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Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Andrzej Truty
ZACE Services

1.09.2008

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Introduction

Hardening Soil (HS) and Hardening Soil-small (HS-small)


models are designed to reproduce basic phenomena exhibited
by soils:
densification
stiffness stress dependency
plastic yielding
dilatancy
strong stiffness variation with growing shear strain amplitude
in the regime of small strains (γ = 10−6 to γ = 10−3 )
this phenomenon plays a crucial role for modeling deep
excavations and soil-structure interaction problems
NB. This model is limited to monotonic loads

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Introduction

HS model was initially formulated by Schanz, Vermeer and


Bonnier (1998, 1999) and then enhanced by Benz (2006)
Current implementation is slightly modified with respect to
the theory given by Benz:
simplified treatment of dilatancy for the small strain version
(HS-small)
modified hardening law for preconsolidation pressure
This model seems to be one of the simplest in the class of
models designed to handle small strain stiffness
It consists of the two plastic mechanisms, shear and volumetric
Small strain stiffness is incorporated by means of nonlinear
elasticity which includes hysteretic effects

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Triaxial test: illustration

Undrained triaxial test: video


Drained triaxial test : video
Annimations by P.Baran (University of Agriculture, Kraków,
Poland)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Notion of tangent and secant stiffness moduli
Initial stiffness modulus Eo
Unloading-reloading modulus Eur
Secant stiffness modulus at 50 % of the ultimate deviatoric
stress qf
250
Eo qf
200
E50 qun
150
1 1
q [kpa]

100
0.5 qf
q50 Eur
50
1 σ3=const
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
EPS-1 [-]

Remark: All classical soil models require specification of Eur


modulus (Cam-Clay, Cap etc..)
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Stiffness-strain relation for soils (G /Go (γ))

G - current secant shear modulus


Go - shear modulus for very small strains

Atkinson 1991

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Notion of treshold shear strain γ07

G
To describe the shape of (γ) curve an additional
Go
characteristic point is needed
It is common to specify the shear strain γ0.7 at which ratio
G
= 0.7
Go

0.7

γ07

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Dynamic vs static modulus

Relation between ”static” Young modulus Es , obtained from


standard triaxial test at axial strain ε1 ≈ 10−3 , and ”dynamic”
Young modulus (the one at very small strains) Ed = Eo is
shown in diagram published by Alpan (1970) (after Benz)

100

Ed
Ro
Es ck
s
co h
es i
10 ve
so i
ls

gran
u l ar
soil
s

Es [kPa]
1
1000 10000 100000 1000000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
HS model: general concept
Double hardening elasto-plastic model (Schanz, Vermeer,
Benz)
Nonlinear elasticity for stress paths penetrating the interior of
the elastic domain
600

500
Cap surface
400
q [kPa]

300

200

100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
p [kPa]

Graphical representation of shear mechanism and cap surface


Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
HS model: shear mechanism

Duncan-Chang model as the origin for shear mechanism


250

qf 200
M-C limit
150
q [kPa]

100
Eur
50 E50 ½ qf
1
1
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
eps-1

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Stiffness stress dependency

m
σ3∗ + c cotφ

ref
Eur = Eur
σ ref + c cotφ
σ3∗ + c cotφ m
 
ref
E50 = E50
σ ref + c cotφ
Remarks
1 Stiffness degrades with decreasing σ 3 up to σ 3 = σL (by
default we assume σL =10 kPa)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Extension to small strain: new ingredients

To extend standard HS model to the range of small strain Benz


introduced few modifications:
1 Strain dependency is added to the stress-strain relation, for
stress paths penetrating the elastic domain
2 The modified Hardin-Drnevich relationship is used to relate
current secant shear modulus G and equivalent monotonic
shear strain γhist
3 Reversal points are detected with aid of deviatoric strain
history second order tensor Hij ; in addition the current
equivalent shear strain γhist is computed by using this tensor

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
How does it work ?

N
N-1 N+1

plot from paper by Ishihara 1986


At step N : γhistN−1 = 8 × 10−5 γhistN = 10−4
At step N + 1 : γhistN = 0 γhistN+1 = 2 × 10−5
max
Primary loading: γhistN+1 > γhist
max
Unloading/reloading: γhistN+1 ≤ γhist
Go
Hardin-Drnevich law: G = γhist (secant modulus)
1+a
γ0.7
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Shear tangent modulus cut-off

Gur

γc γ
r 
γ0.7 Go
γc = −1
a Gur
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco
Given: σ o , OCR
Find: γoPS and pco
600

500
Cap surface
400
σSR
q [kPa]

300

200 Shear mechanism

100 σο

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
p [kPa]

Procedure:
Set effective stress state at the SR point
σySR = σyo OCR
σxSR = σzSR = σy KoSR
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco

600

500
Cap surface
400
σSR
q [kPa] 300

200 Shear mechanism

100 σο

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
p [kPa]

Procedure:
For given σ SR state compute γoPS from plastic condition
f1 = 0
For given σ SR state compute pco from plastic condition f2 = 0

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco

Remarks
1 KoSR = KoNC ≈ 1 − sin(φ) in the standard applications
(approximate Jaky’s formula)
2 KoSR = 1 for case of isotropic consolidation (used in triaxial
testing for instance)
3 For sands notion of preconsolidation pressure is not as
meaningful as for cohesive soils hence one may assume
OCR=1 and effect of density will be embedded in H and M
parameters

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Setting M and H parameters based on oedometric test

σ
600

500
Eoed
400
q [kPa]

q* 1
300

200

100
p*
0
0 100 200 300 400 500
ε
p [kPa] σoed
ref

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Material properties
Parameter Unit HS-standard HS-small
ref
Eur [kPa] yes yes
ref
E50 [kPa] yes yes
ref
σ [kPa] yes yes
m [—] yes yes
νur [—] yes yes
Rf [—] yes yes
c [kPa] yes yes
φ [o ] yes yes
ψ [o ] yes yes
emax [—] yes yes
ft [kPa] yes yes
D [—] yes yes
M [—] yes yes
H [kPa] yes yes
OCR/q POP [—/kPa] yes yes
Eoref [kPa] no yes
γ0.7 [—] no yes
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Converting MC to HS model: indentation problem

Assumption: q = 0.5 qult


Eur E50
Given: E for MC model and = ..., = ...
E50 Eoed
1m

q = 0.5 qult
A

10m

10m

ref , M and H for standard HS model


Find: Eur
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand
6
5.5
120000
5
100000

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]


4.5
4 80000
HS-std

G [kPa]
3.5
HS-small HS-std
60000
3 HS-small
2.5 40000
2
20000
1.5
1 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
-EPS-Y [-] EPS-X - EPS-Y [-]

σ
(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)
σ3
4

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1


3.5
0.08
SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

0.07
3
0.06
HS-std 0.05
2.5
HS-small

-EPS-V [-]
0.04
HS-std
2 0.03
HS-small
0.02
1.5 0.01
0
1 -0.01
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02
-EPS-Y [-] -EPS-Y [-]

σ
(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)
σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand
6
200000
5.5
180000
5
160000

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]


4.5
140000
4
120000

G [kPa]
HS-std
3.5 HS-std
HS-small 100000
3 HS-small
80000
2.5 60000
2 40000
1.5 20000
1 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 - EPS-3 [-]

σ
(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)
σ3
4

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1


3.5
0.08
SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

0.07
3
0.06
HS-std 0.05
2.5
HS-small

EPS-V [-]
0.04
HS-std
2 0.03
HS-small
0.02
1.5 0.01
0
1 -0.01
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02
EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 [-]

σ
(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)
σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand
6
300000
5.5
5 250000

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]


4.5
200000
4

G [kPa]
HS-std
3.5 HS-std
HS-small 150000
HS-small
3
2.5 100000

2
50000
1.5
1 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1
EPS-1 [-] EPS-1-EPS-3 [-]

σ
(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)
σ3
4
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
3.5 0.08
0.07
SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

3 0.06
0.05
HS-std
2.5

EPS-V [-]
HS-small 0.04
HS-std
0.03
2 HS-small
0.02

1.5 0.01
0
1 -0.01
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02
EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 [-]

σ
(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)
σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: input data

Given 3 drained triaxial test results for 3 confining pressures:


σ 3 = 100 kPa
σ 3 = 300 kPa
σ 3 = 600 kPa
Shear characteristics q − ε1
Dilatancy characteristics εv − ε1
Stress paths in p − q plane
Measurements of small strain stiffness moduli Eo (σ3 ) for the
assumed confining pressures (through direct measurement of
shear wave velocity in the sample)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: stress paths in p-q plane

Estimation of friction angle φ = φcs and cohesion c


q

Residual M-C envelope


6 sin φ
M* =
3 − sin φ
1

6c cos φ
c* =
3 − sin φ
p

If we know M ∗ and c ∗ then we can compute φ and c:


3 M∗ 3 − sin φ
φ = arcsin c = c∗
6 + M∗ 6 cos φ
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: stress paths in p-q plane

Estimation of friction angle φ = φcs and cohesion c

3000

2500 2358/1386=1.7
2358 1
2000
q [kPa]

1500

1000

500
1386
0
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800
p [kPa]

