y dc = 4. Compression = 0.5in +ts –Y dt = 59.375 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 962.85 in Check whether the position of the plastic neutral axis.85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅Y Compression = 2400 kips Tension = Pt + Pw + Pc Tension = 2400 kips dc = -tc/2 + 3.

25 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 875 kips For the slab: f'c = 4.Y + Dw + ts ) 2 2 72 .5 kips Pc + Ps = 3677 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 3187. Concrete Compression = 0. the plastic neutral axis is located top flange. as computed above.Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 1. Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.Y Ps + Pc ( ) = Pc ( tc ) + Pt + Pw tc tc Pt Pw Pc .5 + Y) + ( Y ) Pc ( Y ) + ( tc .Y + Dw ) + Pt (tc .85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅ts = 2802 kips tc .5 kips Ps = 2802 kips Therefore.Ps Y= 2 Pc Y = 0.275 in Check whether the position of the plastic neutral axis.Y Mp = Ps ( ts + 3. results in an equilibrium condition in which there is no net axial force.0 ksi bs = 103 in ts = 8.Y ) Pc ( ) 2 tc 2 tc 2 + Pw (tc . Y tc .85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅ts Ps = 2802 kips The forces in the longitudinal reinforcement may be conservatively neglected. as follows: Pt + Pw = 2312.0 in Ps = 0.

as follows: Pt + Pw = 3275 kips Pc + Ps = 4552 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 32875 kips Ps = 2802 kips Therefore.Mp = 113486 kip-in = 9457 kip-ft Center Support Section Top flange 14” x -1/2”.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0.Y ) + Pt + Pw tc tc 73 .50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 2. Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.0 in Ps = 0. and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 2.0 ksi bs = 103 in ts = 8.85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅ts Ps = 2802 kips The forces in the longitudinal reinforcement may be conservatively neglected.5 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 1750 kips For the slab: f'c = 4. Bottom flange 14” x 2-3/4”. the plastic neutral axis is located top flange. Ps + Pc ( Y ) = Pc ( tc .75 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 1925 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.

59 in Check that the position of the plastic neutral axis.2 Girder cross section with steel reinforcements in the concrete deck 74 .Y Mp = Ps ( ts + 3. the plastic moment.1. Concrete Compression = 0.5 + Y) + ( Y ) Pc ( Y ) + ( tc .3.Y + Dw ) + Pt (tc . results in an equilibrium condition in which there is no net axial force. Pt Pw Pc . Mp.Ps Y = tc 2 Pc Y = 1.Y ) Pc ( ) 2 tc 2 tc 2 + Pw (tc . is calculated as the first moment of plastic forces about the plastic neutral axis.Y + Dw + ts ) 2 2 Mp = 172672 kip-in = 14389 kip-ft 4.85⋅f'c⋅bs⋅ts = 2802 kips tc . Figure 4. as computed above.2 Negative Plastic Moment Capacity For composite sections.

Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”.31⋅in2 (103 in) / (5 in) Arb = 6.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0.5 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the top layer of the slab: Fyrt = 60 ksi Art = 0.5 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 2400 kips 75 . and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 0.875 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 612.50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 K For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 0. as follows: Pw + Pc = 1962.Plastic Moment Capacity for Negative Bending Midspan Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”.5 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.625 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 437.39 in2 Prb = Fyrt⋅Art Prb = 383 kips Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.31⋅in2 (103 in) / (5 in) Art = 6.39 in2 Prt = Fyrt⋅Art Prt = 383 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the bottom layer of the slab: Fyrb = 60 ksi Arb = 0.

375 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 962. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.5 + Y) + Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) 2 Dw 2 D w -Y D -Y t +( ) Pw ( w ) + Pc (Dw + c .3 kips Therefore.5 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the top layer of the slab: Fyrt = 60 ksi 76 .50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 1. Bottom flange 14” x 1-3/8”. and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 1.in = 5828 kip -ft 3/4 Span Section Top flange 14” x 1-1/4”.Prb Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 15.5 + Y) + Prb (1 + 3.Pt + Prb + Prt = 1204.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0.16 in t Mp = Prt (6 + 3. Dw Pc Pt Prt .Y) 2 Dw 2 Mp = 69932 kip .25 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 875 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.

5 + Y) + Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) 2 Dw 2 D w -Y D -Y t +( ) Pw ( w ) + Pc (Dw + c .39in2 Prt = Fyrt⋅Art Prt = 383 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the bottom layer of the slab: Fyrb = 60 ksi Arb = 0.31 in2 (103 in) / (5 in) Arb = 6.Y) 2 Dw 2 Mp = 90503 kip .in = 7542 kip -ft Center Support Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”.Prb Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 13.41 in t Mp = Prt (6 + 3.5 kips Pt + Prb + Prt = 1641 kips Therefore.50 in 77 .31⋅in2 (103 in) / (5 in) Art = 6. Dw Pc Pt Prt .5 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 3187. as follows: Pw + Pc = 2312.Art = 0. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web. Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”. and web 54” x 1/2” For the tension flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 2.5 + Y) + Prb (1 + 3.39 in2 Prb = Fyrt⋅Art Prb = 383 kips Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.

39 in2 Prt = Fyrt⋅Art Prt = 383 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the bottom layer of the slab: Fyrb = 60 ksi Arb = 0. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web. Dw Pc Pt Prt .50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the compression flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tc = 0.31 in2 *(103 in) / (5 in) Art = 6.39 in2 Prb = Fyrt⋅Art Prb = 383 kips Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.875 in Pc = Fyc⋅bc⋅tc Pc = 1925 kips For the longitudinal reinforcing steel in the top layer of the slab: Fyrt = 60 ksi Art = 0.31⋅in2 (103 in) / (5 in) Arb = 6.Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 1750 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0.16 in 78 .Prb Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 15. as follows: Pw + Pc = 3275 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 2516 kips Pt + Pw + Pc = 5025 kips Prb + Prt = 766 kips Therefore.

3. Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”. the plastic moment.3 Positive and Negative Plastic Moment Capacities (Non- Composite) For nor-composite sections. Figure 4.in = 13118 kip -ft 4.Y) 2 Dw 2 Mp = 157415 kip .5 kips 79 .3 Girder cross section (non-composite) Midspan Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”. t Mp = Prt (6 + 3. Mp.625 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 437. and web 54” x 1/2” For the top flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 0.5 + Y) + Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) 2 Dw 2 D w -Y D -Y t +( ) Pw ( w ) + Pc (Dw + c . is calculated as the first moment of plastic forces about the plastic neutral axis.1.5 + Y) + Prb (1 + 3.

For the web: Fyw = 50.5 kips Check the location of the plastic neutral axis. Bottom flange 14” x 1-3/8”. as follows: Pw + Pt = 11787.Y + b ) 2 Dw 2 Dw 2 2 Mp = 46673 kip -in = 3889 kip -ft 3/4 Span Section Top flange 14” x 1/4”.5 kips Therefore. and web 54” x 1/2” For the top flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 1.0ksi Dw = 54in tw = 0.5 kips Pw + Pb = 1962. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips For the bottom flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tb = 0.50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 kips 80 .875 in Pc = Fyc⋅bb⋅tb Pb = 612.5 in t D .0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0. Dw Pb Pw Pt Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 30.Y D w -Y t Mp =Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) + Pw ( w )( ) + Pb (Dw .25 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 875 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.

375 in Pc = Fyc⋅bb⋅tb Pb = 962.50 in Pw = Fyw⋅Dw⋅tw Pw = 1350 k For the bottom flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tb = 2.5 kips Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.For the bottom flange: Fyc = 50 ksi bc = 14 in tb = 1.0 ksi Dw = 54 in tw = 0. as follows: Pw + Pt = 2225 kips Pw + Pb = 2312. and web 54” x 1/2” For the top flange: Fyt = 50 ksi bt = 14 in tt = 2.5 in Pt = Fyt⋅bt⋅tt Pt = 1750 kips For the web: Fyw = 50.Y + b ) 2 Dw 2 Dw 2 2 Mp = 68970 kip -in = 5748 kip -ft Center Support Section Top flange 14” x 2-1/2”.5 kips Therefore.75 in t D .Y D w -Y t Mp =Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) + Pw ( w )( ) + Pb (Dw . the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.75 in Pc = Fyc⋅bb⋅tb Pb = 1925 kips 81 . Bottom flange 14” x 2-3/4”. Dw Pb Pw Pt Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 28.

54) x 0.75 in2 Aw = (2.75 in2 Vn = 0.625 x 1 =889 kips 4. as follows: Pw + Pt = 3100 kips Pw + Pb = 3275 kips Therefore.875+0.75+54) x 0. Dw Pb Pw Pt Y= 1 2 Pw Y = 30.Check the location of the plastic neutral axis.5 = 27.75 x 1 =833 kips For centre support location.5 in t D .Y D w -Y t Mp =Pt ( t + Y) + Pw ( Y ) ( Y ) + Pw ( w )( ) + Pb (Dw .875+54) x 0.6 FyAwCv For left and right support location. The Federal Highway Administration 82 .6 FyAwCv = 0.6 FyAwCv = 0.625+0.6 x 50 x 29. girders Aw = (0. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.625 in2 Vn = 0.625+0.2 Typical Blast Load The typical amount of TNT explosive. the most likely explosive attack scenarios and their impacts are shown in Tables 4-1 and 4-2.6 x 50 x 27.5 = 29.4 Bridge Steel Girder Shear Capacity Vn = 0.Y + b ) 2 Dw 2 Dw 2 2 Mp = 121978 kip-in = 10165 kip-ft 4.5+2.1. These are recommended by the Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) Agency and AASHTO Blue Ribbon Panel and Federal Alcohol. The highest possibility of a conventional truck bomb is with an amount of 500 lb of TNT explosive. girders Aw = (0.5 = 27.

1 Vehicle bomb explosion effects --Federal Alcohol. The attack scenarios are limited to TNT-equivalent blasts that occur over the bridge deck (e. Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) Agency Table 4. Table 4.2 Magnitude of threats (Recommendations for Bridge and Tunnel Security ---The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security) * Nuclear weapon yield: Nagasaki's "Fat Man" gravity bomb 20 kt TNT (thousands of tons of TNT). 83 .g. ATBlast software based on 500 lb of TNT is used to generate the equivalent static loads. carried in a vehicle traveling on the bridge).estimates that 60% of terrorist attacks use conventional explosives. In this study.

and W = Equivalent TNT weight of charge (lb). and duration (td). a maximum range of 45 feet. The program allows the user to input minimum and maximum range. developed AT-Blast.3 Equivalent Blast Pressure In 1990. and angle of incidence. the resulting pressure and impulse curves may be displayed graphically. Applied Research Associates. The TM 5-1300 Manual contains a chart using this empirical formula. the Department of Defense published the TM 5-1300 Manual-Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. In addition. From this information. Inc. The results are displayed on screen in a tabular format and may be printed. the software program that estimates the equivalent blast pressure that occurs during an open-air explosion. Z = W/R1/3 Where. The manual contains following empirical formula to find the scaled distance (Z) of a blast wave. Time of Arrival (TOA). Impulse (I).4. These values are displayed in a tabular and graphical format. R = Distance of target from point of explosion (ft). and is provided at no cost to the government and to authorized users. Based on this formula. AT-Blast calculates Shock Front Velocity (V). Figure 4-5 shows an output copy from AT-Blast with the following inputs: a minimum range (R) of 6 feet. The ATBlast software is widely used and recommended by the professionals to determine the equivalent blast pressure due to an explosion. a 500-pound TNT charge 84 . Justin Domire of Pennsylvania State University used ATBlast to determine blast pressure to redesign the Silver Spring District Courthouse against blast loading (Domire 2003). explosive charge weight. Pressure (P).

69 0.94 49.6 219.87 707.57 29 2.95 101.86 43.01 154.78 41 2.28 128.98 11.15 108.04 187.68 145.29 121.03 79.1 9. Table 4.94 3.62 5.8 178.83 36 2.14 9.97 16 4.74 30 2.56 6.09 6.85 196.97 1.95 156.94 11.64 6.2 1.03 3.39 39 2.84 113.49 52.31 0.19 118.31 151.36 44 1.85 0.48 0.39 160.43 146.46 1.94 209.81 1.81 68.13 275.26 7 9.81 15 5.08 4.34 124.55 190.31 22 3.17 43 1.21 27 2.03 0.33 41.12 21 3.72 6.15 4.42 161.58 40 2.74 3.64 35 2.38 2.36 245.64 166.65 195.91 147.36 7.93 4.58 3.74 832.41 74.11 177.66 86.92 309.13 4.28 33 2.33 33.57 189.4 1479.62 991.05 10.2 38 2.39 28 2.14 2.82 5.61 19 4.03 155.74 1.97 5.5 23 3.93 116.11 0.19 8.92 31 2.92 4.31 9 7.63 59.97 42 1.28 8 8.68 14 5.88 5.1 32 2.49 6.21 64.93 0.36 10 7.34 456.58 2.01 37 2.46 34 2.41 1.89 1.05 56.91 20 3.25 2.5 131.85 1.68 24 3.39 3.7 3.02 135.86 25 3.69 3.73 172.3 Equivalent parameters for 500 lb of TNT explosion Range Velocity Time of Arrival Pressure Impulse Load Duration (ft) (ft/msec) (msec) (psi) (psi-msec) (msec) 6 10.82 34.62 110.13 0.91 12.3 93.04 26 3.58 13 5.93 2.86 0.28 3.14 151.11 197.5 205.17 524.66 121.9 0.61 2.02 183.72 147.92 177.32 36.42 11 6.35 0.95 5.92 111.52 398.64 1.01 10.46 148.56 85 .05 167.72 0.18 143.41 4.13 2.06 0.13 0. and a 90º angle of alpha (Alpha is the angle of incidence of the shock wave impacting a target surface).71 350.3 8.5 1198.21 5.98 132.42 3.91 139.73 5.35 2.19 5.59 2.93 162.58 6.29 208.52 200.15 17 4.25 4.78 169.39 46.42 7.weight.79 3.02 606.03 4.82 38.36 18 4.24 8.49 12 6.14 1.83 0.

The distance in the plane of the bridge deck of the point of interest from the explosion centroid is designated as r. Figure 4. it is approximated that the explosion centroid occurs 6 feet above the bridge deck. which is designated as H.4 Pressure vs. Use the Pythagorean theorem. 86 . Also. the angle theta (θ) is calculated. In order to calculate the distance from the explosion to the bridge surface. the height of the blast centroid must be defined. range curve (ATBlast) AT-Blast’s pressure outputs are used to obtain equivalent pressure loads in the bridge model. the distance (R) from the explosion centroid to the point on the bridge deck surface is calculated. Assuming the bomb is carried in a car trunk or on a truck bed. The equivalent pressures are applied to the surface of decks and girders.

5 Explosion location above the bridge deck Figure 4. Figure 4.6 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (Plan) 87 .

8 Blast pressure vertical components 88 .Figure 4.7 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (Elevation) Figure 4.

the horizontal face has an area of B / sin(θ).9 500 TNT explosion location above the bridge deck 89 .4 500lb TNT Blast Pressure on The Bridge Figure 4. Fv = Pv x A = Pv x B / sin(θ) Pv x B / sin(θ) = P x B x sin(θ) The blast pressure vertical components are: Pv = P x sin2(θ) R = (r2+H2) ½ = (r +X2 + Y2) 1/2 sin(θ) = H / R 4. A = B / sin(θ) The blast force is: F = B x P The blast force vertical components are: Fv= F x sin(θ) = P x B x sin(θ).The blast pressure is applied at an angle of θ with horizontal as shown. Assuming an area of B for the inclined face of the segment.

769 0.7 18.1 4.86 0.624 2.246 3.13 37.65 0.23 0.60 626.012 Table 4.6 26.86 0.7 18.9 7.88 0.06 7.53 0.3 3.269 11 10 6 23.3 2.373 1.094 0.9 9.13 37.08 14.22 0.0 1.4 1.645 6.50 0.75 0.76 0.6 24.1 1.995 2 10 6 -19.268 7.6 22.88 0.304 0.35 0.8 11.645 6.9 9.022 10 0 6 19.10 0.056 1.268 7.9 12.995 90 .089 2.6 24.53 0.373 1.543 1.35 0.10 0.27 154.75 0.261 2 5 6 -19.6 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 10 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.0 0.23 111.260 0.0 1.22 108.892 6 0 6 0 6.633 1.269 3 10 6 -14.056 1. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 10 6 -23.09 16. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 5 6 -23. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 0 6 -23.925 8 10 6 9.06 7.4 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 0 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.1 2.6 21.42 340.8 15.07 10.771 5 10 6 -4.280 0.892 8 0 6 9.65 0.0 0.597 0.894 1.8 15.142 6 5 6 0 7.8 12.1 4.645 1.81 0.215 5.26 146.05 5.012 2.16 53.7 0.7 16.194 11 0 6 23.590 0.142 8 5 6 9.14 45.466 3 5 6 -14.22 108.543 1.32 0.261 Table 4.628 5 0 6 -4.81 0.660 7 0 6 4.32 0.727 3.16 53.0 1.0 1.23 111.194 3 0 6 -14.590 0.3 3.00 1.3 2.8 1.59 608.0 2.65 0.534 1.383 4 10 6 -9.923 7.23 0.6 24.286 3.894 5 5 6 -4.8 4.138 2.8 11.7 15.0 0.10 23.4 1.771 9 10 6 14.6 26.012 2.260 0.6 4.42 340.012 2 0 6 -19.1 2.669 7 10 6 4.3 3.128 3.7 16.089 2.329 5.979 2.8 4.280 0.022 4 0 6 -9.839 4.09 16.27 154.645 1.341 4 5 6 -9.5 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 5 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.894 9 5 6 14.7 0.624 2.119 0.81 0.894 1.128 3.246 3.6 22.260 0.06 7.49 0.49 0.7 15.015 7.0 1.22 0.759 1.215 5.534 1.08 14.9 7.925 6 10 6 0 11.Table 4.839 4.094 0.6 24.902 7 5 6 4.302 0.286 3.550 1.6 4.6 21.329 5.769 0.138 2.341 10 5 6 19.0 2.979 2.6 20.00 1479.400 0.8 12.65 0.14 45.0 0.3 3.6 20.015 7.727 3.76 0.9 12.466 11 5 6 23.66 0.383 10 10 6 19.10 23.923 7.07 10.8 1.05 5.302 0.60 626.06 7.628 9 0 6 14.633 1.50 0.0 1.759 1.

131 7.8 3.60 0.9 3.470 5.335 3.672 9.241 7.692 6.3 2.08 14.422 3.816 10 15 6 19.17 0.6 28.6 6.942 4.90 0.60 0.135 7 15 6 4.816 4 15 6 -9.84 0.16 0.4 2.3 2.208 11 20 6 23.6 25.6 31.4 4.9 5.8 27.40 0.392 5 20 6 -4.422 3.739 4 25 6 -9.8 18.392 9 20 6 14.008 4.9 26.879 4.03 2.807 2 20 6 -19.530 3.06 6.105 1.7 8.613 5 25 6 -4.8 23.08 12.287 5.05 4.13 35.235 2.470 5.4 5.90 0.17 0.335 3.3 3.05 5.7 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.4 4.54 0.07 9.130 3.7 29.08 13.467 3.079 2.395 5.615 4.130 3.07 0.9 5.700 2.4 2.4 5.10 22. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 20 6 -23.879 4.108 7.05 4.524 3.6 34.45 0.281 11 25 6 23.6 28.3 6.530 3 15 6 -14.04 3.339 11.13 35.14 42.04 3.40 0.33 0.598 4 20 6 -9.7 25.10 22.8 23.03 2.05 6.811 12.9 5.84 0.953 1.192 10.9 5.918 6 25 6 0 25.7 8.88 0.7 21.0 1.346 2.700 2.3 3.6 31.7 29.07 0.516 3.208 3 20 6 -14.64 0.395 5.241 7.108 7.64 0.04 2.685 7 25 6 4.62 0.06 6.3 3.235 2.888 3.366 7 20 6 4.8 4.9 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 25 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.483 8.339 11.281 3 25 6 -14.90 0.88 0.672 9.819 91 .8 3.6 32.51 0.598 10 20 6 19.04 2.3 6.6 6.51 0.008 4.7 21.6 32.679 9.2 4. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 25 6 -23.45 0.192 10.5 4.679 9.06 6.888 3.33 0.615 4.454 9 15 6 14.677 3.530 3.630 6 20 6 0 20.51 0.05 5.692 6.441 6 15 6 0 16.613 9 25 6 14.9 21.07 9.8 27.08 13. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 15 6 -23.811 12.942 4.819 2 25 6 -19.04 3.575 1.851 9.04 3.04 3.575 1.06 6.918 8 25 6 9.08 12.8 18.454 5 15 6 -4.105 1.483 8.467 3.62 0.7 5.6 28.530 11 15 6 23.03 1.739 10 25 6 19.04 3.71 0.7 25.188 2 15 6 -19.9 16.8 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 20 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.Table 4.9 21.3 3.807 Table 4.8 4.90 0.03 1.54 0.88 0.630 8 20 6 9.6 25.516 3.9 26.51 0.6 34.5 4.183 3.677 3.346 2.188 Table 4.441 8 15 6 9.9 16.7 5.851 9.6 28.161 7.131 7.

339 11.138 2.6 10.256 4.6 36.690 5.5 12.04 2.108 7.3 3.329 5.303 11.1 45.4 5.860 4.7 33.0 3.235 10 30 6 19.9 6.606 4.03 2.404 4.59 0.33 0.3 23.208 4 -15 3.097 10.640 5.3 23.679 9.13 0.640 5.03 1.1 14.9 6.3 37.073 2 -25 1.04 2.1 1.9 6.64 0.281 3 -20 2.530 11 20 2.4 6.501 6 30 6 0 30.942 4. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 30 6 -23.208 12 25 1.501 8 30 6 9.530 5 -10 5.1 9.511 15.03 1.4 6.94 0.163 5 30 6 -4.03 1.138 2.645 6.640 5.7 2.466 7 0 7.202 Table 4.9 8.714 11 30 6 23.8 16.7 33.Table 4.4 1.624 2.8 32.03 1.690 5.4 6. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 1.860 4.269 6 -5 7.073 13.8 6.630 12.9 7.8 32.13 0.027 10.530 3.1 1.714 92 .6 38.235 4 30 6 -9.9 30.9 30.281 13 30 1.630 12.5 12.194 8 5 7.269 10 15 3.215 5.640 5.9 6.163 9 30 6 14.714 3 30 6 -14.624 2.3 4.8 6.422 3.3 37.329 5.02 1.98 0.3 3.33 0.511 15.4 8.11 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 1 and girder 5 # 1 Blast # 2 Blast # 3 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #2 Load Duration End Time No.04 2.679 9.3 3.202 2 30 6 -19.3 4.9 7.097 10.108 7.979 2.4 5.6 3.606 4.9 8.4 6.7 2.942 4.9 6.1 14.64 0.422 3.303 11.645 6.339 11.530 3.94 0.1 9.6 10.98 0.6 38.0 3.0 2.4 8.10 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 30 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.6 3.4 1.6 36.02 1.283 7 30 6 4.404 4.073 13.03 2.3 3.073 13.466 9 10 5.

3 22.575 1.771 6 -5 37.163 Table 4.7 0.3 14.3 3.524 3.012 2.3 1.4 2.8 6.3 3.575 1.Table 4.287 5.902 9 10 108.8 6.700 2.524 3.283 2 -25 5.9 2.628 8 5 37.633 1.2 5.0 0.4 4.9 2.079 2.669 6 -5 340.4 35.8 340.669 10 15 35.9 2.0 1.0 626.392 12 25 3.303 11.660 8 5 340.4 626.366 4 -15 35.692 6.0 1.771 10 15 12.597 0.633 1.759 1.7 5.260 0.12 Pressure and arrival time on the girders 2 and 4 # 3 Blast # 4 Blast # 5 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #4 Load Duration End Time No.902 7 0 626.483 8.2 5.1 108.5 Application of Blast Loads The pressures on a structure due to a blast are non-uniform and highly impulsive.130 3.3 111.3 3.483 8.8 4.130 3. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 1.7 608.027 10.3 14.953 1.0 108.0 146.260 0. The load impulses on the deck contain a positive downward phase and a negative suction phase.9 13.0 1.0 340.8 5.692 6.7 1.0 1.1 108.8 5.8 6.4 9.613 3 -20 6.3 2.879 4.183 3.0 1.685 13 30 2.454 5 -10 23.8 2.0 1.287 5.8 2.119 0.3 3.304 0.9 13.454 11 20 6.8 340.860 4.392 4 -15 12.597 0.759 1.303 11.256 4.550 1.3 2.283 4.0 1479.8 13.685 3 -20 13.119 0.027 10.700 2.4 9.161 7.0 146.550 1.4 2.260 0.135 11 20 13.953 1.256 4.9 2.879 4.4 35.0 154. The peak pressures decay and the load duration 93 .4 4.183 3.534 1.7 608.7 5.7 1.3 42.0 53.366 12 25 5.3 22.613 13 30 1.894 7 0 45.0 108.8 13.3 111.8 6.0 35.304 0.13 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 # 5 Blast #6 Blast #7 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #6 Load Duration End Time No.0 340.894 9 10 23.400 0.0 53.094 0.860 4.8 6.3 42.0 108.135 5 -10 108.163 2 -25 3.012 2.079 2.8 4.8 6.7 0.161 7. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 2.

time curve for an explosion at a point (Robert. Figure 4.11 Nonlinear decay of actual blast loading (McClendon. 2007) 94 .10 Standard pressure vs. 2007) Figure 4. The positive pressure phase is idealized using a triangular impulse with an instantaneous rise time and a time for decay.increases as the blast wave traverses along the deck length. Different locations of the deck experience different peak pressures at different times.

Figure 4.12 Linear decay of trial positive phase pressures (McClendon, 2007)

In the blast pressures, the peak pressure decays in a nonlinear manner to zero.

The trial positive phase pressures decay linearly over the same length of time.

Mark A McClendon (2007) checks and compares the impulses from the actual

experienced data to the approximate data. It can be shown that the trial impulses

vary from 2 to 7 times that of the actual pulses. To take this variation into account,

the pulses should be modify to a bilinear decay.

Figure 4.13 Impulse comparison (McClendon, 2007)

95

4.6 Analysis for Pressures on the Deck

The different locations on the deck experience different peak loading pressures

at different rise times. The peak pressures decay and the load duration increases

as the blast wave traverses along the deck length. The blast pressures on the

deck vary significantly with time. The maximum loads due to blast pressures at

different locations are determined from a comparison of blast pressure loads and

the associated tributary areas.

Figure 4.5 500 TNT explosion location above the bridge deck

96

Figure 4.14 Peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft)

Figure 4.15 Peak pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y=0 ft)

Pressure(Time = 0.59ms )

700.000

600.000

Pressure(psi)

500.000

400.000

Pressure(Time = ms )

300.000

200.000

100.000

0.000

#6 #7 #8 #9

Location

**Figure 4.16 Pressure on the deck (Y= 0 ft, Time = 0.59 ms)
**

97

Pressure(Time = 0.66ms )

600.000

500.000

Pressure (psi) 400.000

300.000 Pressure(Time = ms )

200.000

100.000

0.000

#6 #7 #8 #9

Location

Figure 4.17 Pressure on the deck (Y=0 ft, Time = 0.66 ms)

Figure 4.18 Pressure on the deck (Y=0 ft, Time = 0.1.094 ms)

Y = 5 ft Deck Pressure

Figure 4.19 Pressure on the deck (Y=5 ft, Time = 0.769 ms)

98

22 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft.902 ms) Y =15 ft Deck Pressure Figure 4. Time = 2.575 ms) 99 . Time = 0. Figure 4. Time = 2.21 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft.20 Pressure on the deck (Y=5 ft.105 ms) Figure 4.

135 ms) Y =30 ft Deck Pressure Figure 4.23 Pressure on the deck (Y=15 ft.806ms) 100 .404 ms) Figure 4.25 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft. Time = 6. Time = 6.24 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft. Figure 4. Time = 3.

