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Description of HS Model and its calibration

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Andrzej Truty

ZACE Services

1.09.2008

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Introduction

models are designed to reproduce basic phenomena exhibited

by soils:

densification

stiffness stress dependency

plastic yielding

dilatancy

strong stiffness variation with growing shear strain amplitude

in the regime of small strains (γ = 10−6 to γ = 10−3 )

this phenomenon plays a crucial role for modeling deep

excavations and soil-structure interaction problems

NB. This model is limited to monotonic loads

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Introduction

Bonnier (1998, 1999) and then enhanced by Benz (2006)

Current implementation is slightly modified with respect to

the theory given by Benz:

simplified treatment of dilatancy for the small strain version

(HS-small)

modified hardening law for preconsolidation pressure

This model seems to be one of the simplest in the class of

models designed to handle small strain stiffness

It consists of the two plastic mechanisms, shear and volumetric

Small strain stiffness is incorporated by means of nonlinear

elasticity which includes hysteretic effects

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Triaxial test: illustration

Drained triaxial test : video

Annimations by P.Baran (University of Agriculture, Kraków,

Poland)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Notion of tangent and secant stiffness moduli

Initial stiffness modulus Eo

Unloading-reloading modulus Eur

Secant stiffness modulus at 50 % of the ultimate deviatoric

stress qf

250

Eo qf

200

E50 qun

150

1 1

q [kpa]

100

0.5 qf

q50 Eur

50

1 σ3=const

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

EPS-1 [-]

modulus (Cam-Clay, Cap etc..)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Stiffness-strain relation for soils (G /Go (γ))

Go - shear modulus for very small strains

Atkinson 1991

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Notion of treshold shear strain γ07

G

To describe the shape of (γ) curve an additional

Go

characteristic point is needed

It is common to specify the shear strain γ0.7 at which ratio

G

= 0.7

Go

0.7

γ07

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Dynamic vs static modulus

standard triaxial test at axial strain ε1 ≈ 10−3 , and ”dynamic”

Young modulus (the one at very small strains) Ed = Eo is

shown in diagram published by Alpan (1970) (after Benz)

100

Ed

Ro

Es ck

s

co h

es i

10 ve

so i

ls

gran

u l ar

soil

s

Es [kPa]

1

1000 10000 100000 1000000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

HS model: general concept

Double hardening elasto-plastic model (Schanz, Vermeer,

Benz)

Nonlinear elasticity for stress paths penetrating the interior of

the elastic domain

600

500

Cap surface

400

q [kPa]

300

200

100

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

p [kPa]

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

HS model: shear mechanism

250

qf 200

M-C limit

150

q [kPa]

100

Eur

50 E50 ½ qf

1

1

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

eps-1

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Stiffness stress dependency

m

σ3∗ + c cotφ

ref

Eur = Eur

σ ref + c cotφ

σ3∗ + c cotφ m

ref

E50 = E50

σ ref + c cotφ

Remarks

1 Stiffness degrades with decreasing σ 3 up to σ 3 = σL (by

default we assume σL =10 kPa)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Extension to small strain: new ingredients

introduced few modifications:

1 Strain dependency is added to the stress-strain relation, for

stress paths penetrating the elastic domain

2 The modified Hardin-Drnevich relationship is used to relate

current secant shear modulus G and equivalent monotonic

shear strain γhist

3 Reversal points are detected with aid of deviatoric strain

history second order tensor Hij ; in addition the current

equivalent shear strain γhist is computed by using this tensor

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

How does it work ?

N

N-1 N+1

At step N : γhistN−1 = 8 × 10−5 γhistN = 10−4

At step N + 1 : γhistN = 0 γhistN+1 = 2 × 10−5

max

Primary loading: γhistN+1 > γhist

max

Unloading/reloading: γhistN+1 ≤ γhist

Go

Hardin-Drnevich law: G = γhist (secant modulus)

1+a

γ0.7

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Shear tangent modulus cut-off

Gur

γc γ

r

γ0.7 Go

γc = −1

a Gur

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco

Given: σ o , OCR

Find: γoPS and pco

600

500

Cap surface

400

σSR

q [kPa]

300

100 σο

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

p [kPa]

Procedure:

Set effective stress state at the SR point

σySR = σyo OCR

σxSR = σzSR = σy KoSR

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco

600

500

Cap surface

400

σSR

q [kPa] 300

100 σο

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

p [kPa]

Procedure:

For given σ SR state compute γoPS from plastic condition

f1 = 0

For given σ SR state compute pco from plastic condition f2 = 0

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Setting initial state variables: γoPS and pco

