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2, MARCH 2000

Robust Feedback Control of Flow-Induced Structural

Radiation of Sound
Craig M. Heatwole, Matthew A. Franchek, Member, IEEE, and Robert J. Bernhard

Abstract—Presented in this paper is the robust multivariable boundary layer could be obtained through measurements or an-
control of noise radiation from panels driven by turbulent flow. The alytical techniques.
controlled inputs are point forces to the panel and the feedback sig- Robust control is another feedback-based control approach.
nals are panel accelerations. Collocated actuator/sensor locations
on the panel are chosen such that vibration control will lead to a Relatively few studies have utilized robust feedback control for
reduction in the radiated sound pressure levels. The multivariable acoustic problems. Most of these robust control investigations
controller is realized though a sequential loop closure approach. employ sound pressure level feedback. As a result, the feed-
Each controller is designed in the frequency domain where the im- back signal contains a time delay owing to the propagation of
pact of system uncertainty and closed-loop sensitivity can be an- sound from the structure to the microphone locations. For the
alyzed. The proposed frequency domain approach will also facili-
tate the design of feedback controllers that employ the natural dy- case where the delay of the open-loop dynamics has a negligible
namics of the panel for noise control purposes. The proposed de- phase lag up to the open-loop cross over frequency, [2], [3] suc-
sign technique is experimentally validated on a panel subjected to cessfully applied an control solution with sound pressure
turbulent flow in a quiet wind tunnel. Active control of the sound level feedback to reduce sound inside a small reverberant enclo-
radiation was achieved at frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. Sound sure. When the system delay becomes significant, [4] has shown
pressure level reductions of as much as 15 dB were achieved at the
resonant frequencies of the panel modes. Overall reductions over that vibration feedback can be used to suppress acoustic energy.
the 100–1000 Hz band were approximately 5 dB. A similar method is used in this study.
Index Terms—Acoustic application, multivariable robust con-
To develop a feasible solution to the flow noise control
trol, noise radiation. problem, a sequential robust feedback control method is
proposed. Using this approach, each diagonal controller of
a multivariable system is designed such that the closed-loop
I. INTRODUCTION system is stable for all operating conditions while achieving
sound pressure level reductions through vibration control.
T HE structural radiation of sound resulting from turbulent
boundary layer excitation is a major consideration in a va-
riety of engineering applications. Although passive techniques II. PROBLEM STATEMENT
can be used to reduce noise radiation, many applications require Turbulent flow over a panel produces a broadband excitation
active control. A successful active control solution can be used, of the structural modes. Those structural modes couple with the
for example, to reduce aeroacoustical noise in automobiles, to acoustic space to radiate noise. For the class of systems consid-
significantly improve sonar performance, or to reduce interior ered in this investigation, a panel separates the turbulent flow
noise in aircraft. from the acoustic space. The objective is to control the dynamic
Adaptive feedforward control schemes have been utilized in behavior (vibration) of the plate to reduce the radiated noise. For
the past for many active noise control applications. To be suc- this particular problem, the controlled inputs are voltages sent
cessful, these methods require either a deterministic excitation to point force actuators attached to the plate and the sensed out-
or a reference transducer signal which provides causal and co- puts are panel accelerations.
herent random disturbance information. Unfortunately, turbu- To develop the problem statement, let the Laplace transform
lent boundary layer excitation is broadband and both spatially of the panel acceleration be represented as
and temporally random. Therefore a coherent reference trans-
ducer signal is not available. (1)
As an alternative, feedback-based active noise control could
be applied to the noise radiation problem. In [1] a model of the and the Laplace transform of the radiated noise from the panel
turbulent flow excitation is developed and utilized in a linear be
quadratic regulator (LQR) feedback control strategy. However,
the authors recognized that LQR control may not be practical
since these controllers require full state information. It is un- where is a vector of measured panel accel-
likely that the state information associated with the turbulent erations, is a vector of point forces (the con-
trolled input), is a vector of sound pressure
Manuscript received June 9, 1997; revised August 2, 1999. Recommended by levels (SPL’s) (the controlled output), and is
Associate Editor, S. Farinwata. a nonpredictable broadband disturbance representing turbulent
The authors are with the School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue Univer-
sity, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1077 USA (e-mail: flow. Let the transfer function matrices ,
Publisher Item Identifier S 1063-6536(00)01411-1. and be of appropriate dimension and have no hidden
1063–6536/00$10.00 © 2000 IEEE

