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SETTLEMENT PLANNING

in the
PHILIPPINES
PRE - COLONIAL
PRE - COLONIAL
PRE - COLONIAL

• Like other cities in the world the earliest Filipino


communities developed out of the need for their
inhabitants to band together.
PRE - COLONIAL

• They were formed for security, or to be close to


critical resources like food and water.
• Most of the earliest towns were by the coast for the
fisherfolk or were where there was abundant
agricultural land for the farmers.
PRE - COLONIAL

• The community unit was the barangay, consisting


of 30 to 100 families.
SPANISH COLONIAL
SPANISH COLONIAL
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the Laws of the


Indies that established uniform standards and
planning procedures for colonial settlements.
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• These laws provided guidelines for site selection,


layout and dimensioning of streets and squares,
the location of civic and religious buildings, open
space, cultivation and pasturing lands, and even
the main procedural phases of planning and
construction.
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• The royal ordinances dictated that each town should


be located on vacant and high ground, properly
oriented to sun, wind, and water areas.
• The site should also be on or near fertile land and
accessible to sources of fuel, timber, and water.
Because the law is based on the Greco-Roman
Renaissance design principles, it favored the use of
the gridiron pattern in the establishment of roads
and blocks..
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• The site should also be on or near fertile land and


accessible to sources of fuel, timber, and water.
Because the law is based on the Greco-Roman
Renaissance design principles, it favored the use of
the gridiron pattern in the establishment of roads
and blocks..
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• The Plaza Complex is a result


of several ordinances of the
Laws of the Indies.
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• In the late 16th


century the Jesuits
established the
reducciones policy,
which was aimed to
gather dispersed
communities "under
the bells."
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• The policy created the


"plaza complex" with its
town residents [taga-
bayan].
• Within the town [or
pueblo], people lived
around the plaza with the
ilustrados located closest
to the center and the
lower classes living at the
periphery but still "within
the sound of the bells."
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

• The taga-bukid
constituted a small
minority who had to
be in the fields or
rural areas attending
the agricultural
activities.
SPANISH COLONIAL Laws of the Indies

The plaza is surrounded by


important buildings such as:
Catholic church
Municipal or town hall
Marketplace and merchant’s
stores
Elementary school
The homes of the “principalia”
Other government buildings
SPANISH COLONIAL
SPANISH COLONIAL

Intramuros
• The walled city of Manila
• 1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM
• Home of the Spanish (except for the Friars & the high ranking
officials)
• Decentralization occurred and settlements were
built in Malate, San Miguel, and Paco, among
other areas
AMERICAN
AMERICAN
AMERICAN

The American Agenda


- guide urban growth and physical development
- put more emphasis on other values such as
sanitation, housing, and aesthetic improvements.
AMERICAN
AMERICAN

Daniel Burnham
• Architect / planner who
designed Chicago, San
Francisco, and parts of
Washington D.C.

• Brought in to design Manila and the “summer capital” of Baguio


AMERICAN Burnham’s Design for Manila
AMERICAN Burnham’s Design for Manila

• Designed with grand avenues and a strong


central civic core
AMERICAN Burnham’s Design for Manila

• Designed with grand avenues and a strong


central civic core
• Included a civic mall to house national buildings
(only the Finance & Agriculture buildings were
built)
AMERICAN Burnham’s Design for Manila

• Designed with grand avenues and a strong


central civic core
• Included a civic mall to house national buildings
(only the Finance & Agriculture buildings were
built)
• Fronted Manila Bay like most Baroque plans
fronted a large body of water
AMERICAN
Manila as the first chartered city
• On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No. 183, the city of
Manila was incorporated

• Manila encompassed Intramuros, and the towns of


Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco,
and Pandacan.

