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111 Exam 2 F17

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Charlie turns his head, opens his mouth, and begins sucking when his cheek is stroked. Charlie is
demonstrating which reflex?
a. Babinski
b. rooting
c. moro
d. stepping
e. tonic neck
f. FOMO
2. Margaret is best described as autonomous, favoring change, and creative. She would most likely score
high for which of the following Big Five Factors?
a. Openness
b. Conscientiousness
c. Neuroticism
d. Extroversion
e. Psychoticism
f. Agreeableness
3. Several years ago, Mark was arrested for participating in a crime. Since then he has been confined to
mental hospital, even though he was given a prison sentence. Mark is periodically evaluated to see if he
is still mentally ill. If it is determined that he is no longer mentally ill, Mark will then be incarcerated to
serve out his prison sentence. From your knowledge of mental health and the law, you would correctly
state that Mark was originally found:
a. innocent
b. incompetent to stand trial
c. Not guilty by reason of insanity
d. Guilty but mentally ill
e. not responsible for his actions.
4. In Pavlov's study of dogs learning to salivate at the sound of a bell, the bell serves as a(n) ______.
a. unconditioned response
b. conditioned stimulus
c. unconditioned stimulus
d. conditioned response

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5. Children find that they have a feeling of pride once they develop this personality structure, according to
Freud.

a. Id
b. Ego
c. Trickster
d. Superego
e. Hero
f. Shadow
6. Projective tests attempt to measure:
a. unconscious motives, feelings, and conflicts
b. how careless or disorganized a person might be
c. job satisfaction
d. creativity
e. conscious attitudes and beliefs
f. self-actualization and peak experiences.
7. Adriana scored high on openness to experience, low on conscientiousness, high on agreeableness, and
low on neuroticism. Which of the following descriptions would match her scores on the Big Five?
a. She is nervous and excitable.
b. She only goes to her favorite restaurant.
c. She is always on time and very organized.
d. She is serious, trusting, helpful, and forgiving.
8. One important contribution of the work of Albert Bandura regarding modeling or observational learning
is that:
a. our learned behavior has much more to do with the types of consequences
(reinforcements and punishments) of our actions than our interactions with those
around us
b. learning acquired through observation is much more resistant to extinction than
behavior acquired through classical or operant conditioning
c. much of our learned behavior depends upon our interactions with those around us
d. it is impossible to learn behavioral patterns without observing those around us
9. In his neo-Freudian version of psychoanalysis, Jung included the ______ unconsciousness, which
represented all personal unconsciousness from everyone who has ever lived.
a. ego
b. plastic
c. id
d. archetype
e. viability
f. collective

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10. Melanie is tested in the strange situation task, and she seems happy with mom present, distressed
when mom leaves, and delighted by mom’s return, suggesting her attachment is ______.
a. avoidant
b. ambivalent/anxious
c. disorganized
d. secure
11. As middle adults, people worry about their contributions to the world, which Erikson called ______.
a. intimacy
b. ego integrity
c. initiative
d. trust
e. industry
f. generativity
12. Elias' therapist encouraged him to sit in a chair and talk about the first thing that came to his mind.
Which psychoanalytic technique is his therapist using?
a. Free association
b. Interpretations
c. Thematic appreception test
d. Myers Briggs
e. Regression
f. Rorschach inkblot test
13. Pat has committed a non-violent crime and has been judged not guilty by reason of insanity. According
to statistical data, it is likely that Pat will be spending:
a. a shorter time in a mental hospital than he/she would have spent in prison
b. no time in prison because Pat’s case never went to trial.
c. a short time in prison
d. a long time in prison
e. a longer time in a mental hospital than he/she would have spent in prison
f. Pat will not get a trial
14. When the dog walks out of view behind the couch, Bjorn looks around as if he had never seen it,
suggesting he is still in Piaget's stage called ______.
a. sensorimotor
b. zone of proximal development
c. preoperational
d. concrete operational
e. formal operational
f. prenatal

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15. Esme sees the ant on her milk glass and yells, "Mom, what is that?" even though her mom is upstairs,
displaying ______.
a. conservation
b. object permanence
c. attachment
d. egocentrism
e. theory of mind
f. plasticity
16. A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension
known as
a. Extraversion
b. Psychoticism
c. Conscientiousness
d. Openness to experience
e. Agreeableness
f. Sensation Seeking
17. Since being bitten by a hamster, Joanie feels afraid around them, a result of ______.
a. observational learning
b. cognitive learning
c. operational conditioning
d. classical conditioning
18. In Bandura's study of aggression, kids who saw an adult hitting with a mallet were more likely to later
______.
a. play nonaggressively
b. use the mallet nonviolently
c. play by themselves
d. avoid playing with toys
e. avoid the mallet
f. play with toy guns
19. Children’s ability to infer other people’s intentions and feelings is indicative of their emerging
a. theory of mind
b. sense of object permanence
c. concept of conservation
d. practice of habituation

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20. Mr. D was asked by his psychologist to look at the below picture and make up a story. Mr. D was
most likely taking the

a. Big 5 test
b. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
c. Rorschach Inkblot Test
d. Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)
e. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
f. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
21. Marlo suggests that since there are many words that describe sadness, this must be an important
concept. Marlo's theory relies on which approach for personality?
a. Lexical
b. Incongruency
c. Humanistic
d. Big Five
e. Cultural
f. Psychoanalytic
22. According to Erikson's theory, while an adolescent, your main task is to develop a sense of ______.
a. autonomy
b. industry
c. initiative
d. identity
e. ego integrity
f. trust

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23. Which of these is the best characterization of Jose's belief that you should not steal because you'll go to
jail?

a. Resilience
b. Normanative
c. Conventional
d. Social intuition
e. Postconventional
f. Preconventional
24. Ruby thinks the glass now holds the same amount of soda even though the added ice cubes made the
level higher, showing ______.
a. object permanence
b. conservation
c. identity formation
d. egocentrism
e. theory of mind
f. critical period
25. Kenyatta knows all about frogs, so when she sees a tadpole, she adjusts her concept to add this stage to
the frog's life cycle, demonstrating ______.

a. conservation
b. object permanence
c. strange situation
d. accommodation
e. assimilation
f. egocentrism
26. **BONUS** Thea assumed that the reason that many dogs spin before they sit down is to be sure
they aren't sitting on anything harmful. She suggests this increases their chance of survival. Thea's
assumption forms the basis of what classic school in psychology?
a. Psychoanalytic
b. Functionalism
c. Cognitive
d. Positive psychology
e. Structuralism
f. Humanism

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27. Johnny lost in the final round of the spelling bee contest. He is unable to come to terms with his loss. In
fact, he tells everyone that he actually won. According to Freud, which defense mechanism is he
showing?
a. Menarche
b. Reaction Formation
c. Repression
d. Trickster
e. Denial
f. Shadow
28. According to Mischel, Richard's tendency to act one way when he is at work, and to act completely
differently when he is at home even though he believes his personality to be the same at both is an
example of ______.
a. reciprocal determinism
b. the consistency paradox
c. observation learning
d. cognitive person variables
29. Sometimes, when we have an aggressive impulse, we cannot aggress against the person who made us
angry, perhaps due to their status or position. When we take out our frustrations on someone else, we
are engaging in the defense mechanism of
a. coming forward
b. the shadow
c. displacement
d. sublimation
e. projection
f. neurotic anxiety
30. Joseph acts differently in different public situations. His behavior, demeanor, and attitude changes
depending on whether he is in class, hanging out with his friends, or at work. The way he acts reflects
what aspect of his personality according to Jung?
a. Egocentrism
b. Projection
c. Fixation
d. Persona
e. Oedipal complex
f. Stranger anxiety
31. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five Personality Traits
a. Neuroticism
b. Agreeableness
c. Extraversion
d. Psychoticism
e. Openness to experience
f. Conscientiousness

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32. When you change concepts in memory to fit new information, you are using ______.
a. motherease
b. accommodation
c. assimilation
d. operations
e. plasticity
f. resilience

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Short Answer

33. Briefly define (just a few words) the parts of Rotter’s “predictive formula” and explain what it adds to
that’s different to the theory of operant learning. (7 points)

BP = f(E & RV)


BP

RV

What does it add to regular operant learning (what does it explain that can’t be explained by operant
conditioning alone)?:

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111 Exam 2 F17

Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. B
2. A
Answer: C
Page: 517
Reason: Openness to experience is affection for the new. People who score high on openness are
curious and imaginative.
Topic: 13.4 Trait Perspectives
Objective: Discuss the factors involved in the trait perspective.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Knowledge Base
3. D
4. B
After conditioning, the bell is called a conditioned stimulus.
5. D
Page: 509
Reason: The superego is the part governed by the perfection principle. If a person lets this govern
them, they may never be realistic about life in general and not allow themselves to do anything.
Topic: 13.2 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Objective: Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler.
Difficulty: Low
6. A
Projective Test: A test which requires an individual to respond to indistinct stimuli. The individual's
interpretation about the stimuli is meant to reveal aspects of their personality. The Rorschach, which
has individuals describe various ambiguous inkblot pictures is a classic example of a projective test.
These types of tests usually work the following way: A test taker is presented with a dark circular
drawing and is asked to describe what he or she sees. Let us say that the test taker states that it is a
basketball, the test scorer may then presume that the individual likes sports and probably favors
basketball oppose to tennis or any other sport. This type of reasoning is a primary illustration of how
these types of tests work.

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7. D
Answer: B
Page: 517
Reason: Agreeableness describes how trusting the person might be. Those high on agreeableness are
seen as serious, helpful and forgiving.
Topic: 13.4 Trait Perspectives
Objective: Discuss the factors involved in the trait perspective.
Difficulty: High
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Evaluation
APA: Knowledge Base
8. C
9. F
Page: 511
Topic: 13.2 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Objective: Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler.
Difficulty: Low
Category: Factual
10. D
Page: 468
Reason: ÒSecureÓ describes an attachment in which the child seems happy with the parent present,
distressed when the parent leaves, and delighted by the parent’s return.
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Illustrate the importance of attachment in psychosocial development.
Difficulty: Moderate
11. F
Page: 477
Reason: Erikson's seventh stage is adulthood, Generativity vs. Stagnation, ages 25 to 50 years, when
middle adults focus concern on the world and their contributions.
Topic: 12.3 Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Objective: Examine the life stages within Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
Difficulty: Low

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12. A
Answer: B
Page: 525
Reason: Free association is a psychoanalytic technique in which people will report the first things that
occur to them. It is used to uncover unconscious conflicts.
Topic: 13.7 Personality Assessment
Objective: Identify the different tools to understand personality and how they are used.
Difficulty: Low
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Comprehension
APA: Knowledge Base
13. E
14. A
Page: 462
Reason: The sensorimotor stage is Piaget’s stage for babies and toddlers who are focused on developing
their sensory and motor processes.
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development.
15. D
Page: 462
Reason: Egocentrism occurs in preschool children because they believe that others know, think, and feel
the same way they do.
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development.
Difficulty: Moderate
16. C
17. D
Classical conditioning occurs when an automatic response is elicited by a signal.
18. F
Bandura’s study of modeling aggression found nonaggressive model subjects
showed fewer similar aggressive behaviors than the aggressive model subjects.
19. A
20. F
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective test that asks respondents to interpret a series of
drawings showing scenes of people; usually scored for unconscious motives, such as the need for
achievement, power, or affiliation.

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21. A
Answer: A
Page: 518
Reason: The lexical, or language approach says important characteristics are embedded within a
language. The more a word is used, the more central the concept. The more frequent a word appears, the
more likely trait is important. Frequency reflects not only the number of times a word is used but also
the number of synonyms a word may have.
Topic: 13.4 Trait Perspectives
Objective: Discuss the factors involved in the trait perspective.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Knowledge Base
22. D
Page: 476
Reason: For adolescents, Erikson defined the central task to be the forming of an identity, or a distinct,
individualized sense of self. Erikson called this process the Òidentity crisis.Ó
Topic: 12.3 Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Objective: Examine the life stages within Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
Difficulty: Moderate
23. F
Page: 475
Reason: A preconventional level of moral reasoning judges the morality of an action based on its
consequences, particularly to oneself.
Topic: 12.3 Adolescence and Young Adulthood
Objective: Discuss the impact of sexual development in adolescence and changes in moral reasoning in
adolescents and young adults.
24. B
Page: 462
Reason: Conservation is the knowledge that physical properties of an object stay the same even though
there may be superficial changes in appearance.
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development.
Difficulty: Moderate
25. D
Page: 461
Reason: Accommodation is changing concepts in memory to fit new information.
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development.
Difficulty: Moderate

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26. B
Functionalism is a school of psychology concerned with the purposes of behavior and mental processes
27. E
Page: 511
Reason: Denial is a defense mechanism in which a person fails to accept reality
Topic: 13.2 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Objective: Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
28. B
Answer: A
Page: 520
Reason: The consistency paradox is the idea that people believe that personality is stable, although
research says it is not.
Topic: 13. 5 The Social Cognitive Perspective
Objective: Analyze the social cognitive theories of Bandura as compared to those of Mischel.
Difficulty: Moderate
Category: Applied
Format: Multiple Choice
Bloom's: Analysis
APA: Knowledge Base
29. C
Displacement is the redirection of an impulse onto a substitute target. If the impulse, the desire, is
okay with you, but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening, you can displace to
someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute.

Someone who hates his or her mother may repress that hatred, but direct it instead towards, say,
women in general. Someone who has not had the chance to love someone may substitute cats or dogs for
human beings. Someone who feels uncomfortable with their sexual desire for a real person may
substitute a fetish. Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog,
beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burnings.
30. D
Page: 511
Reason: The persona is the archetype that represents your public face, which differs in different
situations.
Topic: 13.2 The Psychoanalytic Perspective
Objective: Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler.
Difficulty: Moderate
31. D

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32. B
Page: 461
Topic: 12.2 Infancy and Childhood
Objective: Examine Piaget’s stage theory in relation to early cognitive development.
Difficulty: Low

SHORT ANSWER

33. Predictive Formula. Behavior Potential (BP), Expectancy (E) and Reinforcement Value (RV) can be
combined into a predictive formula for behavior:

This show that reinforcers are also based on expectations and that different reinforcements can be more
reinforcing than others.