Remarks

1 KoSR = KoNC ≈ 1 − sin(φ) in the standard applications

(approximate Jaky’s formula)

2 KoSR = 1 for case of isotropic consolidation (used in triaxial

testing for instance)

3 For sands notion of preconsolidation pressure is not as

meaningful as for cohesive soils hence one may assume

OCR=1 and effect of density will be embedded in H and M

parameters

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Setting M and H parameters based on oedometric test

σ

600

500

Eoed

400

q [kPa]

q* 1

300

200

100

p*

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

ε

p [kPa] σoed

ref

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Material properties

Parameter Unit HS-standard HS-small

ref

Eur [kPa] yes yes

ref

E50 [kPa] yes yes

ref

σ [kPa] yes yes

m [—] yes yes

νur [—] yes yes

Rf [—] yes yes

c [kPa] yes yes

φ [o ] yes yes

ψ [o ] yes yes

emax [—] yes yes

ft [kPa] yes yes

D [—] yes yes

M [—] yes yes

H [kPa] yes yes

OCR/q POP [—/kPa] yes yes

Eoref [kPa] no yes

γ0.7 [—] no yes

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Converting MC to HS model: indentation problem

Eur E50

Given: E for MC model and = ..., = ...

E50 Eoed

1m

q = 0.5 qult

A

10m

10m

Find: Eur

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand

6

5.5

120000

5

100000

4.5

4 80000

HS-std

G [kPa]

3.5

HS-small HS-std

60000

3 HS-small

2.5 40000

2

20000

1.5

1 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1

-EPS-Y [-] EPS-X - EPS-Y [-]

σ

(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)

σ3

4

3.5

0.08

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

0.07

3

0.06

HS-std 0.05

2.5

HS-small

-EPS-V [-]

0.04

HS-std

2 0.03

HS-small

0.02

1.5 0.01

0

1 -0.01

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02

-EPS-Y [-] -EPS-Y [-]

σ

(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)

σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand

6

200000

5.5

180000

5

160000

4.5

140000

4

120000

G [kPa]

HS-std

3.5 HS-std

HS-small 100000

3 HS-small

80000

2.5 60000

2 40000

1.5 20000

1 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1

EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 - EPS-3 [-]

σ

(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)

σ3

4

3.5

0.08

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

0.07

3

0.06

HS-std 0.05

2.5

HS-small

EPS-V [-]

0.04

HS-std

2 0.03

HS-small

0.02

1.5 0.01

0

1 -0.01

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02

EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 [-]

σ

(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)

σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Example: triaxial test on dense Hostun sand

6

300000

5.5

5 250000

4.5

200000

4

G [kPa]

HS-std

3.5 HS-std

HS-small 150000

HS-small

3

2.5 100000

2

50000

1.5

1 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1

EPS-1 [-] EPS-1-EPS-3 [-]

σ

(a) 1 (ε1 ) (Z Soil) (b) G (γ) (Z Soil)

σ3

4

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

3.5 0.08

0.07

SIG-1 / SIG-3 [kPa]

3 0.06

0.05

HS-std

2.5

EPS-V [-]

HS-small 0.04

HS-std

0.03

2 HS-small

0.02

1.5 0.01

0

1 -0.01

0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 -0.02

EPS-1 [-] EPS-1 [-]

σ

(c) 1 (ε1 ) (zoom) (Z Soil) (d) εv (ε1 ) (Z Soil)

σ3

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: input data

σ 3 = 100 kPa

σ 3 = 300 kPa

σ 3 = 600 kPa

Shear characteristics q − ε1

Dilatancy characteristics εv − ε1

Stress paths in p − q plane

Measurements of small strain stiffness moduli Eo (σ3 ) for the

assumed confining pressures (through direct measurement of

shear wave velocity in the sample)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: stress paths in p-q plane

q

6 sin φ

M* =

3 − sin φ

1

6c cos φ

c* =

3 − sin φ

p

3 M∗ 3 − sin φ

φ = arcsin c = c∗

6 + M∗ 6 cos φ

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: stress paths in p-q plane

3000

2500 2358/1386=1.7

2358 1

2000

q [kPa]

1500

1000

500

1386

0

0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800

p [kPa]