• The population then was 190,000 people


MENTAL EXERCISE!!!
1
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO Centered on two churches
• STA.CRUZ (Our Lady of Loreto and
• SAN NICOLAS Saint Anthony of
• MALATE Padua).
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC Also known as the first
• SAN MIGUEL “University Town”.
• PANDACAN
2
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The illustrado territory;
• STA.CRUZ the enclave of the
• SAN NICOLAS
rich and powerful.
• MALATE
• ERMITA Also the
• PACO manifestation of folk
• SAMPALOC religiosity.
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
3
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO A commercial town built
• STA.CRUZ by the Spanish with
• SAN NICOLAS
streets of “specialized”
• MALATE
• ERMITA categories
• PACO (i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
4
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ
• SAN NICOLAS The trading port
• MALATE developed by the
• ERMITA Chinese and Arabs
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
5
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Where rest-houses
• SAN NICOLAS
were built for the
• MALATE
• ERMITA Spanish government
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
6
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The main commercial
• STA.CRUZ district with swirls of
• SAN NICOLAS shops, movie houses,
• MALATE
restaurants, etc.
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
7
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ First town built
• SAN NICOLAS around a train station
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
8
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ The early “summer
• SAN NICOLAS resort” of wealthy and
• MALATE cultured Filipinos.
• ERMITA Then became the first
• PACO fishing and salt-making
• SAMPALOC town
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
9
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Town built by the
• SAN NICOLAS Americans for Oil depots
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
10
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Early tourist belt
• SAN NICOLAS (red-light district)
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
HU - HAAA!
1
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO Centered on two churches
• STA.CRUZ (Our Lady of Loreto and
• SAN NICOLAS Saint Anthony of
• MALATE Padua).
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC Also known as the first
• SAN MIGUEL “University Town”.
• PANDACAN
1
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO Centered on two churches
• STA.CRUZ (Our Lady of Loreto and
• SAN NICOLAS Saint Anthony of
• MALATE Padua).
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC Also known as the first
• SAN MIGUEL “University Town”.
• PANDACAN
2
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The illustrado territory;
• STA.CRUZ the enclave of the
• SAN NICOLAS
rich and powerful.
• MALATE
• ERMITA Also the
• PACO manifestation of folk
• SAMPALOC religiosity.
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
2
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The illustrado territory;
• STA.CRUZ the enclave of the
• SAN NICOLAS
rich and powerful.
• MALATE
• ERMITA Also the
• PACO manifestation of folk
• SAMPALOC religiosity.
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
3
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO A commercial town built
• STA.CRUZ by the Spanish with
• SAN NICOLAS
streets of “specialized”
• MALATE
• ERMITA categories
• PACO (i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
3
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO A commercial town built
• STA.CRUZ by the Spanish with
• SAN NICOLAS
streets of “specialized”
• MALATE
• ERMITA categories
• PACO (i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
4
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ
• SAN NICOLAS The trading port
• MALATE developed by the
• ERMITA Chinese and Arabs
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
4
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ
• SAN NICOLAS The trading port
• MALATE developed by the
• ERMITA Chinese and Arabs
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
5
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Where rest-houses
• SAN NICOLAS
were built for the
• MALATE
• ERMITA Spanish government
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
5
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Where rest-houses
• SAN NICOLAS
were built for the
• MALATE
• ERMITA Spanish government
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
6
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The main commercial
• STA.CRUZ district with swirls of
• SAN NICOLAS shops, movie houses,
• MALATE
restaurants, etc.
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
6
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO The main commercial
• STA.CRUZ district with swirls of
• SAN NICOLAS shops, movie houses,
• MALATE
restaurants, etc.
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
7
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ First town built
• SAN NICOLAS around a train station
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
7
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ First town built
• SAN NICOLAS around a train station
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
8
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ The early “summer
• SAN NICOLAS resort” of wealthy and
• MALATE cultured Filipinos.
• ERMITA Then became the first
• PACO fishing and salt-making
• SAMPALOC town
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
8
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ The early “summer
• SAN NICOLAS resort” of wealthy and
• MALATE cultured Filipinos.
• ERMITA Then became the first
• PACO fishing and salt-making
• SAMPALOC town
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
9
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Town built by the
• SAN NICOLAS Americans for Oil depots
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
9
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Town built by the
• SAN NICOLAS Americans for Oil depots
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
10
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Early tourist belt
• SAN NICOLAS (red-light district)
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
10
• QUIAPO
• BINONDO
• STA.CRUZ Early tourist belt
• SAN NICOLAS (red-light district)
• MALATE
• ERMITA
• PACO
• SAMPALOC
• SAN MIGUEL
• PANDACAN
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Quezon City as the new
capitol city
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Quezon City as the new
capitol city

• In 1939, Commonwealth Act No.


457, authorized the transfer of
the capitol to an area of 1572
hectares
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Quezon City as the new
capitol city

• In 1939, Commonwealth Act No.


457, authorized the transfer of
the capitol to an area of 1572
hectares

• A master plan of Quezon City was completed in 1941 by


Architects Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, and Eng.
A.D. Williams
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Quezon City as the new
capitol city

• In 1939, Commonwealth Act No.


457, authorized the transfer of
the capitol to an area of 1572
hectares

• A master plan of Quezon City was completed in 1941 by


Architects Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, and Eng.
A.D. Williams

• “City beautiful” plan reflected the aspirations of an emerging


nation and the visions of a passionate leader
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
AMERICAN The Suburbanization

Constitution Hill
• In 1946, a search committee was formed to
find a new site
AMERICAN The Suburbanization

Constitution Hill
• In 1946, a search committee was formed to
find a new site
• A 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed
was selected andcalled Constitution Hill and
National Government Center
AMERICAN The Suburbanization

Constitution Hill
• In 1946, a search committee was formed to
find a new site
• A 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed
was selected andcalled Constitution Hill and
National Government Center

• The three seats of government were to


form a triangle at the center of the
complex
AMERICAN The Suburbanization

Constitution Hill
• In 1946, a search committee was formed to
find a new site
• A 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed
was selected andcalled Constitution Hill and
National Government Center

• The three seats of government were to form


a triangle at the center of the complex

• It included a 20 hectare civic space


referred to as the Plaza of the Republic
AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation

Philamlife Homes

BLISS (Bagong lipunan sites and services)


AMERICAN The Suburbanization
Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation
- Precursor of the National Housing Authority
- Built homes for the masses
(“the projects”, i.e. proj.4, proj. 6, etc.)

Philamlife Homes
- icon of middle class suburbanization
- Master Plan designed by Architect and Planner,
Carlos P. Arguelles, based on suburban
developments in California with modifications

BLISS (Bagong lipunan sites and services)


- Walk-up developments for government sector
PRESENT
PRESENT Metro Manila CBDs

• Manila CBD
Center of business and commerce, has a population nucleus,
and seats the national government
PRESENT Metro Manila CBDs

• Makati CBD
business, financial, commercial, convention, and recreational
center of the Metropolitan Region covering an area of 979
hectares. Begun by the Ayala conglomerate in 1948.
PRESENT Metro Manila CBDs

• Ortigas CBD
Another business, financial, convention, shopping, and
recreational node.

Developed by the Ortigas conglomerate in the 1950s, it’s present


configuration fully developed only in the late 80s. The area
covers 600 hectares.
PRESENT Metro Manila CBDs

• Cubao CBD
Developed in the 1960s by the Araneta Family, Cubao was
intended as an alternative business center in the Eastern side of
the metropolis. This 37 hectare property now reflects more of a
bazaar economy, though plans are now being developed to
convert the area to a more modern commercial and recreational
center.
PRESENT EMERGING CBDs

Fort Bonifacio Global City- 500 ha of prime land

Boulevard 2000- 1167 ha of reclaimed land to revive


Manila as a city of commerce and tourism

Filinvest Corporate City- joint venture of government


and private sector. Accessible to industrial estates
and technological parks

Related Interests