4. nonlinear transient dynamic analysis.7 Bridge Modeling Using ANSYS Program The ANSYS program is a general-purpose program.8 ft). thermal. the maximum pressure is induced when the shock wave arrives at location # 8 (girder 4 location. Figure 4. electromagnetic. railways. and biomedical. and biomechanics. X = 4. electrical. electronic. For the distance (Y) from 15 to 30 ft. mechanical.9 ft). widely used in the industry including automobiles. aerospace. structural. the distance (Y) from explosion controid varies from 0 to 15 ft. linear static analysis to complex. fluid. power transmission. 101 . electronics. power generation.26 Pressure on the deck (Y=30 ft.606 ms) For the bridge deck. The primary unknowns (nodal degrees of freedom) in a structural analysis are displacements. machinery. The program has unique capabilities for application in the disciplines in cording engineering. X = 9. the maximum pressure loading on the deck is induced when the shock wave arrives at location #7 (mid-spacing between girders 3 and 4. Time = 7. sporting goods. The finite element analysis capabilities range from simple.

stresses. Bridge Modeling The typical composite bridge has two spans.1b Cross section of composite steel girder bridge 102 . with five continuous steel girders and a continuous reinforced concrete deck over the five girders.Other quantities. Figure 3. and reaction forces. are then derived from the nodal displacements. such as strains.1a Two-span continuous bridge configuration Figure 3.

. and IZZ =22213 in4. the whole bridge structure was modeled using two sets of components: steel girders and composite decks.28 Modeling of bridge steel girder for analysis using ANSYS 103 . The deck slab was modeled using 30 BEAM3 elements. with a height of 8 in. The sectional properties of girders are: height = 55 in. and width 12 in. area = 48 in2. as shown in Fig. Figure 4. 4.28.27 and Fig 4. Modeling of concrete bridge deck for analysis using ANSYS The steel girders ware modeled using 48 BEAM3 elements. Figure 4. The bridge model is generated using the ANSYS software for analysis.For the sake of simplicity.27. The deck slab is considered continuous over the girders.

deck slab. over girder 3. the combination of dead and live loads along extreme event load cases is given as: Extreme Event II: = 1. and EV = Extreme event load. from supporting pier and girders 104 . girder 3. below Deck slab.4. girders 6 ft above deck. Deck slab. Case 5 Under the bridge.25 DL + 0.50LL + 1. under mid-deck slab and pier cap. over pier cap. Case 4 Under the bridge.14: Blast Load Cases Load Location Members Blast Centroid Case Affected Case 1 Over the bridge. girders 6 ft above ground.8 Blast Load Cases The forces from the blast effects were considered as extreme event loads. girders 6 ft above deck. over girder 3 Deck slab. at mid-deck Deck slab. Case 3 Over the bridge. span 1 and mid-girder span 1.00EV DL = Dead load. and mid-girder 3 span 1. According to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (AASHTO 2003). girders 6 ft above deck. at 6 ft away Pier. 6 ft above ground. Table 4. LL = Truck live load. Case 2 Over the bridge.

29 Uniformly distributed blast loads on the bridge Figure 4. occurs when the explosion takes place 6 ft above the bridge deck center and mid-span of Girder 3.31.30 Uniformly distributed blast loads on the bridge steel girder 4. Figure 4.8. 105 .Analysis of Blast Pressures on Concrete Deck The blast pressures on one ft width of concrete deck are calculated and the blast load idealized as uniformly distributed loads.1 Load Case 1 Load case 1 shown in Figure 4.

32. Figure 4. occurs when the explosion takes place 6 ft above the bridge deck. 106 . 4.2 Load Case 2 Load case 2 shown in Figure 4. Girder 3 is affected with a maximum blast pressure loading. the deck experiences a vertical downward pressure.8.composite slab along the longitudinal centerline of girder 3. The pressures are distributed over the girder.31 Load case 1 Due to this explosion. over Girder 3 and pier cap.

Due to this explosion.8. between Girder 1 and 2. at the middle of span 1 and at girder mid-span.3 Load Case 3 Load case 3 shown in Figure 4.32 Load case 2 4.33.33 Load case 3 107 . Figure 4. Figure 4. bridge deck slab and girder experience a vertical downward pressure. occurs when the explosion takes place 6 ft above the bridge deck.

Figure 4.35. the minimum vertical clearance under overhead structures (including the paved shoulders) is 16 ft in for rural areas and 14 ft for urban areas.4 Load Case 4 Load case 4 shown in Figure 4.34.5 Load Case 5 Load case 5 shown in Figure 4. occurs when the explosion takes place under the bridge at 6 ft above the ground. The main purpose of this load case was to 108 . and at a standoff distance of 6 ft from the pier column face. This load case induces horizontal pressure on the column and pressures on the girders and deck. According to AASHTO Design Standards.34 Load case 4 4.8. occurs when the explosion takes place under the bridge at mid-span of Girder 3.4.8.

35 Load case 5 109 .determine the performance of the pier column. The girder and deck were excluded in this load case. Figure 4.

5 Explosion location above the bridge deck Assuming the bomb is carried in a car trunk or on a truck bed. the distance (R) from the explosion centroid to the point on the bridge deck surface and the angle theta (θ) are calculated. explosion centroid is approximated to occur at 6 feet above the bridge deck. The distance in the plane of the bridge deck to the point of interest from the explosion force centroid is designated as r.4. Figure 4. 110 . In following section. Using the Pythagorean theorem. ATBlast software is used to generate the equivalent distribution of blast pressure on bridge components based on 500 lb of TNT. The ATBlast (GSA) software is widely used and recommended by the professionals to determine the equivalent blast pressure due to an explosion. which is defined by H (figure 4.9 Blast Pressure Distribution on the Bridge Components No guidelines are available in the literature on distribution of blast pressure on bridge.).

Figure 4.7 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (elevation) 111 .6 Blast pressure distribution on bridge deck (Plan) Figure 4.

Figure 4.079 2.256 4.669 4 15 6 16.9 3.88 0.55 1.161 7.22 146. Table 4. obtain in Table 4. r (ft) H (ft) R(ft) sin2 (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 0 6 6 1 1479 0.119 0.027 10.16 0.05 6.2 4.953 1.59 608.8 Blast pressure vertical components Blast pressures.04 2.366 6 25 6 25.59 0. P for variable value of Range(R.66 2 5 6 7.1 1.685 7 30 6 30.71 0.183 3.524 3.597 0.902 3 10 6 12.81 0.4 0. The peak blast pressures (Pv) are calculated from the following: Pv = P x sin2(θ) R = (r2+H2) ½ sin(θ) = H / R Table 4.283 112 .15 shows the peak blast pressure (Pv) and arrival time on the Bridge component.304 0.287 5.0 0.135 5 20 6 20.9 6.65 0.14 42.0 1.15 Peak blast pressure Pv and arrival time on the bridge component Arrival Load Blast Pv Time Duration End Time No.3.08 14. 6 ft ~ 45 ft).26 0.

from the force centroid on the component surface. 113 .36 Distribution of peak blast pressure (Pv) on bridge structural component as a function of radial distance r.The distributions of blast peak pressure on bridge component are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.36.

37 Peak blast pressure Pv vs duration time td Also. Peak Blast Pressure vs Duration Time 1600 1400 Peak Pressure.38). the blast peak pressure decreases fast with the radial distance.Increases in duration time (td). the blast peak pressure rapidly decreases (Figure 4. initially. Peak Pressure vs Distance 1600 1400 Peak Pressure (psi) Peak Pressure vs Distance 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Distance from Explosion. r (ft) Figure 4.37).38 Peak blast pressure Pv vs radial distance (r) 114 . (psi) 1200 1000 800 Peak Blast Pressure vs 600 Duration Time 400 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Duration of Blast Pressure. td (ms) Figure 4. then become asymptotic with the radial distance (Figure 4.

Ngo.1 General Failure Modes of Bridge Structure Due To Blast Load Damage due to the blast load may be divided into direct blast effects and progressive collapse. In the case of blast loading at relatively large stand-off distances. Direct blasts effects include damage caused by the high- intensity pressures of the blast close to the explosion site and may induce the localized failure of deck and girders. The type of structural response depends mainly on the loading rate. 2007). the response will be global and for close-in blast loading and small stand-off distances the resulting damage is localized. while global responses are typically manifested as flexural failure. and generally result from the close-in effects of explosions. Local responses are characterized by localized bleaching and spalling. Blast loading effects on structural members may produce both local and global responses associated with different failure modes (T. direct shear or punching shear. 115 . The general failure modes associated with blast loading can be flexure. with uniform loading over the element. the orientation of the target with respect to the direction of the blast wave propagation and boundary conditions.CHAPTER 5: RESPONSE AND PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITE STEEL GIRDER BRIDGE TO BLAST LOADS 5.

The high shear stresses may lead to direct global shear failure and it may occur very early (within a few milliseconds of shock wave arrival to the frontal surface of the structure). flexural and shear failure (ASCE 1999).The global response of above ground reinforced concrete structures subjected to blast loading is referred to as bending failure.1. and it depends mainly on the intensity of the pressure waves. The second global failure mode to be considered is shear failure.5. subsequent yielding of the tensile reinforcement and. 2007).1 Global Response The global behavior of a structure can be generalized to membrane. This failure mode is characterized by initial cracking of the concrete.e. The nature of the flexural failure is 116 . and is usually associated with global membrane (bending) and shear response . at mid-span for a simply supported beam where a symmetric load is applied. They can fail in flexure where plastic hinges form at locations where the ultimate bending moment capacity is attained. Direct (dynamic) shear failure mode is primarily associated with transient short duration dynamic loads that result from blast effects. which can be prior to any occurrence of significant bending deformations. The global response of structural elements is generally a consequence of transverse (out-of-plane) loads with long exposure time (quasi-static loading). The associated shear force is many times higher than the shear force associated with flexural failure modes. Reinforced concrete beams and one-way concrete slabs subjected to air blast loading can fail in a variety of mechanisms (Magnusson. i. ultimately. compression failure of the concrete.

Thus. which severely limits the capacity of the element. the formations of an inclined diagonal tension crack close to one or both supports. The flexural shear failure mode. According to Ross (1983). 2008) Beams and slabs can also fail in a direct shear mode under the action of a uniformly distributed impulsive load (Ross. shear failures can occur at times soon after the transmitted part of the shock wave has propagated through the 117 . 1983). is abrupt and brittle in nature.normally ductile and energy absorbing. Direct shear failure of an element is characterized by the rapid propagation of a vertical crack through the depth of the element. Shear failures generally occur at locations near the supports or at the joints of elements that comprise the structure where the maximum shear stresses occur and are possible even in elements designed for flexural shear. on the other hand. Figure 5. this is a premature failure mode where the element is unable to develop its ultimate bending moment with corresponding deformation and therefore undesirable. ultimately. The flexural shear mode is characterized by initial flexural cracks that develop where the maximum bending moment is obtained and then.1Global damage of reinforced concrete beam (NYSTRÖM.

1. As a comparison. which produces low and high-speed fragments. The localized shear failure takes place in the form of localized punching and spalling. and the relative strength/ductility of the structural elements. Flexural failure occurs after formation of plastic hinges.2 Local Response The close-in effect of explosion may cause localized shear or flexural failure in the closest structural elements. a direct shear failure mode is a premature failure mechanism where the element has had no time to deflect and therefore it is a very brittle response. which is well known in high velocity impact applications and the case of explosions close to the surface of structural members. Thus. 2007) 5. The punching effect is frequently referred to as bleaching. Figure 5. the flexural response of the element is not initiated until much later when the element has attained some momentum.thickness of the structural element. resulting in a mechanism or when the in-plane deformations are large enough to make the beam slip of the supports. 118 .2 Schematic illustration of the relation between load and response time for an impulsive load (Magnusson. This depends mainly on the distance between the source of the explosion and the target.

while total failure will definitely put the bridge completely out of service.3 Local damage caused by close-in explosion (NYSTRÖM. Figure 5.Nao) 5. while girder or deck slab failure may not cause complete collapse. Failure may be caused due to damage on any one of the critical components of a bridge. 2008) Figure 5.2 Bridge Failure Depending on the amount of component damage.4 Breaching failures due to a close-in explosion of 6000 kg TNT equivalent (Photograph by T. flexural failure and deflection flexural. The bridge component failure may be categorized as shear failure. Partial failure will most likely cause the bridge to be put partially out of service. such as girders. If the 119 . Column or pier cap failure may initiate total collapse of the bridge. deck slab. pier cap or columns. bridge failure can be classified as partial or total failure.

677 kip-ft ¾ Span Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”.8 kips-ft = 0.3 kips Steel Girder Plastic Moment Capacity Plastic Moment Capacity – Positive (Composite) Mid Span Section Top flange 14” x 5/8”. Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”.9x14.85 Vn = 7.2 kips -ft = 0.6 kips. 5. and web 54” x 1/2” Mp = 0.applied force effect exceeds the capacity of the section.9x16. the maximum allowable nominal shear strength Vn : Vn = 8.9x195 kip-in =176 kip-in Positive Moment Capacity: Mn =0. and web 54” x 1/2” 120 .3 Moment and Shear Capacities of The Bridge Bridge Deck Moment Capacity Overhang Negative Moment Capacity: = 0. = 0.9x356 kips-in =320 kip -in Positive Moment Capacity: Mn = 0. then the component fails.9x14.6 k-ft = 0. Bottom flange 14” x 7/8”.9 x 7419 kip-ft =6.9 Mn =0.8 kips-ft = 160 kip -in Deck Negative Moment Capacity: Mn =0.9x178 kips-in =160 kip-ft Bridge Deck Shear Capacity For 1 ft width concrete deck.9x29.

85x833 kips = 709 kips 121 .9x5828 kip-ft = 5.9 x 113486 kips-in = 0.Mp = 0.9 x13118 kip-ft = 11.9 x 9457 kip-ft = 8. Bottom flange 14” x 2-3/4”.511 kip-ft Center Support Section Top flange 14” x 2-1/2”.85 Vn = 0. and web 54” x 1/2” Mp = 0.9 x ( 10165 kips-ft) = 9.149 kips-ft Steel Girder Shear Capacity Left and right support location = 0.245 kip-ft ¾ Span Section Mp = 0.806 kip-ft Plastic Moment Capacity – Positive and Negative (Non-Composite) Mid Span Section Therefore.in = 0.9 x7542 kip-ft =6.790 kip-ft Center Support Section Mp = 0.9 x ( 5748 kip-ft) = 5. the plastic neutral axis is located within the web.9 x 14389 kip-ft =12.500 kip-ft ¾ Span Section Mp = 0.9 x69932 kip. Mp = 0.9 x ( 3889) kip-ft = 3.950 kip-ft Plastic Moment Capacity – Negative (Composite) Mid Span Section Mp = 0.173 kip-ft Center Support Section Mp = 0.