3 ∗ 1.7
Here: φ = arcsin ≈ 42o c=0
6 + 1.7

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: dilatancy angle

0.06

0.05

0.04
1
0.03
EPS-V [-]

d Dilatancy cut-off
0.02

0.01

-0.01

-0.02
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
EPS-1 = - EPS-3 [-]
 
d
ψ = arcsin
2+d

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: dilatancy angle

0.06

0.05 1
0.04
d=0.75
εV 0.03
0.02

0.01

-0.01

-0.02
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
ε1
 
0.75
ψ = arcsin ≈ 16o
2 + 0.75

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m

m
σ3∗ + c cotφ

Analytical formula: Eo = Eoref
σ ref + c cotφ
Measured: shear wave velocity vs at ε1 = 10−6 and at given
confining stress σ3
Compute : shear modulus Go = ρvs2
Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ν) Go

σ3 [kPa] Eo [kPa]
100 250000
300 460000
600 675000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m

m
σ3∗ + c cotφ

Analytical formula: Eo = Eoref
σ ref + c cotφ
Measured: shear wave velocity vs at ε1 = 10−6 and at given
confining stress σ3
Compute : shear modulus Go = ρvs2
Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ν) Go

σ3 [kPa] Eo [kPa]
100 250000
300 460000
600 675000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m
Reanalyze Eo vs σ3 in logarithmic scales
13.1 − 12.55
Averaged slope yields m; here m = = 0.55
1.0
Find intersection ofthe line with axis ln Eo at
σ3∗ + c cotφ
ln =0
σ ref + c cotφ
Here the intersection is at 12.43 hence
Eoref = e 12.43 ≈ 2.71812.43 = 250000 kPa

13.6
13.4
13.2

ln Eo 13 m
12.8
12.6 ⎛ σ + c cot φ ⎞
1 ln⎜⎜ ref3 ⎟⎟
12.4 12.43
⎝ σ + c cot φ ⎠
12.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of Eoref from CPT testing

To estimate small strain modulus Go at a certain depth one


may use empirical formula by Mayne and Rix:
q 0.695
Go = 49.4 t1.13 [MPa]
e
qt is a corrected tip resistance expressed in MPa
e is the void ratio

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
ref
Estimation of material properties: E50

Lets us find E50 for each confining stress

2500
E50 (σ 3 = 300 kPa )
1
2000
E50 (σ 3 = 600 kPa ) E50 (σ 3 = 100 kPa )
1 1
1500
q50f (σ 3 = 100)
1000

q50f (σ 3 = 100)
500
q50f (σ 3 = 100)
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
ref
Estimation of material properties: E50
Reanalyze E50 vs σ3 in logarithmic scales
Here we can fix m to the one obtained for small strain moduli
Find intersection ofthe line with axis ln E50 at
σ3∗ + c cotφ
ln =0
σ ref + c cotφ
Here the intersection is at ≈ 10.30 hence
ref ≈ e 10.30 ≈ 2.71810.30 ≈ 30000 kPa
E50

11.4

11.2

11

10.8
ln E50
10.6 ⎛ σ + c cot φ ⎞
ln⎜⎜ ref3 ⎟⎟
10.4
10.30 ⎝ σ + c cot φ ⎠
10.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Estimation of material properties: Eurref

The unloading reloading modulus as well as oedometric


moduli are usually not accessible
We can use Alpans diagram to deduce Eur ref once we know

E ref
Eoref (default is ur = 3); for cohesive soils like tertiary clays
Eoref
this value is larger
For oedometric modulus at the reference stress σ ref = 100
ref = E ref
kPa we can assume Eoed 50
γ0.7 = 0.0001...0.0002 for sands and γ0.7 = 0.00005...0.0001
for clays
Smaller γ0.7 values yield softer soil behavior

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: engineering draft

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: FE discretization

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: Bending moments

-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500
0

-5

-10

-15 HS
Y [m[]

HS-small
-20 MC

-25

-30

-35
M [kNm/m]

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: Wall deflections

-0.015 -0.01 -0.005 0 0.005 0.01


0

-5

-10

-15 HS-small
Y [m]

HS
-20 MC

-25

-30

-35
Ux [m]

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: Soil deformation in cross
section x =20m

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04


0
-10
-20
-30
-40 HS
Y [m]

-50 HS-small
-60 MC

-70
-80
-90
-100
Uy [m]

Vertical heaving of subsoil at last stage of excavation, relative to


the step when dewatering was finished (t = 2)
Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Excavation in Berlin Sand: Soil deformation in cross
section x =20m

-0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0


0
-10
-20
-30
-40 HS
Y [m]

-50 HS-small
-60 MC

-70
-80
-90
-100
Ux [m]

Horizontal movement in cross section x=20m at last stage of


excavation, relative to the step when dewatering was finished
(t = 2)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness
Conclusions

Model properly reproduces strong stiffness variation with shear


strain
It can be used in simulations of soil-structure interaction
problems
Implementation is ”rather heavy”
It should properly predict deformations near the excavations
Model reduces excessive heavings at the bottom of the
excavation

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness