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The essay in Part 1 of the Writing paper is compulsory, Candidates have to write about two of the three bullet

points that they are

given. There are also three opinions related to the bullet points which candidates may use if they wish.
In this task, candidates have to highlight relevant points and support their points with examples, reasons and/or justifications, and then
give an opinion about which of the points they have discussed is the more important, more effective, etc. Good essays will be well
structured with a focus on persuading the reader to accept the writer's point of view.
Essays should have an introduction with a thesis statement, a clear development of the points in the main body and an appropriate,
effective conclusion.

e.rrrusive writing techniques

A piece of persuasive writing can convince the reader through facts and figures, but there are also persuasive techniques that make the
piece of writing more dynamic. Persuasive writing techniques include
' rhetorical questions - questions that are asked to make a point and do not require an answer, e.g. Do we reolly want a world where
poverty is a part of everyday ltfe?

' hyperbole - exaggerated language that makes everything seem more important or more emotional, e.g. There must be millions of
research papers that prove clrmate change is happening here and now.
! repetition-repeatingawordorphrase,e.g. ltwill beadoytocelebroteondodoyioremember.
' groupsof three-threeadlectivesorshortphrasesusedtogether, e.g.Therearemanybright,ombitiousondenthusiastrcaraduateswho
discover that they cannot find work in their chosen fteld.

' imperatives - use of the imperative to give a sense of importance and/or urgency , e.g. Act now - don't relct later.
' personal pronouns - use of I, we, youto create a feeling that the writer is addressing the reader (you) directly and personally, e.g. luVe
are the ones that will suffer so we cue the ones that need to take oction.
r emotive language - expressive vocabulary that makes the reader feel a range of emotions, e.g. lt would take someone with a heart of
stone to walk past the starving homeless on a bitterly cold night

' alliteration - the same sound, espectally consonants, at the beginning of lvords that are close together, e.g. We need to radicolty
reorganise the way we drstribute food if we are to have any chonce of o world that is finolly free of famine.

a. Read the sentences below. Decide what b. Using the rubric below, write sentences that use
persuasive writing techniques have been used. the persuasive writing techniques above.
Some sentences use more than one persuasive
writing technique. ! Your class has attended a discussion group about horm
i to get the ideal job. You have made the notes below:
It seems like we have had to wait an eternity for any real
revolution in classroom teaching. Ways to get the ideal job:
These are dark days indeed for any professional educator
'attending university Some opinions expressed in the
who dares to be different in the way they teach a lesson
'gettilg work discussion:
It's an issue that we need to consider very carefully if we are
to reach an impartial conclusion. . improving social "Not all employers are interested
Learn now and let it be for life, not just for the short-term
goal of a job after graduation.
skills in your academic record."

These are the disadvantaged ones, the lost and the lonely, "It's essential to know exactly
the children who have been ignored by society. what the job involves."
With all these changes, just what will the classroom of the
"Successful people communicate
future look like?
A university education is better for you, better for the
economy and, in the long run, better for society, Write an essay discussing two of the ways in your notes
This idea is a novel, brave and, some might say, risky way to of getting your ideal job. You should explain whidr
train the teachers which are so necessary to our way you think is more effective, giving reasons in

understaffed educational system. support of your answer.

You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions expressed

in the discussion, but you should use your own words c
far as possible.

Write your essay in 220-260 words.

J tonesron

Techniques of cohesion
To make ideas in a piece of writing easier to follow, you should use cohesion. Cohesion concerns the connections between sentences
and paragraphs, connections that make a piece of writing flow well
. linking words & phrases (Ihat ts to soy, ln other words, Adntttedly, To be specific, Hovtng said that, etc)
. referencing, i.e. pronouns, demonstratives, ph rases (U/trmote ly, the Prime Minister
cas to toke responsibrlity for all his government's acttons.; We

are told to eat more heolthily, but we know this aheady ; As I mentioned obove,
. ellipsis,i.e.omittingwordswhensomethingisrepeated (Wesitinfronto'c.crluterscreenall dayand[wesitinfrontoflatelevision
at ntght.)
. substitution, i.e. changing words when something is repeated (Should we est lgl;s c' should we dret more. Probably the former.)
. repetition (The woy we leorn is outdated so the way we leorn needs cho'o'Q.
. synonymy, i.e. using words that mean the same (Ihe factories pump oui pollution cil this contomination is in the arr we breathe.)
. antonymy, i.e, using words that mean the opposite (Thrs is everydoy lit'c' - ons of workers: we leove the house and, after enduflng

the early norning commute, we orrive at the office.)

a. Read the model essay below based on the rubric in Ex. 1b. b. Rewrite the sentences below
2 using techniques of cohesion.
Decide what techniques of cohesion have been used in the
underlined sections. There may be several ways to
rewrite the sentences.

