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Cambridge IELTS Practice Tests 3, Test 1, Reading 2

The Risks of Cigarette Smoke


1
nicotianine
a white waxy substance having a hot, bitter taste, extracted from tobacco leaves and
called also tobacco camphor.
essence [uncountable, countable] a liquid taken from a plant, etc. that contains its
smell and taste in a very strong form
essence of rose
(British English) coffee/vanilla/almond essence
oily adj feeling, tasting, smelling or looking like oil
an oily substance
nicotine U a poisonous substance in tobacco that people become addicted to, so that it
is difficult to stop smoking
The nicotine stains on his fingers told me he was under stress.
nicotine replacement therapy
component one of several parts of which something is made
the components of a machine the car component industry
Key components of the government’s plan are…
compound (chemistry) a substance formed by a chemical reaction of two or more
elements in fixed amounts relative to each other / hợp chất
Common salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine.
vastly adv very much
I'm a vastly different person now.
The quality of the training has vastly improved.
fatal adj causing or ending in death
a fatal accident/blow/illness
a potentially fatal form of cancer
condition [countable] an illness or a medical problem that you have for a long time
because it is not possible to cure it
a medical condition
He suffers from a serious heart condition.
2
leukaemia (North American English leukemia) U a serious disease in which too
many white blood cells are produced, causing weakness and sometimes death / bệnh
bạch cầu
The newspapers are full of stories of leukaemia clusters near nuclear
establishments.
cervical adj [only before noun] (anatomy) connected with the cervix
cervical cancer
cervix (pl. cervices, cervixes) (anatomy) the narrow passage at the opening of a
woman’s womb / cổ tử cung
pneumonia a serious illness affecting one or both lungs that makes breathing difficult
/ viêm phổi
She died from bronchial pneumonia.

bronchitis U an illness that affects the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs / bệnh
viêm cuống phổi, bệnh viêm phế quản
He was suffering from chronic bronchitis.
influenza [uncountable] (formal) flu (also the flu) U
represent something to be an example or expression of something
SYNONYM BE TYPICAL OF
a project representing all that is good in the community
Those comments do not represent the views of us all.
preventable adj that can be stopped from happening
preventable diseases/accidents
3
side stream a tributary stream.
tributary adj [only before noun] (of a river or stream) that flows into a larger river or
lake
a tributary stream

puff [countable] an act of breathing in something such as smoke from a cigarette, or


drugs
He had a few puffs at the cigar.
Take two puffs from the inhaler every four hours.
exhale [intransitive, transitive] (formal) to breathe out the air or smoke, etc. in your
lungs
He sat back and exhaled deeply.
exhale something She exhaled the smoke through her nose.
Opposite inhale

particle a very small piece of something


dust particles particle of tiny particles of soil
therefore adv used to introduce the logical result of something that has just been
mentioned
He's only 17 and therefore not eligible to vote.
There is still much to discuss. We shall, therefore, return to this item at our
next meeting.
deposit vt to leave a layer of a substance on the surface of something, especially
gradually
As the river slows down, it deposits a layer of soil.
4
illustration a story, event, action etc that shows the truth or existence of something
very clearly
illustration of a striking illustration of 19th-century attitudes to women
For the purposes of illustration, some of the more important symptoms are
listed below.
exposure U when someone is in a situation where they are not protectedfrom
something dangerous or unpleasant
exposure to Prolonged exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer.
jump [intransitive] to rise suddenly by a large amount
SYNONYM LEAP
jump by… Prices jumped by 60% last year.
jump (from…) (to…) Sales jumped from $2.7 billion to $3.5 billion.
spouse (formal or law) a husband or wife
Fill in your spouse’s name here.
pack [countable] (especially North American English) a container, usually made of
paper, that holds a number of the same thing or an amount of something, ready to be
sold
a pack of cigarettes/gum
You can buy the envelopes in packs of ten.
attribute something to something to say or believe that something is the result of a
particular thing
She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck.
exposure U when someone is in a situation where they are not protectedfrom
something dangerous or unpleasant
exposure to Prolonged exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer.
adolescence the time, usually between the ages of 12 and 18, when a young person is
developing into an adult
5
leave sth aside/to one side to not think about or consider one part of something for a
time, so that you can consider another part of it
Leaving aside for a moment the question of expense, what would your view
be of the suggested changes?
philosophical adj (also philosophic) connected with philosophy
the philosophical writings of Kantphilosophic debate
philosophical adj (also philosophic) calmly accepting a difficult
or unpleasant situation which cannot be changed
philosophical about Some old people are philosophical about death.
He was by nature a philosophical person.
experience something to have a particular situation affect you or happen to you
The country experienced a foreign currency shortage for several months.
Everyone experiences these problems at some time in their lives.
substantial adj large in amount, value or importance
SYNONYM CONSIDERABLE substantial sums of money
a substantial change
adverse adj [usually before noun] negative and unpleasant; not likely to produce a
good result
adverse change/circumstances/weather conditions
Lack of money will have an adverse effect on our research programme.
6
journal a newspaper or magazine that deals with a particular subject or profession
a scientific/trade journal

