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You are on page 1of 5

Second Edition

3

Flexural Design of

Reinforced Concrete Beams

Flexural members are slender members that deform pri- b c

0.003 0.85f c

marily by bending moments caused by concentrated

couples or transverse forces. In modern construction actual

a

c stress

these members may be joists, beams, girders, spandrels, distribution

neutral

lintels, and other specially named elements. But their

d axis

behavior in every case is essentially the same. Unless

h

otherwise speciﬁed in a problem, ﬂexural members will

be referred to as beams throughout this book.

In the following sections, the ACI 318 provisions for

the strength, ductility, serviceability, and constructabil- s fy As

ity of beams are summarized and illustrated. As

section strain stress

1. Strength Reinforced Rectangular Beam

The basic strength requirement for ﬂexural design is

ACI Secs. 10.2 and 10.3 give the principles governing

Mu ≤ φMn 3.1 the ﬂexural strength.

• Strain varies linearly through the depth of the

Mn is the nominal moment strength of the member, Mu member.

is the bending moment caused by the factored loads, • A complete bond exists between the steel and the

and φ is the capacity reduction factor. For most practi- concrete; that is, the strain in the steel is the same

cal designs, ACI speciﬁes the value of φ as 0.9; however, as in the adjacent concrete.

special cases exist for which lower values apply, as ex- • Tension stress in the concrete is negligible (that

plained in Sec. 2 of this chapter. is, all tension is resisted by steel).

• The ultimate strain in concrete is 0.003.

A. Mn for a Singly Reinforced Concrete Beam • In a properly designed beam, the tension steel

The simplest case is that of a rectangular beam con- yields; thus, T = As fy .

taining steel in the tension zone only. A beam of this • The concrete stress distribution may be replaced

sort is referred to as singly reinforced. Figure 3.1 shows by an equivalent rectangular distribution with uni-

a typical cross section of a singly reinforced beam and form stress 0.85fc acting over an area ba and cre-

the notation used. ating a compression resultant, C = 0.85fc ba, that

a = equivalent depth of compression zone acts at distance a/2 from the compression edge.

As = total area of steel in tension zone For bending without axial force applied, equilibrium

b = width of compression edge requires

c = distance from compression edge to neutral axis

d = eﬀective depth, distance from compression edge Fhorizontal = C − T = 0 lbf 3.2

to centroid of tension steel

fc = speciﬁed compressive strength of concrete 0.85fc ba = As fy 3.3

a= 3.4

h = overall depth of beam 0.85fc b

--- 11 ---

12 Concrete Design for the Civil PE and Structural SE Exams

The resultant compression force in the concrete, C, For a uniformly loaded cantilevered beam,

forms a couple with the resultant tension force, T . wu L2

a

Mu =

2

Mn = T d − 3.5

2 L is the span length in feet and wu is the factored

a uniformly distributed load in kips per foot. Using the

Mn = As fy d − 3.6

2 strength requirement (Eq. 3.1) and solving for wu gives

wu L2

Example 3.1 = φMn

2

Singly Reinforced Beam Analysis 2φMn

wu =

A cantilevered singly reinforced beam is subjected to a L2

service dead load of 1.5 kip/ft, which includes the self- (2)(267 ft-kip)

weight of the beam. The beam is reinforced with three = 2

(9.5 ft)

no. 9 bars, and the yield stress of the tension steel is

60,000 psi. The beam’s span is 9.5 ft, and its capacity = 5.92 kip/ft

reduction factor is 0.9. The width of the beam’s com- In terms of the service loads,

pression edge is 16 in, and the beam’s eﬀective depth

wu = 1.2wd + 1.6wl

is 22 in. The concrete’s speciﬁed compressive strength

is 3000 psi. Determine the maximum uniformly dis- kip

= (1.2) 1.5 + 1.6wl

tributed service live load that the beam can support ft

based on its ﬂexural strength. = 5.92 kip/ft

From Table 1.1, the cross-sectional area of one no. 9 bar

is B. Beams with Irregular Cross Sections

Ab = 1.00 in2 Many reinforced concrete beams have cross sections

The total cross-sectional area of the steel is that are not rectangular. Figure 3.2 shows three typ-

ical cross sections with irregularly shaped compression

As = nbars Ab = (3)(1.00 in2 ) regions.