unstable modes. Each element of these matrices is assumed to robust stability and sensitivity reduction. The selection of a
be , and has the form single-input-single-output (SISO) approach to design the diag-
onal multivariable controller is primarily based on the nature of
the control problem. In particular, sequential controller design
transparently displays the loop interaction at a local level. In
The parameter denotes a vector of compact parametric addition, sequential loop closure has the ability to directly
uncertain parameters. Here will be used to represent the employ experimental data in designing the controller thereby
changes in the dynamic response of the structure due to the avoiding the model development phase completely. Finally,
loading effects from the dynamic pressure of the flow at various controller design is executed using classical SISO controller
operating conditions. loop shaping design tools.
The design goal is to reduce the SPL at each microphone lo- 1) Recursive Formulation: The proposed control law
cation at prespecified frequencies using a is based on accelerometer feedback where
diagonal multivariable controller comprised of elements. . The controller matrix is
Typically, the largest sound pressure levels occur at panel reso- limited to diagonal elements that are . In the interest of
nances which dominate the vibration response. However, not all brevity, the uncertainty vector is implicit in the remainder of
plate resonant modes radiate sound. Therefore it is necessary to the paper except in those cases that require additional clarity.
control only those panel modes that efficiently radiate sound. The corresponding closed-loop transfer function for (1) is
Given the system description in (1) and (2), a closed-loop
sensitivity based multivariable controller design could be per-
formed using or µ-synthesis. However, the descriptions of From (2), it can be seen that reducing the vibration of those
(1) and (2) are somewhat misleading. First, the characterization modes radiating noise in (3) will reduce the SPL at the micro-
of , the turbulent flow, is very difficult if not impossible to phone locations.
capture. In fact, characterizing turbulent flow is currently a fun- Without loss in generality, loop closure will proceed in as-
damental area of research. Without knowing , determining cending order. However, this sequence is only intended to facil-
the elements of through either experimentation or first itate the following development. From (3)
principle-based modeling is impossible. Obtaining the elements
of is also difficult. First principle models are avail- (4)
able for predicting the vibration of lightly damped structures
subjected to point forces and distributed random loads. How- where and denotes the inverse
ever the uncertainty of the plate dynamics for practical applica- of a matrix. It is assumed that the vibration control problem is
tions makes the model development of the plate modes difficult. well posed in that exists and has no unstable
Hence, an automated system identification approach integrated Smith–McMillan pole-zero cancellations. Expanding the first
with a multivariable controller design process will be developed row of (4) and closing the first loop gives
for this class of acoustical-mechanical-electrical systems.
In lieu of these difficulties, the proposed method of solution is
primarily systems level based. In particular, frequency response
functions (FRF’s) between the controlled inputs (voltages sent
to point force actuators) and sensed outputs (panel accelera- where
tions) are experimentally measured. Several FRF’s of the plate
vibrations for various turbulent flow conditions are obtained to
produce a family of FRF’s. Although dynamic models could
be developed for the structure from the FRF’s, a multivariable are the so-called normalized, uncertain plant and the nom-
controller design process is developed that directly utilizes the inal open-loop transfer function respectively. Notice that the
measured FRF’s. The details of the controller design process are numerator of (5) is comprised of two distinct parts. The first
presented herein. part, , is the dynamics representing the various
disturbance paths. The second part corresponds to loop interac-
III. MAIN RESULTS tions which appear as an external disturbance to the first loop
Presented in this section is the proposed active noise con- [5]. The design of is based on robust closed-loop
troller design methodology. First, the sequential controller de- performance (sensitivity reduction) and robust closed-loop
sign process is presented. From this development, the remaining stability, and is given in the next section.
issues associated with the active control of noise are presented. Using Gauss elimination to incorporate the controllers from
previously closed loops, [5] developed the general recursive re-
A. Sequential Controller Design Development lationships
The proposed controller design process for the multi-
variable system will be based on a sequential loop closure
approach. Each diagonal controller is designed based on the
desired closed-loop performance which in this case includes (6)

where B. Remaining Issues

With the sequential controller design formulation given, three
(7) primary issues remain. In this manuscript it is assumed that de-
tailed analytical models do not exist. Hence each of these items
will be addressed with a solution that is experimentally driven.
Without a loss in generality, the proposed solutions can be ap-
(8) plied to the physical system or to an analytical model of the
1) Identifying frequencies requiring attenuation: Stan-
dard Fourier transform methods such as the discrete Fourier
transform (DFT) can be used to identify those dominant
noise frequencies contained in the radiated noise signal. The
identification process directly follows. First, the structure is
and subjected to the various anticipated flow conditions. Noise
measurements at a variety of locations are made within the
enclosure. The main idea is that global SPL reductions within
the enclosure are achieved as opposed to point SPL reductions.
where is the number of loops closed and . Obtaining the SPL measurements at different locations within
Using the Gauss elimination approach for all loops essentially the enclosure and for different turbulent flow conditions reveal
those frequencies associated with globally radiated noise.
transforms into an upper triangular ma-
2) Transforming the noise control problem to a vibration
trix. control problem: Essentially, this step is similar to identifying
2) Robust Stability: Robust stability is a precursor to robust the appropriate actuator/sensor locations on the panel. Fuller
performance. In fact, robust performance indirectly specifies the et al.established that vibration control does not necessarily
degree of closed-loop stability. To enforce robust closed-loop correspond to noise control [4]. In fact, vibration control may
stability, the Nyquist encirclement condition will be imposed on indeed spill vibrational energy from structural modes that do
the design of each individual loop. In addition to the assump- not couple to the acoustic space to structural modes which do
tions stated in Section II, the class of considered is radiate noise. Consequently the SPL will be increased within
limited to systems where exists , and its the acoustic space. Hence, the actuator/sensor placement on
elements are stable. the plate should be at locations that couple to those vibration
For this limited class of systems, closed-loop stability modes whose frequencies correspond to frequencies where
can be guaranteed by guaranteeing the stability of each noise reductions are desired. These locations can be identified
[5]. The stability is found from via experimental testing (such as on complicated structures)
or by understanding the fundamental dynamics of the struc-
ture and acoustic space as demonstrated in the experimental
verification section of this paper.
where is defined in (7) and is defined in
If such an actuator/sensor pair placement criterion is applied,
(8). It is assumed that no unstable pole/zero cancellation oc-
then the resulting control system has inputs with a reasonable
curs when forming . Equation (9) gives the
degree of controllability. In addition, this placement ensures that
classical SISO stability problem which can be solved using the
the vibration signature correlates with the dominant noise signa-
Nyquist encirclement condition. Therefore, if each loop design
ture inside the enclosure. An analytical justification of placing
is stable then the closed-loop system is stable for the class of
actuator/sensor pairs at these locations to ensure that the noise
multivariable systems considered.
control problem is well posed has not been developed. How-
3) Robust Performance: Active noise control can be classi-
ever, testing this hypothesis on a case-by-case basis has shown
fied as a regulator controller design problem. Hence, sensitivity
that the condition requiring to exist achieves SPL re-
reduction will emerge as the robust performance objective. To
develop the design goal, consider (6). The basic form, regard-
3) Obtaining the frequency response functions needed to per-
less of the loop closure number, is
form the controller design: This phase of the design can be ex-
ecuted using a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) linear system
identification method [6]. This is a standard formulation which
extracts the frequency response functions for multivariable sys-
where . To reduce
the transmission of to involves reducing
. The difference between the standard robust sen-
sitivity reduction problem and the robust sensitivity reduction An experimental facility was constructed to demonstrate
needed in active noise control is that reduction only needs to the proposed active noise control technique. The experimental
occur at discrete frequency bands. apparatus consisted of a rectangular panel which was flush