If the applied blast load exceeds bridge component capacity. the applied moments and shear forces on the critical sections of the bridge components were determined. The amount varied depending on the stand off distance of the explosion. The results are shown in Table 5. which the girder. After determining the effect of 500 lb of TNT explosion on the structure.85 x 889 kips = 756 kips 5. and the column can resist before failure. The performance was evaluated by comparing the applied moments and shear forces with the respective capacities of the components. the pier cap.4. and compared with their respective capacities to assess their performance. 5.1 122 . member type and the location of the explosion.4 Bridge Performance under Typical Blast Load From the ANSYS Program General Postproc output. was determined by using trial and error method.Centre support location Vn =0. The maximum amount of blast loads.31). then the component under consideration can be considered to have reached the failure stage. Several scenarios of blast loading were considered to find the loads for each individual component and case. further analyses of the model bridge were performed for varying amounts of TNT to determine the amount of TNT the respective members could resist before failure.1 Performance for Blast Load Case 1 Blast load case 1 is considered the explosion at 6 ft above the middle of bridge deck center and at mid-span of Girder 3 (Figure 4.

the trial pressures are taken as 2-3 times of the actual pressure. the blast pressure at station # 6 decreases from a peak pressure 1479 psi to 401 psi. So. According to McClendon’ impulse comparison (2007). In the study. The average blast pressure is 380 psi over deck between locations # 5 and # 7. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as 380 psi x 12 in = 4560 lb/in. This value of 401 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. At the same time. the peak pressure decays nonlinearly over the same length of time. Figure 4.For the deck wherein the distance (Y) form the explosion force controid is 0 ft.14 Peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft) 123 . blast pressure is 626 psi at location # 7. In the actual blast pressures. blast pressure at location # 6 decreases from the peak pressure value of 1479 psi to 134 psi. it can be shown that the linear trial impulses vary from 2 to 7 times that of the actual impulses.

For the deck at which the distance (Y) from explosion force controid is 15 ft. The average blast pressure is 16. At the same time.6 Modeling of concrete composite bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 1 analysis using ANSYS 124 .5 Load case 1 uniform distribution of blast loads on the bridge Figure 5.2 psi over the deck between locations #4 and #8. Figure 5. the blast pressure decreases from peak pressure of 42 psi to 20 psi at #6 location and the corrected value is 10 psi.4 psi at location #8. the arrival blast pressure is 22. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as shown for the case of Y = 0 ft and is equal to 195 lb/in (16.2 psix12 in).

Figure 5.7 Deck shear (Y=0 ft) Figure 5.9 Modeling of concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for load case 1 analysis using ANSY 125 .8 Deck shear (Y=15 ft) Figure 5.

5LL Mn Y = 0 ft +1.3 6 0.3 38 Shear Failure 9.Table 5.Location Negative Positive Effects Load Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang 1.2 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 1 500 TNT Load Case 1 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment(kip-in/ft) 1.3 6 0.3 0 0 Table 5.8 Shear Failure Girder 4 Right 7.3 0 0 Girder 1 Right 7.8 Girder 5 Left 7. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder 1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 Moment 3Mid Span 1 -176 160 8 59 -348 -309 Failure Moment 4Girder 2 -176 160 -29 -55 -697 -761 Failure Moment 5Mid Span 2 -176 160 8 59 1533 1573 Failure Moment 6Girder 3 -176 160 -29 -55 -4041 -4105 Failure Moment 7Mid Span 3 -176 160 8 59 1533 1573 Failure Moment 8Girder 4 -176 160 -29 -55 -697 -761 Failure Moment 9Mid Span 4 -176 160 8 59 -348 -309 Failure 10Girder 5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang 2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 126 .3 6 0.8 Girder 2 Right 7.8 Shear Failure Girder 3 Left 7.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Blast Load Dead Load Max Live Load Combination No.3 6 0.1 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0.8 Girder 2 Left 7. 15 ft) for blast load case 1 Deck Shear Blast Applied Blast Applied Capacity (kips) Deck Shear Deck Shear Location Vn (Y=0 ft) Comment (Y=15 ft) Comment Girder 1 Left 7.25DL Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.3 229 Shear Failure 13 Shear Failure Girder 4 Left 7.3 38 Shear Failure 9.8 Girder 5 Right 7.3 229 Shear Failure 13 Shear Failure Girder 3 Right 7.

0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder 1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 3Mid Span 1 -176 160 8 59 -6 34 4Girder 2 -176 160 -29 -55 -12 -76 5Mid Span 2 -176 160 8 59 26 66 6Girder -176 160 -29 -55 -69 -133 7Mid Span 3 -176 160 8 59 26 66 8Girder 4 -176 160 -29 -55 -12 -76 9Mid Span 4 -176 160 8 59 -6 34 10Girder 5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang 2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 127 .25DL Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.3 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 1 500 TNT Case 1 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment(kip-in/ft) 1. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder 1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 3Mid Span 1 -176 160 8 59 -13 27 4Girder 2 -176 160 -29 -55 -26 -90 5Mid Span 2 -176 160 8 59 58 98 Moment 6Girder 3 -176 160 -29 -55 -152 -216 Failure 7Mid Span 3 -176 160 8 59 58 98 8Girder 4 -176 160 -29 -55 -26 -90 9Mid Span 4 -176 160 8 59 -13 27 10Girder 5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang 2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 Table 5.4 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=20 ft) for blast load case 1 500 TNT Case 1 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (kip-in/ft) 1.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang 1.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang 1.5LL Mn Y = 20 ft +1.5LL Mn Y = 15 ft +1.25DL Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.Table 5.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No.

902 7 0 626.079 2.597 0.0 1479.119 0.9 13.9 2. At the same time.8 2. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 2. Table 4.283 The arrival blast pressure in girder 3 at #8 location (Y = 5 ft) is 608 psi.260 0.0 146.7 0.256 4.2 5.3 42.1 108.0 340.597 0.366 4 -15 35.685 13 30 2.8 6.1 108.660 8 5 340.524 3.366 12 25 5.3 42.161 7.3 14.161 7.902 9 10 108.7 608.669 6 -5 340.10 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 1 The bridge deck section.0 1.3 14. at corresponding to the distance Y= -15 ~ 15 ft from explosion controid.524 3.027 10.953 1.3 3.304 0.0 108.283 2 -25 5.0 626.135 5 -10 108.8 6.8 4.119 0.0 1.685 3 -20 13.7 0.3 3.135 11 20 13.183 3.9 13.7 608.8 6. fails in direct shear and flexure.0 146.550 1.9 2.079 2.256 4.0 35.3 1.287 5.2 5.8 2.0 340.0 1.669 10 15 35.027 10.0 0. Load Combination Moment 2000 1000 Positive Capacity 0 Moment (k-in) Suport(Girder3) Support(Girder Support(Girder Support(Girder Support(Girder -1000 Negative Moment -2000 1) Capacity 2) 4) 5) -3000 -4000 -5000 Location on Deck Figure 5.8 6.183 3.287 5.550 1. the blast pressure in girder 3 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from 128 .953 1.13 Blast pressures and arrival times on the girder 3 #5 Blast #6 Blast #7 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #6 Load Duration End Time No.400 0.304 0.8 4.

920 lb / in (364 psi x 30 in). at #7 location blast pressure decreases from peak value of 1479 psi to 120 psi. Figure 5. the girders are affected due to the blast pressure loading over a tributary area of 10 ft by 2. So.peak pressure 1479 psi to 358 psi. The uniform blast distribution loading is 10.11 Modeling of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 1 analysis using ANSYS Load Combination Moment(kip-ft) 40000 30000 20000 Moment (k-ft) 10000 Positive Capacity Moment(K-ft) 0 Support Negative Support Support -10000 ( Left) Capacity (Centre) (Right) -20000 -30000 Location Figure 5.5 ft (girder flange width 14 in + deck height 8 in x 2). The average blast pressure is taken as (608 + 120)/2 = 364 psi over girder 3 between locations #6 and #8 (Y= -5 ft ~ 5 ft). This value of 358 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times the actual pressure. Because of the deck (Y= -15~15 ft) failure due to direct shear and bending first.12 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 1 129 .

3 psi.0xEV Comment Location Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 15979 18651 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 30320 33315 Failure Moment 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 8625 8519 Failure Support Moment (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -14708 -21134 Failure Moment 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -11031 -12235 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -7354 -5797 Failure Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -3677 -2142 Failure Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 The arrival blast pressure in girder 1 at #9 location (Y = 10 ft) is 10.1 psi to 11.3 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero.7 psi. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 2 times the actual pressure. The uniform blast distribution loading is 240 lb / in (8 psi x 30 in).7) / 2 = 8 psi over girder 1 between locations #5 and #9.3 + 5. at #7 location blast pressure decreases from a peak value of 16. This value of 11. At the same time.3 psi. So. the blast pressure in girder 1 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from peak pressure 16. 130 . The average blast pressure is taken as (10.25xDL Dead Load Max Live Load (Composite) (Non-Composite) Effects Effects load +0.1 psi to 5.5 Moment in the steel girder 3 for blast load case 1 500 TNT Load Case 1 Girder 3 Bending Moment kip-ft Blast Load load Combi- Applied nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity Unfactored Unfactored Blast 1.5xLL +1.Table 5.

073 2 -25 1.3 3.645 6.530 3.9 6.6 3.8 16.281 13 30 1.4 6.4 6.466 9 10 5.3 3.422 3.466 7 0 7.9 6.108 7.25xDL (Composite) (Non-Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.624 2.7 2.269 6 -5 7.7 2.Table 4.194 8 5 7.208 12 25 1.640 5.5 12.215 5.3 4.640 5.530 11 20 2.281 3 -20 2.138 2.0 2.1 14.6 10.339 11.6 10.3 23.679 9.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1.3 37.0 3.9 8.3 4.530 5 -10 5.530 3.942 4.108 7.979 2.1 1.5 12.4 5.1 1.0 3.1 45. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 1.4 5.269 10 15 3.645 6.9 6.339 11.3 37.6 3.9 8.3 3.208 4 -15 3.11 Pressures and arrival times on the girders 1 and 5 #1Blast #2 Blast # 3Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #2 Load Duration End Time No.073 13.624 2.3 23.329 5.679 9.3 3.4 1.422 3.6 Moment in the steel girders 1 and 5 for blast load case 1 500 TNT Load Case 1 Girders 1 and 5 Bending Moment kips-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity Unfactored Unfactored 1.714 Table 5.942 4.0xEVComment Location Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 704 3376 Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 1263 4258 Failure 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 383 277 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -642 -7068 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -482 -1686 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -321 1236 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -161 1374 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 131 .138 2.329 5.1 14.9 6.4 1.

4. Load Combination Moment 6000 4000 2000 Moment(k-ft) 0 Support Support Support -2000 Moment ( Left) (Centre) (Right) -4000 -6000 -8000 Location Figure 5.14 Modeling of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 2 analysis using ANSYS 132 . at Girder 3 pier cap (Figure 4. 5. the bridge will completely collapse. Figure 5.32).2 Performance Under Blast Load Case 2 Blast Load Case 2 occurs when the explosion takes place 6 ft above the bridge deck. The moment and shear in the deck is same as those corresponding to load case1.13 Moment in the steel bridge girders 1 and 5 for blast load case 1 As a result of Load Case 1.

7 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 2 500 TNT Load Case 2 Girder 3 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity (Non.Table 5.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1. 133 . The deck wherein the distance (Y) from the explosion force controid is 0 ft.33).0xEVComment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 17 2689 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 34 3029 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 51 -1153 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -1571 -7997 Survived 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 51 -1153 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 34 3029 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 17 2689 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 The deck components fail since the blast induced shear force and moment exceed the corresponding shear and flexural capacity of the deck. Five girders in each span are structurally functional during this explosion.8 shows the blast induced moment in the bridge components for Load Case 3 explosion at 6 ft height above the bridge deck mid-span1. At the same time. at girder mid-span (Figure 4. arrival blast pressure is 626 psi at location # 4.3 Performance under Blast Load Case 3 Table 5. 5. the blast pressure at station # 3 decreases from a peak pressure value of 1479 psi to 401 psi. Unfactored Unfactored 1.4. between Girders 1 and 2.25xDL (Composite) Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.

the peak pressure decays nonlinearly over the same period of time.2 psi over the deck between locations #2 and #4. The average blast pressure is 16.15 Load case 3 peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft) 134 . #3 location blast pressure decreases from the peak pressure value of 1479 psi to 134 psi. The average blast pressure is taken as (626 + 134) / 2 = 380 psi over deck between locations #2 and #4. At the same time.560 lb / in.4 psi at location #5. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as shown for the case of Y = 0 ft and is equal to 195 lb / in (16. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as 380 psi x 12 in = 4. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times of the actual pressure. Figure 5. the blast pressure decreases from a peak pressure of 42 psi to 20 psi at #3 location and the corrected value is 10 psi. the arrival blast pressure is 22. In the actual blast pressures. For the deck at which the distance (Y) from explosion controid is 15 ft.2 psix12 in).This value of 401 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. So.

25DL Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.8 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 3 500 TNT Case 3 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (kip-in/ft) 1.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang1.5LL Mn Applied Applied Y = 0 ft +1.Figure 5.16 Modeling and analysis of concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 3 using ANSYS Table 5.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 Moment 3Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 476 516 Failure Moment 4Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 -348 -412 Failure 5Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 -128 -89 6Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 93 29 7Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 35 75 8Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 -23 -87 9Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 -12 28 10Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 135 .

