Tutorial HFSS 1: Micr ostr ip Pa tch Antenna (Tut1



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HFSSv10 (download simulation file)
The microstrip patch antenna is a popular printed resonant antenna for narrow-band microwave wireless links that require semi-hemispherical coverage. Due to its planar configuration and ease of integration with microstrip technology, the microstrip patch antenna has been heavily studied and is often used as elements for an array. In this tutorial, a 2.4 GHz microstrip patch antenna fed by a microstrip line on a 2.2 permittivity substrate is studied. The following topics are covered:
y y y y y y

Model Setup Waveport Feed Airbox and Boundary Conditions Meshing Analysis/Sweep Setup Plotting Results

Model Setup

First the model of the microstrip patch antenna has to be drawn in HFSS. It consists of rectangular substrate and the metal trace layer as shown in Fig. 1. Note that a quarter-wave length transformer was used to match the patch to a 50 Ohm feed line. The dimensions of antenna can be found in the HFSS simulation file.

25 mm (quarter-wave at 2. it will be shown that this waveport size accurately models the desired microstrip mode. Airbox and Boundary Conditions An airbox has to be defined in to model open space so that the radiation from the structure is absorbed and not reflected back. Since the substrate height is 1. Waveport Setup In order to excite the structure an excitation source has to be chosen. the height of the airbox is 31. the WAVEPORT excitation was assigned to it. 2. this quarter-wavelength condition does not have to be met and an air ³space´ may not even have to be defined. For this simulation a waveport will be used. After the waveport rectangle is drawn. if it is too small the field will be truncated (characteristic impedance will be incorrectly calculated) and if it is too large a waveguide mode may appear.57 mm and the feed line width is 4. In order to get an accurate result. Patch antenna layout showing substrate and patch trace. In the Analysis section of this tutorial. the waveport size chosen is 5 mm high by 50 mm wide. the waveport has to be defined properly. In the directions where the radiation is minimal.Figure 1. The airbox should be a quarter-wavelength long of the frequency of interest in the direction of the radiated field.4 GHz). Please refer to the tutorial on defining a waveport for further information. a rectangular box enclosing the structure is only needed. The antenna with airbox and waveport setup is shown in Fig. Since the radiation of a patch antenna is concentrated at broadside. . The waveport will excite the first mode of the microstrip line (quasi-TEM) and then HFSS will use this field to excite the entire structure.84 mm.

Meshing Manually meshing should be performed on the airbox to get accurate results for the antenna properties such as efficiency. Next.5 mm (lambda/10 at 2. Then the bottom face and the patch antenna trace were selected and a FINITE CONDUCTIVITY boundary using Copper was assigned. . directivity. 3 shows the mesh property window.Figure 2. One should seed the airbox lambda/10.4 GHz). the 4 side faces and the top face of the airbox were selected (Press F to select faces and O to select objects) and RADIATION boundary was applied. Patch antenna layout showing airbox and waveport. Fig. and radiation pattern. For this structure the initial mesh length for the airbox was set to 12.

. the field data is saved for each frequency point in the sweep. Before running the simulation.4 GHz).7 Ohms was obtained. the solution frequency should line within the frequency sweep range and around the passband (i.e. This Port Only Setup was run and the resulting port mode is shown in Fig. Mesh setup window.Figure 3.02 In addition. Analysis/Sweep Setup A Solution Setup is added to the analysis of the simulation with the following: Solution Frequency: 2.4 GHz Maximum # of Passes: 15 Maximum Delta S: 0. an additional Solution Setup was added with Solve Ports Only to verify the waveport setup. around 2. In addition. field data needs to be saved in order to do any field post-processing. Since a Fast Sweep from 1 GHz to 5 GHz (401 points) will be chosen. 4. a characteristic impedance of 50. in the Options tab of the Solution Setup. the Minimum Converged Passes was changed to 3.

Return loss of antenna from 1 GHz to 5 GHz. . Figure 5. From Fig. the fundamental resonance of the antenna occurs at 2.Figure 4. the top face of the substrate was selected and the Electric Field Vector was plotted for 2. Port mode showing electric-field. The field plot is shown in Fig. 5. Plotting Results The resulting return loss of the structure is shown in Fig. Next. 5.43 dB.36 GHz with a return loss of 29.36 GHz. 6 and shows the expected half-wavelength field distribution.

etc. E-field distribution on antenna at 2.and H-Plane two-dimensional patterns and another for the three-dimensional pattern. Two will created.Figure 6. the default values have to be changed. a far-field setup has to be created. To obtain the radiation efficiency.36 GHz. For the two-dimensional pattern. To plot the far-field patterns of the antenna. Phi should start at 0 deg and stop at 90 deg with a 90 deg step size. For the three-dimensional pattern. 8 shows the threedimensional patterns. To create each far-field setup go to HFSS>Radiation>Insert Far-Field Setup>Infinite Sphere. peak gain. 7 shows the two-dimensional patterns and Fig. Fig. the default values can be used. .36 GHz as the frequency of interest. one for the E. go to HFSS>Radiation>Compute Antenna/Max Param and choose 2.

Three-dimensional far-field patterns. E-plane (blue) and H-plane (red) far-field patterns. Figure 8. *Experimental Results and Photos of the Fabricated Antenna are here.Figure 7. From Simulation to Realization .

To determine the width (W).2 permittivity and 1. The final dimensions of the entire microstrip patch antenna are y y y y y y W: 41.4 GHz operation on a substrate with 2.08 mm lqw: 24. Next.In the Ansoft HFSS Tutorial 1.4 GHz. Model of microstrip patch antenna. The length (L) was chosen to be the same as W to obtain a symmetric radiation pattern.00 mm w50: 4. edge-fed with quarter wavelength transformer section to 50 transmission line. The experimental return loss and the experimental E. the microstrip patch antenna calculator was used to provide an initial starting point. a three-dimensional radiation pattern of the fabricated antenna is also shown. the edge input impedance was determined to be 343 . The fabricated microstrip patch antenna is also shown. a microstrip patch antenna was simulated and the numerical return loss and radiation patterns were shown. Therefore. a quarter-wave length transformer was used to match 343 input impedance to a 50 system.72 mm l50: 15. In particular.05 mm wqw: 0. 1. The patch without the feeding network was simulated in Ansoft HFSS to adjust W for resonance at 2.84 mm . By de-embedding the 50 transmission line. The patch antenna is designed for 2. The purpose of this tutorial is to show readers a comparison of numerical and experimental results. Figure 1. The purpose of this tutorial is to further discuss the microstrip patch antenna and to present the experimental results. the input impedance of the patch at the edge was determined by placing a length of 50 transmission line at the edge.and H-plane radiation patterns are compared with the Ansoft HFSS results. the dimensions of the patch are given along with the feed network.57 mm thickness. Discussion of the dimensions and how they were obtained are presented. Microstrip Patch Model The microstrip patch antenna model used for the numerical simulation in Ansoft HFSS is shown in Fig. In addition.08 mm L: 41.

3. Good agreement can be seen between HFSS and the measured results. shows the realized microstrip patch antenna with a 3.5 mm SMA female connector compared with the HFSS model. Figure 3. the microstrip patch antenna was realized by photolithography.37 GHz with a return loss less than -10 dB. The comparison of the numerical and experimental return loss is shown in Fig. 2. Figure 2. Return loss of the microstrip patch antenna. Micrstrip patch antenna: Model versus Reality. Fig.Realization After the HFSS simulation confirmed a resonance of 2. .

Fabricated microstrip patch antenna ready for near-field sampling. Figure 4.Radiation Pattern The fabricated antenna was then placed inside an antenna chamber. respectively. Good agreement can be seen. A waveguide probe was used to measure the near-field of the microstrip patch antenna and post-processing was performed to obtain the far-field radiation patterns. Fig. 7 shows the experimental 3-D radiation pattern of the microstrip patch antenna. Fig.and H-Plane radiation patterns are shown in Fig. 4 shows the antenna mounted onto a rotational stage. 6. The numerical and experimental E. . 5 and Fig. discrepency on the backside is due to the metallic mounting structure of the antenna chamber's rotational stage.

Figure 5. Figure 6. H-Plane radiation pattern. . E-Plane radiation pattern.

3-D radiation pattern. .Figure 7.

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