mounted in the floor of a quiet flow wind tunnel facility

test section. Sound from the panel radiated into an anechoic
environment below the panel. The sound pressure levels at the
first, second, fourth, and eighth panel resonances (958, 1964,
3542, 5655 rad/s, respectively) are to be reduced for a flow
speed of 35.8 m/s (80 mi/h). The controller is also designed
so that the closed-loop system is stable for flow speeds from
0–51.4 m/s (115 mi/h).
Although SPL is to be controlled, the SPL is not used as a
feedback signal owing to the propagation delay, which in turn
limits the closed-loop performance. This is a direct result of
the excessive phase lag associated with the delay of the sound
propagation between the panel and the sensor location [7]. An
MIMO control structure is selected as two point force control
actuators and two accelerometers. Hence the number of actu-
ator/sensor pairs is not necessarily contingent upon the number Fig. 1. Test setup configuration.
of frequencies to be controlled.
pressure levels and acceleration levels are also measured for use
A. Description of Experimental Facility in the controller evaluation.
The panel is a rectangular 46 33 0.48 cm (18 in 13 in
3/16 in) 6061 aluminum plate. The plate support structure uti- D. Closing the First Loop
lized in this work is approximately simply supported and did not The design goal is to shape the open-loop transfer function
interfere with the turbulent boundary layer. The plate support of (8) such that for the frequencies where sensitivity
structure is attached to an anechoic wooden box (Fig. 1). The reduction is needed, lies outside the 0 dB sensitivity
box provided an acoustically isolated environment in which to contour. For the first loop, the two frequencies requiring sensi-
receive the sound radiated from the panel. The wooden box was tivity reductions are 958 rad/s (first resonance) and 3542 rad/s
constructed using sand filled double plywood walls lined with (fourth resonance).
acoustic wedges. Microphones were placed inside the box to Based on the measured FRF’s used to calculate
evaluate closed-loop performance. Mic 1 was located at , the design begins with two pairs of
cm, , and . Mic 2 was located at nonminimum phase complex zeros at rad/s, ,
cm, , and . a pair of complex poles at rad/s, , and a
pair of complex poles at rad/s, . In this
B. Placement of the Actuator/Sensor Pairs way the first and fourth resonance are separated in phase
The locations of the actuators/sensors are selected such by approximately 360 to meet the Nyquist encirclement
that the plant dynamics have high gain in the frequency condition. A lead compensator consisting of a pair of complex
regions where low sensitivity is required. In this way, the plant poles at rad/s, and a pair of complex zeros
dynamics will provide behavior useful for achieving the perfor- at rad/s, are used to add phase lead so that
mance goals. It is the intent of this controller design approach the first natural frequency ( rad/s) is centered between
to utilize the beneficial plant dynamics such that the controller the 0 dB sensitivity contours. The lightly damped poles add
gain and order can be reduced. The first sensor/actuator pair gain to decrease sensitivity. A pair of complex poles is added
is located in the center of the plate. At this location the sensor at rad/s with . These poles add phase lag to
and actuator couple with the odd–odd modes of the plate which appropriately place the fourth mode ( rad/s) between
are the most efficient radiators of sound [8]. The second pair the 0-dB sensitivity contours. These poles also roll-off the
is located at where and are the longitudinal and open-loop amplitude so that closed-loop stability is achieved.
lateral length of the panel, respectively, to control the remaining A lead compensator is then used to add gain near the fourth
frequencies. resonance ( rad/s). The complex poles are
rad/s, and the complex zeros are at rad/s,
C. Identification of the FRFs . The resulting controller is found in (10) at the bottom
Using the experimental facility, the system FRF’s are mea- of the next page. The controller is tenth order with a dc gain
sured for various operating conditions. Broadband noise is used of 1.2 dB. The open-loop transfer function for the first loop is
as inputs to the shakers. The measured outputs are accelerometer given in Fig. 2.
signals from which the FRF’s for can be calculated.
A family of FRF’s associated with different flow speeds are ob- E. Closing the Second Loop
tained for speeds of 0, 35.8, 40.2, 44.8, and 51.5 m/s (0, 80, 90, A similar approach was taken for the design of the second
100, and 115 mi/h). The magnitude variations of the measured loop using . However, in this design the frequencies
FRF’s are as much as 6 dB and the phases varied by as much as of interest are 1964 rad/s (second resonance), and 5655 rad/s
27 over the frequency range measured. The uncontrolled sound (eighth resonance). The frequencies at 958 rad/s and 3542 rad/s

Fig. 2. Sensitivity chart for Loop 1.

have been addressed in the previous design. The primary con- ditional gain to the open loop near the eighth natural frequency
cern is that closing the second loop does not degrade the per- of the plate. A pole at rad/s is used to aid in rolling off
formance already achieved with the design of the first loop. the gain. The resulting controller for the second loop is found in
This design begins with a lightly damped complex pole pair at (11) at the bottom of the page. This controller is seventh order
rad/s, . Additional phase lag is achieved with a dc gain of 3 dB. The open loop is shown in Fig. 3.
using a nonminimum phase zero at rad/s. A lead
compensator consisting of a pair of complex poles at F. Experimental Results
rad/s, and at rad/s and , and a pair The controller was implemented on a 166 MHz Pentium com-
of complex zeros at rad/s, is used to add ad- puter running Matlab Real-Time Workshop. Keithley Metrabyte