the British Medical Journal


review [countable] a report on a subject or on a series of events
a review of customer complaints
to publish a review of recent cancer research
represent somebody/something [often passive] to be a member of a group of people
and act or speak on their behalf at an event, a meeting, etc.
The competition attracted over 500 contestants representing 8 different
countries.
Local businesses are well represented on the committee (= there are a lot of
people from them on the committee).
opponent (of something) a person who is against something and tries to change or
stop it
opponents of abortionopponents of the regime
continually adv in a way that continues without interruption
SYNONYM CONTINUOUSLY
the need to adapt to new and continually changing circumstances
New products are continually being developed.
cardiovascular adj (medical) connected with the heart and the blood vessels (= the
tubes that carry blood around the body)
compensate (for something) to provide something good to balance or reduce the bad
effects of damage, loss, etc.
SYNONYM MAKE UP FOR
Nothing can compensate for the loss of a loved one.
inhalation [uncountable, countable] (rather formal) an act of taking air, smoke, gas,
etc. into your lungs as you breathe
Hundreds of children were treated for smoke inhalation.
Opposite exhalation
7
component C one of several parts that together make up a whole machine, system etc
Synonym constituent
companies that make electronic components for computer products
component of each component of their work
key/major/important etc component Exercise is one of the key components
of a healthy lifestyle.
carbon monoxide [uncountable] (symbol CO) a poisonous gas formed
when carbon burns partly but not completely. It is produced when petrol/gas is burnt
in car engines.
interfere with sth to prevent something from succeeding or from being done or
happening as planned
She never allows her personal feelings to interfere with her work.
life-giving adj [usually before noun] (literary) that gives life or keeps something alive
nicotine U a poisonous substance in tobacco that people become addicted to, so that it
is difficult to stop smoking
The nicotine stains on his fingers told me he was under stress.
nicotine replacement therapy
toxin a poisonous substance, especially one that is produced by bacteria in plants and
animals
The algae kills off plant and animal life and, in some cases, produces
dangerous toxins.