3 ∗ 1.7

Here: φ = arcsin ≈ 42o c=0

6 + 1.7

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: dilatancy angle

0.06

0.05

0.04

1

0.03

EPS-V [-]

d Dilatancy cut-off

0.02

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

EPS-1 = - EPS-3 [-]

d

ψ = arcsin

2+d

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: dilatancy angle

0.06

0.05 1

0.04

d=0.75

εV 0.03

0.02

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

ε1

0.75

ψ = arcsin ≈ 16o

2 + 0.75

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m

m

σ3∗ + c cotφ

Analytical formula: Eo = Eoref

σ ref + c cotφ

Measured: shear wave velocity vs at ε1 = 10−6 and at given

confining stress σ3

Compute : shear modulus Go = ρvs2

Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ν) Go

σ3 [kPa] Eo [kPa]

100 250000

300 460000

600 675000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m

m

σ3∗ + c cotφ

Analytical formula: Eo = Eoref

σ ref + c cotφ

Measured: shear wave velocity vs at ε1 = 10−6 and at given

confining stress σ3

Compute : shear modulus Go = ρvs2

Compute : Young modulus Eo = 2 (1 + ν) Go

σ3 [kPa] Eo [kPa]

100 250000

300 460000

600 675000

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: Eoref and m

Reanalyze Eo vs σ3 in logarithmic scales

13.1 − 12.55

Averaged slope yields m; here m = = 0.55

1.0

Find intersection ofthe line with axis ln Eo at

σ3∗ + c cotφ

ln =0

σ ref + c cotφ

Here the intersection is at 12.43 hence

Eoref = e 12.43 ≈ 2.71812.43 = 250000 kPa

13.6

13.4

13.2

ln Eo 13 m

12.8

12.6 ⎛ σ + c cot φ ⎞

1 ln⎜⎜ ref3 ⎟⎟

12.4 12.43

⎝ σ + c cot φ ⎠

12.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of Eoref from CPT testing

may use empirical formula by Mayne and Rix:

q 0.695

Go = 49.4 t1.13 [MPa]

e

qt is a corrected tip resistance expressed in MPa

e is the void ratio

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

ref

Estimation of material properties: E50

2500

E50 (σ 3 = 300 kPa )

1

2000

E50 (σ 3 = 600 kPa ) E50 (σ 3 = 100 kPa )

1 1

1500

q50f (σ 3 = 100)

1000

q50f (σ 3 = 100)

500

q50f (σ 3 = 100)

0

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

ref

Estimation of material properties: E50

Reanalyze E50 vs σ3 in logarithmic scales

Here we can fix m to the one obtained for small strain moduli

Find intersection ofthe line with axis ln E50 at

σ3∗ + c cotφ

ln =0

σ ref + c cotφ

Here the intersection is at ≈ 10.30 hence

ref ≈ e 10.30 ≈ 2.71810.30 ≈ 30000 kPa

E50

11.4

11.2

11

10.8

ln E50

10.6 ⎛ σ + c cot φ ⎞

ln⎜⎜ ref3 ⎟⎟

10.4

10.30 ⎝ σ + c cot φ ⎠

10.2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Estimation of material properties: Eurref

moduli are usually not accessible

We can use Alpans diagram to deduce Eur ref once we know

E ref

Eoref (default is ur = 3); for cohesive soils like tertiary clays

Eoref

this value is larger

For oedometric modulus at the reference stress σ ref = 100

ref = E ref

kPa we can assume Eoed 50

γ0.7 = 0.0001...0.0002 for sands and γ0.7 = 0.00005...0.0001

for clays

Smaller γ0.7 values yield softer soil behavior

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: engineering draft

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: FE discretization

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: Bending moments

-500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500

0

-5

-10

-15 HS

Y [m[]

HS-small

-20 MC

-25

-30

-35

M [kNm/m]

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: Wall deflections

0

-5

-10

-15 HS-small

Y [m]

HS

-20 MC

-25

-30

-35

Ux [m]

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: Soil deformation in cross

section x =20m

0

-10

-20

-30

-40 HS

Y [m]

-50 HS-small

-60 MC

-70

-80

-90

-100

Uy [m]

the step when dewatering was finished (t = 2)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Excavation in Berlin Sand: Soil deformation in cross

section x =20m

0

-10

-20

-30

-40 HS

Y [m]

-50 HS-small

-60 MC

-70

-80

-90

-100

Ux [m]

excavation, relative to the step when dewatering was finished

(t = 2)

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

Conclusions

strain

It can be used in simulations of soil-structure interaction

problems

Implementation is ”rather heavy”

It should properly predict deformations near the excavations

Model reduces excessive heavings at the bottom of the

excavation

Andrzej Truty ZACE Services Hardening Soil model with small strain stiffness

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