15 ft) for blast load case 3 500TNT Case 3 Concrete Deck Shear kips/ft Blast Applied Blast Applied Deck Shear Deck Shear Deck Shear Location Capacity(kips) (Y=0 ft) Comment (Y=15 ft) Comment Girder 1 Left 7.3 302 Shear Failure 11 Shear Failure Girder 2 Right 7.1 Girder 5 Right 7.5LL Mn Applied Applied Y = 15 ft +1. the girders are affected due to the blast pressure loading over a tributary area of 10 ft by 2 ft and 6 in (girder flange width 14 in + deck height 8 in x 2).3 2 0.3 0 0 Table 5. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2 Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 Moment 3 Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 215 255 Failure Moment 4 Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 -157 -221 Failure Moment 5 Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 143 183 Failure 6 Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 -58 -122 7 Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 16 56 8 Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 -11 -75 9 Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 -5 35 10 Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11 Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 Because of the deck failure due to direct shear and bending.10 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 3 500 TNT Case 3 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (kip-in/ft) 1.1 Girder 5 Left 7.3 12 Shear Failure 0.Table 5.3 2 0.25DL Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.3 2 0. 136 . Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1 Overhang1.5 Girder 4 Right 7.3 45 Shear Failure 2 Girder 3 Right 7.9 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No.5 Girder 4 Left 7.3 0 0 Girder 1 Right 7.3 45 Shear Failure 2 Girder 3 Left 7.3 231 Shear Failure 8 Shear Failure Girder 2 Left 7.

0xEV Comment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 9350 12022 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 17743 20738 Failure 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 5047 4941 Support Moment (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -8607 -15033 Failure Moment 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -6455 -7659 Failure Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 4303 5860 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 2152 3687 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 137 .11 Moment in the steel bridge girder 1 and girder 2 for blast load case 3 500 TNT Load Case 3 Girders 1 and 2 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity (Non. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times the actual pressure. The average blast pressure is taken as 340+ 85)/2 = 213 psi over girders 1 and 2 between locations #6 and #8.25xDL (Composite) Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.The arrival blast pressure in girders 1 and 2 at #8 location (Y = 5 ft) is 340 psi. at #7 location blast pressure decreases from a peak value of 1479 psi to 85 psi. So. This value of 225 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. Table 5. Unfactored Unfactored 1.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1.390 lb / in (213 psi x 30 in). At the same time. the blast pressure in girders 1 and 2 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from a peak pressure of 626 psi to 225 psi. The uniform blast distribution loading is 6.

1psi.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1. So.8 psi to 6. Unfactored Unfactored 1. This value of 6. the blast pressure in girder 4 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from a peak pressure 7.4 psi x 30 in). at #7 location blast pressure decreases from a peak value of 7. At the same time. Table 5.6 psi. The average blast pressure is taken as (5.6+ 3.8 psi to 3.12 Moment in the steel bridge girders 1 and 2 for blast load case 3 500 TNT Load Case 3 Girder 4 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity (Non.The arrival blast pressure in girder 4 at #9 location (Y = 10 ft) is 5.1 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. The uniform blast distribution loading is 33 lb / in (1.0xEV Comment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 3867 6539 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 695 3690 Failure 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 210 104 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -353 -6779 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -265 -1469 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -177 1380 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -88 1447 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 138 .4 psi over girder 4 between locations #6 and #8. The uniform blast distribution loading is 132 lb / in (4.1 psi over girder 5 between #5 and #9 locations.1 psi.25xDL (Composite) Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0. The average blast pressure is 1. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 2 times the actual pressure.1 psi x 30 in).1)/2 = 4.

5 feet below deck slab at Girder 3 mid-span (Figure 4.4 Performance under Blast Load Case 4 Load case 4 occurs when the explosion takes place at 10 feet below the bridge girder bottom flange and 14.Table 5.25xDL (Composite) Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.4. For the deck wherein the distance (Y) from the explosion force controid is 0 ft.0xEV Comment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 3867 6539 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 695 3690 Failure 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 210 104 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -353 -6779 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -265 -1469 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -177 1380 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -88 1447 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 The bridge decks and girders 1. But girder 5 is structurally safe and functional. 2.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1. and 4 failed due to shear and bending strengths exceeding the capacity. 3. 5. the blast pressure at station #6 decreases from a peak pressure of 375 psi to 330 psi. 139 . Unfactored Unfactored 1.34).13 Moment in the steel bridge girder 4 for blast load case 3 500 TNT Load Case 3 Girder 4 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity (Non. At the same time. arrival blast pressure is 304 psi at location #7.

65 0.02 2.70 0.6 24.15 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft) for load case 4 Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.94 3.50 0.27 26.31 0.21 15.7 15.19 2.10 1.06 7. In the actual blast pressures.06 7.46 77.5 4.26 3.20 11 15 14.38 5 15 14.50 0. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 0 14.08 3.54 4 0 14.68 9.51 7 0 14.54 10 0 14.40 57. the peak pressure decays nonlinearly over the same length of time.00 1.5 -14.75 0.69 2.69 2.6 24.38 0.5 -4.28 5.62 8 15 14.5 19.50 5 0 14.80 2 15 14.45 2.5 -9.38 4.80 6 0 14.46 3.26 3.5 -19.5 -9.25 1.80 140 .5 14.6 24.19 2.61 4.62 0. Table 5.49 91. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as 2814 lb / in (235 psi x 12 in).5 19.32 37.88 0.90 303.38 0.5 0 14.This value of 330 psi is calculated based linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero.68 9.00 0.52 4.5 9.6 20.32 37.8 17.50 3.35 45.45 2.27 26.5 -14.14 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 0 ft) for load case 4 Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.25 1.7 20.5 9. #6 location blast pressure decreases from a peak pressure value of 375 psi to 165 psi.65 0.50 0.7 15.5 23.49 0.53 3.50 0.72 5.88 0.19 10.5 -4.00 375.5 14.49 0.50 3.26 22.15 6.80 8 0 14.36 7 15 14.10 1.5 0 6.77 1.39 5.38 4.59 10 15 14.48 87.6 27.78 1.84 5.9 15.94 3.69 6.8 17.02 1.07 2.24 3.49 91.20 3 15 14.35 0.19 10.40 57.02 1.15 6.6 27.38 9 15 14. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 2 times the actual pressure.02 2. The average blast pressure is taken as (304+ 165) / 2 = 235 psi over deck between locations #2 and #4.6 20.82 3 0 14.42 5.9 15.50 1.21 15.61 4.13 7.8 11.5 23.35 0.42 5. So.5 4.21 4.9 7.59 4 15 14.89 2.31 0.5 -19.46 77.70 0.46 3. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 15 14.7 20.21 4.69 6.75 0.26 22.90 303.50 9 0 14.5 -23.52 4.82 11 0 14.62 6 15 14.08 3.78 1.23 2.8 11.69 178.13 7.23 2.72 5.53 3.25 2 0 14.84 5.35 45.69 178.6 24.9 7.25 Table 5.39 5.77 1.5 -23.

833 2.12 75.43 27. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 6.547 0.926 3.367 8.647 4.18 4.367 8. The uniform blast distribution loading is calculated as 480 lb/in (40 psix12 in).553 9 10 157.18 14.47 3.569 6.926 3.420 1.63 342.03 6.859 The arrival blast pressure in girder 3 at #8 location (Y = 5 ft) is 474 psi.03 6.212 10.43 27.40 196.40 1.47 30.032 12 25 13.16 65.47 3.21 1.09 157.367 1.212 10.00 498.506 1.985 11 20 27. At the same time.833 2. the blast pressure in girder 3 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from peak pressure 707 psi to 409 psi.64 7.47 30.032 4 -15 65. the blast pressure decreases from a peak pressure of 87 psi to 64 psi at #6 location and the corrected value is 22 psi.58 0.293 13 30 6.21 1.047 0.58 707.63 342.618 3.12 2.985 5 -10 157.293 3 -20 27.5 psi at location #8.18 14.64 7.16 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 (H = 10 ft) for load case 4 # 5 Blast #6 Blast #7 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #6 Load Duration End Time No.03 13.047 0.647 4.64 6.21 473.380 6 -5 342. at #7 location blast pressure decreases from a peak value of 707 psi to 136 psi.16 157.464 2.464 2.12 75. The average blast 141 .40 196. So.64 6. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times the actual pressure.18 4.03 13.367 1. the arrival blast pressure is 57.506 1.21 473.547 0.553 7 0 498.290 8 5 342.For the deck at which the distance (Y) from explosion controid is 15 ft.870 0. This value of 409 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero.09 157.40 1. At the same time.569 6.380 10 15 65. Table 5.859 2 -25 13.40 2.618 3. The average blast pressure is 40 psi over the deck between locations #4 and #8.

pressure is taken as (474 + 136)/2 = 305 psi over girder 3 between locations #6

and #8. The uniform blast distribution loading is 4,270 lb / in (305 psi x girder

bottom flange width 14 in).

Table 5.17 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 2 (H = 10 ft) for load case 4

**# 3 Blast # 4Blast # 5Blast
**

Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #6 Load Duration End Time

No. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec)

1 -30 4.65 5.79 6.64 7.253 4.479 11.732

2 -25 8.07 10.81 13.18 5.529 3.688 9.217

3 -20 14.44 21.17 27.47 4.104 2.935 7.039

4 -15 54.08 44.45 65.12 2.985 2.219 5.204

5 -10 45.53 90.81 157.40 2.177 1.411 3.589

6 -5 68.26 161.67 342.21 1.685 1.287 2.972

7 0 94.39 203.56 498.58 1.520 0.810 2.330

8 5 68.26 161.67 342.21 1.685 1.287 2.972

9 10 45.53 90.81 157.40 2.177 1.411 3.589

10 15 54.08 44.45 65.12 2.985 2.219 5.204

11 20 14.44 21.17 27.47 4.104 2.935 7.039

12 25 8.07 10.81 13.18 5.529 3.688 9.217

13 30 4.65 5.79 6.64 7.253 4.479 11.732

The arrival blast pressure in girder 2 at #8 location (Y = 5 ft) is 162 psi. At the

same time, the blast pressure in girder 3 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from

a peak pressure of 204 psi to 162 psi. This value of 162 psi is calculated based

on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. The linearly varying trial

pressures are taken to be 3 times of the actual pressure. So, at #7 location blast

pressure decreases from peak value of 204 psi to 54 psi. The average blast

pressure is taken as (162 + 54)/2 = 108 psi over girder 3 between location #6

and #8. The uniformly blast distribution loading is 1,512 lb / in (305 psi x girder

**bottom flange width 14 in).
**

142

**Figure 5.17 Modeling of concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for load case 4 analysis
**

using ANSYS

Table 5.18 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0, 15 ft) for blast load case 4

**500TNT Case 4 Concrete Deck Shear kips/ft
**

Deck Shear Blast Applied Blast Applied

Capacity (k) Deck Shear Deck Shear

Location Vn (Y=0 ft) Comment (Y=15 ft) Comment

Girder 1 Left 7.3 0 0

Girder 1 Right 7.3 4.2 2

Girder 2 Left 7.3 4.2 2

Girder 2 Right 7.3 27 Shear Failure 24 Shear Failure

Girder 3 Left 7.3 162 Shear Failure 32 Shear Failure

Girder 3 Right 7.3 162 Shear Failure 32 Shear Failure

Girder 4 Left 7.3 27 Shear Failure 24 Shear Failure

Girder 4 Right 7.3 4.2 2

Girder 5 Left 7.3 4.2 2

Girder 5 Right 7.3 0 0

143

**Table 5.19 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for blast load case 4
**

500 TNT Case 4 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (kip-in/ft)

1.25DL

Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.5LL

Mn Applied Applied Y = 0 ft +1.0EL Comment

Unfactored Unfactored

Max Live Blast Load

Dead Load Load Load Combination

No.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment

1Overhang1. -320 160 0 0 0 0

2Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -36

Moment

3Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 247 256 Failure

Moment

4Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 459 423 Failure

Moment

5Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 -1089 -1080 Failure

Moment

6Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 2871 2835 Failure

Moment

7Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 -1089 -1080 Failure

Moment

8Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 459 423 Failure

Moment

9Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 247 256 Failure

10Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -36

11Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0

**Figure 5.18 Modeling and analysis of bridge steel girder 3 for load case 4 using
**

ANSYS

144

Table 5.20 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y=15 ft) for blast load case 4

500 TNT Case 3 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (kip-in/ft)

1.25DL

Moment Capacity Dead Load Live Load +0.5LL

Mn Applied Applied Y = 15 ft +1.0EL Comment

Unfactored Unfactored

Max Live Blast Load

Dead Load Load Load Combination

No.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment

1Overhang1. -320 160 0 0 0 0

2Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -36

3Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 117 126

Moment

4Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 235 199 Failure

Moment

5Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 -352 -343 Failure

Moment

6Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 704 668 Failure

Moment

7Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 -352 -343 Failure

Moment

8Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 235 199 Failure

9Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 117 126

10Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -36

11Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0

First, the deck components (Y = -15 ft to Y = 15 ft) fail since the blast induced

forces exceed shear and bending capacities of the deck. Girder 3 in span 1 fails

due to high negative moment. Then, the deck in girder span 1 collapses,

whereas girder 3 in span 2 and the other four girders in each span are

structurally functional and safe.

145

22 Moment in the steel bridge girders 2 and 4 for blast load case 4 500 TNT Case 4 Girders 2 and 4 Bending Moment kip -ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity Unfactored Unfactored 1.25xDL (Composite) (Non-Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1.0xEV Comment Location Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 Moment 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -6371 -4836 Failure Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -12089 -10532 Failure Moment 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -3439 -4643 Failure Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 5864 1154 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 4398 4292 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 2932 5927 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 1466 4138 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 Table 5.Table 5.25xDL (Composite) (Non-Composite) Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.0xEV Comment Location Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -2212 -677 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -4198 -2641 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -1194 -2398 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 2036 -2674 Survived 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 1527 1421 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 1018 4013 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 509 3181 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 146 .5xLL Mp Mp Effects Effects load +1.21 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for blast load case 4 500 TNT Load Case 4 Girder 3 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Capacity Unfactored Unfactored 1.

5 Performance under Blast Load Case 5 Blast Load case 5.19.19 Load case 5 147 .4. and at a standoff distance of 6 ft from the supporting pier. occurs when the explosion takes place under the bridge at 6 ft above the ground. Figure 5. shown in Figure 4.5. This load case considers horizontal blast pressures on the pier.35 and 5.

The average uniform blast distribution loading is 503 kips/ft over pier column surface between 1 ft and 11 ft above ground. Figure 5. The arrival blast pressure at the location of supporting pier surface. the blast pressure at the explosion force controid location on the pier surface decreases from a peak value of 1479 psi to 358 psi. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times the actual pressure.Although the decks and girders are affected due to this explosion. is 608 psi. So.20 Peak pressures decay on the pier column 148 . this effect was excluded from consideration in this load case. because the main focus of this load case was to on studying the performance of the pier column only. This value of 358 psi is calculated bared on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. where the distance (r) from the explosion force controid on the pier surface is 5 ft. At same time. the blast pressure decreases from peak value of 1479 psi to 120 psi.

14x(5x12)2 /3 = 5034 kips The average blast distribution loading: w = Q/2r = 5034/2x5 = 503 kips/ft The supporting pier was modeled using 26 BEAM3 elements with a height of 4. Figure 5.21 Pressures on pier column (Arrival Time = 0. Section area A = 69.q2)r2 /3 = 608x3.14x(5x12)2 – (608-120)x3. Consider the supporting pier to be fixed at the bottom and hinged at the top. 149 . and IZZ =117.5 ft.75 ft2.7 ft4.597ms) Total blast force: Q = q1r2 – (q1.

Figure 5.22 Modeling and analysis of bridge pier column for load case 5 using ANSYS 150 .

0 ksi Reinforcement strength: fy = 60.0 ksi Reinforcing steel cover requirements: Pier column: Cover = 2.Pier Column Moment Capacity Material Properties: Concrete density: Wc = 0.5 in Total #10 steel bars =76 Numbers of bars in one face = 76x15.150 kcf Concrete 28-day compressive strength: fc 4.23 Final pier design 151 .5+2x4.5/(2x15.5) = 29 Figure 5.

494 in Mn = Asfy(de-a/2) = 0.7/69.3x4.85x4000x15.Moment Capacity: 29 #10 bar A s = 29x1.55.27 in2 = 36.5-3.3h = 0.5x12x51.83x60000/0. Table 5.5 = 1. the pier column fails since the blast- induced forces exceed shear and bending capacities at bottom location. As a result of this explosion.5x12 = 3.85 x 2423 = 2060 kips Check pier column allowable slenderness ratio klu /r Radius of gyration r2 = Iz /A =117.35 ft klu /r = 0. 152 .23 shows the moment and shear of the pier column considering blast load case 5.9 x 9162 = 8246 kip-ft Shear Capacity The maximum allowable nominal shear strength Vn = 4 f ' b0d = 4 4000 x15. r = 1. The moment magnification effects can be disregarded. leads to the collapse the whole bridge.75 2.69 ft or r = 0.4 22 The pier is short or non-slender column.494/2) =109943k-in = 9162 kip-ft Mn = 0.684x60000x(51.8 x 26 /1.35 = 15.85fcb = 36.5 = 2423 kips Vn = 0. The pier column failure.83 in2 a = Asfy/0.

153 . Load Case 1 When the explosion occurred at 6 ft above the bridge deck for Load Case 1 location. at the location corresponding to the explosion controid deck.Table 5. It is necessary to determine the actual capacity of the bridge components based on the blast resistance design.5 Blast Induced Forces in Bridge Components Due to Varying Amount of TNT Bridges designed for blast-resistance against an explosion should be designed to prevent progressive collapse of any span. arrival blast pressure at location #7 is 21.7 psi (arrival time 2.23 Moment and shear in the pier column for blast load case 5 500lbTNT Case 5 Pier Column Bending Moment Shear Location (kip-ft) Comment (kips) Comment Moment Blast Shear Blast H(ft) Above Capacity Induced Strength Induced Ground Mn Moment Vn Shear Moment Shear 0 8246 -18676 Failure 2060 4858 Failure 1 8246 -14089 2060 4858 6 8246 2561 2060 2073 11 8246 6637 2060 -422 16 8246 4425 2060 -422 26 8246 0 2060 -422 5. For 3 lb TNT blast load. The blast induced force in the bridge components are calculated and presented in the following sections. the bridge deck and girders can resist 3 lb TNT blast load.116 ms).

6 24.6 24.893 6.7 15.600 21.0 1.5 0.810 2.9 0. The average blast pressure is 11 psi over deck between locations #5 and #7.4 10.258 6 0 6 0 6.116 1.078 10 0 6 19.7 2.3 0.086 0.389 2.273 4.4 0.823 Table 5.953 3.061 0.1 7.953 3.3 0 Girder 1 Right 7.1 4.7 0.7 15.1 4.048 3.9 0.389 2.303 11 0 6 23.309 1.303 3 0 6 -14.048 3.775 17.2 Girder 5 Left 7.3 0 154 .5 0.689 10.893 6. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin2(θ) psi (msec) (msec) (ms) 1 0 6 -23.24 3lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 0 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time No.4 10.3 1 Girder 3 Left 7.775 17.3 0.273 4. Table 5.2 14.142 3.142 3.000 64.At the same time.3 0.2 Girder 2 Right 7.3 6 Survived Girder 3 Right 7.143 1.4 0.310 0.2 Girder 2 Left 7.1 psi to 0 psi (end time 2.7 2.9 7.143 1.823 2 0 6 -19.3 0.2 Girder 5 Right 7.258 8 0 6 9.116 1.086 0.5 0.2 14.6 20.7 0.8 11.120 7 0 6 4.120ms).1 7.6 20.350 14.689 10.078 4 0 6 -9.600 21.8 11.9 7. The uniform blast distribution loading is 132 lb / in (11 psix12 in).309 1.1 1.5 0.350 14.202 9 0 6 14.3 1 Girder 4 Right 7. blast pressure at location #6 decreases from a peak pressure of 64.202 5 0 6 -4.3 6 Survived Girder 4 Left 7.061 0.25 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 ft) for 3lb TNT blast load case1 3 lb TNT Load Case1 Concrete Deck Shear kips/ft Blast Applied Deck Shear Deck Shear Location Capacity(k) (Y=0 ft) Comment Girder 1 Left 7.

24 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 3lb TNT blast load case 1 155 .0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang1.25DL Dead Load Live Load +0.Table 5.26 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 3lb TNT blast load case 1 3 lb TNT Case1 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment (k-in/ft) 1. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 3Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 -9 31 4Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 -18 -82 5Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 40 80 6Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 -106 -170 Survived 7Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 40 80 8Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 -18 -82 9Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 -9 31 10Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 3lbTNT Load Combination Moment Positive Capacity 100 50 Moment (k-in) 0 Suport(Girder3) Support(Girder1) Support(Girder2) Support(Girder4) Support(Girder5) -50 Moment -100 -150 -200 Negative Location on Deck Capacity Figure 5.5LL Moment Capacity Applied Applied Y = 0 ft +1.

Girder 3 is affected as the blast pressure loading tributary area of 10 feet by 9.091 7.9 9.2 15.429 3.6 21.2 15.434 4.331 5 -10 2.926 6.8 4.464 3.292 23.8 12.4 11.9 2.310 0.1 0.059 13 30 0.8 3.344 8 5 6 9.423 10.173 4.926 6.3 20.256 3.826 18.5 0.092 5 5 6 -4. girder 3 in location #7 (Y=0 ft) blast pressure 156 .058 0.980 3.154 3.256 3.6 24.1 21.396 14.1 0.142 4 5 6 -9.301 9 10 2.9 0.1 2.7 16.3 2. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin2(θ) psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 5 6 -23.292 23.8 feet.229 2.4 0.597 2.851 11 5 6 23.2 0.301 7 5 6 4.810 2.9 9.9 2.8 0.9 2.8 3.465 The bridge deck is structurally functional and does not fail.826 18.2 14.147 1.058 0.147 1.423 10.2 0.422 14.2 0.28 3lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 # 5 Blast # 6 Blast # 7 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arriva Time at #6 Load Duration End Time No.9 psi (arrival time 2. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 0.9 7.735 10.229 2.1 0.091 7.4 11.120 8 5 10.9 1.Table 5.147ms).429 3.081 0.290 2 5 6 -19.8 12.422 14.154 3.7 16.590 20.2 0.3 2.2 0.420 1.130 1.331 11 20 0.1 0.173 4.434 4.081 0.1 0.735 10.7 1.9 5.9 5.059 3 -20 0.904 19.3 2.3 2. The blast arrival pressure at girder 3 in location #8 (Y=5 ft) is 20.8 4.301 7 0 21.4 0.154 3.980 3.7 64.0 9.001 2.001 2.1 19.4 0.2 0.346 10 15 0.910 1.6 0.6 24.420 1.9 10.904 19.3 20.4 11.092 9 5 6 14.9 10.155 3. At same time.5 0.0 9.346 6 -5 10.651 4 -15 0.597 2.8 7.162 13.290 Table 5.651 12 25 0.4 0.396 14.464 3.2 14.142 10 5 6 19.1 19.851 3 5 6 -14.130 1.1 0.9 1.162 13.465 2 -25 0.6 21.155 3.27 3lb TNT load case 1 blast peak pressures and arrival times on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 5 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time No.6 0.910 1.1 0.9 0.344 6 5 6 0 7.147 1.4 11.

0xEVComment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Survived Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 1756 4428 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 3265 6260 Survived 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 948 842 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -1180 -7606 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 1212 1106 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -808 749 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -396 2276 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 3lb TNT Load Combination Moment(kip-ft) Positive Capacity 8000 6000 4000 Moment (k-ft) 2000 0 Moment(K-ft) -2000 Support Support Support -4000 ( Left) (Centre) (Right) -6000 Negative Capacity -8000 -10000 Location on Girder 3 Figure 5.12ms). The average blast pressure is 10 psi over girder 3 between locations # 6 and #8.25 Moment in the steel bridge girder 3 for 3lb TNT blast load case 1 157 .5xLL (Composite) (Non-Composite) Effects Effects load +1.decreases from peak pressure of 64.25xDL Capacity Capacity Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.1psi to 0 psi (end time 1. The loading due blast pressure distribution is 1176 lb/in (10 psi x 9.8 x 12 in).29 Moment in the steel girder 3 for 3lb TNT blast load case 1 3 lb TNT Load Case 1 Girder 3 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Unfactored Unfactored 1. Table 5.

Load Case 3 The bridge girders can resist 5 lb TNT blast load. Part of the deck fails when the explosion occurs at 6 ft above the bridge deck mid-span. average blast pressure is 9 psi over the deck between location #5 and #7. A portion of the deck reaches the failures state. The loading distribution due to blast pressure is 108 lb/in (9 psix12 in).26 Peak pressures decay on the bridge deck (Y= 0 ft. The loading distribution due to blast pressure is 192 lb/in (16 psix12 in). blast pressure at #3 location decreases from a peak pressure of 94. For the deck at which distance (Y) from explosion force controid is 5 ft. 5TNT) for load case 3 For 5 lb TNT blast load.8 psi to near 0 psi (end time 1.831ms). At same time. 158 .890ms). The average blast pressure is 16 psi over deck between location at #2 and #4. Figure 5. on the explosion force controid of the deck. arrival blast pressure at 4# location is 32 psi (arrival time1.

236 12.229 4.8 0.473 8 0 6 23.042 17.302 7 0 6 19.13 1.6 21.5 0.364 3.13 0.3 13 Shear Failure 7 Girder 2 Right 7.143 1.976 17.1 4.3 2 1 Girder 3 Left 7.888 5 5 6 9.7 16.6 32 1.913 3 0 6 0 6 1 94.6 20.45 13.436 6 5 6 14.086 0.3 0.598 6 0 6 14.273 5.9 0.3 0.8 1.47 Table 5.027 3.913 5 0 6 9.023 3.524 1.3 0.273 5.6 10.026 6.1 2.1 0 Girder 5 Right 7.082 2.1 0 Girder 5 Left 7.677 9.026 6.5 0.2 Girder 4 Left 7.082 2.952 4 5 6 4.8 11.5 0.5 0.598 2 0 6 -4.1 3.428 4.6 0.364 3.625 2.3 10 Shear Failure 5 Girder 2 Left 7.9 9.081 0.59 30.89 4 0 6 4.5 0.831 1.061 0.436 2 5 6 -4.6 32 1. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin2(θ) psi (msec) (msec) (ms) 1 5 6 -9.78 1.8 11.058 0.094 2.9 9.7 0.3 13.1 4.1 0.32 Shear in the concrete bridge deck (Y=0 and 5 ft) for 3lb TNT blast load case 3 5 lb TNT Load Case 3 Concrete Deck Shear kips/ft Blast Applied Blast Applied Deck Shear Deck Shear Deck Shear Location Capacity(k) (Y=0 ft) Comment ( Y=5ft) Comment Girder 1 Left 7.9 7.76 1.486 3.229 4.3 0 0 Girder 1 Right 7.8 1.5 0.2 0.3 0 0 159 .5 0.8 12.336 7 5 6 19.7 0.2 Girder 4 Right 7. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin2(θ) psi (msec) (msec) (ms) 1 0 6 -9.524 1.423 15.2 0.41 2.003 Table 5.3 13.6 24.544 14.3 2 1 Girder 3 Right 7.3 0.858 1.41 2.888 3 5 6 0 7.6 24.831 1.3 9.31 5lb TNT blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 5 ft) Blast Arrival Load Pv Time Duration End Time No.03 8 5 6 23.9 7.4 0.9 3.Table 5.9 3.9 0.8 12.7 15.78 1.6 6.818 5.5 10.423 15.818 5.30 5lb TNT load case 3 blast peak pressure and arrival time on the concrete bridge deck (Y= 0 ft) Blast Arrival Load Pv Time Duration End Time No.1 2.

-320 160 0 0 0 0 2 Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 Moment 3 Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 241 281 Failure Moment 4 Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 -176 -240 Failure 5 Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 -65 -26 6 Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 47 -17 7 Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 18 58 8 Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 -12 -76 9 Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 -6 34 10 Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11 Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 Table 5. -320 160 0 0 0 0 2Girder1 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 Moment 3Mid Span1 -176 160 8 59 135 175 Failure 4Girder2 -176 160 -29 -55 -95 -159 5Mid Span2 -176 160 8 59 -36 4 6Girder3 -176 160 -29 -55 26 -38 7Mid Span3 -176 160 8 59 10 50 8Girder4 -176 160 -29 -55 -7 -71 9Mid Span4 -176 160 8 59 -4 36 10Girder5 -320 160 -29 -55 0 -64 11Overhang2 -320 160 0 0 0 0 160 .5LL Moment Capacity Applied Applied Y = 0 ft +1.Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1Overhang1.5LL Moment Capacity Applied Applied Y = 5 ft +1.33 Moment in the concrete bridge deck for 5lb TNT blast load case 3 5 TNT Load Case3 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment(kip-in/ft) 1.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No.34 Moment in the concrete bridge deck (Y = 5 ft) for 5lb TNT load case 3 5 TNT Load Case3 Concrete Bridge Deck Bending Moment(kip-in/ft) 1.25DL Dead Load Live Load +0.25DL Dead Load Live Load +0.Table 5.0EL Comment Unfactored Unfactored Max Live Blast Load Dead Load Load Load Combination No. Location Negative Positive Effects Effects Moment Moment 1 Overhang1.

25xDL Capacity Capacity Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.524ms). The blast distribution loading is 647 lb/in (11psix4. Girders 1 and 2 are affected due to the blast pressure loading from a tributary area of 10 feet by 4.The arrival blast pressure at location #8 in girders 1 and 2 (Y=5 ft) is 15. the blast pressure at location #7 (Y=0 ft) in girders 1 and 2 decreases from a peak pressure of 32 psi (end time 2. At the same time. Here assume average blast pressure is 11 psi.5xLL (Composite) (Non-Composite) Effects Effects load +1.0xEV Comment Location Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 945 3617 Moment Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 1796 4791 Failure 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 511 405 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 -871 -7297 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -654 -761 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -436 1121 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -218 2454 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 161 . The bridge deck between girders 1 and 2 fails due to direct shear and bending. The average blast pressure of loading tributary area should be smaller than 11psi. The moment capacity of girders 1 and 2 is considered half span composite section.35 Moment in the girders 1 and 2 for 5lb TNT blast load case 3 5 TNT Case 3 Girders 1 and 2 Bending Moment kip-ft Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Unfactored Unfactored 1.9x12 in). The average blast pressure is 11 psi over girders 1 and 2 between locations #6 and #8.913ms) to 7 psi.1 psi (arrival time 2.9 feet (half deck span). Table 5.

21 15.26 22.Load Case 4 The steel girders can resist 100 lb TNT blast load when the explosion occurs under the bridge at load case 4 location.32 3.61 4.5 14.58 2 15 14.9 7.60 3.24 4.50 5.6 24.15 1.35 0.84 3.40 8 15 14.60 10.61 4.9 7.88 3.88 2.90 7.31 9.15 11.5 -14.49 0.28 5.08 8.5 19.20 4 15 14.38 6.6 24.84 3.50 5.49 0.7 15.40 6 15 14.75 0.32 37. at #7 location blast pressure decreases from a peak value of 272 psi to 60 psi.48 87.26 22.32 37.76 3 15 14.32 3.88 0.40 57.60 3. the blast pressure in girder 3 at #7 location (Y = 0 ft) decreases from peak pressure 272 psi to 179 psi.31 9.75 0.88 0.15 1. The uniform blast distribution loading is 1. Table 5.78 7 15 14.08 8.76 11 15 14.00 0. This value of 179 psi is calculated based on a linear variation of the peak pressure decay to zero. At the same time.46 77.50 0.19 5 15 14.8 11.29 16.15 11.35 0. So.5 9.5 0 6.50 0.29 16.5 23.5 -4.38 6. Whereas a part of deck (Y = -15ft ~15ft) reaches a failure state due to direct shear and bending.5 4.5 -23.88 3.46 77.94 5.8 11.20 10 15 14. 162 .19 9 15 14.7 15. The average blast pressure is taken as (174 + 60)/2 = 117 psi over girder 3 between locations #6 and #8.94 5.28 5. Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin (θ) (psi) (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 15 14.40 57.60 10.6 20.36 Pressure and arrival time on the deck (Y = 15 ft) Blast Pv Arrival Time Load Duration End Time 2 No.5 -9.58 The arrival blast pressure in girder 3 at #8 location (Y = 5 ft) is 174 psi.6 20. The linearly varying trial pressures are taken to be 3 times the actual pressure.21 15.368 lb / in (117 psi x girder bottom flange width 14 in).5 -19.

98 10.85 8.14 8.14 5.694 4.87 3.525 3.37 Pressure and arrival time on the girder 3 (H = 10 ft) # 5 Blast #6 Blast #7 Blast Pv Pv Pv Arrival Time at #6 Load Duration End Time No.822 4.67 271.28 65.0xEV Comment Location PositiveNegativePositiveNegative PositiveNegative Support (Left) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 -2397 -862 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 -4548 -2991 Survived 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 -1294 -2498 Support (Centre) 12950 -11806 9149 -9149 -4161 983 -2450 2206 -2504 3/4 Span 8511 -6790 5173 -5173 -550 1162 -1032 1655 1549 Mid Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1633 1908 -968 1003 3998 1/4 Span 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 1500 1593 -680 552 3224 Support (Right) 6677 -5245 3500 -3500 0 0 0 0 0 163 .165 8.491 5.364 1.14 5.015 15.30 51.506 Table 5.84 7. Y (ft) psi psi psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 1 -30 1.85 8.086 11 20 8.657 7 0 184.98 2.657 9 10 51.015 15.690 12 25 3.897 3 -20 8.38 Moment in the bridge steel girder 3 for 100lb TNT blast load case 4 100TNT Load Case 4 Girder 3 Bending Moment (kip-ft) Load Blast Combi- Applied load nation Girder Moment Girder Moment Capacity Unfactored Unfactored 1.075 11.98 10.12 19.25xDL Capacity (Non.375 6.14 8.09 1.537 1.Table 5.810 2.897 13 30 1.694 4.84 7.84 4.690 4 -15 19.05 1.058 10 15 19.058 6 -5 121.086 5 -10 51.28 2.85 184.30 51.74 121.070 8 5 121.364 1.711 2.5xLL (Composite) Composite) Effects Effects load +1. Dead Load Max Live Load Blast +0.525 3.05 173.67 1.491 5.74 121.165 8.075 11.12 51.260 0.120 2.87 23.711 2.28 2.08 3.28 3.822 4.120 2.375 6.08 3.84 4.506 2 -25 3.87 23.05 1.05 173.537 1.28 65.09 1.98 2.

if the explosion were to occur under the bridge at load case 5 location (Figure 4.Load Case 5 The bridge pier column can resist 125 lb TNT blast load.78 ms).14x (5x12) 2 – 294x3.14x(5x12)2 /3 = 2216 kips The average distribution blast loading: w = Q/2r = 2216/2x5 = 222 kips/ft The average uniform distribution blast loading is 222 kips/ft over supporting pier surface between 1 ft above ground and 11 ft above ground. At same time.35). The arrival blast pressure at the location of the supporting pier surface. where the distance (r) to the explosion force controid on the pier surface is 5 ft.78ms. 125 lb TNT) 164 . Total blast force: Q = q1r2 – q1r2 /3 = 294x3. Figure 5.75 ms). is 294 psi (arrival time 0.27 Pressure on pier column (Time = 0. the blast pressure at the explosion force controid location on the pier surface decreases from a peak value of 763 psi to 0 psi (end time 0.

138 15.678 0 6 15 16.590 294.714 0 6 -10 11.678 0 6 -5 7. However.8 0.562 1.8 2.988 4.Table 5.1 0.726 1.138 15.780 0.5 f ' =7.391 1.240 0.7 ft4 = 117.5 = 117.115 2.5 1.7x124 in4 3 fr = 7.5 x 4000 = 474 psi yt = H/2 = 27 in Mcr = Igfr/yt = 117.171 0 6 10 11.40 Moment in the bridge pier column for 125 lb TNT blast load case 5 125 lbTNT Case 5 Supporting Pier Bending Moment Shear Location (kip-ft) Comment (kips) Comment Moment Blast Shear Blast H(ft) Above Capacity Induced Strength Induced Ground Mn Moment Vn Shear 0 8246 -8242 Survived 2060 2025 Survived Extensive damage 1 8246 -6218 2060 2025 and cracking 6 8246 1130 2060 915 11 8246 2929 2060 -195 16 8246 1952 2060 -195 26 8246 0 2060 -195 *Concrete Pier Cracking Moment: Ig =12x15.6 Comparison of Static and Dynamic Analyses The results presented in this chapter are based on the equivalent static load rather than the dynamic loading on the bridge.171 0 6 0 6.115 2.8 0.5 /4.780 0.562 1.7 x 124 x474 / 27 = 42874823 lb-in = 3574 kip-in 5.265 61.988 4.7 0.714 Table 5.8 2.391 1. it is very difficult to determine the 165 .726 1.2 0.5 1.000 763.750 0 6 5 7.2 0.1 0.39 125 lb TNT blast peak pressure and arrival time on the bridge pier Arrival Time Load Duration End Time Y(ft) H(ft) X (ft) R(ft) sin2(θ) Blast Pv psi (msec) (msec) (msec) 0 6 -15 16.0 1.4 0.510 0.7 0.265 61.590 294. The static analysis methods convert the time-pressure variations of a highly impulsive blast load into a single one-time force applied to a structure.

A structure subjected to dynamic loading may exhibit a different behavior compared to a structure loaded statically. Furthermore. especially if the applied blast load has a high peak value and of short duration. this type of analysis neglects the inertial effects in motion (Bounds 1998). mn Pn xn m3 x3 P3 P2 m2 x2 P1 x1 m1 Figure 5. x2.28 Multi-degree-of-freedom system.static design load conservatively because magnitudes and locations of the blast pressures can vary significantly. The dynamic load will bring about a certain degree of deformation rate in different parts of the structural elements as they deform. The masses can move independently with displacements x1. etc.28). A multi- degree-of freedom structure system considers a structure consisting of many masses connected together by elements of known stiffnesses (Figure 5. 166 .1 Multi-degree-of-freedom System The basic differences between structures under static and dynamic loads are the presence of inertia in the equation of motion and that of kinetic energy.6. 5.

The basic equation of motion for a transient dynamic analysis is given by (5. strains.6.2 ANSYS Program Transient Dynamic Analysis ANSYS program has the capability for transient dynamic analysis to determine the dynamic response of a structure under the action of any general time- dependent loads. stresses. The time scale of the loading is such that the inertia or damping effects are considered to be important. and forces in a structure as it responds to any combination of static. transient. This type of analysis can be used to determine the time-varying displacements. 5. and harmonic loads.1a) Where: [m] = Mass matrix [k] = Stiffness matrix {p(t)} = vector of external forces and a function of time.1b) where: [M] = mass matrix [C] = damping matrix [K] = stiffness matrix = nodal acceleration vector = nodal velocity vector 167 .The equation of motion of a multi-degree-of freedom structure system is giver by mx k x p(t) (5.

The time increment between successive time points is called the time step integration. The type of load considered here is the triangular load with zero rise time.29 MDOF system subjected to a triangular load 168 . the system is subjected to an initial suddenly applied load P1. Idealization of Blast Load An air blast load on a structure is essentially a single pulse and can usually be idealized by a simple geometric shape that gives a good resemblance of the actual blast wave.{u} = nodal displacement vector {F(t)} = load vector The ANSYS program uses the Newmark time integration method to solve these equations at discrete time points. Thus. Figure 5. which then decreases linearly to zero at time td (Figure 5.29).

597ms) The blast pressures on the supporting pier are shown in Figure 5. Concrete Young's modulus: Ec = 33000 x (W c1.5 f ' =33000x0.15 x 4 = 3834 kips/in2 = 552.14x(5x12)2 – (608-120)x3. Figures 5.30. with a load duration of td = 0.Load Case 5: 500 lb TNT Figure 5.150 kips/ft 169 .305 ms.2 Concrete density = 0.31 shows the uniformly distributed blast pressures on the column.q2)r2 /3 = 608x3.30 Pressures on pier column (Arrival Time = 0. Total blast force: Q = q1r2 – (q1.133 kips/ft2 3 Poisson’s ratio PRXY = 0.5) x 1.14x(5x12)2 /3 = 5034 kips The average loading due blast pressure: w = Q/2r = 5034/2x5 = 503 kips/ft This distributed load is acting at a height of 1 ft above over a length of 10 ft.

4 Tim e ( td=0.7 ft4.Section area: A = 69.75 ft2.305 m s) Figure 5.001 ms. Load = 0 kips/ft Load step 3: Time at end of loadstep = 5 ms.2 0. Load = 0 kips/ft Triangular Blast Load (kip/ft) 600 500 Load (kips/ft) 400 300 Series1 200 100 0 0 0.1 0. and IZZ =117. Load = 503 kip/ft Load step 2: Time at end of loadstep = 0.306 ms. Figure 5.305 ms Load step 1: Time at end of loadstep = 0.3 0.32 500TNT triangular blast load 170 .31 Load case 5: Modeling of the supporting pier for ANSYS transient dynamic analysis Load duration = 0.

97 0.375 0.41 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 TIME 1M Z TIME 1M Z 0.15350 3167.20000E-03 -12.01 3.1224 1979.741 4.18400 -9943.30 0.1 1.2448 -1107.02 0.642 0.70999 2.14 0.701 2.Table 5.192 0.62000E-01 -8.7142 366.41 4.24 0.5918 -2730.92500E-01 972.31500E-01 -12294.21450 -142.1836 409.27550 219.07096 0.10000E-03 -3.630 1.30600 -2399.6530 -1198.85 3.77540 1792.1688 0.2109 0.0000 4613.69 5.50 0.96 Figure 5.24500 7481.88 0.10000E-02 -456.50000E-03 -90.12300 4418.5306 -4065.34 ANSYS Time history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft 171 .36 0.0612 3431.

42 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft TIME 1F X TIME 1F X 0.239 0.7142 198.227 0.0000 -805.410 0.0612 -668.504 0.31500E-01 3250.6530 393.12300 -875.21450 44.1224 -490.257 Figure 5.15350 -556.222 3.814 0.18400 1614.954 0.01 5.8893 0.62000E-01 -1160.5687 0.92500E-01 548.166 3.10000E-02 560.762 1.5306 743.964 0.8716 0.520 2.24500 -1362.35 ANSYS Time (ms) history: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft 172 .8233 4.92 1.27550 342.56 4.498 0.10000E-03 17.52 2.20000E-03 55.77540 21.7183 0.146 0.2448 -105.30600 49.50000E-03 183.Table 5.1836 -295.5918 583.133 0.

44 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 500lb TNT blast load case 5 Load Case 5: 500lb TNT Blast Load Shear (kips) Location (kip-ft) Comment h(ft) Shear Static Dynamic Above Strength Analysis Analysis Ground Vn Shear Max Shear 0 2060 4858 3250 Failure 1 2060 4858 3307 6 2060 2073 1449 11 2060 -422 1275 16 2060 -422 1118 26 2060 -422 1173 173 . Moment Diagram 30 25 20 15 Moment Diagram 10 Pier (h) 5 0 -20000 -15000 -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 Moment (kip-ft) Figure 5.36 Static moment in the bridge pier column for 500lb TNT blast load Table 5.43 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 500 lb TNT blast load case 5 Load Case 5: 500 lb TNT Blast Load Bending Moment Location (kip-ft) Comment h(ft) Moment Static Dynamic Analysis Above Capacity Analysis Max Moment Ground Mn Moment 0 8246 -18676 -12294 Failure 1 8246 -14089 -9012 6 8246 2561 -3223 11 8246 6637 -4893 16 8246 4425 -5230 26 8246 0 0 Table 5.

Load Duration = 0.2 Concrete density = 0.78 ms. 125 lb TNT) Total blast force: Q = q1r2 – q1r2 /3 = 294x3.7 ft4.Load Case 5: 125 lb TNT Figure 5.14x(5x12)2 /3 = 2216 kips The average loading due blast pressure: w = Q/2r = 2216/2x5 = 222 kips/ft This distributed load is acting at a height of 1 ft above over a length of 10 ft. Load = 222 kip/ft Load Step 2: Time at end of load step = 0.391 ms. Load = 0 kips/ft 174 . Load = 0 kips/ft Load Step 3: Time at end of load step = 5 ms.14x (5 x 12)2 – 294x3.37 Pressure on pier column (Time = 0.001 ms.75 ft2. Concrete Young's modulus Ec = 3834 kips/in2 = 552.390 ms Load Step 1: Time at end of load step = 0.133 kips/ft2 Poisson’s ratio PRXY = 0. and IZZ =117.150 kips/ft 3 Section area: A = 69.

38 125 lb TNT triangular blast load Moment Diagram 30 25 20 15 Moment Diagram 10 Pier (h) 5 0 -10000 -5000 0 5000 Moment (kip-ft) Figure 5.1 0.79000E-01 934.7737 300.34 2.638 0.39100 954.19600 -2053.31300 -788.52 3.23500 -2538.38 4.40000E-01 -6025.4 0.21 175 .3 0.0782 -1652.27400 4830.2346 -667.37072 0.81 0.374 2.11800 1159.35538 0.10000E-03 -1.971 0.6955 993.81 1.3128 98.39 Static moment in the bridge pier column for 125lb TNT blast load Table 5.2 0.5 Time (td =0.47 0.45 ANSYS time (ms) history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft TIME 1M Z TIME 1M Z 0.1564 -1270.15700 1657. Triangular Blast Load (kip/ft) 250 Load (kips/ft) 200 150 Series1 100 50 0 0 0.535 1.6173 1491.10000E-02 -201.5391 1750.50000E-03 -39.390 ms) Figure 5.93 0.958 0.64 4.8147 0.20000E-03 -5.776 0.75 0.78 3.35200 -2979.47 0.0000 -1783.85190 -520.8743 0.893 5.769 0.

6955 -17.40000E-01 1529.493 1.663 0.15700 -483.10000E-02 247. Figure 5.31300 152.40 ANSYS time history: Moment (MZ kip-ft) at location h = 0 ft Table 5.611 3.7275 0.10000E-03 7.46 ANSYS Time (ms) History: Shear force (FX kips) at location h = 0 ft TIME 1F X TIME 1F X 0.0782 111.3128 -137.698.11800 240.70 1.0000 130.6712 0.50000E-03 80.27400 -786.076 176 .256 0.85190 197.23500 409.89547 0.20000E-03 24.39100 -258.7198 0.042 4.8799 0.35200 481.79000E-01 .563 2.6173 -88.6590 0.5391 -125.19600 381.904 5.7737 80.8728 0.846 0.130 0.1564 57.075 4.610 2.044 3.2346 -28.1705 0.569 0.525 0.

41 ANSYS time history: Shear force (FX) at location h = 0 ft Table 5.47 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Shear in the bridge pier column for 125 lb TNT blast load case 5 Load Case 5:125lb TNT Blast Load Shear (kips) Location (kip-ft) Comment h(ft) Shear Static Dynamic Above Strength Analysis Analysis Ground Vn Shear (Maximum) 0 2060 1929 1538 Survived Extensive damage 1 2060 1929 1538 and cracking 6 2060 1041 905 11 2060 290 523 16 2060 -290 468 26 2060 -290 735 177 . Figure 5.

42 Response of a beam to a dynamic step-load (ACI) ACI (1970) presented the design criteria for reinforced-concrete beams and slabs to resist static or blast loads.48 ANSYS Dynamic Analysis: Moment in the bridge pier column for 125lb TNT blast load case 5 Load Case 5: 125 lb TNT Blast Load (222 kip/ft) Bending Moment Location Static Dynamic Moment Ratio Moment h(ft) Above Capacity Analysis Analysis Static /Dynamic Ground Mn (Maximum ) 0 8246 -8242 -6025 1. The influence of dynamic peak load and load 178 .368 1 8246 -6218 -4482 6 8246 1130 1558 11 8246 2929 2492 16 8246 1952 -2494 26 8246 0 0 Figure 5.Table 5.

particularly the peak load. but the dynamic load to induce yielding equals 0. equivalent static loads due to explosion are used in this study to evaluate the structural performance. the supporting pier resists 125 lb TNT (static distributed load wstatic = 222 kips/ft) blast load to reach ultimate flexural capacity. The resulting blast induced moment from the ANSYS dynamic analysis (peak dynamic distributed load wdynamic = 222 kips/ft) is smaller than that from the static analysis. Figure 5. P. There may be some variation in the 179 .42 shows the behavior of a beam until the ultimate defection is reached. This result is similar to that reported by the ACI (1970).7 Limitations of Analyses Although blast load is a dynamic load and it impacts the structure for a very short duration. the peak dynamic distributed load wdynamic would be 1. The moment from the static analysis equals 1. consider the supporting pier to be fixed at the bottom and hinged at the top. The peak dynamic resistance equals 1.8Qc. In the ANSYS analysis for load case 5.35Qc.368 times static load wstatic. and the load duration. For the supporting pier to develop the ultimate flexural capacity.48). The response of a simply supported beam with a static yield load of Qc to a step-load.37 times the moment from the dynamic analysis for the same distributed load of w =222 kips/ft (Table 5. the response of a beam depends on the characteristics of the applied load.duration (td) are discussed. 5. In addition to the resistance. Based on ANSYS static analysis. concentrated at mid-span has been observed from tests.

The ultimate resistances of bridge component based on the dynamic load analysis are larger than the ultimate resistances based on static load analysis. The results based on the equivalent static load analysis are conservative. 180 . Therefore. performance of bridge component elements under equivalent static loads can be considered as reasonably similar to that under the original dynamic blast loads. The peak dynamic load is larger than static load applied to any component member with a given flexural capacity.results between equivalent static and dynamic analyses of the bridge because of impact and effect of sustained loading.

1 Summary Blast-resistance of bridge has not traditionally been considered in the design. the steel girder is still structurally functional.CHAPTER 6: SUMMARY. Location. and performance of bridge structures under blast load. The blast induced moment and shear resulting from a typical 500 lb TNT applied under the bridge and a stand off distance of 6 ft from the supporting pier are greater than the member capacities and hence 181 . Both bridge deck and girder fail since the moments due to the blast load of 500 lb TNT explosion applied over or under the bridge at girder mid-span exceed the flexural and shear strength. behavior. Very limited studies are available on blast resistant design. CONCLUSIONS. The effects of blast pressure is converted into equivalent static load and used in the static analysis. The concrete bridge deck fails for the case of 500 lb TNT explosion applied over the interior-supporting pier. magnitude. The two span continuous composite steel girder system is modeled considering material and geometrical linearity and analyzed using ANASYS finite element analysis software. standoff distance of the explosion from the structure and angle of incident of blast pressure to the structure surface influence the bridge response to blast loads. however. AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.

failure of the pier.

Parametric studies are made to evaluate the performance of the bridge

components for varying amounts of TNT. The blast loads due to 3 lb TNT are

applied 6 ft over the bridge deck at mid-span of girder 3. The resulting average

blast pressure is only 11 psi and the composite concrete deck under cracking.

But the maximum moment in the concrete deck and steel girder due to the

combination DL, LL, and EX (extreme event load) is smaller than the positive and

negative moment capacity.

For under the bridge blast explosion with a standoff distance of 6ft from the

supporting pier, the supporting pier could resist a distributed load of 222 kips/ft

due to an explosion of 125 lb of TNT. For an explosion underneath the bridge, at

6 ft above ground and a standoff distance of 10 ft from the girder, bridge girders

could resist as much as 100 lb of TNT explosion (117 psi at the girder bottom

over 14 in wide flange). The part of deck (Y = -15 ft to15 ft) reaches a failure

state due to direct shear and bending.

6.2 Conclusions

Based on the results from the present study, the following conclusions are made:

i. The blast loads on a composite steel bridge system can be estimated based

on the principles of blast wave propagation.

ii. Peak pressures on the deck resulting from the blast at any given location vary

at different rise times. The peck pressures decay with increases in time

**duration (td), as the blast wave traverses along the bridge deck.
**

182

iii. The overall bridge performance depends on the flexural/shear strength of a

given bridge component members, blast load magnitude, location of

explosion controid, standoff distances, and incident angle of blast pressures

to the structure surface.

6.3 Recommendations for Future Research

Further research needs to be done to take into consideration blast loads due to a

dynamic pressure. Under the dynamic loading condition, the results may vary for

the same bridge if member strength, the magnitude and location of explosion

remain the same.

Based on this research, the following recommendations may be made:

More studies on the equivalent uniform blast load procedure are necessary for

prediction of bridge response. This can be accomplished by performing an array

of numerical solutions using various bridge and blast parameters.

Further research may focus on dynamic analysis to evaluate the performance of

bridge components under blast loads. The combined effects of flexure, shear,

and a potential loss of seating from local failures may lead to the collapse of one

or more bridge girders.

The present study considers only the first peak deflection in the dynamic

analysis. However, engineering analysis and design should consider the first

peak deflections as well as the subsequent maximum deflections. Additional

field tests should be conducted to evaluate engineering analysis and design of

**bridge system for blast loads.
**

183

REFERENCES

1. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), National Bridge Inventory (NBI),

December 2003.

2. American Association of State Highway and Officials (AASHTO), Load

and Resistant Factor Design, Bridge Design Specifications, 2003.

3. FHWA NHI-04-041, “LRFD Design Example for Steel Girder

Superstructure Bridge”, FHWA / National Highway Institute, 2003

4. Florida Department of Transportation, Structures Design Guidelines, 2004.

5. TM 5-1300, Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions,

Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. 1990

6. Guidelines for Blast-Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities, ASCE

1997

7. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, “Blast Resistant Structures”, 1986

8. FEMA 427- Primer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate

Terrorist Attacks, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2003

9. Kirk A. Marchand, Farid Alfawakhiri, “ Blast and Progressive Collapse ”,

AISC

10. Florida Department of Transportation, LRFD Prestressed Beam Program,

English v1.85, February 2001.

184

11. T. Ngo, P. Mendis, A. Gupta & J. Ramsay. “Blast Loading and Blast

Effects on Structures – An Overview”, The University of Melbourne,

Australia, 2007

12. Johan Magnusson, “Structural Concrete Elements Subjected to Air Blast

Loading”, 2007

13. ULRIKA NYSTRÖM, “Concrete Structures Subjected to Blast and

Fragment Impacts”. CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,

Sweden 2008

14. David G. Winget; Kirk A. Marchand; and Eric B. Williamson. “Analysis and

Design of Critical Bridges Subjected to Blast Loads”

15. John Crawford, “Protective Designs for Blast and Impact Effects”

16. Longinow, A. and Alfawakhiri, F., “Blast Resistant Design with Structural

Steel – Common Questions Answered”, Modern Steel Construction, AISC,

2003

17. Islam, A.K.M. Anwarul, “Performance of AASHTO girder bridges under

blast loading”, Ph.D. dissertation, Florida State University, Tallahassee,

FL, 2005.

18. Mark A McClendon, “Blast Resistant Design for Roof Systems”. University

of Missouri – Columbia, 2007

19. ATBlast Software, Developed by Applied Research Associates (ARA), Inc.

20. ASCE Task Committee on Blast Resistant Design, Design of Blast

Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities, 1997.

185

International Conference of Building Officials. Winget. 27. Marchand. Prepared for Engineering and Services Laboratory. Dr. Williamson & D. Second National Engineering & Security Research Forum. 186 . 23. Increasing Blast and Fire Resistance in Buildings: Design Techniques for Combined Nuclear Weapon Effects. National Center for Explosion Resistant Design (NCERD). 29. Air Force Engineering and Services Center. K. Tyndall Air Force Base. E. University of Missouri-Columbia. TR-62. ESL-TR-87-57. 30. 24. FL. 28. Structures Under Shock and Impact VIII. Wessex Institute of Technology Press (WIT Press). Alex Remennikov. May 1976. May 1992. AASHTO Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security. 26. Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals.G. September 2003. 22. Protective Construction Design Manual. Florida Department of Transportation. Recommendation for Bridge and Tunnel Security. Uniform Building Code (UBC).21. “Evaluation of Blast Loads on Commercial Buildings: From Hand Calculations to GIS-Based Numerical Simulations”. Standard Specifications for Roads and Bridges Construction. Analysis of Blast Load on Bridge Substructures. 1997. Department of Defense (DOD). 2004. OSHA. 25. 2004. Defense Civil Preparedness Agency. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Australia. 1989.B.

“ Design of Flexural Members for Static and Blast Loading”. ACI. 1970 187 . American Concrete Institute Monograph Series No.31.5.

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