On the History of Internet, its Future and Challenges

Sivasubramanian M President, Isoc India Chennai isolatednet@gmail.com

India Chennai Great Lakes Remote IGF Hub of the IGF 2010, Vilnius, Lithuania, 14-17 Sep 2010

Internet is not a single network, but a worldwide collection of loosely connected networks that are accessible by individual computer hosts in a variety of ways, including gateways, routers, dialup connections, and Internet service providers. The Internet is easily accessible to anyone with a computer and a network connection. Individuals and organizations worldwide can reach any point on the network without regard to national or geographic boundaries or time of day

Evolved by participation, technology and standards developed by participation

Compare it with other inventions Electricity or Telephones - Invented by someone, technology commercialized by a commerical corporation, infrastrure owned by business corporations and services offered based on proprietary standards and commerical models. Initiated by the US military, Internet evoloved by participation, not owned or controlled by any business entity or government. It is an open network or networks.

The Birth of the Internet Advance Research Projects Agency ( ARPA ) established in 1958. Satellites launched after a year. A project to interconnect Defense Computers in 1962 (ITPO) This became the ARPANET in 1969.

The first connection Four computers, at UCLA, UCSB, Stanford and UTAH were connected on Oct 29, 1969 by the pioneers including Vint Cerf, the Father of Internet. The first message was Log, L was sent, o was sent and when g was typed the computers crashed. That was the birth of the ARPANET which became the NSFNET which became the Internet.

The first connection

The first connection

Vint Cerf, the Father of Internet

John Postel

Dr Steve Crocker

Equally important names associated with ARPANET: •J.C.R. Licklider •Larry Roberts •Robert Kahn •Will Crowther and Dave Walden •Mike Wingfield •Paul Baran

Internet Growth

Four computers in 1969 became 210 computers in 1981, 130,000 computers in 1989. The Internet was mainly in the realm of Government and Universities. The applications were BBS, Gopher, Archie, Line Browsers… until the invention of hypertext and the World Wide Web in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee

Hypertext and the WWW

From 1973 the Internet has extended beyond the USA. Tim Berners-Lee and team worked on the hypertext project to create the World Wide Web in 1990. This made it possible to link to text documents, images and other files and the World Wide Web, usable by users everywhere was born.

Tim Berners-Lee

Note that this picture is in color while the pictures before aren't. (Not intended but noticed)

Internet Today

800 million computers worldwide An estimated 1.46 billion users.

Internet Tomorrow

Not the next billion, Next Billions. Internet accessed not by Desktop and Laptop computers, by various types of Internet Devices and 'Things'

Internet Tomorrow
Today: 256 KBPS / 512 KBPS Tomorrow: 1 MBPS ? 8 MPBS ?

Internet Tomorrow

Or 1 GBPS ? 10 GBPS ?

Download a HD quality movie in 3 seconds ?

Internet Tomorrow

In experiments related to the CERN’s LHC data transfer speeds in excess of 2.8 Giga bps have been achieved

What is special about the Internet?

Evolved by Participation for participation Standards by Community Model has its own conventions, culture and ethos, unwritten rules - all without a hierarchy of authority, with an inherent order.

What is special about the Internet?

Accessible worldwide. Transcends the boundaries of nations neutral of technology, nationhood, language, religion or race. open medium for freedom of speech

What is special about the Internet?

brings together people from around the world and has been considerably free of politics. Internet is a space without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context on the Internet are different

Who owns the Internet?

• • • •

The Telephone / cable companies? The Internet Hardware companies? The computer companies? The Governments?

Or, Is that you ?

Who controls the Internet?
• • •

Business? Government? Any International Organization (s) ?

Should Internet be controlled ? Governed ?

Internet requires an overall policy framework. These Governance aspects are debated at the Internet Governance Forum. Various stakeholders participated in the World Summit on the Information Society ( WSIS ) which during its meeting at Tunis gave the UN Secretary General a mandate to convene teh Internet Governance Forum, So far four IGF's have been held – at Athens, Rio de Jenario, Hyderabad and Sharm el Sheik. Next IGF will be at Vilnius, Lithuania.

Internet Governance Mutli-stakeholder No hierarchy No seating arrangements Government - Business - Civil Society International Organizations - Academic Community All stakeholders are equal.

The Internet Governance Forum

World Summit on the Information Society WSIS met at Geneva and Tunis in 2003 Decided that all stakeholders should join together to discuss about Internet Governance The Internet Governance Forum was established to meet every year for 5 years

The Internet Governance Forum
Athens, Greece in 2006 Rio de Jeneiro, Brazil. Hyderabad, India, December, 2008 Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt, 2009 Vilnius, Lithuania, 2010

IGF Stakeholders Business Government Civil Society

What do you want the Internet to be? Free and Open? An Internet of Rules and Regulations? Censorship? Who decides?


How to participate?

The Internet Society Founded in 1992 by Internet pioneers International non-profit organization 90+ organization members 28,000+ individual members 90+ chapters worldwide

About ISOC

The Internet Society •ISOC works for the open development and evolution of the Internet •Works for Internet for all people. •Works across the areas of technical standards, education and capacity-building as well as public policy. http://www.isoc.org

ISOC India Chennai Chapter •200+ members from four states of India. •Membership open to students.


Thank You

Sivasubramanian M turiya@in.com

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