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Noorul hasan - 07H11A0467 Roohullah ghori-07H11A0469 Syed yaser farhan-07H11A0485

INTRODUCTION :

Time and frequency domain representation of signals are concepts that is essential in understanding the characteristics of amplitude and frequency modulated signals. Many electrical engineering technology communications text books do not convey some of the important characteristics of complex signals [1], [2], [3]. The ability to modify parameters and immediately see their effect on the time and frequency representation of a signal is invaluable in understanding communication signals. MATLAB is a numerical computation and graphics program that has been designed specifically to manipulate matrices of any dimension as easily as scalar quantities [4]. This makes processing of sequences of sampled time data as simple as working with a single number. A communication signal can be sampled in time, plotted in time, then be transformed into the frequency domain and plotted. The students enter the mathematical representation of a communication signal and create graphs of the signal's time and frequency representation. Then the student may easily vary parameters of the signal and analyze the results of the time and frequency components of the signal.

**Sampling a Time Signal :
**

Time domain representation of signals in MATLAB is analogous to a discrete time signal. Each increment of time represents a sample of a continuous waveform. The size the of time increments, nT, determines the maximum unambiguous frequency of the sampled signal. The Nyquist rate is the sampling frequency required to unambiguously sample a signal of maximum frequency content f max [5].he Nyquist rate is defined below: f f s >* 2 max

An n-point FFT may also be specified. An amplitude modulated (AM) waveform in the time domain has the following form Vt E (t) t * AM c *sin() = +1 · . AM Waveforms : The time domain representation of a signal is familiar to students. If n < N then the samples are truncated.The time increment is T=1/f s . The amplitude depends on the number of samples. If the number of samples N is a power of 2. The frequency resolution of the FFT is: ffNs=1 The amplitude of the FFT must be properly scaled. It is the most common way to represent a time varying signal. the FFT routine used a radix-2 fast Fourier transform algorithm. the carrier is displayed at the center of the plot. X(k) x(j) N(j) k(j) N = . therefore the sampling rate will be: f f s c =* 4 The Fast Fourier : Transform The frequency content of a discrete signal may be determined by its discrete Fourier transform. If N is not a factor of two. The number of samples N determines the frequency resolution of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).1 The FFT transform routine in MATLAB is implemented two ways. a slower mixed radix algorithm is used. In these simulations. if n > N then the samples are padded with zeros [4].

*[sin(2*pi*fc*t)]. Instead it must be expressed in terms of the Bessel function of the first kind. Unlike the AM signal. MATLAB can evaluate this expression as shown below: A= Ec + Em1*sin(2*pi*fm1*t) + Em2*sin(2*pi*fm2*t) +Em3*sin(2*pi*fm3*t). Their frequency and amplitude characteristics are present. Frequency Representation The frequency representation of an FM signal is not a simple expression as the AM signal. Frequency domain representation of AM with a modulation signal composed of three sinusoids. . The expression for evaluating the FFT is shown below: Vf = abs(fft(vam. The result is then plotted on the frequency scale. E m3 = 8V This may be written as: Vt E (t) t * AM c *sin() = +1 · This is the type of signal that students have difficulty visualizing. A plot of the time domain representation . the frequency domain representation does not convey the same information about the composition of the FM signal. Frequency Representation : The frequency representation of the complex AM signal above is easily obtained by taking the FFT of the time domain signal. Time domain representation of AM with a modulation signal composed of three sinusoids. In practice however. Using MATLAB to perform an FFT on the time signal allows the frequency representation to be evaluated simply: Vf = fft(vfm. Time Domain Representation A carrier wave of frequency 500 Hz is modulated by a signal made up of three sinusoids with the following amplitudes and frequencies: f m1 = 400 Hz. % vam=A. What happens to the bandwidth of the signal when the deviation sensitivity changes from 20 to 10? This can be accomplished quickly by using MATLAB to recalculate the frequency components. This example is what most texts use in explaining AM modulation. It does provide important information about the bandwidth of the signal. Using MATLAB is easy to create such a signal and analyze its time and frequency representations. The FFT result shows the three separate frequency components of the modulation signal. most modulating signals are composed of many frequencies each with a unique amplitude. E m1 = 5V f m2 = 250 Hz. The absolute value or magnitude of the FFT is taken and the expression is also scaled to reflect the proper amplitude values.This is for a single frequency modulating signal. Complex sinusoidal modulation signals are not easily analyzed by the student.512).2048))/1024. The resulting plot is shown in Figure 4. E m2 = 2V f m3 = 125 Hz.

. 3rd ed. Proakis. 3.. 1994. 4.Conclusions: Signals may be represented in the time and frequency domain. Wayne. Young. Prentice Hall. John and Manolakis. "Basic Electronic Communication". "Electronic Communication Techniques". 4. Proakis. "Electronic Communications Systems Fundamentals Through Advanced". Prentice Hall. Merrill. References : 1. "Electronic Communication Techniques". The Math Works Inc. 5. His research interests are RF/ microwave electronics and digital signal processing.Young. "Basic Electronic Communication". 1994. 2nd ed. 1993. "Digital Signal Processing". 1992 Thomas R. Prentice Hall. It is only necessary to define a signal in the time domain. Parameters may be changed easily and the resulting change in the time and frequency characteristics of signal may quickly be analyzed. Garcia is an assistant professor of Electrical Engineering Technology at Purdue University Statewide Technology in South Bend Indiana. Wayne. degrees from Arizona State University. Dimitris. 5. 3rd ed. 1995. Blake. "The Student Edition of MATLAB". References 1. 2. 3.. He teaches communications and analog electronics courses. He received his B. 1994. 2. Tomasi. Roy. 1995. Macmillan. Using a numerical and graphical program such as MATLAB enables the student to easily plot both the time and frequency representations of a signal. Tomasi.. Merrill. West Publishing. 1992 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . 1993. The Math Works Inc. 1994.. Roy. Macmillan. Blake. He is a member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). "The Student Edition of MATLAB".S..S. Prentice Hall. "Electronic Communications Systems Fundamentals through Advanced". John and Manolakis. "Digital Signal Processing". Dimitris. Paul. Paul. 2nd ed. and M. West Publishing. Using the FFT capability of MATLAB. the frequency representation of a signal may be quickly calculated. Garcia Thomas R.

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