Fig. 3. Sensitivity chart for Loop 2.

analog to digital and digital to analog cards were used. The over the 100–1000 Hz band. The smallest sound pressure level
sample rate of the controller was 15 kHz. Wavetek 852 low-pass reduction achieved was 4.6 dB while the largest was 6.0 dB
filters set at 5 kHz were used to prevent aliasing of the feedback across the 100–1000 Hz band.
Closed-loop stability was achieved over the full range of oper- G. Robustness Investigation
ation of the wind tunnel. The uncontrolled and controlled sound
pressure level responses for the first microphone location are To investigate uniform shifts in natural frequencies, discrete
shown in Fig. 4 for a flow velocity of 35.8 m/s (80 mi/h). The masses (tire weights) were added to the panel. Four different sets
sound pressure level reductions are approximately 14 dB, 3 dB, of mass were added to the panel. The plant transfer functions
8 dB, and 1 dB at the first, second, fourth, and eighth resonance, were measured for each set of additional mass. Additionally,
respectively. The overall sound pressure level reduction across the controlled and uncontrolled sound pressure levels for the
the 100–1000 Hz band is 6 dB. MIMO controller were measured for each mass configuration.
The uncontrolled and controlled sound pressure level The total mass added was 84, 168, 413, and 731 g for tests 1, 2,
responses for the second microphone location are shown in 3, and 4, respectively. Mass set 4 represents an increase of 40%
Fig. 5 for a flow velocity of 35.8 m/s (80 mi/h). The sound in the mass of the plate. The first, second, and fourth resonances
pressure level reductions are approximately 14 dB, 13 dB, 8 shifted by 20%, 14%, and 14%, respectively.
dB, and 3 dB at the first, second, fourth, and eighth resonance, The closed-loop system was stable under the full range of
respectively. flow speeds for all four sets of additional masses using the con-
The sound pressure level reductions using the same controller troller designed for the original system. The additional masses
were measured for various flow velocities. Larger sound pres- for sets 1, 2, and 3 did not significantly reduce the closed-loop
sure level reductions were achieved at the higher flow speeds. performance. The microphone location for the robustness study
For the highest flow speed 51.4 m/s (115 mi/h), sound pressure was cm, , and . Sound pressure
level reductions of 15 dB, 15 dB, and 9 dB at the first, second, level reductions of approximately 14 and 13 dB were achieved
and fourth modal resonance were achieved. at the first and second resonance, respectively. These reduc-
The uncontrolled and controlled sound pressure levels at tions are similar to those achieved for the case with no addi-
other microphone locations were also measured. An array of tional mass. The reduction associated with the fourth mode,
microphones in a plane parallel to the plate were used. All however, was less than that achieved with no additional mass.
microphone locations achieved sound pressure level reductions Furthermore, the sound pressure level was increased by approx-

Fig. 4. SPL at Mic 1 for MIMO controller (35.8 m/s); uncontrolled (—); controlled SPL (– –).

Fig. 5. SPL at Mic 2 for MIMO controller (35.8 m/s); uncontrolled (—); controlled SPL (– –).

imately 5 dB in the frequency region just below the fourth res- V. CONCLUSION
onance. The additional mass of set 4 significantly impacted the
closed-loop performance. The sound pressure level reductions A practical robust feedback controller implementation for
were approximately 8 dB at the first and second resonance. flow induced structural radiation of sound is presented. The
These reductions are significantly less than those achieved pre- robust controller design incorporates uncertainty to ensure
viously. Furthermore, the sound pressure level associated with stability. Significant sound pressure level reductions were
the fourth mode was increased by 4 dB. obtained across the 100–1000 Hz region at multiple micro-