activate to make an electrical system or chemical process start working


Opposite deactivate
Cooking fumes may activate the alarm.
The yeast’s growth is activated by sugar and warmth.
platelet a very small part of a cell in the blood, shaped like a disc. Platelets help
to clot the blood from a cut or wound. / tiểu huyết cầu (chất nhỏ hình đựa ở trong máu
giúp máu đóng cục)
likelihood [singular, uncountable] the degree to which something can reasonably
be expected to happen
likelihood of Using a seatbelt will reduce the likelihood of serious injury in a
car accident.
little/lower/high/greater etc likelihood There was very little likelihood of her
getting the job.
likelihood (that) They must face the likelihood that the newspaper might go
bankrupt.
Synonym probability
blood clot (also clot) a lump that is formed when blood dries or becomes thicker
a blood clot on the brain
thereby adv (formal) used to introduce the result of the action or situation mentioned
Regular exercise strengthens the heart, thereby reducing the risk of heart
attack.
8
practice something that people do often, especially a particular way of doing
something or a social or religious custom
religious beliefs and practices dangerous working practices
the practice of doing something the practice of dumping waste into the sea
assume to think that something is true, although you do not have definite proof
Synonym presume
assume (that) I didn’t see your car, so I assumed you’d gone out.
it seems/is reasonable to assume (that) It seems reasonable to assume that
the book was written around 70 AD.
somebody can safely assume that (=it is almost certain) I think we can safely
assume that interest rates will go up again soon.
let us/let’s assume (that) (=used when thinking about a possible event or
situation and its possible results) Let us assume for a moment that we could
indeed fire her. Should we?
somebody/something is assumed to be (doing) something The rest of the
system is assumed to be functioning well.
assume the worst (=think that the worst possible thing has happened) When it
got to midnight and Paul was still not back, I began to assume the worst.
underestimate something | underestimate what, how, etc… to think or guess that
the amount, cost or size of something is smaller than it really is
to underestimate the cost of the project
We underestimated the time it would take to get there.
The statistics seriously underestimate the number of people affected.
cite something (as something) (formal) to mention something as a reason or an
example, or in order to support what you are saying
He cited his heavy workload as the reason for his breakdown.
point to sth to mention something that you think is important and/or the reason why a
particular situation exists
The board of directors pointed to falling productivity to justify their decision.
Pointing to the results of a recent survey, he claimed voters were most
interested in education and unemployment.
preventable adj that can be stopped from happening
preventable diseases/accidents
9
maintain to keep stating that something is true, even though other people do not
agree or do not believe it
SYNONYM INSISTmaintain (that)… The men maintained (that) they were out
of the country when the crime was committed.
maintain something She has always maintained her innocence.
+ speech ‘But I'm innocent!’ she maintained.
cost-effective adj (also cost-efficient) giving the best possible profit or benefits in
comparison with the money that is spent
a cost-effective way to fight crime
Questions 15-17
Answers
15 B
leukaemia (North American English leukemia) U a serious disease in which too
many white blood cells are produced, causing weakness and sometimes death / bệnh
bạch cầu
The newspapers are full of stories of leukaemia clusters near nuclear
establishments.
pneumonia a serious illness affecting one or both lungs that makes breathing difficult
/ viêm phổi
She died from bronchial pneumonia.
16 A
intake [countable, usually singular] an act of taking something in, especially breath
a sharp intake of breath
carbon monoxide [uncountable] (symbol CO) a poisonous gas formed
when carbon burns partly but not completely. It is produced when petrol/gas is burnt
in car engines.
inhibit something (formal) to prevent something from happening or make it happen
more slowly or less frequently than normal
A lack of oxygen may inhibit brain development in the unborn child.
Financial considerations are inhibiting access to higher education.
flow (of something/somebody) the steady and continuous movement of
something/somebody in one direction
She tried to stop the flow of blood from the wound.
an endless flow of refugees into the country
absorption U the process of a liquid, gas or other substance being taken in
Vitamin D is necessary to aid the absorption of calcium from food.
particle a very small piece of something
dust particles particle of tiny particles of soil
promote something to help something to happen or develop
SYNONYM ENCOURAGE
policies to promote economic growth
a campaign to promote awareness of environmental issues
nicotine U a poisonous substance in tobacco that people become addicted to, so that it
is difficult to stop smoking
The nicotine stains on his fingers told me he was under stress.
nicotine replacement therapy
17 C
intake [countable, usually singular] an act of taking something in, especially breath
a sharp intake of breath
toxin a poisonous substance, especially one that is produced by bacteria in plants and
animals
The algae kills off plant and animal life and, in some cases, produces
dangerous toxins.
blood clot (also clot) a lump that is formed when blood dries or becomes thicker
a blood clot on the brain
platelet a very small part of a cell in the blood, shaped like a disc. Platelets help
to clot the blood from a cut or wound. / tiểu huyết cầu (chất nhỏ hình đựa ở trong máu
giúp máu đóng cục)
Questions 18-21
Answers
reflect something to show or be a sign of the nature of something or of somebody’s
attitude or feeling
Our newspaper aims to reflect the views of the local community
.His music reflects his interest in African culture.
claim (that…) C a statement that something is true although it has not been proved
and other people may not agree with or believe it
The singer has denied the magazine's claim that she is leaving the band.
a report examining claims of corrupt links between politicians
18 NO // N 19 NOT GIVEN // NG
take sth up to learn or start to do something, especially for pleasure
They've taken up golf.
She has taken up (= started to learn to play) the oboe.
20 YES // Y 21 NOT GIVEN // NG
opponent (of something) a person who is against something and tries to change or
stop it
opponents of abortionopponents of the regime
finance something to provide money for a project
SYNONYM FUND
The building project will be financed by the government.
He took a job to finance his stay in Germany.
Questions 22-24
Answers
22 E 23 G
contract something (formal or medical) to get an illness
to contract AIDS/a virus/a disease
24 H
oppose to disagree strongly with somebody’s plan, policy, etc. and try to change it or
prevent it from succeeding
oppose somebody/something This party would bitterly oppose the re-
introduction of the death penalty.
oppose (somebody/something) doing something I would oppose changing
the law.
review [countable] a report on a subject or on a series of events
a review of customer complaints
to publish a review of recent cancer research
preventable adj that can be stopped from happening
preventable diseases/accidents
Questions 25-28
Answers
classify somebody/something as something to decide which type or group
somebody/something belongs to
Only eleven of these accidents were classified as major.
Would you classify it as a hard drug or a soft drug?
assumption [countable] a belief or feeling that something is true or that something
will happen, although there is no proof
an underlying/implicit assumption
We need to challenge some of the basic assumptions of Western philosophy.
We are working on the assumption that everyone invited will turn up.
It was impossible to make assumptions about people's reactions.
25 A
cardiovascular adj (medical) connected with the heart and the blood vessels (= the
tubes that carry blood around the body)
intake [countable, usually singular] an act of taking something in, especially breath
a sharp intake of breath
26 B
philosophical adj (also philosophic) connected with philosophy
the philosophical writings of Kantphilosophic debate
philosophical adj (also philosophic) calmly accepting a difficult
or unpleasant situation which cannot be changed
philosophical about Some old people are philosophical about death.
He was by nature a philosophical person.
Inhale [intransitive, transitive] (rather formal) to take air, smoke, gas, etc. into your
lungs as you breathe
SYNONYM breathe in
She closed her eyes and inhaled deeply.
inhale something Local residents needed hospital treatment after inhaling
fumes from the fire.
27 B 28 C
intake [countable, usually singular] an act of taking something in, especially breath
a sharp intake of breath
side stream a tributary stream.
tributary adj [only before noun] (of a river or stream) that flows into a larger river or
lake
a tributary stream
exhale [intransitive, transitive] (formal) to breathe out the air or smoke, etc. in your
lungs
He sat back and exhaled deeply.
exhale something She exhaled the smoke through her nose.
Opposite inhale