= 3.00 in2 Fortunately, the same principles that govern the be-

havior of rectangular beams apply more generally to

From Eq. 3.4, the equivalent depth of the compression these cases as well. In the absence of axial forces, in a

zone is properly designed beam (that is, a beam for which ten-

As fy sion steel yields) the compression region is determined

a=

0.85fc b using the condition of equilibrium.

lbf

(3.00 in2 ) 60,000 2 C=T

in

= 0.85fc Ac = As fy 3.7

lbf

(0.85) 3000 2 (16 in) As fy

in Ac = 3.8

= 4.41 in 0.85fc

Geometric relationships determine the depth of com-

From Eq. 3.6,

pression region and a summation of moments gives the

a nominal moment strength of the section.

φMn = φAs fy d −

2

lbf

= (0.9)(3.00 in2 ) 60,000 2

in

4.41 in

× 22 in −

2

= 3,207,000 in-lbf

Converting to foot-kips,

T-beam inverted T beam with duct

3,207,000 in-lbf

φMn = = 267 ft-kip

in lbf Figure 3.2 Representative Cross Sections of

12 1000

ft kip Irregular Reinforced Concrete Beams

3 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 13

beams are cast monolithically and the slab functions The equivalent area of the compression zone can be

as the ﬂange of a T- or L-shaped beam, as shown in found from Eq. 3.8.

Fig. 3.3. ACI Sec. 8.12 limits the eﬀective ﬂange width,

be , of such members by the following criteria. As fy

Ac =

0.85fc

Slab Extending Both Sides (T-Beam) kip

(4.68 in2 ) 60 2

⎧ =

in

⎪

⎪ L/4 kip

⎨ (0.85) 4 2

be,int ≤ bw + 16hs 3.9 in

⎪

⎪

⎩ bw + s1 + s2 = 82.6 in2

2

Because the equivalent area of the compression zone

exceeds the areas in the rectangular regions to the left

Slab Extending One Side Only (L-Beam) and right of the trough, the compression zone extends

⎧ L

to some depth below the bottom of the trough. This

⎪

⎪ bw + depth is

⎪

⎨ 12

be,ext ≤ bw + 6hs 3.10 Ac − 2b1 h1

⎪

⎪ a2 =

⎪

⎩ b + s1 bw

w

2 82.6 in2 − (2)(4 in)(5 in)

=

L is the span. Other symbols are as deﬁned in Fig. 3.3. 14 in

= 3.04 in

be,ext be,int hs

The equivalent compression force can be expressed in

terms of a component acting in the rectangular regions

adjacent to the trough, C1 , and a component acting

over the region below the trough, C2 .

bw s1 bw s2 C1 = 2(0.85fc b1 h1 )

kip

Figure 3.3 Effective Widths of T-Beams and L-Beams = (2)(0.85) 4 2 (4 in)(5 in)

in

= 136 kip

C2 = 0.85fc bw a2

Example 3.2 kip

= (0.85) 4 2 (14 in)(3.04 in)

Analysis of an Irregularly Shaped Beam in

Calculate the design moment strength of the section = 145 kip

shown. The compressive strength of the concrete is

4000 psi, and the yield stress of the reinforcement is Taking moments of the two forces about the line of

60,000 psi. action of the tension force gives the design moment

strength of the section.

a2

4 in 6 in 4 in

h1

C1 φMn = φ C1 d − + C2 d − h1 −

2.5 in 2 2

5 in ⎛ ⎞

5 in

⎜ (136 kip) 30 in − 2 ⎟

C2 ⎜ ⎟

30 in a2 = (0.9) ⎜ ⎟

2 ⎝ 3.04 in ⎠

+ (145 kip) 30 in − 5 in −

2

1 ft

= (6430 in-kip)

T 12 in

As 4.68 in2 = 536 ft-kip

14 Concrete Design for the Civil PE and Structural SE Exams

2. Ductility Criteria 16 in c

0.003 0.85f c

ACI Secs. 10.3.5 and 10.5 limit both the minimum and actual

a stress

maximum amount of tension steel that is acceptable in c

distribution

a beam. The minimum limit ensures that the ﬂexural neutral

d dt axis

strength of the reinforced beam is appropriately larger 24 in

than that of the gross section when it cracks. This

requires

⎧

⎪ 200

⎪

⎪ bw d s

⎨ fy fy As

As,min ≥ As 0.005

3.11

⎪

⎪ 3 fc

⎪

⎩ b w d (not to scale)

fy

Solution:

The code makes an exception to this requirement for

slabs and footings, which require minimum tempera- From Eq. 3.11, the minimum steel is

ture and shrinkage steel, and for special cases in which ⎧

the amount of steel provided in a ﬂexural member is at ⎪ 200

⎪

⎪ bw d

least one-third greater at every point than required by ⎪

⎪ fy

⎪

⎪

analysis. For cantilevered T-beams with the ﬂange in ⎪

⎪ ⎛ lbf ⎞

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ ⎜

200

tension, the value of bw used in the expressions is the ⎪

⎪ =⎝ in2 ⎟

⎪ lbf ⎠

smaller of either the ﬂange width or twice the actual ⎪ (16 in)(24 in)

⎪

⎪

web width. ⎪

⎪ 60,000

⎪

⎪ in2

⎪

⎪

The maximum limit on the amount of tension steel ⎪

⎨

2

= 1.28 in [controls]

ensures that the steel yields well before the concrete

As,min ≥ 3 fc

crushes, so that the beam fails in a gradual, ductile ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ bw d

manner and not a sudden, brittle manner. This pro- ⎪

⎪ fy

⎪

⎪

vides warning in the event of failure. ACI Sec. 10.3.5 ⎪

⎪ ⎛ ⎞

⎪

⎪ lbf

limits the strain in the extreme tension reinforcement at ⎪

⎪ 3 4000

⎪

⎪ ⎜ in2 ⎟

the nominal strength. For sections subject to bending ⎪

⎪

⎪ =⎜⎝

⎟ (16 in)(24 in)

⎪

⎪ lbf ⎠

with negligible axial force (axial force less than 0.1fc Ag ), ⎪

⎪ 60,000

⎪

⎪ in2

the strain in the extreme tension steel must exceed 0.004 ⎪

⎩

(that is, approximately twice its yield strain) when the = 1.21 in2

extreme compression edge of the member reaches the

ultimate concrete strain of 0.003. The maximum steel for which a φ-factor of 0.9 is ap-

However, the code imposes a capacity reduction fac- plicable corresponds to the quantity of steel that makes

tor of 0.65 when the strain in the tension steel equals the depth to the neutral axis small enough that the

0.002. The capacity reduction factor increases linearly strain at the extreme steel is exactly 0.005 when con-

to a maximum value of 0.9 as the tension strain in- crete strain reaches 0.003. As shown in the illustration,

creases from 0.002 to 0.005. There is rarely a practi- using similar triangles gives

cal advantage to designing beams for which the tension

strain is less than 0.005, so this limit, which permits a c dt

=

capacity reduction factor of 0.9, will be used throughout 0.003 0.003 + 0.005

this book. 0.003dt

The following example illustrates the method of de- c= = 0.375dt

0.008

termining the minimum and maximum limits.

For the most common case, in which steel is in a single

layer, dt is equal to d. When the steel is in two or more

Example 3.3 layers, dt is taken as the distance from the compression

Maximum and Minimum Flexural Steel in a edge to the center of the steel in the extreme layer.

Rectangular Beam

For the section shown, calculate the minimum area of The maximum steel area is found by equating the ten-

tension steel and the maximum steel for which a capac- sion force to the compression force when c equals 0.375dt .

ity reduction factor of 0.9 is applicable. The compresson

strength of concrete is 4000 psi, and the yield stress of As,max fy = 0.85fc ba

the tension steel is 60,000 psi. = 0.85fc b(β1 c)

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