phone locations. The controller achieved performance using a Matthew A. Franchek (M’94) received the
small controller dc gain and low controller order. This result B.S.M.E. degree in 1987 from the University of
Texas at Arlington, the M.S.M.E. degree in 1988,
is obtained as a direct consequence of the ability of the design and his Ph.D. degree in 1991, both from Texas A&M
method to utilize beneficial plant characteristics. This was University, College Station.
accomplished by using the controller to position the panel He is currently an Associate Professor of Me-
chanical Engineering at Purdue University. His
resonances between the 0-db sensitivity contours. The small general research interests focus on developing the
controller dc gain and low controller order was a direct conse- science and technology enabling smart products. His
quence of the ability of the design method to utilize beneficial current research efforts include the development of
automated nonlinear modeling techniques, nonlinear
plant characteristics. Finally, the controller design methodology feedback controller design methodologies, multivariable controller design
was shown to be robust to large system uncertainty for cases techniques with prespecified integrity and diagnostic based controller reconfig-
where there is a uniform shift in the system resonances. The uration technology. His application areas of interest include internal combustion
engines, gas turbine engines, hydraulic systems, and noise/vibration control.
plant dynamics were modified by the addition of discretized Dr. Franchek has received numerous teaching awards including the 1994 and
masses. The closed-loop was found to be stable with respect to 1999 Best Teacher Award in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue.
perturbations in the natural frequencies of 20%. He was also awarded the 1997 Feddersen Faculty Fellowship in Mechatronics
for his work in smart machines.

[1] D. R. Thomas and P. A. Nelson, “On the use of feedback control of sound
radiation from a plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer,” J. Acoust. Robert J. Bernhard received the B.S. degree in
Soc. Amer., vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 2651–2662, 1995. mechanical engineering from Iowa State University,
[2] X. H. Yang, J. van Niekerk, K. S. Parwani, K. Hendrick, A. Packard, and Ames, in 1973, the M.S. degree in mechanical en-
B. Tongue, “Acoustic response tailoring in reverberant enclosures using gineering from the University of Maryland, College
feedback control,” Acive Contr. Noise Vibration, ASME, DSC-Vol. 38, Park, in 1976, and the Ph.D. degree in engineering
pp. 7–14, 1992. mechanics from Iowa State University in 1982.
[3] X. H. Yang, J. van Niekerk, K. S. Parwani, A. Packard, and B. Tongue, He was employed in the Structural Dynamics
“Attenuation of structurally generated interior noise through active con- Group of the Westinghouse Defense and Electronics
trol,” in Proc. 1993 Amer. Contr. Conf., 1993, pp. 1–7. Center in Baltimore from 1973 through 1977 and
[4] W. T. Baumann, W. R. Saunders, and H. H. Robertshaw, “Active sup- as an Assistant Professor of Freshman Engineering
pression of acoustic radiation from impulsively excited structures,” J. at Iowa State University from 1977 to 1982. Upon
Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 3202–3208, 1991. completion of the Ph.D. degree in 1982, he joined the faculty of the School
[5] M. A. Franchek, P. A. Herman, and O. D. I. Nowkah, “Robust nondiag- of Mechanical Engineering of Purdue University as an Assistant Professor.
onal controller design for uncertain multivariable regulating systems,” He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1987 and Professor in 1991. He
J. Dynamic Syst., Measurement Contr., vol. 119, pp. 80–85, 1997. became the Director of the Ray W. Herrick Laboratories in January, 1994 and
[6] J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Codirector of the Institute for Safe, Quiet, and Durable Highways in 1998.
Procedures. New York: Wiley, 1971. Since joining the faculty of Purdue University, he has been affiliated with
[7] C. M. Heatwole, “Robust Feedback Control of Flow Induced Structural the Acoustics and Noise Control Research Program of the Ray W. Herrick
Radiation of Sound,” Ph.D. dissertation, 1997. Laboratories. His research activities include investigations of numerical noise
[8] F. Fahy, Sound and Structural Vibration Radiation, Transmission and control design methods, noise source identification, acoustic imaging, active
Response. New York: Academic, 1985. noise and vibration control, adaptable machines, and machinery noise control
applications. He has directed the research of 40 engineering graduates and
has coauthored more than 170 journal and conference publications on various
aspects of noise control engineering, numerical methods, vibrations, and
Craig M. Heatwole was born in Alexandria, VA,
in 1969. He received the B.S. degree in mechanical
engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University, Blacksburg, in 1991 and the M.S.
and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 1993 and
1997, respectively.
Since 1997 he has worked for the Aerospace Cor-
poration as a member of the Control Analysis Depart-
ment. His research interests are system identification
and control of lightly damped structures.