If so, remember that, with the right ambition

Do you have a dream job?
and drive, your dream job could one day become a realin- We need to rethink the balance
between homework and classwork.
(1 ................. ...). You simply have to go about things in
We need to consider how much work
the right way.
a child should be doing at home.
First of all, you could look for work experience and this on-the-job (linking words & phrases)
training (2 ........................... . . .) will teach you valuable things about Lifelong learning will become a reality
your chosen field. It can also give you a head start in lour job hunt for all workers soon, but lifelong
because it will give you a better idea of how to sell 1'ourself at an learning has been the norm for manY
interview. In addition (3 ...................................), you can make valuable of us for many years. (referencing)
contacts, and may be first to hear when a vacancy becomes available. Due to the increasing workload, the
teacher spends all day at school and
You could also concentrate on improving your social skills. The reason
now he or she spends all evening as
this is desirable (4................. ...) is that even potential
well. (ellipsis)
employee is also a coworker. In other words, Lour hten'iewers will not
Schools can provide tablets themselves
only be considering your abilities. but also whether or they can ask parents to suPP|1l
(5 ................. ....) they would be happy interacting u'ith you
them. Perhaps the fairer waY, if not
on a daily basis. Sometimes the latter (6 ............................-.......) is more
the most cost-effective, is for schools
important since a cheerful and cooperative person is an asset in any role.
to provide the tablets themselves,

The best ways to get your ideal job would be to get work experience and (substitution)
to improve your social skills. But all things considered, if you need to For a teenager, going to university is

choose one, I think that work experience is more effective. Work undoubtedly a life-changing event;

experience (7 ................. .) allows you to get a foot in the indeed, for many, doing a degree is

door and will make you stand out much more than simply having good the start of their adult lives.

social skills. What are you waiting for? Why not wake up to your dream (repetition)
job tomor:row? It is not enough to teach onlY a

curriculum; we need to teach students

how to live their lives. (synonymy)
The amount of homework given

shouldn't be heavier; in fact, it should

be less heavy, (antonymy)

3 a. The sentences below contain punctuation
$ eun.tuation
errors. Rewrite the sentences correctly.

A good essay is a combination of deas, structure, A good education is the result of three people workinc
language knowledge and effective punctuation. Punctuation together; a student, a teacher, and a parent.
it allows better understanding and ease of
plays a vital role: A good educatron is the result of three people workir:
reading. ln advanced writing, punctuation can also be used together: a student; a teacher; and a parent.
for emphasis to enhance an essay, although it must always Tuition fees which have increased enormously in recent year':

be used correctly and should never be overused. represent the bulk of student debt.
. a dash introduces extra information, an interruption, Trainee teachers need to be aware of certain trends; online

etc, into a sentence and can replace more conventional learning, biogging, and gamification.

punctuation. (The government, which has not made any In the search for higher grades and an easier life, sone
comment, does not seem to be taking the issue seriously. students buy online essays that are 'supposedly' written b',

- The government - which has not made any comment -

does not seem to be taking the issue seriously) lf the previous generation were faced with the workload tne
Note: a dash and a hyphen are often confused. A students of today face, they would soonyel l out, "Too much | ! I '

hyphen is a shorter line that connects different words to Universities are becoming increasingly competitive in ther
make one unit of meaning \hard-worktng, state-of-the- search for students, some have even offered cash incentives.

art). It has been said that Star Wars changed the way films ar.e

. a colon is often used before a list (see below). lt can also produced and promoted.

be used when introducing an explanation or direct Bill Gates one of the richest men in the world has set up i's
speech. (C/crssrooms need to take full advantage of own foundation to support new ideas in education,
technological advances: they need to utilise the latut Some people believe that school uniforms perform a-
equipment.lfalbot has sard: "The way we learn has a important function they create a sense of a community an:
direct effect on the way we hve.") shared purpose.
. a semi-colon is used instead of a full stop when the
meaning of two sentences is closely related. (Ihe b. Rewrite the sentences below using more
classroom is the teacher's domain. They set the rules and emphatic punctuation. More than one answer
regulate the learning. - The clqssroom is the teache,r's may be possible.
domain; they set the rules ond regulate the learning.). ll
also separates items in a list following a colon (Ihe Distance learning, which has always been necessary for

solutrons are obvrous: better educotion; improved those living far from a university, is an ideal option for mar-,

healthcare; welfare programmes; ond higher pensions.) mature students.

. inverted commas are used to isoiate a word, phrase or Distance learning - which has always been necessary for thox
title from the rest of the sentence. (The film was called living far from o university - is on ideal option for mor.n

'The Days of Tom Galley'.) They can also be used to mature students.

question the validity of a statement. (They say that he is At the end of the day, perhaps the best thing we can do s
join together and say to all the supporters of tuition fea
the'king' of computing.)
. an exclamation mark comes at the end of a sentence to
" No way. "

show excitement or intense emotions and is usuallv Students who use online essays, essays which are ofte"

found in direct speech. ("What a way to live!") poorly written, are never going to do as well as studenG

Note: a) there should never be more than one

who take the time to actually study their subject.

exclamation mark after a sentence, b) exclamation marks A university is more than simply a place to study. lt is a

are often overused and should generally be avoided in place where students first experience independence.

formal writing as the language itself should be adequate Studying online offers many benefits for many groups c'
to convey the message. people such as the unemployed, the poor, and mature
stu dents.
The first thing to ask is what exactly are the skills that are
being taught in our schools?
A job for life, something that was taken for granted ;
generation ago, is now no longer the model for a perfec
Can we still, in this day and age, consider the teacher to be
the architect of an education?
The schoo of tomorrow needs to reflect the changes ir
society. lt needs to adopt the technology of today.

Read the rubric and the model essay. Rewrite the
underlined sections using more emphatic Our society is suffering from an obesity epidemic'
punctuation. More than one answer may be Whatever the causes. poor diet. lack of exercise or a
possible. hectic lifesWle. the young are at a great risk of
developing bad habits. Luckily, there are many ways
for us to get more active.
Your class has attended a discussion group about how
*a young people can keep fit. You have made the notes
One u'ay we can get fitter is to join a sports club. There
are a hostof sports clubs. offering a wide range of
sports and activities like football. basketball and
Wavs for young people to kee:P fit:
fencing. Not only do they have instructors to provide
. joining a sports club training, but they are also excellent places to meet
.'flnding someone to exercise with people and make friends. This makes exercising easy
' cycling to school because it involves taking part in fun social activities.
Some opinions expressed in
Another way of keeping fit is to persuade someone to
start exercising with you. a friend. classmate or famil)t
"Belonging to a sports club
member. The advantage of this is you can encourage
can be expensive."
and motivate each other to meet your targets and beat
"Friends can encourage each .vour records. It is also much more enjoyable taking
other." exercise with company than going by yourself.

"lt can be dangerous cycltng

To my mind, the more effective way of keeping fit is
along busy roads."
to join a sports club. Sports clubs provide you with a
social group as well as with expert instruction, and
Write an essay discussing two of the ways in your notes they give you more support and encouragement than if
for young people to keep fit. You should explain which you just exercise with a companion. We all know how
way you think is better, giving reasons in support of to live healthil)r: we have the information and the
your answer. means. Despite this, some of us face a future of poor
health if we do not change our ways. Sadly. even a
You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions
simple walk in the park inay not be a walk in the park
expressed in the discussion, but you should use'
for some of us.
own words as far as possible,

Write your essay in 220-260 words.



1 What are you writing?
Iisuuss,.rffi 2 Who is your target reader and how
does that affect the register?
How many points are you going to
Read the rubrics below and answer the questions.
5 write about? How does that affect
the structure of your writing?
A* Your class has listened to a radio discussion about how students can Where will you have your thess
! prepare for exams. You have made the notes below: statement? your opinion?
What features could you use to make
your writing more impressive?
Ways for students to prepare for exams:
6 a. Choose one ofthe essays in Ex.5
. practising past papers
. attending study groups and complete the paragraph
Some opinions expressed in the discussion:
plan with your own ideas.
'filling in knowledge gaps ,,It,s
essential to become familiar with typicar
exam questions."

"Working with other students helps keep you


"You don't need to know everything about the


Write an essay discussing two of the ways in your notes for students Para2: first point with supporting details
to prepare for exams. You should explain which way of preparing
for exams you think is more effective, giving reasons in support of
your answer.

You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions expressed in the
Para 3: second point with supporting
discussion, but you should use your own words as far as possible,

Write your essay in 220-260 words.

Conclusion: state your opinion

Bw Your class has attended a television debate about ways to fund
universities. You have made the notes below:

b. Portfolio: using the notes you

have made, write your essay
from Ex. 5.

Some opinions expressed in the discussion:

I checklist
"It's like anything else: you get what you pay for."
When you finish writing your essay,
"Why should I pay for a university I never went to check for the following:
and will never use?"
. word length
"Ifbusinesses get involved in education, some . inclusion of all main points from the
subjects will never be taught." prompt in clearly laid out paragraphs
ia appropriate formal style
a correct grammar, spelling and
Write an essay discussing two of the ways in your notes to fund p u nct uation
universities, You should explain which way of funding you think is a use of persuasive language
better, giving reasons in support ofyour answer. o use of topic sentences to start body

You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions expressed in the paragraphs

discussion, but you should use your own words as far as possible. use of examples/reasons to justify each
Write your essay in 220-260 words. a variety of techniques to starVend
o appropriate use of linkers